Adobe Photoshop CS2 Part 2: Manipulating Layers

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SERVICES California State University, Los Angeles www.youtube.com/mycsula
Version 2.0 Summer 2009

Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................2 Downloading the Data Files...............................................................................................................2 Transforming and Skewing ..............................................................................................................2 Scaling an Object............................................................................................................................3 Rotating an Object..........................................................................................................................3 Flipping an Object..........................................................................................................................3 Layer Styles and Adjustment Layers...............................................................................................4 Layer Styles....................................................................................................................................4 Drop Shadows..........................................................................................................................4 Stroke........................................................................................................................................5 Gradient Overlay......................................................................................................................6 Color Overlay...........................................................................................................................7 Inner Glow................................................................................................................................7 Outer Glow...............................................................................................................................8 Layer Opacity and Fill....................................................................................................................8 Fill Transparency......................................................................................................................9 Layer Adjustments..........................................................................................................................9 Brightness and Contrast...........................................................................................................9 Color Balance.........................................................................................................................10 Selective Adjustments............................................................................................................10 Pen Tool.............................................................................................................................................11 Freehand Shapes...........................................................................................................................11 Selecting With the Pen Tool.........................................................................................................11 Merging Layers.................................................................................................................................12 Gradient Fill......................................................................................................................................12 Defining Custom Patterns................................................................................................................13 Filters..................................................................................................................................................14 Lens Flare.....................................................................................................................................14 Resizing an Image Using the Resize Image Wizard......................................................................15

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Introduction
Adobe Photoshop® is the industry standard for still image manipulation and editing. It is the premier product used by web designers, photographers, and video professionals. With many powerful tools, Photoshop allows users to craft images with only their imagination as a limitation. This handout will explain how to manipulate objects in Photoshop using features such as transformations and layer styles. Transformations change the shape of the object by scaling and distorting, while layer styles add effects such as drop shadows, inner glows, and overlays to an object. The last section of the handout will briefly discuss the use of filters that are used to affect the entire canvas on a particular layer.

Downloading the Data Files
The sample data files used in this handout are available for download. To download the data files: 1. Click the Start button and select Internet Explorer. The browser window opens. 2. Type http://www.calstatela.edu/its/training/datafiles/photoshopcs2p2.exe in the Address bar and press the [Enter] key. The File Download dialog box opens (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 - File Download Dialog Box Figure 2 - Save As Dialog Box

3. 4. 5. 6.

Click the Save button. The Save As dialog box opens (see Figure 2). Select the appropriate location (e.g., personal flash drive) from the Save in: drop-down list. In the File name: text box, rename the file or leave the default file name. Click the Save button.

Transforming and Skewing
Transforming and skewing allows for manipulation of an object such as scaling (resizing), rotating, distorting, and flipping the current selection. All transformational effects will only affect currently selected objects or the active layer.
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SCALING AN OBJECT
Scaling allows users to resize an object in Photoshop, making it larger or smaller relative to its original size. By using scaling, only the selected object will be affected, without affecting entire image. Figure 3 illustrates how the image looks before and after scaling.
NOTE: The symbol “►” is used throughout this handout as a shortcut notation indicating a sequence of steps that the user should follow to execute the described procedure.

To scale an object: 1. Select the File menu ► Open…. The Open dialog box appears. 2. Select the “transforming_filters.psd” file from the data file folder. 3. Select the “rectangle” layer from the layer list located on the Layer palette. 4. Select the Edit menu ► Transform ► Scale. 5. Use the mouse to drag one of the resizing handles away from the object to scale. 6. Click the Confirm button in the Option bar.

Figure 3 - Before and After Scaling

NOTE: Most objects that are manipulated in Photoshop are in raster format (fixed pixel) and will deteriorate in quality as it is scaled larger. Vector graphics, such as shapes and layer effects, will not change in quality when an image is enlarged. Notice how the gradient in the figure does not lose any quality after being scaled.

ROTATING AN OBJECT
Rotating an object changes the orientation of that object. To rotate an object: 1. Select the “rectangle” layer if it is not already selected. 2. Select the Edit menu ► Transform ► Rotate. Several rotation handles will appear around the rectangle located in the upper left portion of the image (see Figure 4). 3. Click and hold the mouse button and drag in a circular motion to rotate (notice the rotation handles in Figure 4). 4. Once the object is rotated to the desired position, click the Confirm button in the Option bar.

Figure 4 - Example of Rotating an Image

FLIPPING AN OBJECT
Flipping reverses the pixels to the opposite direction in relation to the selection. For example, when a layer is flipped horizontally, everything on the left will be moved to the right and everything on the right will be move to the left. If a pyramid was flipped vertically, the narrow end will be placed on the lower end.

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To flip an object: 1. Select the “rectangle” layer if it is not already selected. 2. Select the Edit menu ► Transform ► Flip Horizontal. The object will be reversed (see Figure 5).

Figure 5 - An Example of Horizontal Flipping

Layer Styles and Adjustment Layers
By using layer styles, perpetual effects will be applied to the content of the layer. For example, if the text is edited and it has a drop shadow effect in place, newly added text to the layer will have the same effect applied as the original text. Layers may also need to be adjusted because of brightness or because of an incorrect colorization. Adjustment layers can be used to correct these issues.

LAYER STYLES
See Figure 6 or the data file “layer_styles.psd” to see how the image looks before adding effects to different text layers.

Figure 6 - Image Before Adding Effects

Figure 7 - Drop Shadow Layer Style Dialog Box

Drop Shadows
Drop shadows can add a level of depth to the image, making objects appear to be hovering above the background. A drop shadow effect can be automatically created by using the Drop Shadow option in the Layer Style dialog box (see Figure 7). To add a drop shadow effect: 1. Open the “layer_styles.psd” data file. 2. Select the “Drop Shadow” layer in the Layers palette. 3. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Drop Shadow…. The Layer Style dialog box opens. 4. Click the Set color of shadow button in the Structure section (see Figure 9). The Color Picker dialog box will open.
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5. Enter “231” in the R: text box, “13” in the G: text box and “13” in the B: text box ► OK button. 6. In the Layer Style dialog box, enter “75” in the Opacity: text box, “100” in the Angle: text box, “3” in the Distance: text box and “4” in the Size: text box ► OK button. The effect can be seen in Figure 8.

Figure 8 - Adding Drop Shadow Effect to Text

Figure 9 - Drop Shadow Structure

NOTE: One of the color systems Photoshop works with is an additive color system (RGB). RGB is a color–based theory and is the light which televisions and computer monitors use. Red, green, and blue are the primary colors. Combining all three primary colors at a proper ratio produces white. The absence of all colors produces black.

Stroke
A stroke is an outline that is placed around objects. It creates a solid color outline that goes around the outside of the selected object. The stroke effect is not limited to the outside of an object. It may also place inside the border of the image. To add a stroke around an object: 1. Select the “Stroke” layer in the Layers palette.

Figure 10 - Stroke Editing Dialog Box

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2. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Stroke…. The Layer Style dialog box will appear (see Figure 10). 3. In the Structure section, enter “1” in the Size: text box. 4. Set the Position: drop-down list to “Outside.” 5. Click the Set color of stroke button to set the desired color ► OK button (see Figure 11).
Figure 11 – Stroke Effect Around "Stroke"

Gradient Overlay
Gradients are patterns comprised of transitions from one color to another. In Photoshop, options are available for setting the opacity of each color within the gradient, allowing the transitions to go from opaque to transparent – similar to a fading-out effect. Gradients are modified in the Gradient Editor dialog box (see Figure 12).

Figure 12 - Gradient Editor Dialog Box

To place a gradient over the layer: 1. Select the “Gradient Overlay” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Gradient Overlay…. The Layer Style dialog box opens. 3. Enter “100” in the Opacity: text box. 4. Click inside the Gradient Bar . The Gradient Editor dialog box opens. 5. Click the left Color Stop control (see Figure 12). Part of the Stops section will become active. 6. Click the Change color of selected stop field . The Color Picker dialog box opens. 7. Enter “26” in the R: text box, “120” in the G: text box and “54” in the B: text box ► OK button. 8. Click the right Color Stop control.
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9. Click the Change color of selected stop field . The Color Picker dialog box opens. 10. Enter “205” in the R: text box, “18” in the G: text box, and “18” in the B: text box ► OK button. 11. Click the OK button on the Gradient Editor dialog box to return to the Layer Style dialog box. 12. Enter “90” in the Angle: text box. 13. Click the OK button. The gradient effect is displayed as in Figure 13.
NOTE: The stops below the gradient preview box affect the color, while the corresponding stops above the gradient will affect the transparency. Modifying both can allow for semi-transparent colors.

Figure 13 - Gradient Effect Added to Text

Figure 14 - Color Overlay Example

Color Overlay
A color overlay will overlap all objects in a layer with a single color. To overlay a color over the layer: 1. Select the “Color Overlay” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Color Overlay…. The Layer Style dialog box opens. 3. Click the Set color of overlay button. The Color Picker dialog box opens. 4. Enter “58” in the R: text box, “46” in the G: text box and “180” in the B: text box ► OK button. 5. Click the OK button in the Layer Style dialog box to apply the effect to the image (see Figure 14).

Inner Glow
An inner glow works similar to a stroke effect except that it goes along the interior of the image instead of along the outer edges. The difference between the two effects is that stroke utilizes a solid line whereas inner glow uses a more transparent effect. To add an inner glow: 1. Select the “Inner Glow” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Inner Glow…. The Layer Style dialog box opens.

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3. Click the Set color of glow button in the Structure section. The Color Picker dialog box opens. 4. Enter “255” in the R: text box, “0” in the G: text box, and “0” in the B: text box ► OK button. 5. Select “Precise” in the Technique: drop-down list in the Elements section. 6. Enter “8” in the Size: text box. 7. Click the OK button to apply the effect (see Figure 15).

Figure 15 - Inner Glow Effect

Figure 16 - Outer Glow Effect

Outer Glow
The outer glow effect is the opposite effect of an inner glow because the placement is different. The glow that is added will surround the layer object, much like the stroke effect. The Outer Glow Layer Style dialog box is also similar to the Inner Glow Layer Style dialog box. To add an outer glow: 1. Select the “Outer Glow” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► Layer Style ► Outer Glow…. The Layer Style dialog box opens. 3. Select “Normal” in the Blend Mode: drop-down list. 4. Click the Set color of glow button in the Structure section. The Color Picker dialog box opens. 5. Enter “6” in the R: text box, “27” in the G: text box, and “179” in the B: text box ► OK button. 6. Enter “6” in the Size: text box in the Elements section. 7. Click the OK button to apply the effect (see Figure 16).

LAYER OPACITY AND FILL
Opacity will affect the transparency level of the layer. At certain times, the effect may be appropriate for use (e.g., placing a picture in the background of the image and have it appear as a faint transparency). Fill works in much the same way as opacity except that fill does not affect layer effects such as drop shadows and outer glows. Lowering the fill will retain the effects while hiding the base object.

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To lower the opacity (increase transparency) of a picture: 1. Select any layer in the Layers palette. 2. Click the Opacity: button to activate the Opacity Slider control (see Figure 17). 3. Drag the slider until the desired opacity is obtained. 4. Click inside the image to apply the setting

Figure 17 - Adjusting Opacity

Fill Transparency
Fill transparency is similar to layer transparency. Fill transparency affects objects that are filling a layer but do not affect any layer styles that have been applied to the layer. For example, when adding a stroke affect to text and lowering the fill to zero, the inside of the text will disappear, but the outline will remain. To set fill transparency: 1. Select the “Drop Shadow” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Click the Fill: button to activate the Fill Slider control (see Figure 18). 3. Drag the slider to “0.”

Figure 18 - Adjusting the Fill Level

NOTE: Only the drop shadow effect remains; the original text is no longer visible on the canvas.

LAYER ADJUSTMENTS
Not all photos are shot with perfect lighting. Adjustments can be made to correct lighting problem by creating special layers to address such problems. These layers are called adjustment layers that create a masking effect over the canvas.
NOTE: Adjustment layers, by default, affect all the layers that are below the adjustment layer. Layers that are above the adjustment layer will be unaffected.

Brightness and Contrast
Brightness and contrast can be used to touchup photos that need adjustments in light depth. It can also be useful to differentiate the background from the foreground in the image or graphic. This can be done by creating a Brightness/Contrast layer behind all the objects that are to be placed in the foreground, and lowering the contrast of the objects in the background layers that are placed below that layer. To adjust brightness and contrast: 1. Select the “Practice Layers Styles” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► New Adjustment Layer ► Brightness/Contrast…. The New Layer dialog box opens. 3. Enter “Darken Background” in the Name: text box. 4. Click the OK button. The Brightness/Contrast dialogue box opens (see Figure 19). 5. Enter “-36” in the Brightness: text box and “-31” in the Contrast: text box ► OK button.
NOTE: The image becomes darker (see Figure 20). Adjustment layers may be edited as normal layers once created.

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Figure 19 - Brightness/Contrast Dialog Box

Figure 20 - Layers With Lower Brightness/Contrast

Color Balance
When an image appears to lack certain color tones or has an unusual color tint to it, color balance can used to balance the image towards a more natural tone. To adjust color balance: 1. Select the “Darken Background” layer. 2. Select the Layer menu ► New Adjustment Layer ► Color Balance…. 3. Name the layer “Color Adjustment.” 4. Click the OK button, the Color Balance dialog box opens. 5. Adjust the Yellow/Blue slider all the way right (see Figure 21). 6. Click the OK button. Notice how the background color becomes bluer.

Figure 21 - Color Balance Dialog Box

Selective Adjustments
By default, adjustment layers affect the entire canvas by using the opposing colors black and white to paint over the areas that require adjustment. The effect can be limited to a specific area. Areas that are white are affected by the adjustment layer; areas that painted black are not affected by the adjustment layer. There are two approaches customizing the adjustment layer: by coloring black to remove the effect or, by painting white to add the effect. To adjust by coloring black to erase the affect: 1. Select the “Darken Background” adjustment layer. 2. Select the Brush Tool (B) from the Toolbox. 3. Set foreground color to black by clicking on the Switch Foreground and Background Colors (X) button in the Toolbox (the double-pointed arrow). 4. Paint over the area on the canvas that should not be affected by the adjustment layer.
NOTE: The opposite method is to fill the entire adjustment layer black and then paint over the area that needs to be adjusted using the adjustment layer using a white paint brush.

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To adjust by coloring with a white brush: 1. Make sure that the adjustment layer is selected. 2. Select the Edit menu ► Fill…. The Fill dialog box opens. 3. Set the Use: drop-down list to “Black.” 4. Click the OK button. Notice how the second thumbnail for the adjustment layer has changed in the Layers palette from all white to black (see Figure 22). The layer now has no affect on the image. 5. Select the Brush Tool from the Toolbox.

Figure 22 - Inactive Adjustment Layer

6. Click the Set Foreground color button. The Color Picker dialog box opens. 7. Enter “255” in the R:, G:, and B: text boxes ► OK button. 8. Paint over the area that needs to be affected by the adjustment layer.

Pen Tool
The Pen Tool (P) is a versatile tool used to create both freehand shapes as well selections. By using what are known as anchor points, the Pen Tool (P) uses a flexible wire to create shapes and outlines.

FREEHAND SHAPES
The Pen Tool (P) allows drawing custom shapes using arcs and angles that define curved shapes/borders. To draw a shape: 1. Open the “transforming_filters.psd” data file. 2. Create a new layer and name it “Pen Drawing.” Figure 23 - Creating Angles With the Pen Tool 3. Select the Pen Tool (P) from the Toolbox. 4. Set the Pen Tool (P) to “Shape Layer Mode” by clicking the Shape layers button on the Option bar. 5. Click a point where the new shape will start. Any point on the canvas will do. 6. Click a second point on the canvas to add another point to the path. 7. Click a third point canvas, but do not release the mouse. Instead, drag the mouse away from the anchor point and around to create an angle (see Figure 23). A two-way handle will appear that can be stretched to create angles. 8. Continue creating new points, drawing a random shape. 9. To close the path, click on the first anchor point that was created.
NOTE: All shape drawings created by the Pen Tool (P) are by default vector drawings, meaning that the shape will not be washed out or pixilated when scaled larger.

SELECTING WITH THE PEN TOOL
Though the Pen Tool (P) is used primarily for drawing custom shapes, it can be an effective selection tool and is the most precise method for selecting an object (even though it takes longer as selection is completely manual). See Figure 24 for an example of anchor points around an image.
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Figure 24 - Pen Tool Selection

To select using the Pen Tool (P): 1. Select the “crop_me!” layer. 2. Select the Pen Tool (P) from the Toolbox. 3. Set the Pen Tool (P) to “Paths” mode by clicking the Paths button

on the Option bar.

NOTE: If the object in Figure 24 is not visible, click the Indicates layer visibility button on the layer in the Layers palette. If the object is visible the Indicates layer visibility button will have an eye inside it.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Click any spot around the object to add an anchor point. Click around the object until the path has gone around the entire object. Finish the selection by clicking on the first anchor point. Right click and select Make Selection…. The Make Selection dialog box opens. Click the New Selection option button ► OK button. The object has been selected and is available for manipulation.

Merging Layers
After creating a few layers, the document may have too many layers, making navigation difficult. This problem can be alleviated by merging layers together to lower the total number of layers. To merge two layers together: 1. Select “crop_me!” layer in the Layers palette. 2. Select the Layer menu ► Merge Down. 3. The “crop_me!” layer will merge with the layer directly below it (“Picture”).
NOTE: Every object in the two merged layers are grouped together, meaning that all layer effects for the previously individual layers are converted and cannot be edited using the Layer Style dialog box.

Gradient Fill
Gradients are gradual shifts from one color to another. In Photoshop, gradients can be composed of any number of different colors and transition effects. Additional colors are added by using stops that define either color or transparency. Unlike the gradient layer style, a gradient fill is an object within the layer rather than a modification to the layer. To overlay a gradient over a selection: 1. Create a new layer named “Gradient.” 2. Use the Rectangular Marquee Tool (M) to draw a rectangle. 3. Click the Gradient button to activate the gradient tool in the Option bar. 4. Click inside the Gradient Bar to open the Gradient Editor dialog box. 5. Click either the left or right Color Stop control to activate the Stops section.
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6. Click the Change color of selected stop field. The Color Picker dialog box will open. Modifications to the gradient color can be made in the same manner as in the Gradient section of this handout. 7. Click the OK button to close the Gradient Editor dialog box. 8. To apply the gradient inside the rectangle, click and hold the left mouse button on one of the rectangle edges and drag to the opposite edge. When the mouse button is released, the gradient will be applied. The direction of the drag determines the direction of the gradient. The length of the cursor will determine the length or spread of the gradient.

Defining Custom Patterns
Photoshop has a limited number of patterns embedded in the program. Though the selection is small, additional patterns may be created. Custom patterns can be defined using any image that has been created (smaller images will create more effective patterns). The next exercise will create a fairly popular pattern – the TV scan line. This pattern will make the image appear as though it was displayed on a television screen. To create a TV scan line pattern: 1. Select the File menu ► New…. The New dialog box opens. 2. Enter “1” in the Width: text box and “4” in the Height: text box. 3. Select “Transparent” in the Background Contents drop-down list ► OK button. 4. Select the Line Tool (U) from the Toolbox. 5. Click the Fill pixels button on the Option bar. 6. Enter “2 px” in the Weight: text box. 7. Uncheck the Anti-aliased check box. 8. Click the Set foreground color button on the Toolbox. The Color Picker dialog box opens. 9. Set the foreground color to black by entering “0” in the R:, G:, and B: text boxes ► OK button. 10. Zoom in to “500%” by pressing and holding the [Ctrl] key and pressing the [+] key five times.
NOTE: The percent of magnification is indicated in the Title Bar of the file.

11. Draw a two-pixel line covering over the top half of the canvas. 12. Select the Edit menu ► Define Pattern…. The Pattern Name dialog box opens (see Figure 25). 13. Enter “Scanlines” in the Name: text box ► OK button ► Close file button. 14. Do not save changes to the file when prompted.

Figure 25 - Pattern Name Dialog Box

Using the New Pattern
Once a pattern is created, it can be used as a fill from the fill list.

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To overlay the new pattern over an image: 1. Create a new image size 400 x 300. 2. Create a new layer by clicking the Create a new layer button on the Layers palette. 3. Name the new layer “Scanlines.” 4. Select the Edit menu ► Fill…. The Fill dialog box opens. 5. Select “Pattern” in the Use: drop-down list. The Custom Pattern: drop-down list will activate. 6. Click the Custom Pattern drop-down arrow and select the “Scanlines” pattern that was created in the previous section (see Figure 26).
Figure 26 - Fill Dialog Box

NOTE: The name of the pattern is not shown; only a thumbnail preview of the pattern is displayed. The new pattern should be at the end of the pattern list.

7. Click the OK button. The pattern is applied as seen in Figure 27.
NOTE: To see the best scan line effect, set the layer opacity between 12 and 30 percent. This will make the lines in the pattern appear light, similar to the effect seen on a TV. Additionally, it may be necessary to set the background of “Layer 1” to white.

Figure 27 - Scan line Pattern Fill

Figure 28 - Lens Flare Editing Dialog Box

Filters
In Photoshop, filters are broad effects that are applied to a selection. Filters are groups of special effects and formats that are applied to layers or selections within the image. Colors, texture, and patterns are applied automatically, based on the filter chosen and the settings for that filter.

LENS FLARE
Lens flares are sun rays that are captured when a photo is taken. Lens flares can add depth to an image as well as generate a desired effect onto the canvas. To render a lens flare:
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1. 2. 3. 4.

Open the “transforming_filters.psd” data file. Click and select the “Picture” layer in the Layers palette. Select the Filter menu ► Render ► Lens Flare…. The Lens Flare dialog box opens. In the preview image, move the lens flare above the right building by clicking on desired location on the canvas (see Figure 28) ► OK button.
NOTE: Select the Edit menu ► Undo Lens Flare to remove the effect and try out other filters on the same image.

Resizing an Image Using the Resize Image Wizard
When creating the canvas size, it is always best to set it correctly when the image is created. When it has been set incorrectly, adjustments can be made using the Resize Image wizard. Resizing a picture and making it larger will cause it to be less sharp, but this can be fixed using filters such as the Unsharp Mask… filter. The Resize Image wizard is also useful for a one time custom printing of an image with different dimensions. To use the Resize Image wizard: 1. Select the Help menu ► Resize Image…. The Resize Image Wizard starts. 2. Click the Print option button ►Next button (see Figure 29). 3. Select the desired print size for the image ► Next button (see Figure 30). 4. Select the desired “LPI” setting ► Next button (see Figure 31).
NOTE: LPI stands for Lines per Inch. LPI is lower than print resolution. Thus, select a lower number than the intended quality. The print quality will be selected in the next screen.

5. Move the slider to select the desired quality (printing resolution) ► Next button (see Figure 32). 6. Click the Finish button to complete the resizing (see Figure 33).
NOTE: Photoshop will create a new file for printing which can be saved or deleted.

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Figure 29 - Resize Image Wizard

Figure 30 - Setting Image Size Dialog Box

Figure 31 - Adjusting LPI Setting Dialog Box

Figure 32 - Adjusting Image Quality Dialog Box

Figure 33 - Resize Image Completion Dialog Box

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