LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

Presented by: Raja Raman Chaudhary

Waste ?
• Waste is defined as 'any material that are no longer desired and has no current or substance that has been discarded or otherwise designated as a waste material, or one that may become hazardous by interaction with other substances • Every year, billions of tons of solid wastes are discarded into our environment. These wastes range in nature from common household trash to complex materials in industrial wastes, range in nature from common household trash to complex materials in industrial wastes, such as hospitals and laboratories.

Technically….
• Waste is… …food (for another system) “…a resource in the wrong place” …any byproduct of a human process that does not meaningfully contribute to the goal of meeting human needs … any human activity that absorbs resources but creates no value

Problems associated with solid waste?
• • • • Disease Rodent and Pests Fire Potential Decrease in the aesthetic quality of the environment

Types and Sources
Major Categories • • • • House Hold Commercial Agricultural Practices Industrial Products

Solid waste in general...
Composition of the waste Stream:
* Residential/commercial (62%) * Special - white goods, tires, yard waste, etc. (5%) * Household hazardous (0.1%) * Institutional (3.4%) * C&D (14%) * Municipal: landscaping, street cleanings, and catch basins (9.5%) * Treatment plant sludges (6%)

(Tchobanoglous et al. 1993; BFI 2000)

MSW Composition - 1960
Food 15% Other 10% Yard 24%

M etals 13% Glass 8%

Paper 30%

MSW Composition – 1999

Need to Study Solid Waste?
• To determine the quickest/cheapest way to pick up solid waste • To determine the optimum disposal method
– Safe (environment and us) – Cheap – Long term capacity – Recycle potential (cost to benefit)

• Magnitude of Problem
– 1.95 kg/capita-day (1-3 kg/capita-day) – 258 Tg in 1998 (2 billion tons)
• 60% residential • 40% Commercial • Volume 100 m by 100m by 35,600 m (Mt Everest)

• Characteristics
– Refuse or solid waste- Just about everything – Garbage, animal and vegetable waste

Management Hierarchy
Source Reduction Reuse/Recycle Composting Incineration Land Filling

Source Reduction
• Source reduction is the most feasible and economic method of waste reduction as this helps in reducing the waste and at the same time also cut cost. • Source reduction helps us in saving the resources and when we are reducing the sources of waste generation at the same time we are saving our resources.

Reuse/Recycle/Recovery
• Reuse - involves selling materials or waste to external dealers i.e. off-site or on-site, where the material or waste is reprocessed/recovered and reused within the industry • Recycle - refers to recycling materials and energy within the process. • Recovery - This is the process of reclaiming valuable resources from wastes in the form of raw materials, byproducts/products. Recovery normally is the preceding activity to recycle or reuse. NOTE: However, recycling and reuse options can incur somewhat increased risk and liability due to threats to product quality risks.

• Resource Recovery and Conservation
– Before 1939 % recovered of
• • • • • • • • • • • 44 copper 39 lead 28 aluminum 30 paper iron 6.7 4.7 copper 8.4 aluminum 2.8 lead tin 18.9 14 paper 0.5% of energy needs

– Current Potential Estimate

Composting
• After the source reduction, reuse, recycle and recovery of the waste then comes the easiest and safest method of dealing with the waste; COMPOSTING, composting is the use of waste in form of manure for agricultural use. • The mail disadvantage of this process is that only selected type of waste can be processed under this category, e.g. wet household waste, animal waste and wet agricultural waste.

Composting
Controlled aerobic partial degradation of organic wastes
H2O Heat CO2

O2 Nutrients H2O

Composting Contd…
Organic solids Decomposition → stable, humus-like material Aerobic micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi) Garden or industrial/municipal scale Source of organic matter + nutrients Product: ☯ high organic matter ☯ good soil amendment × high in trace metals × organic contaminants: toxic

Composting Contd…
Need to control: C:N ratio N too low: inhibits microorganisms (add food waste, manure) N too high → NH3 (add sawdust, straw, paper) Content of metals, organics, pathogens Temperature (50-60°C: speeds reactions, kills pathogens. Exothermic) Aeration mix to prevent compaction, microorganisms need aerobic environment Water supply Time 30-45 days

Landfill
Highest proportion of domestic waste Design is very important Prevention of contamination of ground or surface water Solid, liquid, gas Rainwater dissolves waste + reaction/decay products React → leachate Biological reactions → CH4 gas Leachate/gas: change with time (quantity/composition)

Landfill Sites
•Above ground •Hole-filling Limited Lifetime e.g., 15 years, 4Mt waste (e.g.Beddington Farm, Sutton) Facilities e.g.,

recycling and energy recovery

Other uses e.g., sand + gravel extraction alongside Landfilling → rapid reclamation/restoration

Landfill Operation
Cellular structure: Lining + cover Cells: covered with soil each day so as to reduce water infiltration Compaction Reduces: Increases:

settlement hydraulic conductivity strength load-bearing capacity

Sanitary Landfill Design
Cap/Cover Gas collection

Waste Sand Liner Leachate collection

Clay

Landfill: Leachate
Liquid rich in organics, mineral salts, bacteria moves with surface/groundwater Organics: bacteria degrading organics → increased BOD → reduced oxygen content → eutrophication of surface water Ammonia NH3: increases OD, toxic for fish fertilizer: affects ecology Fe2+ (ferrous iron): ochreous deposits (yellow): turbidity Heavy metals may be toxic Cl-, SO42-, P, Ca Physical effects: Suspended solids, colour, turbidity, affect light, thus affect the aquatic food chain Temperature

Landfill: Leachate Contd…
Groundwater requires protection Effects will depend on permeability, flow, dilution Leachate must be either: • contained • collected, removed and treated • diluted and dispersed May need impermeable liners/leak detection systems Must be monitored for e.g., 20 years after life of landfill site. Quantity of leachate= + Rainfall/percolation (∴minimise infiltration: cap/cover) + Initial water/liquid disposal (∴dry waste) - Water absorbed by waste (reduces over time)

Landfill Gas
Gas composition evolves: Initially aerobic : CO2 (+ N2, O2) Over time becomes anaerobic O2→0, N2<1% CO2 + CH4 → CH4 (methanogenic bacteria) Rate of gas production: waste composition, compaction, pulverisation, moisture, temperature, pH slow generation / long duration - rapid generation/ short duration Explosion Risk: e.g. Loscoe, Derbyshire, 1986 due to low pressure weather system

Number of Landfills
Number of landfills
10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Siting
Where would you site a landfill?
• NIMBY Not In My Back Yard • NIMET Not In My Elected Term • BANANA Build Absolutely Nothing Anytime Near Anyone

Even More Regulatory Requirements
Groundwater protection • Liners and leachate collection • Cover • Monitoring wells down-gradient

Final Regulatory Requirements
Closure, 30 year responsibility • Cover maintenance • Groundwater monitoring • Gas monitoring

Richmond (Napanee) landfill site
• • • • • • • 2 million tonnes existing Canadian Waste Services application for 750,000 more annual tonnes leachate flow into:Marysville,Sucker Creek thence into Bay of Quinte Committee of Concerned Residents Paul Finkle, Stephen Geneja, Residents - community press, April 2, 1999

Incineration/Waste to Energy

Incineration Contd….
High temperature combustion of waste Must be controlled + managed organic chemicals → CO2, H2O → inorganic residue Products: • Atmospheric emissions • Waste Water • Ash May include energy recovery ☯Can be close to population (unlike landfill) ☯Reduces volume of waste by 90% ☯Reduces methane/leachate problems in landfill

Incineration Contd….
×Produces CO2, SO2, NOx, PAH, Cl-organics ×Solid residue (ash) must be disposed of ×Release of fly ash into air ×Refractory elements → ash ×Volatile elements → vapour e.g., Cd, Pb, Hg ×Public concern over emissions (dioxins)

Waste-to-Energy (WTE)
Heating value = f (composition) Removal of non-combustibles Increase heating value
– MSW typically 8-15 MJ/kg – RDF typically 14-18 MJ/kg

Incineration Waste Products
Fly ash Very fine ash, rises up stack, PM10 High metal content (e.g., 1-10% Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) ∴Can be hazardous, Disposal as special (hazardous) waste Bottom Ash 10-20% of original waste, Slag or clinker SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, MgO May recover metals Fairly inert → construction (rail/road beds) (=recycling!) Or → landfill

Incineration: Emissions
Particulates • Acid-generating gases • CO2/CO • Volatilisation depends on source/nature of waste, incinerator operating conditions, etc. e.g., Pb reducing: S→ S2- ∴PbS volatile @ 1000°C oxidising → PbO (more volatile) chlorinated waste e.g., PVC → PbCl2 (completely volatile) Improved technology and legislation separators, scrubbers, filters, cyclones → clean-up of stack gases, capture of fly ash

Historical Management (tons)

Cost of Land filling Vs Incineration

88

90

92

94 96 98 Year wise Description

00

02

Incineration Vs. Recycling
Integrated Waste Services Association survey of 70 communities concluded that:
– WTE is compatible with aggressive recycling programs – Average recycling rates in communities with both exceeded the national average

Cornwall hazardous waste incinerator
• October 1998, began operation • PCB’s from fluorescent light ballast • In the new permit they also want to burn: pharmaceuticals, chloroflurocarbons, electrical equipment, poisonous and reactive gasses, “controlled substances” and waste oils.

Life Cycle Assessment
Environmental management tool
Calculate / compare environmental impacts through life cycle of product: •raw materials •manufacture •distribution •use •reuse/recycling •disposal

→ overall life cycle environmental burden environmental trade-offs change parts of cycle compare e.g., paper vs polystyrene cups

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT
Raw Materials Materials Processing Product Manufacture Packaging, Distribution Product Use Disposal

SUMMARY OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE
INPUTS

Raw Material Extraction and Processing Materials Production

OUTPUTS

Energy

Manufacture of Finished Products

Energy Liquid Emission To Atmosphere

Transportation

Resources Lifetime Operation/Use

Discharges

Disposal/Recycling

How to cut on Waste
Waste t Managemen
g/ ainin ess Tr ren Awa te Was ntion e Prev rce esou rvation R se Con uct t Prod vemen ro Imp

Organizational Behavior
• Waste Prevention
Improved Operating Procedures Waste Segregation Good Housekeeping 5S Program 7 Wastes

• Resource Conservation
Recycle , Reuse & Recovery Off-site recycling On-site Recycling Energy Conservation Process Modification Input Material Changes Process / Equipment Changes

Example of Improved Operating Procedures
Glycerin losses in process were high

High COD wastewater

Improvement in Operating Procedure of Glycerin

Increase in productivity by 32 per cent. Daily glycerin yield increased by 5 per cent i.e., an additional 6 kilograms. Reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) of wastewater.

Waste Stream Segregation
• Ease in end-of-pipe treatment of a
non-compatible pollutant stream • Increased possibility of recycling / reusing a waste stream Electroplating wastewater

Degreasing wastewater

Chromium Nickel Rinse water rinse water Possible chromium recovery

Possible Nickel recovery

Some benefits of Waste Segregation
• Ease in end-of-pipe treatment of a non-compatible pollutant stream • Increased possibility of recycling / reusing a waste stream

Difficulties in segregating waste
• More space requirements • Higher capital and operating costs for waste transportation and storage

Waste Reduction by Good Housekeeping
Overflow to be avoided by placing valve and tightening supervision Rationalizing Process

Raw materials

Process 1 Process Waste

Process 2

Product

Waste Waste
Segregate Hazardous Waste

Leaks to be identified and fixed Accidental spillage to be avoided Maintain up- to- date operating manuals and update records

The 5S Technique
• Seiri - Sorting • Seiton - Arranging • Seiso – Cleaning and Inspecting • Seiketsu – Improving and standardizing • Shitsuke - Self-Discipline

7 Wastes
Waiting: Leaving resources waiting during production. Transporting: Moving material unnecessarily in the factory. Processing: Waste inherent in the process or design. Inventory: Keeping high inventory or work-in-process. Motions: Unnecessary movement of worker during operation. Defect: Producing defective parts or poor products. Overproduction: Produces more than required or needed quantity.

Seminar On LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

WASTE INCINERATOR

Any Questions…?
Dr. I.D.Mall
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