Page |1

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM “Extracurricular activities play an important role in today's education programs,” (Holland & Andre, 1987).

This section provides important information relevant to the study of extracurricular activity and its effect on the academic performance of the College of Hospitality and Tourism Management students. Included in this section is the background of the study, significance of the problem, theoretical framework, conceptual paradigm, statement of

the problem, and necessary definitions. Background of the Study Music, arts, organizational involvement, sports: all of these have an influence on how students perform

academically. The way students choose to spend their time can affect their academic performance. traditional performance. influencing in-class Numerous students’ instruction studies have that It is not simply impacts the academic factors many

examined

academic

performance

and

extracurricular activities were found to have a significant influence. Numerous studies have been conducted concerning the relationship between extracurricular activities and

academic performance.

Page |2

Extracurricular

activities

are

those

activities

performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university at all education. levels of

Extracurricular

activities

exist

education, elementary, high school, college and university education (www.wikipedia.org). Such activities are generally voluntary as opposed to mandatory and social. Students often organize and direct these activities under faculty such as sponsorship, independent although

student-led are common.

initiatives,

newspapers,

The development of extracurricular activities was slow in the beginning, with many seeing it simply as a fad that would pass and quickly fade out of style (Millard, 1930, p. xi). One of the early philosophies behind extracurricular activities was that they should, wherever at all possible, “grow out of curricular activities and return to curricular activities to enrich them” (Millard, 1930, p. 12). Eventually, people began to see the benefits of

extracurricular activities, but it took a while to realize it themselves. In fact, before 1900, educators were

skeptical of participation in extracurricular activities, believing defined that “school should focus solely on narrowly were

academic

outcomes.

Non-academic

activities

Page |3

often viewed as recreation and therefore were detrimental to academic achievement and consequently, were discouraged” (Marsh & Kleitman, 2002, para. 5). Many beneficial performance, related to extracurricular in even building if the activities and have proven to be

strengthening are not

academic obviously have between in

activities

academic studied

subjects. the and

Researchers relationship

particularly extracurricular

activities

academic

performance

college students. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, many

colleges and universities worldwide had a broad educational mission: to develop personal the "whole On student," college thereby campuses,

stimulating

development.

extracurricular involvement is a key tool in this personal development. For the majority of college and university

students, involvement in extracurricular activities plays an integral role in the collegiate experience. Students

become involved in extracurricular activities not only for entertainment, important, to social, gain and and enjoyment improve purposes, A but wide most and

skills.

diversified range of extracurricular activities exists on all college campuses, meeting of a variety of student offers a

interests.

The

University

the

Cordilleras

Page |4

plethora

of

extracurricular

activities

with

the

aim

of

trying to develop the students’ whole persons. The importance of extracurricular activities on

college campuses is well established. The primary goals of extracurricular activities focus on the individual student level, the institutional level, and the broader community level. These activities academic exist to and complement to augment the the

university's

curriculum

student's educational experience. Extracurricular activities provide a setting to become involved and to interact with other students, thus leading to increased learning and enhanced development.

Specifically, a student's peer group is the most important source of influence on a student's academic and personal development. By identifying with a peer group, that group may influence a student's affective and cognitive

development as well as his or her behavior. As the development of the individual is the main goal of extracurricular activities on college and university have

campuses, the numerous experiences these activities

impacts on students' emotional, intellectual, social, and interpersonal development. Students also develop skills

specific to their career path and imperative for future job success. Students have opportunities to improve their

Page |5

leadership and interpersonal skills while also increasing their self-confidence. Because range of of the diverse interests activity of students, the

extracurricular

offerings

varies

extensively, depending upon the size and type of college or university. Extracurricular activities range from primarily social organizations to governance programs. Each organizations activity to

intercollegiate

athletic

offers

students an opportunity to work with others and to gain essential life skills. Though numerous extracurricular activities exist, the following activities are those that are most commonly found on college campuses: a. Student Government One of the most widespread available types on of

extracurricular

experience

college

campuses is student government. Students involved in governance their organizations to of are typically as to the the elected by

peers

function students

official university

representatives

administration. These government participants often serve on campus-wide committees in an effort to

represent the ideas and concerns of their fellow students. Student government functions include

Page |6

allocating programs

funds

to to

other

organizations, interests,

planning providing

related

student

forums for student issue discussion, and helping to build and sustain a successful of campus community. governance

Additional

examples

campus

organizations include honor councils, which seek to enforce a university's honor code, and judiciary

boards, where students hear disciplinary cases and render verdicts. A typical example of this would be the University of the Cordillera’s Supreme Student Governance or university-known as “Pamunuan” and

“Kalipunan.” b. Athletic Activities All college and universities offers some type of intercollegiate and intramural athletics. Student

athletes may "try out" for intercollegiate sports teams such as volleyball, basketball, etc. Being a varsity athlete requires a great commitment of time and energy for practicing, conditioning, and

competing. Intramural sports provide opportunities for all student athletes to play a sport they enjoy, while competing against their peers. Typically,

colleges and universities offer several intramural options which typically include basketball, table

Page |7

tennis, badminton, chess, and volleyball. Students are invited to participate and often, these

activities may be quite competitive. c. Academic and Professional Organizations Academic assist their major and professional in acquiring field and organizations experience sometimes in in

their chosen

members

occupational

aiding in the job search. Students gather to discuss issues related to

their field of interest and to learn job-related skills in an effort to be fully prepared for future success. Such professional organizations typically focus on one career area of interest. Examples of professional organizations of the College of

Hospitality and Tourism Management of the University of the Cordilleras include the Front Liners, Voices, Movers, Young Chefs, UCians Flairtending

Organization, Newsletter and Debate Team which all fall under the college’s official club organization, the Toureshma Executive Club. d. Volunteer and Service-Related Activities Volunteer and service-related activities exist to help improve the local community, an important goal of extracurricular activities. In the UC Project

Page |8

H.E.L.E.N, volunteer students from various colleges engage in community service projects such as

planting trees or donating unused clothes or books which promote service and volunteerism during the college students community. e. Multicultural Activities Multicultural activities focus on increasing years. an Service-learning to programs to offer their

opportunity

contribute

awareness and understanding of various cultures and ethnic and racial backgrounds. Many schools sponsor festivals, concerts, lectures, and discussions that promote multicultural awareness on campus in which students may participate. In addition, involvement in these activities may be an important step toward positive racial, ethnic, or sexual-identity

development. An example of this activity would be the recently re-established BIMAK (Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province, Abra and Kalinga) Brotherhood

where students who came from these five provinces and who belong to different colleges can join the brotherhood.

Page |9

f. Arts Students interested in arts have a plethora of extracurricular actively musicals, students Marching groups opportunities in which they can

participate. and to dance

Activities concerts their

including a

plays, for

offer

chance

demonstrate jazz

dramatic

abilities. singing musical

band, allow

band, to

orchestra, pursue

and

students

their

interests at the college level. Pottery, sculpture, and mosaic classes and workshops are also offered for students to learn and enjoy. g. Other Activities In addition to the specific extracurricular other activities Honorary

activities exist on

previously many

mentioned,

college

campuses.

organizations recognize student scholars, often in a certain academic discipline, who maintain a specific grade point average. Religious organizations offer students an opportunity to gather in fellowship with students of similar on religious campus backgrounds. of Media print,

organizations

consist

television, and radio venues, and these activities may include writing or taking pictures for the

school newspaper, serving on the yearbook staff, or

P a g e | 10

working

as

a

disc

jockey

for

the

campus

radio

station. Individuals interested in politics may join the UC Debate Team. It is obvious that extracurricular activities have an impact on academic performance and education. Due to the dynamic nature of the Hospitality an

Tourism industry, the College of Hospitality and Tourism Management students of the University of the Cordilleras need to participate in the various extracurricular

activities to showcase their skills and talents as well as to immerse themselves the to the real-life situations It is that

happen

outside

school

environment.

through

extracurricular activities that these students learn and acquire career. Having said that, the question really is, how are new sets of skills that they can use in their

extracurricular

activities

affecting

the

academic

performance of Hospitality and Tourism Management students of the University of the Cordilleras today? Significance of the Study The results of this study will add to the body of information regarding the value of extracurricular

activities for Hospitality and Tourism Management students. It will provide educators, most especially the University

P a g e | 11

of

the

Cordillera

and

its

College

of

Hospitality

and

Tourism Management as well as the public, with information to assist students in making more informed choices in their extracurricular school programs. This study will also be a benefit to other researchers who will be conducting future studies of similar subject matter in that this study will offer multiple perspectives regarding the effects of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of the said college’s students. The proposed study will benefit and help the future researchers as their reference or guide. It will also help students to identify and decide

which extracurricular activity will suit them most. The research proposal will contribute to knowledge

production in general. The purpose of this is to gain a better understanding of perspective on the effects of

extracurricular activities on the academic performance of the University of the Cordillera’s College of Hospitality and Tourism students. It will contribute to a deeper

comprehension of the effects of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of the students. Theoretical Framework of the Study It has been generally assumed that participation in extracurricular activities has a positive impact on the

P a g e | 12

academics these

of

students. may

However, actually

many affect

also

believe

that

activities

student

academic

performance in a negative manner due to conflicting time requirements and competing schedules, even if they do in fact enhance student persistence. Interestingly, relatively few studies have been performed in either of these areas due to a lack of applicable data. The importance of personal responsibility and activity for academic achievement learning stems from the perspective academic of and

self-regulated

through

extracurricular activities. According to this perspective, the student is responsible because he or she perceives him or herself as a learner (Zimmerman, 1989). The student can use different to learning create strategies and that engage are in various to

activities learning values

environments 1989).

conducive

(Zimmerman, of

Hence,

because are

reinforcing different,

extracurricular

activities

students choose different activities that they think suit them best. There devoted to has been a considerable the amount of research student

studying

relationship

between

involvement in activities and student academic performance. Although a positive correlation has been shown in many of these studies, there is still a fierce battle among

P a g e | 13

educators

concerning

the

benefits

and

impacts

of

extracurricular activities. Two positions appear to be prevalent in today's

academic community. These are referred to as either the academic or developmental perspective. The academic

perspective considers extracurricular activities as purely leisure and not part of the purpose considers total of schools. The

developmental activities

perspective to the

extracurricular of the

necessary

development

student in today's schools (Holland & Andre, 1987). Educators who believe in the academic perspective

argue that time spent away from the classroom decreases the student's chances for success. Even those activities that don't require loss of classroom time are perceived to take away study time. These educators support cutting or

eliminating activities for budgetary reasons. Educators who believe in the developmental perspective see activities as an extension of the educational program. Activities leadership, confidence, allow students to develop skills such as

sportsmanship, and the ability

self-discipline, to handle

self-

competitive

situations. Extracurricular activities offer an opportunity to interact in ways that allow the previously mentioned skills to blossom. The developmental minded believe that

P a g e | 14

many of these skills would be impossible or very difficult to develop in a classroom setting. Marsh (1992) stated: According to different theoretical perspectives, extracurricular activity participation may be posited to (a) divert attention from academic pursuits, as

evidenced by its negative effects on narrowly defined academic goals; (b) have little or no effect on academic outcomes but contribute to desirable nonacademic outcomes; or (c) have positive effects on nonacademic outcomes and facilitate academic growth, perhaps indirectly, as

well. (p. 553). Different both inside activities outside in the which students itself, participate, are among

and

school

multiple situations or agents that can have an effect on academic performance. This situation has given rise in today’s universities to an almost massive involvement in extracurricular

activities, complementing and strengthening not only the students’ school performance, but also his or her personal development values, etc. and other aspects such as leisure, health,

P a g e | 15

The

world

is of

currently activities,

witnessing be they

an

increasing or

proliferation

academic

extracurricular. Instructors on occasion complain that some students are over-involved in extracurricular activities

and that these are sometimes pre-determined by parents or are not well-planned, thus failing to coordinate with or complement with academic performances. Along these lines, Marsh and Kleitman selected those (2002), and that state at place that the extracurricular school are since more the

activities helpful

planned take

than

outside,

latter often lack sufficient planning, order, and logical meaning. Some researchers have divided extracurricular

activities into informal and formal activities. The formal activities include activities which are relatively

structured, such as participating in athletics or learning to play a musical instrument. Informal activities, on the other hand, also known as leisure activities, include less structured activities, such as watching television. Some literature on leisure studies has “suggested that formal and informal activity settings have different influences on motivation and feelings of competence,” two factors which influence academic performance (Guest & Schneider, 2003, para. 8). One study found “that more time in leisure

P a g e | 16

activities was related to poorer academic grades, poorer work habits, and poorer emotional adjustments,” while more time in “structured groups and less time watching TV were associated with higher test scores and school grades”

(Marsh & Kleitman, 2002, para. 15). Guest and Schneider (2003), in their study, found that “the type of participation or activity undertaken

influences developmental outcomes (Para. 8). This involves the “what” factor and is the many concern studies of this research on the

project.

There

have

been

conducted

influence that extracurricular activities have on academic performance. Their effects have “differed substantially for different activities. There were a total of seventy-six

statistically significant effects, fifty-eight positive and eighteen negative” (Marsh & Kleitman, 2002, para. 11). It is reported that the average college student spends only 30 percent 1990). of A his or her body waking of hours in class exists

(Collison,

large

research

supporting the argument that a student’s time outside of the classroom should be spent engaged in an extracurricular activity. Researchers agree that student involvement can enhance the overall college experience. In Astin his (1984) Developmental states that Theory “the for Higher the Education, student’s

greater

P a g e | 17

involvement in college, the greater will be the amount of student learning and personal development” (p. 529). Astin also argues that educational impact will be greater if the student is able to connect with his or her institution (Astin, 1984). Clubs, activities organizations allow students and to other extracurricular this connection

establish

through interaction with peers and members of the faculty (d’Amico & Hawes, 2000). Although research has shown that student involvement positively impacts the overall development of a student, a debate exists have regarding on the effects extracurricular Some people

activities

academic

performance.

believe that the time required to actively participate in extracurricular activities can interfere with academic

studies which will result in lower grades (Huang & Chang, 2004; Mehus, 1932). Definition of Terms The following terms are applicable to the study:  Extracurricular activity Any non-graded activity that requires students to extend their school day. These activities take place either before school, after school, weekends, or

during holiday vacations.

P a g e | 18

Academic performance A measurement set out of by how well a student and meets the

standards

local

government

institution itself.  Academic achievement Excellence in all academic disciplines, in class as well as extracurricular in sporting, skills, activities. behavior, It includes

excellence communication

confidence, assertiveness,

punctuality,

Arts, culture, and the like.  Participation The investment of physical and psychological

energy in the collegiate environment.

P a g e | 19

CONCEPTUAL PARADIGM OF THE STUDY INPUT
Extracurricular Activities of Tourism and Hospitality students of the University of the Cordilleras  Student Government  Athletic Activities  Academic and Professional Organizations  Volunteer and Service-Related Activities  Multicultural Activities  Other Activities

PROCESS
Collection of data through Questionnaire

FEEDBACK

OUTPUT Academic Performance of the students of Hospitality and Tourism Management students A. Positive B. Negative

P a g e | 20

Statement of the Problem The research aims to study the extracurricular

activities and its effect on the academic performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management students of the University of the Cordilleras. Specifically, questions: 1. Is there a significant activities relationship and student’s between academic it sought to answer the following

extracurricular performance? 2. Are

extracurricular

activities

done

by

students

a

significant predictor of their academic performance? 3. Are there any effects of extracurricular activities on the student’s academic performance? 4. What are the extracurricular activities that students are involved in? 5. Is there a significant difference on the effects of extracurricular activities on academic performance in terms of: a. Age b. Gender c. Year Level

P a g e | 21

6. What are the positive and negative effects of having extracurricular activities on the students’ academic performance? 7. What are the common problems encountered by

Hospitality and Tourism Management students caused by being involved in extracurricular activities? Statement of the Hypotheses In this section, efforts will be made to answer the extracurricular activities involvement of the Hospitality and Tourism Management students of the University of the Cordilleras, and how such activities could affect their

academic performance. It will be the primary purpose of this study to therefore investigate the significant effect of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of Hospitality and Tourism this Management five students. hypotheses To were

effectively

anchor

purpose,

formulated. They are: 1. There will be no significant and relationship students’ between academic

extracurricular performance. 2. Extracurricular

activities

activities

are

not

significant

predictor of student’s academic performance. 3. There will be no relative effect of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of students.

P a g e | 22

4. There effects

will of

be

no

significant

difference on

on

the

extracurricular

activities

academic

performance in terms of: a. Age b. Gender c. Year Level 5. There are no common problems encountered by students who do extracurricular activities.

P a g e | 23

CHAPTER II RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This chapter of the study aims to explain the methods and procedures to be used in conducting the study. Included herein locale are of the the the method study, sampling of research, the population instruments the and and

the

research and

techniques, treatment.

procedure

statistical

Research Design The research design that will be used for this study would be the descriptive method. Descriptive research, population research, data also and known as statistical about the

describes or

characteristics studied.

phenomenon

being

Descriptive

research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how. It systematically, factually, accurately and

objectively describes a problem or a phenomenon and it aims to describe the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause of a particular situation. Population and Locale of the Study The study at will the be College conducted of in Baguio and City, Tourism

particularly

Hospitality

P a g e | 24

Management

at

the

University

of

the

Cordilleras

Legarda

Annex. The study will focus on the Hospitality and Tourism Management students of all year levels. Sampling Technique The researchers will be applying simple random

sampling procedure in selecting its sample population. Simple random sampling is the basic sampling technique where researchers select a group of subjects (or a sample) for study from a larger group (a population). Each

individual is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. Every possible sample of a given size has the same chance of selection. Making use of this sampling technique, it will make sure that every student belonging to the College of

Hospitality and Tourism Management of the University of the Cordilleras will have an equal chance of being the

respondent for the study. In this manner, determining the sample population for the study is easier as the sample size is entirely chosen by chance. Students who are having their break time at the time that questionnaires will be distributed are likely to be the sample population of this study.

P a g e | 25

Data Gathering Tools The researchers will be using questionnaire as their major data gathering instrument. All questions will be

pertinently formulated based on the problems that need to be answered. All questions would be directly related to the problem which is the “Extracurricular activities and its effect Tourism on the academic performance of the of Hospitality of and the

Management The

students

University of

Cordilleras”.

questionnaire

consists

several

questions with checklist options relevant to the topic of the research. The questionnaire will be distributed to the respondents at the locale of the study. Also, brief

interviews will be conducted as well to gather supporting data. Data Gathering Procedure The questionnaires will be floated to the respondents (students of all year level) during lunch time and break time or vacant time at the University of the Cordilleras Legarda Annex, particularly at the student lounge as well as the library. All questionnaires will be thoroughly

inspected upon its return to the researchers to make sure that all questions were answered.

P a g e | 26

Statistical Treatment of Data Since the research design of the study would be a descriptive method, it will use the frequency percentage method. The frequency will be taken by gathering the number of the respondents and divided by the total number of

respondents multiplied by 100% then ranked from highest to lowest. The Formula will be: P= f/N x 100% Where: P= percentage F= Frequency N= total number of respondents 100%= constant multiplier

P a g e | 27

REFERENCES Bauer, K.W.& Liang, Q. (2003). The effect of personality and precollege characteristics on first-year activities and academic performance. Journal of College Student Development, 44, 277-290. Moriana, J.A., Alos, F., Alcala, R., Pino, M.J., Herruzo, J., & Ruiz, R. (2006). Extra-curricular activities and academic performance in secondary students. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, pp. 35-46. Wang, J. & Shiveley, J. (2009). The impact of extracurricular activity on student academic performance, pp. 3-15. O’Dea, James W (1994). The effect of extracurricular activities on academic achievement, pp. 5-25. Harvancik, M. J. (1 986).Academic success and participation in high school Washington, DC: Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 273887) Camp, W. G. (1990). Participation in student activities and achievement: A covariance structural analysis. Journal of Educational Research, &3(5), 272-278. Mello, Z. & Worrell, F. (2008). Gender variation in extracurricular activity participation and perceived life chances in Trinidad and Tobago adolescents, pp. 9-13.

P a g e | 28

Fujita, K. (2010). The effects of extracurricular activities on the academic performance of junior high students, pp. 5-15. Broh, B. A. (2002, January). Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: Who benefits and why? [Electronic version]. Sociology of Education, 75, 69-96. n.d. Retrieved at http://www.ehow.com/info_8034677_effectextracurricular-activities-academicgrades.html#ixzz1WU6N2Erw on August 27, 2011 at 5:15 PM. n.d. Retrieved at Negative Aspects of Extracurricular Activities | eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/info_8142748_negative-aspectsextracurricular-activities.html#ixzz1WU8zcFPc on August 27, 2011 at 5:20 PM. n.d. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extracurricular_activity on August 28, 2011 at 8:00 AM.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.