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VOCATIONAL TRAINNING REPORT

AT VOLTAMP TRANSFORMERS LIMITED, VADODARA

Submitted By:Ravi Patel Final Year(B.E., ELECTRICAL) Government Engineering College, Godhra.

Introduction of Company:
VOLTAMP TRANSFORMERS LTD was established in 1963. The company is based in Vadodara. The company has installed facility to manufacturing oil filled power and distribution transformers upto 160MVA, 220kV class, Resin Impregnated Dry type transformers up to 5 MVA, 11kV class(In technical collaboration with MORA, Germany) and Cast Resin Dry Type Transformer up to 12.5 MVA, 33kV class(In Technical collaboration with HTT, Germany) There are two plants located at: 1. Makarpura, Vadodara (For Oil Filled Power Transformers) 2. Village Vadadla, Tehsil Savali, Dist. Vadodara. (For Oil Filled Distribution Transformer & Dry Transformer.

The total installed capacity is 14000 MVA per annum on three shift basis. VOLTAMP delivers its strength from its customers. Over the years of sincere service and dedication to its customers has earned the company, distinguished customers which includes leaders in Government and Semi Government Projects, Fertilizers Plants, Power Sector, Pharma, Paper, Stell, Cement Sectors, State Electricity Board. etc. Voltamp supplied 550 nos of 110kV class and 70 nos 132kV class of transformers 50MVA in last 5 years.

Milestones: In 1963 company established at Bharuch In 1969 it shifted to at Vadodara In 1975 company started manufacturing of 132kV transformer. In 1995 company arranged Short Circuit Test of 31.5MVA transformer for CPMI In 1998 company got ISO:9001 Certification & it had collaborated with MORA, Germany. In 2008 Company got first order of 100MVA, 220kV transformer

Product Profile:
Oil Filled Transformers - Power Transformers - Distribution Transformers. Dry Transformers - Resin Impregnated Type Transformers - Cast Resin Type Transformers United Sub Stations Induction Furnace Transformers Lightning Transformers

Services:
VOLTAMP undertake repair of transformers of any make and a range up to 220 kV/200 MVA, both at our works and also at site. VOLTAMP has hands experience to inspect failed damaged transformers in-situ and ability to give quickly a rough cost estimate for taking immediate decision regarding repairs. VOLTAMP has excellent design back up to check the transformer undertaken for repair and to suggest alteration in design and to repair the same with suitable modification for trouble-free operations subsequently. VOLTAMP undertake the overhauling, major maintenance, any transformer related problem services at site for any brand, any type, any application transformer such as ICT / GT / UAT / ST / Rectiformers / Traction-Loco Transformers / Special application Transformer of various brands such as BHEL, HHE, NGEF, CGL, TELK, GEC, ABB, indigenous / imported brands. VOLTAMP has a complement of about 300 personnel(including 60engineers) with branches in all major cities and service centers spread all over the country in important locations such as Ahmedabad, Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Sikandarbad, Pune, Bhuvneshwar, etc.

Consultants:
VOLTAMPs transformers are approved by the following consultants, MECON MN DUSTUR EIL TCE DCL FEDO TOYO ENGINEERING UNDF HOLTE

Clients:
T&EP JETCO L&T RELIANCE INDUSTRIES JINDAL STEEL SIEMENS ONGC TORRENT POWER SUZLON ABB KPTCL AREVA

Manufacturing Plant:
VOLTAMP currently operating four major plants, Oil filled Power Transformers, Distribution Transformer, Dry Type Resin Impregnated Transformer, and Distribution Transformer respectively. Each plant is an independent entity having fully fledged individual facilities for design, manufacture, material handling, testing and servicing of wide range transformers up to 160MVA, 220kV Class. Plant Capacity: Unit-1(Makarpura): Annual Production Capacity of 14000MVA. Unit(Savali): Annual Production of 200Nos transformers with 75Nos of Resin Impregnated type and 75Nos of Cast Resin type transformers. Other Manufacturing Facilities: Latest & State of art casting plant imported from Hedrich, Germany Own shot blasting facility to ensure better paint quality Extra high vacuum, Transformer oil filtering machine. Winding machine and cranes to handle different types of transformers. Air circulating and latest vaccum phase drying oven. EOT cranes, hoists and cranes.

Some Brief Description Of Transformer:A transformer is a voltage changer. The transformer industry is usually divided into Distribution transformers, Power transformers & other types of special transformers for welding, traction, furnace etc. The power transformers are used to transform power voltage from the generation point to the transmission point. A distribution transformer is used to transform power voltage from transmission point to distribution of power to the end user. The health of the transformer industry is closely related to the power generation sector. The major customers for transformers are the SEBs, utilities and industries. The Transformer Industry in India has evolved and now has a well matured technology base upto 800 KV class. India has a field-proven technology & capacity to manufacture a wide range of power transformers, distribution transformers and other types of special transformers for welding, traction, furnace etc. Today, about 95% of the transformers installed in the Indian Power Network are of indigenous origin. Energy efficient transformer with low losses and low noise levels can be available to meet international requirements.

Transformer Functioning: The power transformers are used to transform power voltage from the generation point to the transmission point. These are mainly step-up power transformers and step-down power transformers. A step-up transformer is used to convert low voltage AC to high low voltage AC whereas a Step -down transformer is used to convert high voltage AC to low voltage AC. A distribution transformer is used to transform power voltage from transmission point to Distribution of power to the end user.

A transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction - that energy can be efficiently transferred by magnetic induction from one winding to another winding in the presence of a varying magnetic field produced by an alternating current. A basic transformer consists of two sets of coils or windings. Each set of windings is simply an inductor. AC voltage is applied to one of the windings, called the primary winding. The other winding, called the secondary winding, is positioned in close proximity to the primary winding, but is electrically isolated from it. The alternating current that flows through the primary winding establishes a time-varying magnetic flux, some of which links to the secondary winding and induces a voltage across it. The magnitude of this voltage is proportional to the ratio of the number of turns on the primary winding to the number of turns on the secondary winding. This is known as the turns ratio. To maximize flux linkage with the secondary circuit, an iron core is used to provide a lowreluctance path for the magnetic flux. If there are more turns in the secondary winding than in the primary windings, the output voltage will be greater than that of the input voltage as in the case of a step-up transformer. Conversely, if the secondary has less turns than primary, the output voltage will be lower than that of the input voltage as in the case of a step-down transformer. The above description of transformers pertains to single-phase transformers. Single-phase means two power lines as an input source. Therefore, only one primary and one secondary winding is required to accomplish the voltage transformation. However, most power is distributed in the form of three-phase AC. Power generators produce Electricity by rotating three coils or windings through a magnetic field within the generator. Thus, a three-phase transformer actually has six windings (or coils) three primary and three secondary.

These coils or windings are spaced 120 degrees apart. As they rotate through the magnetic field they generate power, which is sent out on three lines as in three-phase power. Three-phase electricity, powers large industrial loads more efficiently than single-phase electricity. When single-phase electricity is needed, it is available between any two phases of a three-phase system, or in some systems, between one of the phases and the ground. By the use of three conductors, a threephase system can provide 173% more power than two conductors of a single-phase system. Three-phase power allows heavy duty industrial equipment to operate more smoothly and efficiently. Three-phase power can be transmitted over long distances with a smaller conductor size. The Indian transmission sector has evolved over time mainly on account of improvements in technology and systems. The transmission and distribution system today consists of 400kV networks that support state transmission systems; 66 KV, 33kV and 22 KV networks that act as subtransmission systems; 1 KV networks that provide the primary distribution systems; and 400/230V networks for local distribution. At the transition between these levels, transformers are required to ensure a smooth change of voltages with minimum loss of energy.

Manufacturing Process of Transformer:


Following are the major activities for the Manufacturing of Transformer: Design Coil Assembly Core Assembly Core Coil Assembly Connection Drying Tanking Testing of Transformer Completion of Transformer

Design:
Since all transformers are tailor made, on receipt of the customer order, VOLTAMP commence designing the transformer as per customer needs. The drawing is submitted to the customer for approval. The drawing and bill of material are then issued to various departments to carry out further work as per design. All designs are computerized based on software developed by VOLTAMPs own Team to suit their requirement. In case of Cast Resin Transformer design software is provided by foreign collaborator M/s HTT, Germany. All these software are in use for more than 3 years.

Coil Assembly:
Coil windings are of two Types: 1. Low Voltage Coil 2. High Voltage Coil The precise details of the winding arrangement will be varied according to the rating of the transformer. The general principal remains the same throughout most the range of transformers. L.V. Coil Winding: The low voltage coil is designed to approximately match the current rating of the available low-voltage. The L.V. coil is normally wound on robust tube of the insulation material and this is almost invariably of synthetic resin-bonded paper. H.V. Coil winding: The second process is H.V. Coil winding, which are wound with strip conductor and it usually consist of continuous disc type. The coils are usually created in layers and ideally all the joints are extremely well brazen and insulated in order to withstand difficulty service condition and test. Windings are made up of Electrolytic grade copper strips/ copper wires/Enamel copper /Copper Foils with inter layer of insulations made of paper/ fiber glass depending on the type of transformer and design. Normally they are wound on wooden formers and are of circular shape with dimensions maintained as per design. Once completed windings are kept in drying oven and are heated at set temperature to achieve the designed height. In the drying oven the moisture from the insulation material is removed shrinking the coils to the designed height. Types of Wooden Former: Pipe Former Adjustable Former

A. In case of Resin Impregnated Dry Type transformers, Windings are kept in impregnation chamber for resin impregnation. After completion of impregnation cycle windings are kept in oven for curing. B. In case of Cast Resin Dry Type transformers, Windings are kept in casting chamber for Resin Casting. After completion of Casting Process, windings are kept in oven for curing. Types of Winding Design: Helical Winding Helix Winding Spiral Winding Continuous Winding Interleaved Winding COIL PRESSING AND OVENING SECTIONBecause of the presence of moisture in the insulation used in the manufacture of the coils and also due to wide variation in the thickness of pressboard strips used to make spacers, the wound coils usually have much more than the specified values. It will be impossible to assemble the coils on the core limbs and rebuild the top yoke of the cores unless the coil heights are brought to specified values. The following method is adopted for that purpose. Cold pressingThe coil is placed vertically between two clamping plates connected with 4 to 6 nos. of rods of appropriate size with the nuts on both ends. The coil is then placed in the hydraulic coil press and is compressed by applying the load specified in the winding specification (30kg/cm2). Hot pressingThe coils are taken out and pressed in the hydraulic press in the condition by applying specified load. The coil height is checked to see if the height is coming in the drawing or not.

Core Assembly:
In VOLTAMP the core is made up of cold rolled grain oriented steel known as lamination. Cut laminations as per our drawings are procured. The core is built by stacking these sheets one over the other as per the design. Once stacked and checked with respect to design, the core is tightened with frame with help of tie rod and core bolts. The core is then lifted and kept in vertically for assembling the coils.

Different Materials of Core: Silicon Steel CRGO CRNGO Powdered Iron Ferrite Mu Metal

CRGO - Cold Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Steel: Like many steels, this version is cold-rolled to obtain the required thickness and flatness needed for a transformer core. The magnetic "grain" of the steel is aligned in one direction, allowing a higher permeability than would otherwise be possible. This material is ideal for toroids and C-cores, since the grain can be aligned in the direction of magnetic flux (i.e. in a circular pattern around the core). It is less suited to E-I laminations, because the flux must travel across the grain" at the ends of the lamination, reducing permeability.

Depending upon the shapes of the formed laminations, d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f c o r e a s s e m b l i e s c a n be f o r m e d . T h e f o l l o w i ng figures show the commonly used core assemblies. PQR Type:

PQRS & ABCD Type Respectively:

Core Coil Assembly(CCA):


Core coil assembly consists of assembling the windings to the core assembly. Core assembly is placed on a suitable leveled platform. Tighten the three limbs with webbing tape. Top channels and top yoke laminations are removed and placed on a table in thes a m e s e q u e n c e . B o t t o m i ns u l at i o n i t e m s l i k e p r e s s b oa r d r i n g s , petals; perma wood rings are placed on bottom yoke on each core limb. Core wraps as specified in the design details are covered to the core limbs and tightened with cotton tape. LV windings are lowered on each core limb. LV leads should come to the LV side of the core c h a n n e l s . L V r u nn e r s , p r e s s b o a rd c y l i n d e r a n d HV r u n n e r s a r e arranged around each LV coil and tighten them with cotton tape. HV windings are lowered over LV winding with spacers between each HV winding. Insulation items like paper tubes, empire sleeves and top insulation arrangement is completed. During insulation assembly, various leads are properly position and fully insulated phase barrier assembly is then completed. Top yoke laminations are assembled back in position starting with the center s t e p . T op c o r e c h a n n e l s a r e t h e n c l am p e d a n d t i g ht e n e d c o i l s a re kept under pressure by tightening tie rods.

Connections:
The Core coil once assembled is kept in drying oven for shrinkage of insulation. Then connections are made with help of copper bus bar and jumpers as per design. The connections are provided on the transformer windings to take care of the voltage fluctuation to get the output constant/decided voltage. Tapings from windings are connected to off load / on load tap changers. After completion of connections various electrical tests are conducted to ensure that results are as per design.

Drying:As we aware that the transformer winding is highly hygroscopic and it has tendency to absorb moisture from atmospheric humidity when exposed for longer time during erection or repair, the dry out of transformer to remove moisture before putting into service is essential. The process of dry out of a transformer is one requiring care and good judgment. If the dry out process is improperly performed, great damage may result to the transformer insulation/oil through overheating etc. In no case should a transformer be left unattended during any part of the dry out period. The transformer be carefully watched throughout the dry out period and all observations should be carefully recorded. Also if the weather is rainy or the atmospheric conditions are humid, the transformer windings should not be exposed, otherwise the drying out process will be very long and cumbersome. There are many methods of dry out being adopted by different agencies; some of them are as under: Hot oil circulation with high vacuum filter machine. Vacuum and nitrogen cycle with additional heating arrangement. Induction heating method. Short circuit method. Hot oil spray under vacuum.

VOLTAMP uses Vaccum Oven Drying of transformer- The latest technology imported from China. In which the core and coil assembly are kept in air drying/ Vacuum oven as per the rating of transformer for a predefined time. The core and coil assembly are constantly kept at elevated temperatures so that all moisture absorbed by them are dried down. The heating is done through Electricity and hence it is environmentally clean.

Tanking:
Tanks are fabricated as per design. Surface of tank is cleaned by shot blasting the tank. The tanks are then painted with oil resistant paint for inside and as per customer requirement from outside. The dried core and coil assembly are taken out from oven and is placed in the tank. All connections with bushings etc. are made, and cover is tightened. Transformer oil is filled in the tank through filter machine under vacuum. After the oil filling is completed, Transformer is kept for 24 hours on oil leakage test. The process of oil filling is not applicable for Dry Type Transformers. Transformer Apparatus: Core Coil Assembly Terminals HV LV bushings or cable boxes, CT terminals etc Tap Changer Conservator Oil Gauges Silica Gel Dehydrating Breather Buccholz relay Explosion Vents Gasket Pipe Work Temperature Indicator Oil Level Indicator Air release Plug

Testing Of Transformer: Different Tests of Transformer:


Partial Discharge Test Heat Run Test Magnetic Balance Test Short & Open Circuit Test Oil Leakage Test Measurement of Winding Resistance Verification Of Voltage Ratio Verification of Vector Group Measurement of No load Current & Losses. Measurement of Impedance and Load Losses Measurement of Insulation Resistance Impulse Voltage Withstand Test Temperature Rise Test Zero Phase Sequence Test Harmonic Analysis of No Load Current

Completion of Transformer:After the completion of testing, the transformer is given final touchup paint. After that Client Inspection is arranged. Client comes at the Mfg. Plant and check the transformer whether it is according to their requirement and standards or not. After the approval of client it ready for dispatch. There is no waste disposal in the transformer industry.

Dispatch:Dispatch stocks are noted at the plant. Dispatch time and date are as per the requirement of client. At the time of dispatch VOLTAMP provides some extra spares with new transformer to keep it with for precautions in emergency situation.

Application Of Transformer: Power Generations, Transmission and Distribution Auto Transformer Induction Furnace Isolation Station Services Convertor Duty Earthing Lightning Excitation

Conclusion:
The scope of this report is to give brief description of VOLTAMP TRANSFORMERS LTD., its products, services, basics of transformers, its manufacturing process, accessories, applications, etc... So that scope is successfully fulfilled here.