Jeffrey M.

Ostonal, BSFT, MAIE

Food Engineering  A fairly young area of food science  In US, Canada, Europe it is now well recognized  Important part of food science and technology training programs.  FT’s should have a working knowledge of the operation and maintenance of basic food processing equipment, and should be capable of specifying and selecting appropriate food processing and handling equipment for specific food commodities in order to be effective in their work in the industry.  This course is geared toward giving student background on the engineering aspect of food processing and better equipping them for future work in a food processing plant. Objectives  Explain to students the basic principles of engineering as applied to food processing and describe the various unit operations involved in the processes.  Teach students how to solve basic food engineering problems, such as mass and heat transfer in food processes, and;  To identify and solve equations related to the specifications and design of food processing equipment. LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION  Introduction of modern crop and livestock production technology has brought about increased agricultural productivity.  However, increased productivity has not successfully met the requirement for affordable and high quality food products.  Therefore, food production program must be supported by a system of distribution of commodities.  Food loss and spoilage is one major problem in the distribution.  Processing would help minimize food loss, generate higher income and would generate employment.  Food processing involves food preservation and handling techniques which are largely dependent on food sciences.  Food science and technology covers aspect of both the chemical and physical properties of food materials and how they are affected by the processes that convert food materials from the physical aspects of food processing raw form into finished products.  Food sciences include chemistry, microbiology, and engineering. LESSON 2: BASIC PRINCIPLES  Engineering encompasses almost all aspect of human life  Basic needs and conveniences are products of engineering endeavour.  Processing of food into different products is included in engineering activities. Engineering

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Is an applied science that deals with forces and matter in the environment and how these may be manipulated and used for the benefit of man. Civil engineering involved with the study of structural objects such as timber, concrete and steel; electrical- energy: wind, solar, water; mechanicalmachine; chemicalThese are using stable, homogenous & isotopic matter. Along with the advancement in science and technology many areas of engineering concerns are being explored and developed.

Food Engineering - The field of food science that specializes in the physical aspect of food processing including the different unit operations and related equipment utilized in handling, processing and distribution of food. - Stands on foundations similar to those traditional fields of engineering. - It is heavily dependent on the knowledge of material properties and on the principles of mass and energy conservation. - Deals with biological materials and substances whose properties are entirely different from the conventional engineering materials. - These biological substances are generally non- homogeneous and nonisotropic, have non-uniform physical properties unless they are comminuted. - A food engineer must not only understand the general properties of a given food, but must also know unique physico- chemical properties of every constituent of such material and how it may be affected by processing manipulations and operations. - Must also consider the net effect on the overall quality of products, safety, efficiency of process, power requirement, energy use and wastage, durability and cost. LESSON 3: UNITS AND DIMENSIONS Matter has properties such as physical, chemical, intensive, and extensive. Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the composition/ identity of a substance. Chemical properties result in a change in composition and can be observed only through chemical reaction. Intensive property is a property of matter that is independent of the quantity of the substance. And, extensive property depends on the quantity of a substance. Engineering must deal with physical quantities, their dimensions and measurements. Measurement - The extent, size, capacity, or amount of something as fixed by measuring - Consists of three parts: the dimension of the quantity, the unit which represents a known quantity and a number which is the ratio of the measured quantity to the standard quantity. - i.e. if a rod is 1.18m long, this can be analysed into a dimension, length; a standard unit, the metre; and a number 1.18 which is the ratio of the length of the rod to the standard length, 1m. Units and Dimensions  Dimension- is a basic concept of measurement, represented as symbols L, M, t, T, F i.e. length, size, etc. Dimensions are measured in terms of units

Primary/ Fundamental/Basic Dimension 1. Mass- heaviness/ lightness of matter 2. Length- how long or how short 3. Time 4. Temperature- hotness/coldness of matter 5. amount of substance/ matter present 6. luminous intensity 7. Electric current  Unit- a means of expressing the dimension, i.e. meter, kg, et. So that the measurements can be compared, the units have been defined in terms of physical quantities. o Meter (m) is defined in terms of the wavelength of light; o Kilogram (kg) is the mass of standard lump of platinum- iridium; o Second (s) is the time taken for light of a given wavelength to vibrated a given number of times; o Degree Celsius (˚C) is one- hundredth part of a temperature interval between the freezing point and the boiling point of water at standard pressure; o Unit of force, Newton (N), is the force which will give an acceleration of 1 m sec2 to a mass of 1 kg; o The energy unit, the newton meter is called joule (J), and o The power unit, 1J s -1, is called the watt (W). Primary Quantities- those which can be easily observed and directly measured but cannot be expressed in terms of simpler quantities. These are time, length, mass and temperature Secondary Quantities- combination of measurable quantities and calculated based on the measurements of primary quantities such as area, velocity and density.

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Handling Units  We can only add/ subtract similar/ like units  We can multiply/ divide units at will but we cannot merge/ cancel unlike units. Metric and English System  Are two of general systems in use today by which the qualitative definitions of physical quantities may be expressed.  Metric system has evolved as International system. SI is an abbreviation for the French term “ Systeme Internationale D’Unites.” It is very convenient to use the system of measure used in the world. Dimension length mass time temperature SI MKs meter kilogram second K English FPS 3.28 ft 2.2 pound Ib s 1.8 ˚R

Amount of substance

453.6 mole/g (gram mole)

Ib mole (pound mole)

CONVERSION FACTOR (UNIT FACTOR) - Statement of equivalent units/ values, w/c may or may not be of the same system of measurement.  -

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Dimensionless Quantities- are ratios of equivalent or similar properties of system e.g., model and prototype. Two systems are said to be geometrically similar when the ratios of corresponding geometrical parameters are the same. This is often used in process engineering, comparing unknown with some well- known material factor. Example, specific gravity is simply way to express the relative masses or weights of equal volumes of various materials. It is defined as the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of water. Employed in the study of fluid flow and heat flow. Reynolds number, Prandtl number, Nusselt number.

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