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Borage and Hellebore: The Many Sides of Anthony Powells Art To be delivered at St James Church, Piccadilly, London, March

17, 2012

By Nicholas Birns In early 1991, as Anthony Powell was listening to BBC Radio, he heard an advisement for an Alan Bennett adaptation of an episode from Marcel Prousts novel A la recherche du temps perdu. On the whole, the best-known one. the announcer intoned. Powell waggishly wrote this down in his journal, as of course Proust published no other novel than his great seven-book sequence, his earlier, unfinished autobiographic work, Jean Santeuil, only being published posthumously. But would the same be true of Powell? Would on the whole, the best known one be an understatement? As impressive in heft as A Dance to the Music of Time is, we should realize that Powell wrote and published more books that were not Dance then were. Moreover, the first twenty-three years of his publishing career, and the seventeen or so of active writing of Powells post-Dance career, are together longer in duration than the nearly quartercentury required to achieve Dance. Mere bulk does not determine anything of course: but those figures are suggestive, and to my mind make plausible this reassessment of Powells non-Dance work. I will divide my discussion into three categories, non-Dance nonfiction, and non-detached. One can see that, as compared to Dance, and notwithstanding their individual differences, the five prewar novels are similar. All are short (less than 250 pages), with only Whats Become of Warring having a first-person narrator. All feature protagonists about Powells age at the time but are only indirectly novels of maturation or growing up, and, though they are not without a point of view, perhaps, they do not seem to have a philosophy of life. Dance is not simply longerand anyone who has read To Keep The Ball Rolling remembers Powells observation about wanting to write a long novel so he could keep characters in play rather than perpetually reinvent themit is different. Whereas the prewar novels stay on one temporal plane Dance is from the beginning suffused with retrospection. Dance is full of long, discursive passages and allusions to art, literature, and society, all of which are either lacking or highly stylized in the prewar novels. Moreover, the vocabulary of Dance is more formal, more Latinate, less colloquial; in a way less spontaneous, less what Powell termed (speaking of Afternoon Men) lyrical. This non-subjective lyricism can be seen in this passage, after Susan Nunnery has abandoned Atwater: "And so she was gone, ridiculous, lovely creature, absurdly hopeless and impossible love who was and always had been so far away. Absurdly lovely, hopeless creature who was gone away so that he would never see her again and would only remember her as an absurdly hopeless love." The repetition here captures both clinical distance (as in the manner of Hemingway and even Gertrude Stein) and melancholy abandonment, as this is just how someone suddenly desolated in love would muse and mourn. In Dance, this would all be

filtered through the bemused retrospective prism of Jenkinss sensibility, and be more refined, but less frank. The key differences are elsewhere, though. First of all, Dance is consistently, laughout-loud funny. Even today, having read the sequence several times over, alas, several decades, I laugh repeatedly, at things ranging from comic incidents between the characters to amusing names to witty turns of phrase to ironic citations of cultural and artistic references. There are very funny incidents in the prewar novelsPringles reappearance in Afternoon Men, Major Fosdicks sartorial and reading habits in From A View to a Death, the sance in Whats Become of Waringbut overall the atmosphere of the prewar novels is quirky rather than funny. The Dance Powell is, like the early Waugh, Dickens, Thackeray, and Meredith, a novelist whose humor is one of his major strengths; the prewar Powell is a writer who can be funny but first notices the oddity and particularity of human situations rather than the humor that can be glimpsed in them. Although even some critics at the time, such as G. U. Ellis, saw Powell was a fundamentally more important writer than Waugh, few would put any of Powells prewar novels in terms of humor alone up against Decline and Fall or Vile Bodies. The prewar novels are also highly discontinuous from previous English fiction. This is an effect of Powells being of a new and fresh generation, and also of the disruptions of war and modernism, but it is not inevitable. In 1935, at the Los Angeles premiere of George Cukors film version of David Copperfield, Hugh Walpole, ho had helepd write the script, gave a special address, as if to represent to the gathered Hollywood elite that the tradition of Dickens was alive: we may not have Dickens now, but we have someone who, though not as good a writer, is in that tradition. J. B Priestley, a figure we know Powell deirded as pompous and officious, was also involved. The prewar Powell, even though he was in Los Angeles at about that time, could not fill this role at all, the gap between him and Walpole or Priestley as wide as between Nicholas Jenkins and St. John Clarke. Yet the Dance Powell avows the same Galsworthy it satirizes as a part model, andas I tried to point out at the conference at the In and Out last Septemberseveral of the names, and much of the sequences trajectory indicates a clear awareness of David Copperfield. It is not surprising to see the Powell who had just completed writing Dance concur with C P Snow that, even though Dickens is not a personal favorite, one can think of no better novelist in English than Dickens. It would be hard to see the younger Powell saying this. Some readers might find that the humor and politics in Dance get in the way if the clear-eyed if idiosyncratic view of the world presented in the earlier fiction. While the early point-of-view characters are Powell manqu, all lacking some spark that made their creator what he was, the lack of a Jenkins-style surrogate may let the reader encounter the writing more directly. The prewar novels are also not concerned with politics. At times politics comes in around the edgesthe aristocrat versus arriviste issue in From A View, the entire Balticstate setting of Venusburgbut the overall social history and the slight though discernible political point of view present in Dance are absent in the prewar books. This alone has made them more congenial to some, such as the late Sir Frank Kermode, who, when I tentatively proffered a copy of my Powell book to him on re-encountering him in Cambridge in 2005, averred that he thought the later Powell a bit of a snob but thought the early novelsand, perhaps, the war trilogy in Danceworth a look. Kermode had different politics and class identification than Powell, and he preferred the books where

he sensed the writers perspective the leastthe place where their sense of experience was the most common. The prewar novels, in an odd way, may speak to a wider constituency precisely because they leave out the particularities in which Dance rewardingly for most of usis so enmeshed. They also see very detached, possessing little of the personal motivation one can see visible in Dance. This may be least true of Waring, not so much because of the obviousness of the first person narrator but because the send-up of the derivativeness of T T Warings writing has something to do with APs feeling about his own talent versus that of his contemporaries. Stephen Holden has same views on this and it would be interesting to hear him comment on this now. One might see the two modes as linked to different phases of Powells life, the staccato ironies of the prewar books representing the younger man trying to find his feet in literary London, the languorous and learned mode of Dance representing the mature wisdom of the sage of the Chantry. Yet when Powell, to the astonishment of many who thought his memoirs were the equivalent of Sillerys Garnered At Sunset, published a new novel in 1983, it was basically a return to the 1930s mode. The only thing differentiating O, How The Wheel Becomes It! From its 1930s predecessors were the role of memory, necessary in order to have characters like those in the earlier fiction function in the present-day world, and some of the literary and political references: the title from Shakespeare, the reference of Gaddafian aspect in which the book is happily no longer timelyand the satire on academia. But the core relationships, between Shadbold, Winterwade, and the former Isolde Upjohn are straight out of the interpersonal dynamic of say Agents and Patients. That Powell, after a forty-three year absence from writing stand-alone novels, settled back so seamlessly into his earlier mode indicates that this was not just a function of age, but of genre. This is not to say that the prewar kind of the book was the only sort of short novel he could write. In my final section, I will discuss The Fisher King, which seems to me an altogether different sort of book. For now, though, I want to look at the second part of the non-Dance Powell: nonfiction. Powells first book, the edited Barnard letters, and his lastno matter how one counts, that, as A Writers Notebook, Journals 1990-92, Some Poets. Artists, and a Reference for Mellors, or even The Acceptance of Absurdity. are both nonfiction. Intriguinglyand hence the title of this discussionthe one book of Nicholas Jenkinss actually mentioned in Dance, Borage and Hellebore, is nonfiction. Jenkins is mentioned as a novelist. In what is still the episode in Dance that makes me laugh as hard as anything, St. John Clarke even mentions him in a long list of novelists he provides as part of an article on the current British scene for a New York newspaper. But no specific book title is ever mentioned, nor do we get an idea of the content of Jenkinss novels. But we do know Jenkins has written a nonfiction book on Robert Burton. The immediate purpose of this is to allude to or parallel the real-life Powells real-life book on Aubrey. But the Burton book has a thematic significance in Dance This is to establish a parallel in English prose for this garrulous, learned melancholy narrative, a way, to go back go my earlier point, to make it not Dickens, not (to General Liddament's disappointment) Trollope. It also tells us, as much as anything in the book, what kind of person Nicholas Jenkins is. Does Powells Aubrey book do the same for him? John Aubrey and His Friends is a more academic book than any of the books devoted solely to Anthony Powellincluding my own. It is the knid of book that if an American academic had written it,--not so much Russell Gwinnett but Grover Rasch in The Rest Ill Whistle or Professor Kopf in The

Fisher King, would be dismissed as ponderous with a light joke in the British press. This is not at all meant as criticism of the book, but as high praise. Powell might have written a chatty, gossipy book whose lack of depth would be explicable on the basis of his being a great novelist, but he sat down and did the job, as completely and competently as anyone alive, in or out of academia, then was capable of doing. No one knew more about the literature and culture of seventeenth-century England then the Powell who had researched this book, and the sheer cognitive backbone of it all surely was essential to Dance. I would like to read aloud a passage from the Aubrey book to show its academic quality:

It would not be an easy task to decide, from out of the mass of names of contemporaries with whom he was familiar, who should be considered Aubrey's 'friends', had he not himself composed a list of 'amici'. This register is un itself of some interest, because although any biographer might have marked down more than half of those inscribed--from the warmth or frequency with which they are mentioned in Aubrey's writings--the remainder include names impossible to guess that he considered in such a light, some indeed scarcely mentioned by him elsewhere in his papers. That Aubrey felt it possible to draw up a list of this kind shows that he regarded neither death nor prolonged absence as altering the relationship; any more than daily or close contact with other persons turned them necessarily into friend. What is academic here is not just the learning but also the determination to get it right, to not bypass the subtleties. There is some dry wit in the reference to death, but this is not prose written merely to entertain. Even Powells most ardent admirer
might agree with Graham Greene when he said it was a bloody boring book anyway. (Characteristically, Powell registers this episode in the acknowledgments, but masterfully pulls his punches, saying Mr. Graham Greene made valuable comments after seeing the manuscript. But Powell took a calculated risk here: he was willing to be boring if doing so meant being accurate and scholarly, (He took the same risk in his Memoirs). In both cases, the books seem bland on first reading but repeated rereading show how much subtlety and equipoise the writer has distilled into these works. Yet Powell might well have written the Aubrey book had he writer in later, after he had more experience writing nonfiction. For, even though he wrote reviews before the war, it was after the war that he reviewed extensively, for the TLS, Punch, and the Telegraph. At first, he mainly reviewed contemporary fiction, but as he grew older he moved from writing nonfiction about fiction to nonfiction about nonfictionreviews of biographies, writers letters, histories, memoirs that often referred to fiction but through a double filter of nonfiction. (Peter, you might want to intervene here, given your knowledge of Powells reviews). If books do furnish a room, many of the books on the shelves of the Chantry were nonfiction, as witness the two I bought at Heywood Hill some years ago, General Mannerheims memoirs and Desmond Sewards biography of Franois 1er. Given that we have just observed the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Lady Violet Powell, it might be apt to observe that Lady Violets prolific and, to my mind, too little recognized literary production (her first book was highly praised by no

less than Sir William Empson) was all nonfiction, and that after she began to publish such the nonfictional emphasis in Anthony Powells work became even more pronounced. I do not offer this as dispositive, but perhaps indicative. Contrast this nonfiction emphasis to the reported reading habits of Powells old school-friend and fellow experimental novelist Henry Green. Green was reported, in later life, to have read a novel a day, although this begs the questions of what sort of novels, and to what extent Greens sobriety, or lack thereof, influenced his enjoyment of the fiction. Powell was always reading a book, but from the evidence of the Journals this was basically split between fiction and nonfiction. One sees in Powells shift from reviewing fiction to nonfiction not just, as Powell averred, feeling out of touch with current fiction as younger generations took over, but a fundamental chafing against the conventions of fiction, its narrative tricks and traps, in favor of the more unadorned and more reflective quality of nonfiction. Powell, after all, read history at Oxford, and people who praise Dance speak as much of its historical as literary eminence. (It has always been a particular favorite of practicing historians). Much like his (supposed) friend V S Naipaul, Powell was deft at telling a taledefter than Naipaul, in factbut saw advantages in the clear-eyed perspective of nonfiction. Powells book reviews are what they are. Their short length and journalistic origin meaning they can hardly serve as a comprehensive body of critical thought, although Powells lightly dropped remarks emerge as surprisingly probative whenever one has recourse to them,. Ths occurs, for instance ,in his memorable review of A N Wilsons book on Tolstoy, which when I read it at the Century club in New York in 2009, caused two Tolstoy scholars (who unbeknownst to me, were in the audience) to fume. I was actually trying to give a tribute to Tolstoy, and so was Powell, although this tribute took the form of asking hard questions and pointing out ironies:

After the abortive revolution of 1905 there was an aftermath of civil disturbance in Russia. Marauding peasants cut down 129 oak trees on the Yasnaya Polyana estate, taking away the timber. Then a night watchman was murdered. The property had by then been made over by Tolstoy to his wife, who called up the police. The Governor came over to see what he could do to help. It was rather embarrassing because Tolstoys son was having an affair with the Governor's wife. All most unTolstoyan.
Some of the reviews are extremely funny, such as the one on the painter Degas, where Powell points out the surname was originally Flemish: De Gas. Powell wrote superbly in short expository formthe review, the genealogical essay (some work needs to be done on the somewhat different writing style he adopted as A. D. Powell, genealogist), and, as we see from The Acceptance of Absurdity, in letters. We all know about the Journalshow wonderful they are, how even though he did not start keeping a journal until the age of seventy-six they are up there with other diarists of his generation such as James Lees-Milne and Frances Partridge. how they in effect institute not just a sequel to the Memoirs but a sequel to Dance. One has not read Powell unless you have read the Journals, and they are the first books I would recommend for readers who want a taste of Powells style without having to plunge into the lives of hundreds of interlocked fictional characters. People have talked about them in terms of 5

being gossipy, about the upper crust, and snide about other writers. I would rather think of them as uninhibited and coruscating, as in this excerpt from 1987 on the TV adaptation of Alison Luries novel Imaginary Friends

Film suffered from incurable English theatrical tendency to make everything comic, even farcical, also began badly, perhaps inevitable difficulty of American academic life bring so different from British institutions and personnel. Alison Lurie wasor, as John Aubrey would want me to say, is--a good friend of Powells, and as said before Powell was a quintessentially English figure, so what is striking here is his willingness to see things as he sees them, without intervening prejudices. As Martin Seymour-Smith memorably said of Powells work, the events of life are there seen for what they are, without even such feelings about them as Powell, himself, possesses. The spirited reflectiveness of the
Journals is infectious. Admittedly, the Memoirs are not as much fun to read as the Journals. They are drier, more matter-of-fact, and more official, more like the Aubrey book. Notwithstanding this, I always enjoyed reading themand prize the abridged version especially because the author himself abridged. Some parts of the Memoirsthe Monkey Temple scene, Michelangelos snowman, Basil Hambroughs observations of Powells father on the drilling-field, Sir Maurice Bowras profane exclamation on the malfunction of a Maltese funicular, the harrowing evocation of George Orwells funeral are not scenes the reader of Powell would easily lose. But the way I read the Memoirs nonetheless changed once I read the Journals. I began to see the memoirs as scripts for the pageant, an extended set of dramatis personae that set the ground for the more anecdotal and livelier doings of the Journals. In operatic terms, the Memoirs are the recitative, the Journals the aria. It is interesting, incidentally, how much musical analogies come up in talking about Powells writing style. I think of how music was linked with mathematics in the medieval quadrivium, and that both were seen as nonfictional, objective. In the Journals, particularly, one can see this sense of research, of looking curiously and objectivity at the world, unfettered by the gimmicks or plotlines necessary to a well-crafted and satisfying novel. In addition, whereas Powell foreshadows Jenkinss aging and death at the end of Dance, unless we believe Jenkins dies as he is closing the novel (something which the wintry silence might well mean) as depicted he is a hearty and hale sexagenarian. By the end of the Journals, Powell reaches extreme old age, and we see infirmity and weariness setting upon him, in one of the most honest and forthright depictions of growing oldand, appropriately enough, one of the least selfpityingrecorded in world literature. In both Memoirs and Journals, Powell used nonfiction to tell the truth as he saw it about himself, and, more empathetically, the world. Now we go to the third and perhaps most interesting part, non-detached. I was dismissive of Powells plays in my book, and, even worse was so just to make a cheap joke about Powells non-lucrative venture into drama not changing his work as that of Henry James did. But I now see I was wrong, and it took the dramatization of The Garden God at the College of Arms to make me see this. After seeing the staged reading, I reread both playsboth original plays, that is, as there is also the dramatization of Afternoon Men. What struck me at the College of Armsand several other member of 6

the audience as wellwas the similarity with The Fisher King. Not just in terms of the cruise shipalthough Fishers cruise is in the North Sea, Garden Gods in the Mediterraneanbut in the clearly humanistic agenda, the concern with seeing characters be happy, happy in love but in general be fulfilled, realized individuals: the two plays and the Fisher King might have in common the assertion of Le Bas bane, Oscar Wilde, in De Profundis, Whatever is realized, is right. The courtship of Kent and Lucinda in Garden God is reminiscent of Robin Jilsons and Barberina in Fisher. This is indeed even more emphatic in The Rest Ill Whistle where the putative liberation of the daughter, Ankaret Ludlow, from the fathers clutches is very much portrayed as a stepping-forward into autonomy and self-determination. The portrait of the 1960s generation gap is, by the way, more positive in Whistle than in Hearing Secret Harmonies, as it is the traditionalist fatherthe Laius who here successfully foils the American Oedipus--who is the warped figure, not the Ankaret who Powell himself described as a hippy. Powell was able to vindicate traditionalism in the last book of Dance by having earlier seen its potential hypocrisy and exploitaton in Whistle. Ankarets reabsorption by her (supposed) father at the end is seen as a curtailment of her aspirations, not a setting the world to rights in the mode of Passengers triumph over Fosdick and Zouch in From A View. Whistle powerfully testifies evnein absentia to the idea of moral freedom (I use this phrase in the sense that Iris Murdoch uses it in metaphydsics as a Guide for Morals.) For most writers, this would be unremarkable, but we have to remember how detached the prewar books were. Moreover, for all the greater narrative perspective of Dance, it is apparent that one of the great virtues of the sequence is tolerance. This trait of Powells is the one I have heard mentioned again and again by all sorts of readers--male and female, rich and poor, old and young, British, American, Australian, and worldwidethat Powell looks at humanity broadly, that he is not prescriptive, not judgmental. The combination of the narratives acute observation and its lack of judgment are striking, and in many ways original and specific to Powell. But they necessitate a certain detachment in order to hold back. Jenkins may sympathize, but he does not cheerlead or promote specific outcomes. This differs in the two plays and the Fisher King, where positive emotional developments for individuals are endorsed in ways that would have seemed prescriptive within Dance. The key to Fisher is the liberation of Barberina Rookwood from Henchman. Henchman of course represents the voyeuristic gaze; this is manifest in a malign way in the relationship of Widmerpool and Pamela. But it is also in a benign way in Jenkinss own passive voyeurism. Powell famously characterized himself as a voyeur rather than an exhibitionist. In Fisher, the looking that is part of Jenkinss love of art, and in a nastier way of Henchmans photography, is seen as oppressive, and Barberina's escape from it is seen as a moral enlargement. Similarly in Whistle we might take Ludlow for a Powell spokesman, until we realize how awful he is. Not only is there this thematic similarity, but details in Whistle link it to Fisher, the mention of Excalibur, the general Celticmedieval mood, and the similarity of Professor Rasch in that play to Professor Kopf in the novel, although the latter was reinforced by a new character modelone of the few of Powells who I have met personally. All this confirms Powell as a novelist of great depth and variety, whose talents were not restricted to one mode or rhythm. As said before, one of Powells great achievements was to largely break with the previous tradition of English fiction (remarkably, he did this while still remixing

quintessentially English in many ways). And the tradition of English fiction, from Fielding and Richardson through to George Eliot and even Galsworthy, emphasizes psychological reform and personal growth. Powell at first wanted to get away from all that, from the preachiness and old-fashioned predictability of it all. Powell wanted to show that even if the idea of self-improvement was not cardinal to his novelistic outlook, he still had it in him to depict it. Powell knew his limits and predilections as a writer, and his self-knowledge is part of the security of outlook that has caused so many to gravitate to him. But he also liked to do things he was not generally known for doing he says, in his correspondence with the Holliday Bookshops Robert Vanderbilt, that he has never managed to write short stories, but then says A Reference for Mellors is close. He writes Caledonia as a one-off poetic satire, yet it is a poem that masters its conventions winningly, as do the pastiche-poems in Dance. Even in cooking his own curry recipe, Powell liked to show he was competent even at practices that were not his mtier. The late theme of psychological growth, seen in the plays and Fisher, is a substantive example of this. Ifas we all hope is the casethere is a French serialized dramatization of Dance in a hundred years, Dance will rightly be spoken of as Powells oeuvre la plus connue. But, for all its glorious achievement, it is my contention that the sequence, for the reasons I have outlined, exemplifies but does not exhaust what a Spanish newspaper, in 1982, termed Powells "clairvoyance, reality, and severity.