# Elastic Modulus of Concrete

Introduction Testing Materials Poisson’s ratio Composite Models

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Civil & Environmental Engineering

Introduction

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Testing
Types of Elastic Modulus

ASTM Testing

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Materials
Water-to-cement ratio Aggregate Type Aggregate Content

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Poisson’s ratio
How many elastic moduli to characterize a homogeneous material?

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Design Code
ACI-318 E = 33 w1.5 f 0.5
In the CEB-FIP model code 1990, the modulus of elasticity of normal-weight concrete can be estimated from

E c = 10 x (f cm )
4

1/ 3

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Corrections for other aggregates

aggregate typ e basalt, d ense lim estone qu artizitic lim estone sand stone

αe 1.15 1.0 0.9 0.7

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Composite Materials
Discuss the needs Present various models

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equilibrium equation compatibility equation constitutive relationship

σA = σ 1 A 1 + σ 2 A 2

ε = ε1 = ε2

σ = Eε

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Combining the equations:

EA = E 1 A 1 + E 2 A 2
Or in volumetric basis

EV = E 1 V1 + E 2 V2

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Now the series model

1 E

=

c1

E1 E2

+

c2

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To add a bit more complexity
The total stored strain energy W is given by:

W=
or

P2 V 2K

W=

∈2 KV 2
=− P K

where

∈=

dV V

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The parallel model essentially assumes that in the two-phase composite each phase undergoes the same strain . The total stored energy is

W = W1 + W2 =

∈2 K1 V1 2

+

∈2 K2 V2 2

where the subscripts 1 and 2 identify the phases. Equating the strain energy in the composite to the equivalent homogeneous medium leads to the following expression for the effective bulk modulus:

K = c 1 K1 + c 2 K2

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The series model assumes that the stress state in each phase will be a uniform hydrostatic compression of magnitude P. The total stored energy for the composite is given by:

P2  V1 V2  + = W = W1 + W2 =  +  2K 1 2K2 2  K1 K2  P2 V1 P2 V2
The effective bulk modulus can be obtained

1 E

=

c1

E1 E2

+

c2

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Importance of bonds

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If a solid body of modulus Eo and Poisson’s ratio no contains a volume fraction c of spherical pores, its overall moduli E will be

E = E o (1 − c )

2

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More general treatments of the effect of pores on the elastic moduli assume that the pores are oblate spheroids of a certain aspect ratio