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How'do'you'design'a'digital'research'project'that'has'substantial'labor'needs'with' few'staff'members'to'fulfill'them?' '

Related'to'the'field'of'computerF supported'cooperative'work,'crowdsourcing'has' become'a'way'to' leverage 'contributions'from'the'public' to'create'a'more'substantial' collection'of'information.'The'promise'of'crowdsourcing'has'created'larger' questions'for'researchers'and'system'designers:'How'do'we'design'systems'to' facilitate'contributions'from'the'crowd?'What'motivations'can'system'designers'tap' to'engage'people'in'crowdsourcing'projects?' '

I'analyzed'26'digital'research'projects'that'were'sourcing'contributions'from'the'

crowd'to'discover'what'approaches'designers'took'to'build'systems'and'motivate' contributors.'I'coded'them'according'to'elements'of'machine'labor'and'human'labor' in'an'iterative'process'that'revealed'that$ motivations$behind$contributing$were$ at$the$heart$of$system$design$issues.$The'coding'decisions'were'my'own , 'not' based'on'existing'content'analysis'models.'

Some'systems' relie d'heavily'on'machine'labor— or'algorithms'written'by' programmers— to'entice'contributors'and'maintain'their'engagement.'Other' systems'relied'heavily'on'manual'labor'by'staff'members'to'process'contributions' and'maintain'progress.' '

Unsurprisingly,'systems'motivating'contributors'through'gaming'required'the'most' programming , 'and'thus'formed'the'smallest'category'due'to'the'higher'need'for' programming'skills.'It' is'also'not'surprising'that'nearly'all'projects'marketed' themselves'to'potential'contributors'as'a'w ay'their'efforts'could 'benefit'the'greater' good.'The$interesting$lesson$here$falls$in$the$middle,$where$learning$motivates$ people$to$continue$contributing. 'Learning'is'an'outcome'that'can'be'produced'at' all'points'along'this'labor'spectrum.'

This'is'exploratory'research.'Future'progress' requires 'having'multiple'coders'to' determine'interF coder'reliability.'That'stage'of'research'could'form'more'concrete' crowdsourcing'models'to'assist'digital'research'project'designers'in'planning'and' building'their'systems. '

Melody'Dworak '

A pril'13,'2012 '

Master s'Poster'Speech'

The$Public$As$Collaborator: $

Crowdsourcing$Models$for$Digital$ Research$ Initiative s $

Digital'research 'projects'often'seek'out' large = scale'data'sets 'but'have'a'small'budget '

to'achieve'them .' In'their'pursuit'of'using'technology' to'discover'something'new ,'s ome'

scholars'have'turned'to'crowdsourcing'strategies,'where'the'efforts'of'individual 'volunteer s'

can' contribute'to' collective,'significant' data' outcome s

crowdsourcing' projects'inform'future'digital'research

.' How'can'examples'of'successful'

'initiatives?'By'l ooking'at'current'

examples'of'digital' research 'projects'using'crowdsourcing ,'this'research'proposes'new'

models'for'amassing'data' through'the'assistance'of ' engaged'public s .' Inspired'by'the'

problems'posed'by' building 'a 'large = scale 'database'of'metadata'from'mid = 20th'cent ury'

small = press'ephemera,'this'inquiry 'explores'what'outreach'strategies'work'for'different'

kinds'of'projects'and'with'which'publics.' This'research'performs'a' qualitative' content'

analysis'of'more'than'thirty'digital' research'initiatives'that'rely'on'crowdsourcing'

strategies'to'amass'data.' Through'their'project'websites,'t he' initiatives 'were'coded'to'

determine'the'factors'that'motivated'contributors'and'the' electronic' interfaces'employed '

for'digital'delivery .'The'model s' created'from'this'research 'fall'along'a'spectrum' with'

minimal'requirements'for'technology'and'programming'capacity'to'deploy'strategies'at'one'

end'and'sophisticated'requirements'at'the'other.' Motivational'factors'discovered'include'

competition'and'reward 'systems'inspired'by'games,'personal'contributions'to 'discovery'

and 'his torical'narratives ,'and'the'pure'entertainment'of' interest = driven ' learning.' By'

identifying' strategies'that'can'inform'approaches'to'scaling'up'digital'research 'initiatives,'

t

hese'models 'provi de'a'guide'for'scholars'with'boundless 'ideas'and' limited 'budgets. '

Melody'Dworak '

SLIS'Master’s'Candidate '

Literature'Review' Use'&'Users' Melody'Dworak ' March'20,'2012 '

'

Finding&Without&Seeking,&Or,&I’ll&Take&Some&Empathy&with&that&Information,&Please:&

A&Review&of&the&Literature &Review&on&Online& Social& Support&Networks& &

for&Parents&of&Children&with& Special&Health&Care&Needs &

Introduction*

As'online'social'networking'sites'reach'their'golden'age,'people'turn'to'them'

to'both'actively'seek'and'passively'find'information'to' enhance' their'individualized'

experiences.'People'who'have'experiences'that'are'uncommon'in'their'real'world'

communities'ca n'gain'benefits'by'turning'to'online'communities'to'build'weak'ties'

and'share'information .'Some'parents'of'children'with' special'health'care'needs'may'

be'required'to'stay'at'home'more'to'care'for'their'children,'and'online' social'

networking'sites'and'personal'blogs'may'connect'them'to'others'who'share'their '

experiences.'Besides'such'physical'isolation,'it'may'not'be'as'easy'for'parents'of'

children'with'disabilities'to'find'parents'with'similar'experiences'in'their'real'world'

community ,'as'only'about'six'percent'of'the'U.S.'popula tion'have' disabilities.' '

In'order'to'study'how'parents'of'c hildren'with'disabilities'find'information'

'

through 'informal ' online'social'networks,'the'author'conducted'a'review'of'the'

relevant'literature'such'a'study'must' form'a'foundat ion'on .'The'author'located'key'

findings'in'three'areas'of'research:'literature'on'the'information'behavior'and'needs'

of'parent s'of'children'with'disabilities;'literature'on'the'new'frontier'of'online'social'

network'analysis'and'social'media;'and'literature 'on'healthN related'online'support'

groups,'whether'those'groups'were'formed'by'formal'organizations'or' blossomed'

organically.'At'the'center'of'these'overlapping'areas'lies'the'heart'of'this'study’s'

primary'concern. '

Informa(on)Behavior) and)Needs)of)Parents) of)Children)with) Disabili(es) Health>Related) Online)Social)
Informa(on)Behavior)
and)Needs)of)Parents)
of)Children)with)
Disabili(es)
Health>Related)
Online)Social)
Online)Support)
Networks)
Groups)

*

'

Information*Behavior*and*Needs*of*Parents *

Parents'want'to'learn'from'other'parents.'Adults'without'children'may'

'

appear'as'less'trustworthy'information'sources'due'to'their'lack'of'personal'

experience'and'ability'to'verify'the'accuracy'of'advice.'Several'studies'confirm 'that'

parents'of'children 'with'disabilities' want'to'hear'from'other'parents'of'children'

with'disabilities,'making'such'likeN experienced'individuals'more'trustworthy'

sources'of'information'and'potentially'rich'sources'for'empathy.'Mackintosh’s'2005'

study'on'the'information'sources' of'parents'of'children'with'autism'found'that'

parents'believed'that 'the'best'sources'were'other'parents,'and'that'individuals'with'

lower'incomes'and'socioN economic'status'had'fewer'information'resources.'

Mackintosh’s'study'identified'websites'as'a'source'o f'information'but 'did'not'

identify'social'media'sites'explicitly.'Statically'published'websites'provide'a'

controlled'flow'of'information,'whereas'social'media'sites'provide'a'space'for'

dynamic'interaction'and'exchange'of'information'in'a'many N toN many'forum .'

Mackintosh’s'study'also'found'misinformation'was'a'concern'of'such'parent N toN

parent'exchange'of'information,'with'no'mediation'from'authoritative'health'

information'professionals.' '

Pain'(1999)'found'that'personal'communication'is'the'preferred'method'for'

'

information N gathering'parents'of'children'with'disabilities,'with'one'parent'stating,'

“There'was'no'substitute'for'real'people,'written'information'is'nice'to'have'as'a'

comfort'factor,'but'you'really'get'your'information'from'people,'talking'face'to'face'

with'them” '(p.'303) .' Pain'concluded'the'purposes'for'information,'regardless'of'

source,'were 'the'following:'“to'enhance'management'of'the'child,”'where'certain'

information'improves'working'with'the'child'on'a'dayN toN day'basis'(1999,'p.'305);'

“to'help'parents'cope'emotionally,”'where'empathy'from'other'parents'adds'

comfort'to'a'diagnosis'from'an'authoritative'source;'and'“to'access'benefits'and'

services , ” 'where'information'shared'leads'to'new'opportunities'(1999,'p.'308). '

How'do'these'preferences' transform'in 'a'world'where'more'and'more'

personal'communication'becomes'computerN m ediated?'Huber'et'al.'(2005)'and'

Tillisch'(2007)'both'found'the'Internet'cited'as'the'most'common'information'

source'for'parents'of'children'with'disabilities.'Tillisch’s'survey'of'1,000'parents'

found'support'groups'rivaled'the'Internet'for'most N used'sourc es'of'information,'

with'Huber'adding'that'information'seeking'is'greatest'at'the'time'of'diagnosis. '

Personal'communication'through'online'social'networking'may'be'the'next'fruitful'

place'to'study'information'behavior'of'parents'of'children'with'special'health'care'

needs.'

Analyzing*Computer <Mediated*Online*Social*Networks *

' As' more'parents'seek'information'online'to'help'them'manage'dayN toN day'

needs'of'their'child'with'disabilities,'cope'emotionally,'and'find'services,'the'scale'of'

computerN mediated'communic ation'and'information'is'growing'rapidly.'No'longer'

does'the'computerN mediated'role'of'information'provider'rest'squarely'on'the'

bandwidth'of'static,'one N way'communicating'websites.'With'the'birth'of'a'new'

genre,'Web'2.0'and'social'media,'online'social'net working'sites'such'as'Twitter'

(launched'2006)'and'Facebook'(launched'2004'and'opening'to'the'public'in'2006) '

have'spurred'computerN mediated'communication'and'information'sharing'into'a'

new'era.' Facebook'has'more'than'845'million'user'accounts' (Protalinski, '2012), 'and'

Twitter'has'more'than'300'million'user'accounts' (Taylor, ' 2011). 'The'people'behind'

those'accounts'may'not'all'be'active'users,'but'the'data'amassing'on'social'media'

servers'is'enough'for'the'Library'of'Congress'to'enter'into'an'agreement'with'

Twitter'executives'to'create'an'archive'of'all'public'tweets'(Raymond,'2010). 'Such'is'

the'value'of'that'publicly'contributed'data a'status'update'being'a'unit'of'data — t o'

the'future'of'research.'Researchers'have'already'begun'to'conduct'empirical'studies'

on'the'largeN scale'datasets'these'online'social'networking'sites'can'provide.'Dodds'

et'al.'(2011)'used' more'than'46'billion'words'comprising' roughly'five'percent'of'

tweets' posted' between'September'9,'2008,'and'September'18,'2011,'to'determine'

the'happiest'days'of'the'seven N day'week'were'Friday'through'Sunday,'the'happiest'

hour,'between'5'and '6'a.m.' '

' Researchers'of'social'networks'are'also'turning'their'attention'to'the'data'

available'on'social'media'sites.'Huberman'et'al.'(2009)'cautions'that'counting'the'

mere'number'of'friends'and'followers'does'not'give'an'accurate'portrayal'of'

inf luence,'a'muchN debated'term'among'online'social'networking'researchers.'

Huberman'et'al.'believes'networks'hidden'among'networks'can'be'found'by'

studying'who'talks'to'whom,'a'metric'not'easily'discoverable'through'public'profiles'

alone.'Burgess'(2009)'argue s'that'online'social'networks'can'be'leveraged'to'

empower'women'in'learning'environments,'emphasizing'that'networking'

function linking'people'togetherto'build'social'capital'that'facilitates'access'to'

information'and'resources.' Burgess'warns'against'belie ving'online'networks'escape'

established'privilege'structures,'cautioning'those'wanting'to'turn'to'a'digital'

environment'to'be'mindful'of'how'power'reinvents'itself'online.' '

' Scholars'researching'information'behavior'and'cultural'communication'

patterns'find'the'data'embedded'in'online'social'networking'sites'to'be'rich'and'

informative,'as'well.'Lerman'and'Ghosh’s'study'(2010)'tracked'how'information'

spreads'through'Twitter'and'Digg.'Digg,'a'userN submitted'news'aggregator,'became'

the'“denser”'platform'for'these'researchers'due'to'the'ease'of'tracking'comments'

and'measuring 'popularity'of'submissions.'Digg'users'vote'on'stories'by'clicking'a'

thumbsN up'icon'or'thumbsN down'icon'so'visitors'to'the'website'can'see'how'each'

submission'ranks'in'popularity.'Lerman'and'Ghosh'found'that'network'structure'

affects'the'dynamics'of'how'the'information'flows'from'one'person'to'the'next.'Digg'

makes'following'the'popularity'of'posts'on'the'Wild'West'of'Twitter'seem'like'

herding'and'wrangling'cats.' '

' But'those'retweets'can'be'wrangled.' boyd'et'al.'(2010)'argue'retweeting

where'a'post'by'one'Twitter'user'is'seen'by'another'Twitter'user'and'reposted'to'

the'latter'user’s'profile can'be'studied'as'a'conv ersational'practice.'The'

researchers'found'that'Twitter'users'retweet'posts'for'specific'purposes.'The'

retweet'shows'engagement'in'a'conversation' and'shares'information'among'the'

listeners.'A'retweet'in'and'of'itself'sends'the'message'that'the'user'is'list ening.' boyd'

et'al.'found't he' other'two'purposes'for'retweeting'a'post'are'to'indicate'agreement'

publicly'(or'publicly'to'one’s'approved'list'of'followers'if'that'user'has'a'private'

account)'and'to'validate'others’'thoughts.'This'study'of'retweeting'as'a'

conversational'practice'demonstrates'that'attribution,'relationshipN building,'and'

community'appreciation'are'important'aspects'of'participating'in'online'social'

networks.'' '

Chen'(201 1)'came'to'a'similar'conclusion'that'retweeting'acts'to'mediate'

'

relationships'on'Twitter.'Chen'found'that'the'more'hours'users'spent'on'Twitter,'

the'greater'the'need'those'users'had'to'connect'with'others.'Chen'confirmed'this'

need'for'“weN ness”'by'participants'in'online'social'networks,'and'that'the'more'

active'users'were,'the'more'likely'they'were'to'also'feel'connected.'Chen’s'study'

focused'on'uses'and'gratification'theory'(U&G)'to'explore'Twitter'users’'need'to'

connect'with'others.'Psychological'needs'direct'communication'goals,'according'to'

Chen’s'explanation'of'U&G'theory,'which'requires'purposeful'decisions'on'

participating'with'communication'media.'Chen'states'(2011,'p.'757),' '

U&G'focuses'on'social'and'psychological'needs,'which'generate'

expectations'that'lead'to'different'patterns'of'media'use'to'gratify'

these'needs'(Katz'e t'al.,'1974).'It'is'important'to'note'that'Internet'

communication'has'in'some'ways'nullified'the'traditional'senderN

receiver'model,'which'makes'using'U&G'even'more'relevant'to'online'

media'(Ko,'2000).'People'online'can'choose'what'media'they'want'to'

use'(Singer,'1998)'with'a'simple'click'of'the'mouse.'They'can'both'

send'and'receive'messages'simultaneously'through'media'such'as'

Twitter.'

Which'parents'of'children'with'disabilities'are'turning'to'strangers'in'online'social'

networks'to'satisfy'their'information,' emotional ,'and'psychological'needs? '

The*Beating*Heart*of*It *

The'third'area'of'literature'that'informs'a'study'on'online'social'support'

'

networks'and'information'uses'by'parents'of'children'with'disabilities'is'literature'

on'healthN related'online'support'groups.'This'area'does'not'strictly'cover'online'

social'network'or'the'information'behavior'and'needs'of'parents'of'children'with'

disabilities'but'overlaps'them'both.' This'area'of'research'covers'any'number'of'

computerN mediated'communication'vehicles'(email'lists,'chat'rooms,'online'

discussion'forums,'wikis,'blogs,'or'the'online'social'networking'sites'that'have'

already'been'discussed)'and'different'mental'or'physical'special'health'needs.''

Miller'(2006)'conducted'a'study'on'social'networking'sites'focused' on'

mental'health'issues'like'RealMentalHealth.com'(now'HealthyPlace.com),'and'found'

anonymity'and'connections'with'other'mothers'were'among'the'sites’'benefits.'

Miller'also'stressed'that'the'information'on'such'sites'were'not'a'substitute'for'

professional' help;'the'need'to'be'adept'at'computers'was'another'limitation.''Baum'

(2004)'focused'on'Internet'Parent'Support'Groups'(IPSGs)'and'found'several'

outcomes'that'affect'the'w ell N being'of'care'providers'of'children'with'special'health'

care'needs.'Those'benefits'included'finding'people'with'similar'challenges;'finding'

information'and'guidance;'experiencing'anonymity;'helping'others;'venting;'and'

finding'hope,'gratitude,'and'experiencing'a'change'in'perspective.'Baum’s'study'

found'parents'who'participated'in'IPSGs'felt'empowered,'and'these'parents'strongly'

recommended'the'approach'to'other'parents'and'care'givers'of'children'with'

special'health'care'needs.'The'participants'in'Baum’s'study'were'mostly'female'and,'

like'Miller,'Baum'found'that'some'needed'to'adapt'to'computers'but' such'a'learning'

curve'was'not'impossible'to'overcome.' Trust'was'also'a'critical'aspect'in'successful'

IPSG'experiences.'Although'ninety'percent'of'Baum’s'participants'in'the'study'

recommended'joining'an'IPSG'as'soon'as'possible,'Baum'warns'against'problems'

with'relying'on'them'exclusively.' '

Potential'dangers'include'misinformation, ' expression'of'intense'feelings ' that'

could'overwhelm'those'struggling ' with'pain'and'fear,'different'needs ' related'

to'different'stages'of'adaptation, ' untrained'people'who'may'offer' therapy'or'

untested'products,'and ' occasional'pressure'to'adopt'excessive' or'distorted'

group'beliefs.'(p.'388) '

With'thes e'warnings'taken'to'heart,'Baum'found'clear'support'for'connecting'with'

other'parents'of'children'with'disabilities'in'an'online'environment.''

Margarlit'and'Rashkind'(2009)'performed'a'content'analysis'on'reactions'of'

'

mothers'of'children'with'learning'disabilities'and'attention'deficit'hyperactivity'

disorder'as'they'mourned'the'potential'closing'of'a'website'that'facilitated'online'

community'support.' Their'analysis'also'found'the'interactions'through'the'site'

empowered'mothers'through'information'seeking'a nd'community'support.'The'

analysis'in'this'study'found'the'mothers'believed'the'following'was'facilitated'

through'this'site: 'information'shared'was'valid'and'reliable,'information'could'be'

adapted'more'easily'to'their'needs,'current'information'and'research'could'be'

translated'into'a'format'accessible'to'them,'information'was'validated'by'personal'

experience,'and'information'could'provide'different'perspectives.'Their'statements'

expressed'that'they'benefited'from'the'online'community'through'emotional'

support,'empathy,'companionship'and'prevention'of'loneliness,'immediate'support'

and'help,'privacy'and'safety,'and'through'the'withholding'of'judgment.'The'findings'

from'this'area'of'literature'support'the'need'for'more'research'on'the'use'of'online'

social'support'networks'for'parents'of'children'with'special'health'care'needs.''

Conclusion*

These'studies'overlap'around'the'topic'of'using'an'online'social'network'like'

Twitter'to'organically'create'a'community'where'parents'of'children'with'

disabilities'may'share'their'information'as'well'as'their'empathy.'No'studies'were'

found'to'address'this'subject'directly,'suggesting'a'gap'in'the'literature'worthy'of'

study.'By'gleaning'these'key'findings'from'the'three'areas— literature'on'the'

information'behavior'and'needs'of'pa rents'of'children'with'disabilities;'literature'on'

the'new'frontier'of'online'social'network'analysis'and'social'media;'and'literature'

on'healthN related'online'support'groupssuch'a'study'could'begin'to'discover'how'

parents'of'children'with' special'health'care'needs'find'serendipitous'information'

and'build'weak'ties'through'social'media.'

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Literacy)&)Learning)Midterm)

November)3,)2011)

Melody)Dworak )

!

Guiding)quote )for)my)term)thus)far :)

The!inclination!to!learn!from!life!itself!and!to!make!the!conditions!of!life!such!

that!all!will!learn!in!the!process!of!living!is!the!finest!product!of!schooling. !

John)Dewey)in)Democracy!and!Education ) )

)

Question)1:)Among)other)things,)literacy)is)about)social)power.)Being)literate)allows)

people)to)exercise)control)and)direction)over)their)lives.)From)the)readings)this)

semester,)provide)an)explanation)for)how)that)power/literacy)connection)works.)In)

what)w ays)might)libraries)and)librarians)modify)their)practice)to)address)the)

concerns)that)this)connection)raises?))

)

Literacy’s)connection)to)power)has)firm)historical)foundations.)Wysocki)and)

Johnson R Eilola)elaborate)on)how)the)dominant)group)oppresses)the)languages)and)

literacy)behaviors)of)the)subordinate,)using)the)rejection)of)their)dominant)belief)

system)as)a)blessing)to)slaughter.)Their)inclusion)of)the)story)of)Atahaualpa)

dropping)the)Bible)to)the)ground)in)front)of)a)Spanish)missionary,)which)give)the)

S panish)a)holy)order)to)massacre)the)Incans,)shows)this)(p.)357).)Pawley)explains)in)

the)early)U.S.)colonial)period,)both)boys)and)girls)were)taught)to)read,)but)only)boys)

were)taught)to)write)(p.)438).)Street)elaborates,)“ …it)becomes)apparent)that)literacy)

can)no)longer)be),addressed)as)a)neutral)tech nology,)as)in)the)reductionist)

‘autonomous’ )model,)but)is)already)a)social)and)ideological)practice)involving)

fundamental)aspects)of)epistemology,)power,)and)politics:)the)acquisition)of)literacy)

involves)chall enges)to)dominant)discourses)(Lewis),)shifts)in)what)constitutes)the)

agenda)of)proper)literacy)(VV)einstein R Shr;)Carmetti;)Shuman))and)struggles)for)

power)and)position)(Rockhilt)Probst).)In)this)sense,)then,)literacy)practices)are)

saturated)with)ideology”)(p.)435). )

) In)the)present)day,)we)see)struggles)of)power)and)class)play)out)in)

standardized)testing)data.)The)No)Child)Left)Behind)Act)(reauthorization)of)the)

Elementary)and)Secondary)Education)Act)under)President)George)W.)Bush)) mandated)disaggregating)of) NAEP)data,)which)gathers)test)scores)to)focus)on)the) literacy)and)math)achievements,)to)specifically)focus)on)achievements)at)the)Fourth) and)Eighth)grade)levels — the)interims)of) which)are)believed)to)be)critical)growth) stages.)Disaggregating)test)data)was) imperative)so)that)schools)could)no)longer)hide) nonR achieving)students)under)an)average.)It)was)intended)to)“shine)the)light”)on) racial)disparities)in)education)and)in)this)way)became)a)lateR 20thR century)Civil) Rights)struggle.)Brown)and)Black)children)are) consistently)“left)behind”)their)White) peers,)and)many)have)pointed)to)the)lack)of)education)as)a)determining)factor)in) who)will)spend)time)in)prison.)Davidson)and)Goldberg)state,)“ SeventyR five)percent) of)those)imprisoned)tend)to)be)illiterate,) earning)und er)$10,000)per)year)at)the)time)

of)arrest”)(p.)21).)Being)convicted)of)a)felony)is)directly)related)to)one’s)

disenfranchisement.) What)makes)this)relationship)between)literacy)and)power)an) extremely)troublesome,)moral)issue)is)the)idea)that)descendant)of)sl aves)are)at )great ) risk)being)unR emancipated,)and)that)the)U.S.)system)of)education)might)be)playing)a) role)in)that.)) How)might) school) libraries)and)teacherR librarians)re R imagine)their)own)role) in)this)mess?) The)readings)from)this)semester)suggest)two)potential)options:) promote)learner)agency)through)subverting)not R learning)and)binding)together)with) the)learner)in)the)contact)zone.)According)to)Kohl,)“Not R learning)and)unlearning)are) both)central)techniques)that)support)changes)of)consciousness)and)help)peopl e) develop)positive)ways)of)thinking)and)speaking)in)opposition)to)dominant)forms)of) oppression.)Not R learning)in)particular)requires)a)strong)will)and)an)ability)to)take) the)kinds)of)pressure)exerted)by)people)whose)power)you)choose)to)question”)(p.) 23). )This)is)a)kind)of)agency)for)not R learners,)but)not)the)kind)that)will)allow)them)to) thrive)in)the)current)education)system.)TeacherR librarians)cannot)take)the) traditional)authority/subordinate)strategies)traditionally)found)in)education.) Instead)they)must)reR examine)motives)for)not)learning)and)be)creative)in)subverting) the)subverter.)Kohl)did)this)by)manipulating)the)situation)and)being)shaped)by)the)

not R learner’s)challenges)to)be)more)flexible)to)the)not R learner’s)needs.)They)grew)to) become)allies,)bound)together)in)the)pursuit)of)mutual)learning.) ) Being)bound)together)through)mutual)learning)is)the)condition)of)the)contact) zone.)The)contact)zone)is)“ social)spaces)where)cultures)meet,)clash,)and)grapple) with)each)other,)often)in)contexts)of)highly)asymmet rical)relations)of)power,)such)as) colonialism,)slavery,)or)their)aftermaths)as)they)are)lived)out)in)many)parts)of)the) world)today”)( Wolff,) p.)4). )But)each)interlocutor)is)affected)by)the)experiences)of)the) contact)zone.)If)individuals)walk)away)untouched, )they’re)burying)something)deep) within)themselves.)TeacherR librarians)can)learn)to)recognize)the)literate)arts)of)the) contact)zonetransculturation,)autoethnography,)critique,)collaboration,) bilingualism,)mediation,)vernacular)expression,)parody,)denunciat ion,)and) imaginary)dialogue)(p.)11) — to)meet)learners)up)close)and)in)the)middle,)rather)than) be)separated)by)the)distance)that)planes)of)power)enforce.) ) )

)

Question)5:)Research)in)Library)and)Information)Science)is)traditionally)based)on)a)

)

“techno

techno R managerial)model)tends)to)obscure)many)of)the)issues)related)to)literacy.) How)have)the)readings)illustrated)this)problem?)In)what)ways)might)libraries)and) librarians)modify)their)practice)if)they)began)to)base)their)knowledge)on)alternative)

research)paradigms? )

R managerial”)model.)How)would)you)describe)that)model)in)practice?)The)

Two)scholars)inform)our)understanding)of)the)“technoR managerial”)model)of)

library)practice:)Prior)and)Pawley.)We)see)the)techno R managerial)model)in)Prior’s)

description)of)structuralism.)Structuralism)develops)the)observational)perspective,)

where)scholars)can)transcend)out)of)the)swamp)and)peer)down)from)the)mountain)

top.)Prior)states)the)structuralist)purpose)is)to)create)a)hierarchy)of)pieces,)which)

Pawley)describes)as)“decontextualization.”)Prior)also)points)to)the)rule R based)

outcomes)of)the)structuralist)agenda.)And)we)all)know)how)traditional)library)

science)practice)loves)rules.)One)may)quickly)imagine)the)following)signs)being)

posted)around)a)library,)past)or)present:)“No)Talk ing”;)“No)Food”;)“No)Beverages.”)

What’s)from)stopping)them)from)posting)a)“No)Patrons”)sign? )

Pawley)elaborates)on)the)technoR managerial)model) through)a)discussion)of)

the)relationship)between)decontextualization)and)commodification)of)information.)

Libraries)once)classified)books)according)to)their)“truthiness”providing)the)

preeminent)position)to)those)tomes)associated)with) God)and)the)dominant)belief)

structure.)As)societies)evolved,)information) became)valuable.)Decontextualizing)

in formation)allowed)its)pieces)to)be)allocated)a)certain)price)based)on)its)place)in)

the)hierarchy)of)knowledge.)Pawley)states)that)the)commodification)of)information)

gave)libraries)a)purpose,)and)organizing)those)pieces)by)the)alphabet)rather)than)

pious)prominence)resulted.)It)was)almost)a)natural)evolution.) )

Stoddard)and)Lee)speak)of)the)librarian)as)a)custodian,)a)“protector)of)books”)

(p.)9).)An)authoritarian)role)such)as)this)facilitates)the)storage)of)knowledge)in)tidy)

boxes,)it)does)nothing)to)facilitat e)literacy.)Pawley)links)this)to)the)Procrustean)

model)of)having)one)box)that)each)individual,)no)matter)the)culture)or)background,)

must)fit)into— colloquially)known)as)“forcing)a)square)peg)into)a)round)hole.”)

Pawley’s)Procrustean)model)has)more)dire)consequences)than )the)more)common)

idiom,)however.)In)Pawley’s) imagery,)learners)lose)pieces)of)themselves)through) violent)and)harmful)means.) ) Holland)and)Haraway)inform)our)understanding)of )what)cultural)identities) might)be)cut)away)through)this)technoR managerial)model,)and)how)librarians)might) adapt)their)thinking)to)promote)a)more)culturally)open)and)communally)driven) practice.)Holland)states,)) “From)a)Bakhtinian R socio R historic)perspective,)persons) develop)through)and)around)the)cultural)forms)by)which)they)are)identified,)and) identify)themselves,)in)the)context)of)their)affiliation)or)disaffiliation)with)those)

associated)with)those)forms)and)practices”)(p.)33).)Rather)than)forcing)learners)and)

their)needs)to)fit)inside)a)box,)this)statement)gives)hop e)for)a)more) collectively) driven )approach.)Haraway)recognizes)the)role)of)situated)knowledges)and)our) construction)of)knowledge)through)our)identities,)which)we)can)apply)to)the) librarian R learner)relationship.) “Situated)knowledge)require)that)the)object)of) knowledge )be)pictured)as)an)actor)and)agent,)not)a)screen)or)a)ground)or)a)resource,) never)finally)as)slave)to)the)master)that)closes)off)the)dialetic)in)his)unique)agency) and)authorship ” )(p.)198).)Pawley)agrees)with)this)ideal)of)learner)as)consumer)and) producer,) and) that)librarians)can)recognize)this)and)strike)a)balance)to)supplement) their)traditional)techno R managerial)model .) ) An)example)that)displays)such)efforts)may)be)seen)in)the)efforts)of)the)Read) Write)Library,)formerly)called)the)Chicago)Underground)Libra ry.)This)is)an)effort)for) a)library)to)go)beyond )the)edgy)strategy)of)accepting)folksonomies)into)its) taxonomical)system:)I t’s)working)to)gather)communityR created)and)curated) collections)within)its)own)digital)libra ry)(readwritelibrary.org).)This)initiative)is)still) in)development,)but)it’s)a)system)with)much)vision)for)a)library)to)engage)its) community)in)shaping)the)identity)of)its)place.)This)solicitation)of)collection) materials)from)the)community)gives)that)community)direct)ownership)over)its) knowledge. ) )

)

)