DEVELOPING READING PROFICIENCY 2

archon ‫يكي از افسران عاليرتبه آتن قديم‬ superintendent ‫سرپرست - مدير‬ offend ‫تخطي كردن - رنجاندن‬ accused ‫متهم‬ elect ‫راي دادن - انتخاب‬ ‫راي مخفي‬ ballot severe ‫سخت - طاقت فرسا‬ penalty ‫جزا - كيفر - جريمه‬ white-bearded man of 70 ‫مرد ريش سفيد 07 ساله‬ ‫فقدان‬ lack sentence ‫) حكم - فتوي - (محكوميت‬ exile ‫تبعيد - تبعيد كردن‬ scholar ‫محقق - دانش‌پژوه‬ sculptor ‫مجسمه ساز - پيكرتراش‬ midwife ‫ماما - قابله‬ thoughtful ‫متفكر - انديشمند‬ disturb ‫مضطرب ساختن - آشفتن‬ sophist ‫سوفيسطايي - سفسطه باز - زبان باز‬ boast ‫باليدن - رجز خواندن - خودستايي كردن‬ justice ‫عدالت‬ ‫نيكي‬ goodness poor ‫فقير‬ preference ‫برتري - رجحان‬ ‫روان‬ soul (seek) warn ‫هشدار دادن‬ twist ‫كج كردن - پيجاندن‬ ruler ‫حاكم‬ preach ‫موعظه كردن - وعظ كردن‬ declare ‫اظهار داشتن - گفتن - اعلم كردن‬ defend ‫دفاع كردن از - حمايت كردن‬ ‫به هر قيمتي‬ at all costs gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade - it was the palace of one of the Archons, the superintendents of the religious life of Athens who tried those people accused of offending the gods. try = ‫محاكمه كردن‬ - Five hundred judges, elected by the citizens, decided by secret ballot whether the accused were guilty or not and how severe the penalty should be.

- an old, white-bearded man of 70 stood before the judges. He had been accused by three men of lack of respect for the city gods. - his sentence could be extremely severe. It might be exile or, perhaps, even death. - although scholars are not sure, they think that Socrates was born in 469 B.C. - his father was a sculptor and his mother was a midwife, a woman who helped other women when they were about to have babies. - when Socrates grew up he proved himself to be an intelligent and thoughtful man. - Socrates was disturbed by many ideas popular in the city at that time. - at the same time that Socrates lived, there was in Greece a group of men called sophists. - they boasted that they knew everything. - Socrates fought this idea. He said that truth, justice, goodness, and honesty did exist. - Socrates remained poor and said, "do not love riches and the other good of the body in preference to those of the soul." - he warned against twisting the truth by using words and false arguments. - he told his listeners not to follow the wishes of rulers or anyone else, big or small, if the ideas they preached were wrong. - seek the truth, and declare and defend it against any one, at all costs and always …. Beyond this world is God, who will judge you and them.

1

‫ماورا‬ beyond gadfly ‫خرمگس - آدم مزاحم و مردم آزار‬ annoy ‫آزردن - اذيت كردن‬ sting ‫نييش - گزيدن‬ pester ‫اذيت كردن - بستوه آوردن - بيحوصله كردن‬ ‫گشتن در شهر‬ went about the city common people ‫مردم عادي‬ ً ‫عميقا‬ deeply criticize ‫انتقاد كردن - نكوهش كردن‬ defeat ‫شكست دادن‬ ‫انجام دادن‬ carry out ‫ناعادلنه‬ unjust shame ‫شرمنده كردن‬ ‫كامل ً عاقل‬ all-wise all-good ‫كامل ً خوب‬ worship ‫پرستش كردن - عبادت‬ ‫كوه المپيك‬ mount Olympus threaten ‫تهديد كردن - ترساندن‬ charge (against) ‫اتهام - متهم ساختن‬ tribunal ‫دادگاه محكمه - ديوان محاكمات - ميز محاكمه‬ serene ‫متين - آرام‬ defence ‫دفاع - دفاع كردن‬ court ‫دادگاه‬ ‫متهم كننده‬ accuser outspoken ‫پرحرف - رك و راست - صريح الهجه‬ criticism ‫انتقاد - عيب جويي‬ ‫اطمينان دادن‬ assure dishonesty ‫نادرستي‬ ‫بي عدالتي‬ injustice condemn ‫محكوم كردن - محكوم شدن‬ followers ‫پيروان‬ distress ‫پريشاني - اندوه - مضطرب كردن‬ outcome ‫نتيجه - پي آمد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- calling himself a gadfly -a kind of fly that annoys and stings- because he believed that everybody had to be pestered, if necessary, into seeing what was really true.

- Socrates went about the city. He talked about the things he considered to be just with the common people -especially the young men. He made them think. - he loved his city and was deeply religious, but many people hated him and wanted to silence him because he criticized what he thought was wrong. - he had defeated the sophists often in arguments. He and his students criticized the government. sometimes he refused to carry out orders he considered unjust. - he shamed dishonest men with his courage and honesty. - also, he believed in one God, the all-wise and all-good ruler of the world, while the Greeks at that time still worshipped the many gods on mount Olympus -Zeus, Apollo, Athena and many others.

- Socrates was offered titles and riches. He was threatened, nothing could silence him. Finally three men made false charges against him and he was sent before the tribunal. - Socrates, serene and thoughtful, spoke in his own defence and tried to get the court and his accusers to admit that the charges were false.

- but he was still outspoken in his criticisms. - he assured them that, if he lived, he would continue to speak the truth and would never leave his city - he stood firmly against dishonesty and injustice. And he was condemned to death.

- Socrates' followers were greatly distressed at the outcome of his trail, but he took the verdict calmly.

2

verdict ‫راي - راي هيت منصفه‬ calmly ‫با خاطر آسوده - با آرامي‬ everlasting ‫جاوداني - ازلي‬ ‫وادار كردن‬ persuade true ‫)پابرجا - راست - (پايبند‬ ‫مفهوم راستگويي‬ idea of truth obey ‫اطاعت كردن‬ weep ‫گريه كردن - اشك ريختن‬ ‫جام زهر‬ a cup of poison hemlock ‫شوكران‬ offensive ‫مهاجم - رنجانندن‬ ‫ناظران ديني‬ superintendents of the religious life ‫شركت كردن‬ take part sense of truth ‫مفهوم راستگويي‬ principle ‫اصول و مبادي - معتقد به اصول و مبادي‬ naval ‫وابسته به كشتي - وابسته به نيروي دريايي‬ demand ‫تقاضا كردن - مطالبه كردن‬ bury ‫به خاك سپردن - از نظر پوشاندن‬ terror ‫دهشت - ترس زياد‬ loss ‫زيان - خسارت - فقدان‬ tyrant ‫ستمگر - حاكم ستمگر‬ disobedience ‫سرپيچي - نافرماني‬ overthrow ‫برانداختن - منقرض كردن‬ corrupt ‫فاسد كردن - خراب كردن‬ youth ‫نوباوگان - جوان‬ light sentence ‫)محكوميت سبك (كمتر‬ apology ‫مدافعه - عذرخواهي (رسمي) - پوزش‬ tyranny ‫حكومت استبدادي - حكومت ستمگري‬ state ‫دولت - كشور‬ misdeed ‫بد كرداري - سوء عمل - جرم‬ ‫تحمل كردن‬ bear debate ‫بحث - مناظره كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- while in prison waiting for death, he discussed the everlasting life of the soul with his friends. - many of the men tried to persuade him to escape, but Socrates, always true to his idea of truth, refused. - he told that the verdict had come from a legal court, and so he had no choice but to obey it. - when the time came for him to carry out his sentence, this great man comforted his weeping friends and calmly drank a cup of a poison, called hemlock, that had been prepared for him. - at the time of trial, Socrates was not offensive and wild.

- Socrates refused to take part in public affairs because he was afraid he would have to go against his sense of truth and justice if he did. - he made the citizens of Athens angry many times because he refused to give up his principles. - after the naval battle of Arginusae in 406 B.C., he spoke against citizens when they unjustly demanded the death of ten generals who had been unable to burry the dead. - again, in 404 B.C. during the period of terror which followed the loss of the war, Socrates went against the orders of the thirty tyrants who ruled Athens. - Socrates would have been condemned to death for his disobedience, but the government of the thirty tyrants was soon overthrown. - he was also charged with corrupting the youth of Athens by his teachings. - a clever lawyer might have been able to allow Socrates to escape with a light sentence. - instead he gave his own defense, the famous " Apology of Socrates" which explained his life. - he proved in this speech that he was not being tried for any crimes. But his beliefs and way of life were a threat to the tyranny of the state, and was found guilty and condemned to death. - to bring charges against someone for a misdeed.

3

accomplishment ‫هنر - فضيلت - انجام‬ irritate ‫عصباني كردن - آزردن‬ harass ‫بستوه آوردن - خسته كردن‬ prevalent ‫رايج - متداول‬ strict ‫سخت - اكيد - يك دنده‬ harsh ‫خشن - ناگوار‬ violent ‫تند - شديد - قاهر‬ spiritual ‫روحاني - معنوي - روحي‬ authority ‫اختيار - توانايي‬ supervise ‫نظارت كردن‬ evidence ‫گواه - مدرك‬ determine ‫تصميم گرفتن - مصمم شدن‬ claim ‫ادعا كردن‬ moan ‫ناله - زاري‬ honour (honor) ‫احترام - عزت - افتخار‬ significance ‫معني - مقصود - مفهوم - اهميت‬ ‫يك سوم‬ one third decade ‫دهه‬ ‫كشف راز كردن‬ demystify traditional modern view ‫نظريه جديد مرسوم‬ represent ‫نماياندن - نشان دادن‬ ‫مرحله‬ stage renewal ‫تجديد - تكرار - باز نو كني‬ worn-out ‫خسته و كوفته - زهوار در رفته - كهنه‬ tissue ‫بافت‬ restore ‫)تعمير كردن - پس دادن - (بازپروري كردن‬ inactive ‫بي جنبش - غيرفعال‬ web ‫شبكه - بافت يا نسج‬ ‫فعل و انفعال‬ interaction shut off ‫تعطيل كردن - بستن‬ electrochemical ‫الكتروشيميايي‬ ‫الكتروآنسيوفالوگراف‬ electroencephalograph pinpoint ‫)چيز كوچك - با دقت اشاره كردن به (نقاط‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- the spiritual nature of man. - a person who has the authority to supervise or direct. - the examination of evidence and law by a judge to determine the issue of charges or claims

- what is the significance of sleeping in our lives? - nearly one third of our lives is spent sleeping. - yet only within the last four decades have scientists begun seriously to study, understand and demystify what goes on when we sleep. - the traditional modern view is that sleep represents a stage of renewal, where the body repairs and restores worn-out tissues and cells.

- people used to think that sleep was a period of total inactivity for the body. - we now know that a complicated web of chemical interactions occurs while we sleep. - the brain, rather than shutting itself off, registers a whole series of electrochemical changes. - scientists working with an electroencephalograph have been able to pinpoint those shifting brain-wave patterns as well as follow the physical changes which occur during our nightly odyssey. 4

odyssey ‫)مسافرت‌هاي پرحادثه - (خواب طولني‬ seamless ‫يكپارچه - بدون درز‬ consciousness ‫آگاهي - هوشياري - خبر‬ withdrawal ‫پس گرفتن - باز گرفتن‬ threshold ‫آستانه‬ slumber ‫چرت - خواب سبك - چرت زدن‬ subtle ‫دقيق - ماهرانه‬ ‫وابسته به علم فيزيولوژي‬ physiological ‫تنفس‬ respiration pulse rate ‫ميزان ضربان نبض‬ ‫نوسان به طرف پايين‬ downswing ‫ريتم هاي صاف‬ smooth rhythms netherworld ‫)عالم اموات - عالم اسفل - (عالم خواب‬ ‫مردمك چشم‬ eyeball from side to side ‫از سويي به سوي ديگر‬ ‫دامنه‬ amplitude descent ‫نزول - هبوط‬ set in ‫شروع كردن‬ ‫افتادن‬ drop roll ‫غلت خوردن - گشتن‬ abandon ‫تسليم شدن - واگذار كردن‬ ‫اختياري‬ arbitrary graduate student ‫دانشجوي دوره دكترا‬ ‫زير نظر‬ under dart ‫حركت تند - به سرعت حركت كردن‬ eyelid ‫پلك چشم‬ phase ‫مرحله - دوره تغيير و تحول‬ interval ‫فاصله - مدت - وقفه‬ ً ‫تقريبا‬ roughly paradoxical ‫)مهمل نما - (متناقص‬ heartbeat ‫ضربان قلب‬ ‫شباهت داشتن‬ resemble waking state ‫حالت بيداري‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- during the night, we do not move seamlessly from consciousness into total withdrawal, but pass through a series of sleep stages. - the first stage is when we move from the threshold of everyday consciousness into a light slumber. - subtle physiological changes are registered: blood pressure, respiration, pulse rate, and temperature are all on the downswing.

- brain waves begin to shift from the smooth rhythms of alpha waves into a more irregular pattern. - in stage two, the sleeper moves deeper into the netherworld of sleep. - at this point, the eyeballs begin to move from side to side, while the amplitude and frequency of the brain waves increase. - the sleeper continues his descent into stage three. - total relaxation has set in. - by stage four, large, slow, delta waves roll regularly across the EEG screen. - this is the stage where the sleeper has abandoned himself to deep sleep. - the magic number of eight hours a night is fairly arbitrary. - in 1952, Eugene Aserinsky, a graduate student under Dr. Nathaniel Kleitman at he university of Chicago, discovered that a sleeper's eyes darted back and forth behind his eyelids during certain sleep phases.

- these rapid eye movements, or REMs as they are called, occur with great regularity at roughly 90-minutes intervals during the night. - REM sleep is called "paradoxical sleep" because it is filled with great internal activity. - breathing becomes irregular, heartbeat rises, and the brain-wave patterns resemble those of the waking state.

5

‫مهم تر از همه‬ most importantly demonstrate ‫اثبات كردن (با دليل) - شرح دادن‬ in the early 1960s 1960 ‫در اويل سال‌هاي‬ ‫داوطلب‬ volunteer interrupt ‫گسيختن - منقطع كردن‬ buzzer ‫)زنگ اخبار - (صداي سوت‬ experiment ‫آزمايش‬ arouse ‫بيدار كردن - برانگيختن - تحريك كردن‬ deprivation ‫محروميت - فقدان‬ short-tempered ‫عصباني - زود رنج‬ irritable ‫زودرنج - كج خلق - تند مزاج‬ compensate ‫جبران كردن - عوض دادن‬ undisturbed ‫غير مختل - مختل نشده‬ pill ‫)حب دارو - (قرص‬ effectiveness ‫اثر‬ dosage ‫مقدار تجويز شده دارو - مقدار استعمال دارو‬ beneficial ‫سودمند - مفيد‬ dramatically ‫به طور مهيج - به طور نمايشي‬ ‫الكلي‬ alcoholic detoxify ‫رفع كردن مسمويت‬ saturate ‫آغشتن - پر كردن - اشباغ كردن‬ vivid ‫زنده - واضح - روشن‬ terrify ‫وحشت زده كردن‬ hallucination ‫تجسم - خيال - توهم - خطاي حس‬ dose ‫مقدار دارو‬ spilling over concentrate ‫تغليظ - متمركز كردن‬ disturbance ‫آشفتگي - مزاحمت - اختلل‬ disorder ‫اختلل - بي نظمي‬ ‫براساس يك تخمين‬ an estimated chronic ‫مزمن‬ insomnia ‫بيخوابي (غيرعادي) - مرض بيخوابي‬ transitional ‫به طور گذرا‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- most importantly, this the period where we do most of our dreaming. - the importance of REM sleep was first demonstrated in a study made by Dr. William Dement of Stanford University in the early 1960s. - volunteers were interrupted from their REM phase by a buzzer.

- as the experiment continued the subjects became increasingly hard to arouse. - they seemed to be fighting the deprivation of REM sleep, although they were getting the usual amount of the other sleep phases. They became short-tempered and irritable in the morning. - when those volunteers were finally allowed to sleep through the night undisturbed, the compensated for their loss by having a night filled with dreams. - sleeping pills generally lose their effectiveness by the end of the first month in their normal dosage.

- in the end, they actually prove more harmful than beneficial, for they can dramatically reduce a person's REM sleep. - Alcohol also reduce this vital phase of the cycle. Once an alcoholic is detoxified, he will find his sleep at night saturated with vivid and sometimes terrifying dreams.

- According to one theory, the hallucinations of the dreaming times are actually a concentrated dose of REM dreams spilling over into waking life.

- sleep disturbance is one of our most common disorders. For example, an estimated 30 million people in the U.S. suffer from chronic insomnia.

- brain-wave recordings have shown that poor sleepers generally spend much more of their total time 6

‫از لحاظ فيزيكي‬ physiologically recoup ‫جبران كردن - تلفي كردن‬ nap ‫چرت - خواب نيمروز‬ dim ‫مبهم - تاريك‬ precious ‫گرانبها - با ارزش‬ ‫ميراث‬ heritage cave days ‫دوران غارنشيني‬ barbaric ‫بربريت - وحشي‬ ‫بي خوابي‬ sleeplessness rocking chair ‫صندلي چرخان‬ ‫مسابقه دو ماراتون‬ marathon ‫بيمار رواني‬ mental patient medical school ‫دانشكده پزشكي‬ ‫وابسته به روانپزشكي‬ psychiatric issue ‫) انتشار دادن - (پخش كردن‬ ‫پرسشنامه‬ questionnaire psychosis ‫بيماري رواني - جنون‬ depression ‫افسردگي‬ ailment ‫بيماري مزمن - درد‬ correlation ‫همبستگي‬ stability ‫استحكام - استواري - ثبات‬ intrigue ‫دسيسه كردن - فريفتن - توطئه چيدن‬ intriguing connection ‫ارتباط پيچيده‬ ‫خودكشي‬ suicide an unusually ‫تعجب‌آور اينكه‬ proportion ‫مقدار - نسبت - تناسب‬ ‫وابسته يا متمايل به خودكشي‬ suicidal internal order ‫ترتيب دروني‬ ‫يك مسئله زودگذر و فوري‬ immediate problem ‫پرده‬ curtain raiser ‫بال برنده - برپا كننده‬ ‫براي روياهاي بعدي تا رخ دهند‬ for the ones to follow shuffle ‫بهم آميختن - با هم مخلوط كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

in the transitional light phase of sleep than average sleepers. Physiologically they are closer to waking - many people sleep little at night, but recoup their loss with naps during the day. - Edison, who slept only 3 or 4 hours a night, took a dim view of the whole experience. - for him the eight-hour sleep cycle was a waste of precious time, "a heritage from our cave days."

- he hoped that his electric light would help reduce our dependency on this barbaric nighttime custom - the record for sleeplessness was set in 1977 by Weston, who stayed awake for 449 hours during a rocking chair marathon. - during 1963-1964, a study of mental patients was made at Yale Medical School. - a psychiatric team issued questionnaires to several hundred patients with psychosis, depressions and other mental ailments.

- from the beginning, they discovered a close correlation between mental stability and healthy sleeping habits. - the Yale study also found an intriguing connection between suicide and dreams.

- an unusually height proportion of the suicidal were people who normally dreamed but who had recently found that they had stopped dreaming or else simply could no longer remember their dreams - dreams follow their own internal order. - our first dream is usually short, concerns an immediate problem, and is really a kind of curtain raiser for the ones to follow.

- the next two dreams generally shuffle the past and the present. 7

fourth frequently wish-fulfillment along Freudian specification specification grand finale grand finale incorporating duration correspond phenomenon reveal imitate downward somewhat interior mild mannered symptom partial desert extent subjective precise uncivilized primitive periodic equivalent deprive downfall illusion comprise gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

‫چهارم‬ ً ‫مكررا‬ ‫تكميل كننده‬ ‫)موازي با طول - (بر طبق‬ ‫نظريه فرويد‬ ‫تعيين - تشخيص‬ ‫) بزرگ - مهم - (طولني‬ ‫بخش آخر - نهايي‬ ‫بخش نهايي روياي طولني‬ ‫تركيبي‬ ‫مدت‬ ‫برابر بودن - به هم مربوط بودن‬ ‫پديده‬ ‫آشكار كردن‬ ‫تقليد كردن‬ ‫پايين - رو به پايين‬ ‫قدري - تا حدي‬ ‫دروني - داخلي‬ ‫رفتار ميانه‬ ‫نشانه - علئم مرض‬ ‫جزئي - بخشي‬ ‫گريختن - ترك كردن‬ ‫وسعت - مقدار‬ ‫ذهني - دروني - فردي‬ ‫دقيق‬ ‫غيرمتمدن‬ ‫اوليه‬ ‫دوره اي‬ ‫معادل - هم بها‬ ‫بي بهره كردن - محروم كردن‬ ‫سقوط - زوال‬ ‫وهم‬ ‫شامل بودن - در بر داشتن‬

- the fourth one is often set in the future and is frequently a wish fulfillment dream, along Freudian specifications.

- the fifth is usually the final one, and it is a grand finale, incorporating elements from the previous dreams but finishing in the present.

- the duration of an action in a dream usually corresponds to the time it take to perform that action in reality. sleeping has been considered a phenomenon worth studying. - study of the changes in brain waves during the sleeping time has revealed many things to scientists - people do not imitate their sleeping habits.

- even mild-mannered persons become very irritable if they have lost much sleep. - if a person goes without sleep for 3 days, he may start showing abnormal mental symptoms. - many scientists have tested the effects of partial lack of sleep upon our mental abilities. - abandon: neglect, desert. - amplitude: size, extent. - arbitrary: not precise, subjective. - barbaric: uncivilized, primitive. - chronic: last for a long time, periodic. - correspond: be equivalent or similar - deprive: take something away from somebody. - downswing: downfall. - hallucination: illusion of seeing or hearing something when no such thing is actually present. - incorporate: include, comprise. 8

fascinating endure underworld contradiction gap definite delicate gratification supernatural grandchild elder untold untold ages supreme enormous mythology dethrone seize ascend throne flee (fled) reign notable encircle translate bore saviour banish Olympian succeed Olympus mountain top earliest poem

‫مجذوب - شيفته‬ ‫تحمل كردن‬ ‫عالم اموات‬ ‫تناقض - مغايرت‬ ‫رخنه - درز - اختلف زياد‬ ‫معلوم - معين - روشن‬ ‫ظريف - حساس‬ ‫لذت - سربلندي‬ ‫ماوراء طبيعي‬ ‫نوه‬ ‫بزرگتر‬ ‫ناگفته - بي حساب‬ ‫اعصار بي پايان‬ ‫عالي - اعلي - افضل‬ ‫عظيم‬ ‫افسانه شناسي‬ ‫خلع كردن - عزل كردن‬ ‫بتصرف آوردن - قاپيدن‬ ‫جلوس كردن بر‬ ‫تخت - سرير - بر تخت نشستن‬ ‫گريختن - فرار كردن‬ ‫سلطنت - حكمراني كردن‬ ‫شخص برجسته - جالب توجه‬ ‫حلقه زدن - احاطه كردن‬ ‫)ترجمه كردن - (همراه بودن‬ ‫نجات دهنده - ناجي‬ ‫)تبعيد كردن - دور كردن - (منسوخ كردن‬ ‫وابسته به كوه المپيك - آسماني‬ ‫موفق شدن - كاميابي‬ ‫كوه المپيك در مقدونيه - آسمان‬ ‫قله كوه‬ ‫اشعار اوليه‬

- intriguing: unusual, fascinating. - marathon: long lasting event which is hard to endure. - netherworld: the world of the dead, underworld. - paradox: contradiction. - seamless: direct, without a gap or parting line. - shuffle: avoid being definite, confuse. - subtle: delicate, fine. - wish fulfilment: gratification of a desire. - Ancient Greeks believed in gods who were supposed to be of supernatural powers who controlled … - the Titans were their children, and the gods were their grandchildren. - the Titans often called the Elder Gods, were for untold ages supreme in the universe.

- they were of enormous size and of incredible strength. - there were many of them, but only a few appear in the stories of mythology. - he ruled over the other Titans until his son Zeus dethroned him and seized the power for himself. - The Romans said that when Jupiter ascended the throne, Saturn fled to Italy and brought in the Golden age, a time of perfect peace and happiness, which lasted as long as he reigned.

- the other notable Titans were OCEAN, the river that was supposed to encircle the earth. - THEMIS, usually translated by Justice.
- ATLAS, who bore the world on his shoulders, and PROMETHEUS, who was the saviour of mankind - these alone among the older gods were not banished with coming of Zeus, but they took a lower place.

- the twelve great Olympians were supreme among the gods who succeeded to the Titans. - they were called the Olympians because Olympus was their home. - there is no doubt that at first it was held to be a mountain top. - but even in the earliest Greek poem, the Iliad, this idea is beginning to give way to the idea of an 9

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

region mysterious region topmost peak ridge pinnacle even so dwelling feast ambrosia nectar lyre abode blessedness shake untroubled cloudless firmament stretch glory diffuse divine family draw (drew) cloud gatherer wield thunderbolt divinity mighty make trail lay hold drag rope bind gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

‫ناحيه‬ ‫ناحيه اسرار آميز‬ ‫بالترين - اعلي ترين‬ ‫قله‬ ‫برآمدگي - مرز‬ ‫اوج - منتهي درجه‬ ‫حتي اگر چنين باشد‬ ‫مسكن‬ ‫مهماني - جشن گرفتن‬ ‫مائده بهشتي‬ ‫شهد‬ ‫چنگ - بربط‬ ‫مسكن‬ ‫)خجستگي - (آرامش‬ ‫ارتعاش - تكان دادن‬ ‫بي دغدغه‬ ‫بي ابر‬ ‫فلك - آسمان‬ ‫كشيدن - امتداد دادن‬ ‫جلل - نور - شكوه‬ ‫منتشر شده - پراكنده‬ ‫خانواده مقدس‬ ‫) دريافت كردن - (تصاحب كردن‬ ‫جمع كننده ابر‬ ‫گردانيدن - اداره كردن‬ ‫صاعقه - آذرخش‬ ‫خدا - الهيات‬ ‫نيرومند - توانا‬ ‫امتحان كنيد‬ ‫چنگ زدن‬ ‫كشيدن‬ ‫طناب‬ ‫بستن‬

Olympus in some mysterious region far above all the mountain of the earth. - in one passage of the Iliad, Zeus talks to the gods from "the topmost peak of many-ridged Olympus" clearly a mountain. - but only a little further on he says that if he willed he could hang earth and sea from a pinnacle of Olympus, clearly no longer a mountain. Even so it is not heaven. - wherever it was, the entrance to it was a great gate of clouds kept by the seasons. Within were the god's dwellings, where they lived and slept and feasted on ambrosia and nectar and listened to Apollo's lyre.

- it was an abode of perfect blessedness. No wind, Homer says, ever shakes the untroubled peace of Olympus; no rain ever falls there or snow; but the cloudless firmament stretches around it on all sides and the white glory of sunshine is diffused upon its walls.

- the twelve Olympians made up a divine family. - Zeus and his brothers drew lots for their share of the universe. The sea fell to Poseidon, and the underworld to Hades. Zeus became the supreme ruler, he was lord of the sky, the rain-god and the cloud-gatherer, who wielded the awful thunderbolt. - his power was greater than that of all the other divinities together. - in the Iliad he tells his family, "I am mightiest of all. Make trial that you may know. Fasten a rope of gold to heaven and lay hold, every god and goddess. You could not drag down Zeus. But if I wished to drag you down, then I would.

- the rope I would bind to a pinnacle of Olympus and all would hang in air, yes, the very earth and 10

hang nevertheless omnipotent omniscient oppose deceive dupe fate scorn scornfully propose deliver doom sacrifice eminence seamen granddaughter splendid oftener sank (into) stillness tranquil smooth-rolling commonly trident pronged spear shatter bull Aegean residence extraordinary explanation

‫آويختن - آويزان كردن‬ ‫با وجود اين‬ ‫قادر مطلق‬ ‫واقف به همه چيز‬ ‫در افتادن - ضديت كردن‬ ‫گول زدن‬ ‫گول زدن‬ ‫سرنوشت - قضا و قدر‬ ‫تمسخر - استهزاء كردن‬ ‫از روي استهزاء‬ ‫پيشنهاد كردن‬ ‫نجات دادن - آزاد كردن‬ ‫حكم مجازات - سرنوشت بد - حكم دادن‬ ‫قرباني كردن - فداكاري كردن‬ ‫برجستگي - بزرگي‬ ‫ملوانان‬ ‫نوه - دختر دختر - دختر پسر‬ ‫با شكوه - با جلل‬ ‫بيشتر‬ ‫فرو رفت - غرق شد‬ ‫خاموشي - سكوت‬ ‫آرام‬ ً ‫متعارفا‬ ‫نيزه سه شاخه‬ ‫چنگك دار‬ ‫نيزه‬ ‫خرد كردن - داغان كردن - شكستن‬ ‫گاو نر‬ ‫مربوطه به درياي اژه‬ ‫مقر - محل اقامت‬ ‫فوق العاده - غيرعادي‬ ‫توضيح - تعريف - بيان‬

the sea too." - nevertheless he was not omnipotent or omniscient, either. He could be opposed and deceived.

- Poseidon dupes him in the Iliad and so does Hera. Sometimes, too, the mysterious power, fate is spoken of as stronger than he. - Homer makes Hera ask him scornfully if he proposes to deliver from death a man fate has doomed.

- Zeus and his brothers didn't divide the world by sacrificing to older gods. - Poseidon was the ruler of the sea, Zeus's brother and second only to him in eminence.
- the Greeks on both sides of the Aegean were seamen and the god of the sea was all important to them.

- his wife was Amphitrite, a granddaughter of the titan, Ocean. - Poseidon had a splendid palace beneath the sea, but he was oftener to be found in Olympus. - but when he drove in his golden car over the waters, the thunder of the waves sank into stillness, and tranquil peace followed his smooth-rolling wheels.

- he was commonly called "earth-shaker" and was always shown carrying his trident, a threepronged spear, with which he would shake and shatter whatever he pleased.

- he had some connection with bulls as well as with horses. - abode: home, residence. - incredible: extraordinary, amazing. - giving explanations of natural events, such as the seasons. 11

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summit contempt myth maiden excel consort mere mortal fame surpass surpassing gaze adoration homage to do her homage immortal throng worship loveliness temple neglect altar foul ash desert once destine put up treatment winged arrow defense bid

‫قله‬ ‫تحقير - اهانت‬ ‫افسانه - اسطوره‬ ‫دوشيزه‬ ‫برتري داشتن از‬ ‫جور كردن - همنشين شدن‬ ‫فقط - تنها‬ ‫انسان - فاني‬ ‫شهرت‬ ‫پيش افتادن از - تفوق جستن‬ ‫فزاينده‬ ‫خيره نگاه كردن - زل زل نگاه كردن‬ ‫ستايش - عشق ورزي‬ ‫تجليل - بيعت‬ ‫سر تعظيم بياورند‬ ‫جاويدان - ابدي‬ ‫ازدحام كردن - هجوم‬ ‫پرستش - ستايش‬ ‫دلفريبي - زيبايي‬ ‫پرستشگاه - معبد‬ ‫فروگذاري - غفلت كردن‬ ‫قربانگاه - محراب‬ ‫بهم خوردن - گير كردن‬ ‫خاكستر‬ ‫) ول كردن - ترك كردن - (متروك‬ ً ‫روزگاري - سابقا‬ ‫مقدر كردن - سرنوشت تعيين كردن‬ ‫متحمل شدن - كنار گذاردن‬ ‫رفتار - معامله‬ ‫بالدار‬ ‫تير‬ ‫دفاع كردن - دفاع‬ ‫فرمودن - پيشنهاد كردن - پيشنهاد‬

- pinnacle: peak, summit - scorn: strong contempt. - there was once a king who had three daughters, all lovely maidens, but the youngest, psyche, excelled her sisters so greatly that beside them she seemed a very goddess consorting with mere mortals.

- the fame of her surpassing beauty spread over the earth, and everywhere men journeyed to gaze upon her with wonder and adoration and to do her homage as though she were in truth one of the immortals.

- as they thronged in ever-growing numbers to worship her loveliness no one any more gave a thought to Venus herself. Her temples were neglected; her altars foul with cold ashes; her favorite towns deserted and falling in ruins.

- all the honours once hers were now given to a mere girl destined some day to die. - it may well be believed that the goddess would not put up with this treatment. - as always when she was in trouble she turned for help to her son, that beautiful winged youth whom some call cupid and others love, against whose arrows there is no defense, neither in heaven nor on the earth. - she told him her wrongs and as always he was ready to do her bidding. 12

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

‫درخواست‬ bidding hussy ‫دختر جسور - دختر گستاخ‬ ‫ديوانه وار عاشق شدن‬ fall madly in love vilest ‫پست‌ترين - فرومايه ترين‬ despicable ‫مطرود - منفور‬ had no power to utter a ‫قدرت نداشت حرفي به زبان بياورد‬ word rage ‫ديوانگي - خشم - شدت داشتن‬ swiftly ‫با سرعت - به طور سريع‬ horrible ‫مخوف - زشت‬ wretch ‫پست - بدبخت - بيچاره‬ content ‫راضي كردن - خشنود كردن‬ pass on ‫)گذشتن - (منصرف شدن‬ inexpressibly ‫بطور غيرقابل بيان - بطور ناگفتني‬ inferior ‫پايين رتبه - درجه دوم - نامرغوب‬ splendidly ‫با شكوه - با جلل‬ solitary ‫مجرد - گوشه نشين - تنها‬ oracle ‫الهام الهي - پيشگويي - وحي‬ accordingly ‫برطبق آن - بر اين منوال - از اين رو‬ ‫عزاداري‬ mourning rocky hill ‫تپه سنگلخي‬ ‫ترسناك‬ fearful ‫مار‬ serpent misery ‫بدبختي‬ ‫بدتر از همه‬ the misery of all lamentable ‫اسفناك - سوگناك‬ as though ‫گويي‬ ‫سوگ‬ sorrow tomb ‫گور - قبر‬ weep (wept) ‫گريه كردن - گريستن‬ despair ‫نوميدي - ياس‬ grief ‫حزن - اندوه‬ ‫سوگواري كردن‬ mourn tremble ‫لرزيدن - لرز‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- "use your power," she said, "and make the hussy fall madly in love with the vilest and most despicable creature there is in the whole world."

- he said nothing to his mother, indeed he had no power to utter a word. - never thinking in her jealous rage what such beauty might do even to the god of love himself. - and Venus left him with the happy confidence that he should swiftly bring about psyche's ruin. - psyche did not fall in love with a horrible wretch, she did not fall in love at all. - men were content to look and wonder and worship, and then pass on to marry someone else. - both her sisters, inexpressibly inferior to her, were splendidly married, each to a king.

- psyche, the all-beautiful, sat sad and solitary, only admired, never loved. - her father finally travelled to an oracle of Apollo to ask his advice on how to get her a good husband. - accordingly Apollo said that psyche, dressed in deepest mourning, must be set on the summit of a rocky hill and left alone, and that there her destined husband, a fearful winged serpent, stronger than the gods themselves, would come to her and make her his wife.

- the misery of all when psyche's father brought back this lamentable new can be imagined.

- they dressed the maiden as though for her death and carried her to the hill with greater sorrowing than if it had been to her tomb. - but psyche herself kept her courage. "you should have wept for me before," she told them. - they went in despairing grief, leaving the lovely helpless creature to meet her doom alone, and they shut themselves in their palace to mourn all their days for her. - there as she wept and trembled, soft breath of air came through the stillness to her, the gentle 13

stillness mild grassy meadow fragrant mansion stately pillar inlaid drew near awestruck sight splendour hesitate sound bathe banquet spread delightful dine breathe choir harp companionship inexplicable murmur monster shape of terror long huntsman odd preserve dewy

‫سكوت مطلق‬ ‫مليم - معتدل‬ ‫علف مانند - پوشيده از چمن‬ ‫مرغزار - علف زار - بيشه‬ ‫خوشبو - معطر‬ ‫عمارت بزرگ‬ ‫مجلل - با شكوه‬ ‫ستون‬ ‫منبت كاري شده - جواهر نشان شده‬ ‫نزديك شد‬ ‫وحشت زده - خوف زده‬ ‫ديد زدن - بازرسي كردن - منظره‬ ‫شكوه و جلل - زرق و برق‬ ‫مردد بودن - تامل كردن‬ ‫صدا دادن - نواختن‬ ‫استحمام كردن - شستشو كردن‬ ‫مهماني - ضيافت‬ ‫گستردن‬ ‫لذت بخش‬ ‫ناهار خوردن - شام خوردن‬ ‫دم زدن - استنشاق كردن‬ ‫كر‬ ‫چنگ‬ ‫مصاحبت‬ ‫غيرقابل توضيح‬ ‫زمزمه - زمزمه كردن‬ ‫هيول - عفريت‬ ‫موجود وحشتناك‬ ‫آرزوي چيزي را داشتن‬ ‫شكارچي‬ ‫عجيب و غريب - فرد‬ ‫حفظ كردن - باقي نگهداشتن‬ ‫تازه - مرطوب‬

breathing of Zephyr, sweetest and mildest of winds. - she felt it lift her up. She was floating away from the rocky hill and down until she lay upon a grassy meadow soft as a bed and fragrant with flowers. - she woke beside a bright river; and on its bank was a mansion stately and beautiful as though built for a god, with pillars of gold and walls of silver and floors inlaid with precious stones.

- the place seemed deserted and psyche drew near, awestruck at the sight of such splendour.

- as she hesitated on the threshold, voices sounded in her ear, she could see no one, but the words they spoke came clearly to her. She must enter without fear and bathe and refresh herself. - then a banquet table would be spread for her. - the bath was the most delightful, the food the most delicious, she had ever enjoyed. - while she dined, sweet music breathed around her: great choir seemed to sing to a harp, but she could only hear, not see, them.

- throughout the day, except for the strange companionship of the voices, she was alone, but in some inexplicable way she felt sure that with the coming of the night her husband would be with her. - and so it happened. When she felt him beside her and heard his voice softly murmuring in her ear all her fear left her. She knew without seeing him that here was no monster or shape of terror, but the lover and husband she had longed and waited for. - she was the lady of wild things, huntsman-in-chief to the gods, an odd office for a woman. - like a good huntsman, she was careful to preserve the young; she was the protectress of dewy youth everywhere. 14

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startle contradiction fleet sail fierce revenge revengeful painless slain neither so too poet identify wrap associate deed crossway ghost evil magic vividly apparent cypress sacred deer shrine sacrificial soil sexually immoral deity prophet glorious

‫جهش - تكان دادن‬ ‫تناقض - مغايرت‬ ‫ناوگان - عبور سريع‬ ‫با كشتي حركت كردن‬ ‫درنده - تندخو‬ ‫انتقام كشيدن - كينه جويي كردن‬ ‫كينه توز‬ ‫بي درد‬ ‫مقتول - كشته شده‬ ‫هيچ يك از اين دو‬ ‫همينطور‬ ‫شاعر‬ ‫شناختن‬ ‫پيچيدن - پوشانيدن‬ ‫هم پيوند - همدست‬ ‫كردار - سند - كار‬ ‫سرتاسر - به شكل صليب‬ ‫روح - چون روح به خانه ها سر زدن‬ ‫بد - مضر - زيان آور - بدي‬ ‫سحرآميز - جادو‬ ‫به روشني - به وضوح‬ ‫آشكار - ظاهر‬ ‫درخت سرو‬ ‫مقدس‬ ‫آهوي كوهي‬ ‫معبد - جاي مقدس‬ ‫وابسته به قرباني - مستلزم فداكاري‬ ‫خاكي كردن - كثيف كردن‬ ‫از نظر جنسي‬ ‫بدسيرت - هرزه‬ ‫خدا‬ ‫پيامبر‬ ‫مجلل - با شكوه‬

- nevertheless, with one of those startling contradiction so common in mythology, she kept the Greek fleet from sailing to Troy until they sacrificed a maiden to her.

- in many another story, too, she is fierce and revengeful.

- on the other hand, when women died a swift and painless death, they were held to have been slain by her silver arrows. - neither name originally belonged to her. - Phoebe was a titan, one of the older gods. So too was Apollo. - in the later poets, Artemis is identified with Hecate. - Hecate in the lower world and in the world above when it is wrapped in darkness. - she was associated with deeds of darkness. - the goddess of the crossways, which were held to be ghostly places of evil magic. In her is shown most vividly the uncertainly between good and evil which is apparent in every one of the divinities.

- the cypress was sacred to her; and all wild animals, but especially the deer.

- altar: shrine; sacrificial table. - foul: dirty; soiled. - hussy: sexually immoral woman. - immortal: god; deity - oracle: prophet. - splendid: glorious; magnificent. 15

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

impressive ‫برانگيزنده - برانگيزنده احساسات‬ grave ‫قبر‬ moan ‫ناله - زاري‬ ‫نصف به نصف‬ half-and-half still ‫بازهم - معذلك‬ unseen ‫ناديده - از ديده پنهان‬ gravely ‫بطور جدي‬ ‫نزديك شدن‬ approach caress ‫نوازش - دلجويي - نوازش كردن‬ check ‫جلوگيري كردن از - ممانعت كردن‬ ‫تسليم كردن يا شدن‬ yield sorrowful ‫غمگين - محزون‬ destruction ‫خرابي - ويراني‬ solemnly ‫بطور تشريفاتي - بطور رسمي‬ persuade ‫وادار كردن - ترغيب كردن‬ ‫دچار شدن به درد جدايي‬ on pain of being separated ‫گريه كردن‬ cry (out) she would die a hundred times ‫او ترجيح مي دهد صدها بار‬ ‫بميرد به جاي اين‬ over rather than live ‫كه تنها و بدون او زندگاني كند‬ without him ‫اينكار را براي او انجام خواهد داد‬ it should be so embrace ‫در آغوش گرفتن - در بر گرفتن‬ their joy was‫شادي و خوشحاليشان بيش از حد قابل بيان بود‬ too great to be expressed treasure ‫كنج - گنجينه‬ marvellous ‫حيرت آور - عجيب‬ bitter ‫تلخ - جگرسوز‬ envy ‫حسد - رشك‬ possession ‫تصرف - مالكيت‬ ‫بر آنها احاطه شد‬ took possession of them devour ‫بلعيدن - فرو بردن - حريصانه خوردن‬ ‫حرص و ولع‬ devouring curiosity ‫حس كنجكاوي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- stately: impressive; magnificent. - tomb: grave; shrine. - weep: cry; moan. - this half-and-half companionship could not fully content psyche; still she was happy and the time passed swiftly. - one night, however, her dear though unseen husband spoke gravely to her and warned her that danger in the shape of her two sisters was approaching. - she was still in tears when her husband came and even his caresses could not check them. - at last he yielded sorrowfully to her great desire. - "do what you will," he said, "but you are seeking your own destruction." - then he warned her solemnly not to be persuaded by anyone to try to see him, on pain of being separated from him forever. - psyche cried out that she would never do so. She would die a hundred times over rather than live without him.

- sadly he promised her that it should be so. - their joy was too great to be expressed except by tears and embraces.

- but when at last they entered the palace and the elder sister saw its surpassing treasures; when they sat at the rich banquet and heard the marvellous music, bitter envy took possession of them and a devouring curiosity as to who was the lord of all this magnificence and their sister's husband.

16

magnificence ‫شكوه - جلل‬ expedition ‫هيئت اعزامي - سفر - اردوكشي‬ ‫سفر چند روزه‬ hunting expedition ‫حمل كردن‬ bear she had Zephyr bear them ‫به زفير دستور داد آنها را به سوي تپه برگرداند‬ back to the hill willing ‫مايل - راضي - راغب‬ envious ‫حسادت اميز - غبطه خور‬ ‫توطئه چيدن‬ plot once more ‫بارديگر‬ wicked ‫بدجنس - بابكار - شرير‬ work out ‫تدبير كردن- تمرين- براثركاروزحمت ايجاد كردن‬ stumble ‫لغزيدن - لكنت داشتن‬ ‫ضد و نقيض‬ contradictory reproach ‫سرزنش - عيب جويي كردن‬ ‫به راستي مي‌دانستند‬ knew for a fact ‫حمله ور شدن‬ turn upon declare ‫اظهار داشتن - گفتن - اعلم كردن‬ aghast ‫مبهوت - مات - وحشت زده‬ flood ‫) سيل - طغيان كردن - (پر كردن‬ dreadful ‫وحشتناك - بد‬ cruel ‫بيرحم - ظالم‬ forbid ‫قدغن كردن - منع كردن‬ behold ‫ديدن - مشاهده كردن‬ in extreme misery ‫در نهايت بدبختي‬ falter ‫با شبهه و ترديد سخن گفتن - گير كردن‬ stammer ‫لكنت پيدا كردن - من من كردن‬ deny ‫حاشا كردن - انكار كردن - رد كردن‬ sob ‫همراه با سكسكه و بغض گريه كردن- هق هق‬ shun ‫دوري و اجتناب - دوري كردن از‬ beforehand ‫پيشاپيش - آماده‬ ‫خواب عميق‬ fast asleep steel ‫محكم - استوار - مانند فولد محكم كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- she told them only that he was a young man, away now on a hunting expedition. - then filling their hands with gold and jewels, she had Zephyr bear them back to the hill.

- they went willingly enough, but their hearts were on fire with jealousy. - their envious anger so worked in them that they came finally to plotting how to ruin her. - that very night psyche's husband warned her once more. - he yielded as before, and very soon the two wicked women arrived, with their plot carefully worked out. - already, because of psyche's stumbling and contradictory answers when they asked her what her husband looked like, they had become convinced that she had never set eyes on him and did not really know what he was. They did not tell her this, but they reproached her for hiding her terrible state from them, her own sisters. They had learned, they said, and knew for a fact, that her husband was not a man, but the fearful serpent Apollo's oracle had declared he would be. but he would certainly turn upon her some night and devour her. - psyche, aghast, felt terror flooding her heart instead of love.
- she had wondered so often why he would never let her see him. There must be some dreadful reason.

- if he was not horrible to look at, then he was cruel to forbid her ever to behold him.

- in extreme misery, faltering and stammering, she gave her sisters to understand that she could not deny what they said, because she had been with him only in the dark. "there must be something very wrong" she sobbed, "for him so to shun the light of day"

- they had their advice all prepared beforehand. - that night she must hide a sharp knife and a lamp near her bed. When he was fast asleep … - she must steel herself to plunge it swiftly into the body of the frightful being the light would 17

‫فرو بردن‬ plunge frightful ‫وحشتناك‬ being ‫موجود - مخلوق‬ ‫موجود ترسناك‬ frightful being tear (torn) ‫پاره شده - دريده‬ ‫پريشان كردن‬ distract loathe ‫نفرت داشتن از - بيزار بودن - منزجر بودن‬ certainty ‫يقين - اطمينان‬ lay ‫خواباندن - گذاردن‬ summon ‫فراخواندن - احضار‬ tiptoe ‫با نوك پا راه رفتن - نوك پنجه‬ rapture ‫از خود بيخودي - شعف و خلسه روحاني‬ at whose sight ‫كه از نگاهش‬ folly ‫حماقت - ناداني‬ fell (on) ‫بزمين زدن‬ ‫زانو زده‬ fell on her knees unsteady ‫لرزان - متزلزل كردن‬ betray ‫خيانت كردن به - فاش كردن‬ hung over ‫) خمار - (خم شدن‬ ravish ‫از خود بيخود شدن - مسحور كردن‬ bliss ‫خوشي - بركت‬ ‫بي ايماني‬ faithlessness rush ‫حركت شديد-يورش-كاري را با عجله و اشتياق‬ bid (bade) ‫خداحافظي كردن - پيشنهاد‬ farewell ‫وداع - بدرود - خداحافظ‬ fly (flew) ‫پرواز كردن‬ ‫من آدم بدبخت و بينوايي هستم‬ wretch that I am at any rate ‫بهر حال‬ ‫با جسارت زياد‬ with rising courage meanwhile ‫در اين ضمن - در اثناء‬ chamber ‫اتاق‬ wound ‫جراحت - زخم‬ care (for) ‫مواظبت - پرستاري‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

certainly show her.

- then they left her torn by doubt and distracted what to do. - she loved him; he was her dear husband, no; he was a horrible serpent and she loathed him. - she would kill him --, she would not. She must have certainty --, she did not want certainty. - when at last he lay sleeping quietly, she summoned all her courage and lit the lamp. - she tiptoed to the bed and holding the light high above her she gazed at what lay there. - oh, the relief and the rapture that filled her heart. No monster was revealed, but the sweetest and fairest of all creatures, at whose sight the very lamp seemed to shine brighter. - in her first shame at her folly and lack of faith, psyche fell on her knees and would have plunged the knife into her own breast if it had not fallen from her trembling hands. - but those same unsteady hands that saved her betrayed her, betrayed her, too, for as she hung over him, ravished at the sight of him and unable to deny herself the bliss of filling her eyes with his beauty, some hot oil fell from the lamp upon his shoulder.

- he started awake: he saw the light and knew her faithlessness, and without a word he fled from her. - she rushed out after him into the night. - she could not see him, but she heard his voice speaking to her. He told her who he was, and sadly bade her farewell. - "love cannot live where there is no trust," he said, and flew away. - "the god of love!" she thought, "he was my husband, and I, wretch that I am, could not keep faith with him. Is he gone from me forever? At any rate," she told herself with rising courage, "I can spend rest of my life searching for him. - he meanwhile had gone to his mother's chamber to have his wound cared for.

18

‫پيش تاخت‬ went forth draw down ‫بهم زدن‬ displeasure ‫رنجش - ناخشنودي‬ ‫سرگرداني نااميد كننده‬ despairing wanderings to win the gods over‫ كند‬her side ‫محبت خدايان را به سوي‬ to ‫خود جلب‬ ardent ‫گرم - سوزان‬ perpetually ‫بطور مدام‬ perceive ‫درك كردن - دريافتن‬ desperate ‫بي اميد - بيچاره - بسيار سخت - بسيار بد‬ resolve ‫تصميم گرفتن - مقرر داشتن‬ humble ‫فروتن - متواضع‬ ‫خشم او را آرامتر كند‬ soften her anger set forth ‫براه افتاد‬ presence ‫حضور - پيشگاه‬ ill-favoured ‫نگون بخت‬ diligent ‫سخت كوش - كوشنده - كوشا‬ service ‫كار - خدمت‬ good will ‫نيت خوب‬ train ‫)تربيت كردن - (آزمايش كردن‬ quantity ‫مقدار‬ seed ‫دانه - بذر‬ ‫گندم‬ wheat poppy ‫خشخاش‬ ‫ارزن‬ millet so on ‫و غيره‬ heap ‫توده - انبوه‬ nightfall ‫شب هنگام - شبانگاه‬ sort ‫سوا كردن - دسته دسته كردن‬ ‫اين كار را مي‌تواني انجام دهي‬ see to it for your own sake ‫ببين به خاطر خودت هم شده‬ depart ‫راهي شدن - روانه شدن - حركت كردن‬ still ‫آرام - ساكت‬ ‫خيره نگاه كردن‬ stare her mind was all in a maze ‫ذهنش كامل ً آشفته بود‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- she left him angrily alone in his pain, and went forth to find the girl of whom he had made her still more jealous. She was determined to show psyche what it meant to draw down the displeasure of a goddess. - poor psyche in her despairing wanderings was trying to win the gods over to her side. - she offered ardent prayers to them perpetually, but not one of them would do anything to make Venus their enemy. - at last she perceived that there was no hope for her, either in heaven or on earth, and she took a desperate resolve. - she would go straight to Venus; she would offer herself humbly to her as her servant, and try to soften her anger. - so she set forth to find the goddess who was looking everywhere for her. - when she came into Venus' presence the goddess laughed aloud and … - she said, "you are so plain and ill-favoured a girl that you will never be able to get you a lover except by the most diligent and painful service. - I will therefore show my good will to you by training you in such ways. - with that she took a great quantity of the smallest of the seeds, wheat and poppy and millet and so on, and mixed them all together in heap.

- "by nightfall these must all be sorted," she said. "see to it for your own sake." and with that she departed.

- psyche, left alone, sat still and stared at the heap. Her mind was all in a maze because of the cruelty of the command; and, indeed, it was of no use to start a task so manifestly impossible.

19

‫هذيان‬ maze cruelty ‫ظلم - بيداد - ستم‬ ‫بي فايده بود‬ it was of no use manifestly ‫آشكارا - بطور بارز‬ direful ‫وحشتاك - مهيب‬ awaken ‫بيدار كردن - بيدار شدن‬ compassion ‫شفقت - دلسوزي - رحم‬ pity ‫دلسوزي كردن - متاثر شدن‬ ‫كوچكترين موجودات‬ tiniest creatures field ‫صحرا‬ ‫مورچه‬ ant ‫به اين بيچاره رحم كنيد‬ have mercy on this poor maid ‫دوشيزه‬ ً ‫فورا‬ at once one after another ‫يكي پس از ديگري‬ ‫توده مغشوش‬ confused mass ‫كار تو به هيچ وجه تمام نشده است‬ your work is by no means over crust ‫قسمت خشك و سخت نان‬ ‫تكه نان خشك‬ crust of bread go off ‫بيرون رفتن‬ ‫تخت‬ couch labour ‫كار - زحمت‬ hateful ‫منفور‬ ‫بطور مطمئني‬ securely guard ‫محافظت كردن‬ the way matters were shaping ‫روشي كه كارها داشت شكل مي‌گرفت‬ devise ‫تدبير كردن - درست كردن‬ riverbank ‫ساحل رودخانه‬ ‫بوته‌هاي پرپشت مي‌رويد‬ the bushes grow thick ‫گوسفند‬ sheep fleece ‫پشم گوسفند‬ fetch ‫آوردن - رفتن و آوردن‬ wool ‫پشم‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- but at this direful moment she who had awakened no compassion in mortals or immortals was pitied by the tiniest creatures of the field, the little ants, the swift-runners.

- they cried to each other, "come, have mercy on this poor maid and help her diligently." at once they came, waves of them, one after another, and they laboured separating and dividing, until what had been a confused mass lay all ordered, every seed with its kind.

- very angry she was to see it. "your work Is by no means over" she said. - then she gave psyche a crust of bread and bade he sleep on the ground while she herself went off to her soft fragrant couch.

- surely if she could keep the girl at hard labour and half starve her, too, that hateful beauty of hers would soon be lost. - until then she must see that her son was securely guarded in his chamber when he was still suffering from his wound. - Venus was pleased at the way matters were shaping. - the next morning she devised another task for psyche, this time a dangerous one. - "down there near the riverbank," she said, "where the bushes grow thick, are sheep with fleeces of gold. Go fetch me some of their shining wool."

20

‫خسته و كوفته‬ worn (out) gently flowing stream ‫رودخانه كه آرام و بي صدا جريان داشت‬ ‫از ته دل خواست‬ a great longing seized her ‫ني‬ reed thicket ‫بيشه - درختزار انبوه‬ briar ‫) گل رشتي - (بوته‌هاي خاردار‬ cruel ‫بيرحم - ظالم‬ mistress ‫بانو - الهه‬ evil ‫شريرانه - بد‬ sharply ‫به تندي‬ stout ‫نيرومند - قوي‬ singular ‫خارق العاده - منحصر به فرد‬ prudence ‫احتياط - حزم - پروا‬ yonder ‫آنسو - آنطرف - واقع در آنجا‬ steep ‫سراشيب - سرازير - تند‬ slimy ‫لجن مال - لجن آلوده - ليز‬ onrush ‫پيشروي - يورش‬ descend ‫فرود آمدن - پايين آمدن‬ evident ‫آشكار - بديهي‬ eagle ‫عقاب‬ poise ‫وقار - ثابت واداشتن‬ ‫با بالهاي بزرگ فرود آمد‬ poised on his great wings beak ‫منقار‬ but Venus kept on ‫اما ونوس به امر و نهي خود ادامه داد‬ one cannot but‫انسان اين كارها را جز حماقت او چيز ديگري‬ accuse her of some stupidity ‫نمي تواند تصور كند‬ stupidity ‫حماقت - خريت‬ obedient ‫فرمانبردار - مطيع - حرف شنو‬ ‫مثل هميشه پيشنهاد را پذيرفت‬ obediently as always ‫مرد قايق ران‬ ferryman threeheaded ‫سه سر‬ ‫پيشگويي كردن‬ foretell (foretold) greatly encouraged ‫عميقا ً خرسند‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- when the worn girl reached the gently flowing stream, a great longing seized her to throw herself into it and end all her pain and despair. - but as she was bending over the water she heard a little voice from near her feet, and looking down saw that it came from a green reed. - she could go into the thicket and find plenty of the golden wool hanging on the sharp briars. - was able to carry back to her cruel mistress a quantity of the shining fleece. - Venus received it with an evil smile. "someone helped you," she said sharply. - however I will give you an opportunity to prove that you really have the stout heart and the singular prudence you make such a show of. - do you see that black water which falls from the hill yonder? - only a winged creature could reach it, so steep and slimy were the rocks on all sides, and so fearful the onrush of the descending waters.

- but by this time it must be evident to all the readers of this story that although each of her trails … - this time her saviour was an eagle, who poised on his great wings beside her, seized the flask from her with his beak and brought it back to her full of the black water.

- but Venus kept on. One cannot but accuse her of some stupidity.

- obediently as always psyche went forth to look for the road to Hades. - then down to the river of death, where she must give the ferryman, Charon, a penny to take her across. From there the road led straight to the palace. Cerberus, the threeheaded dong, guarded … - all happened, of course, as the tower had foretold. Proserpine was willing to do Venus a service, and psyche, greatly encouraged, bore back the box, returning far more quickly than she gone down. 21

encourage still more vanity charm temptation deadly languor juncture at this juncture heal imprison wipe prick scold thereafter joyful hasten errand consent dignity swan assembly full assembly announce bestow immortality bride object alliance eminently suitable interfere sore gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

‫دلگرم كردن - تشويق كردن‬ ‫از همه بيشتر‬ ‫غرور - خودسري‬ ‫افسون - دلربايي‬ ‫وسوسه - اغوا‬ ‫مهلك - كشنده‬ ‫ضعف - مستي‬ ‫اتصال - الحاق - پيوستگي‬ ‫در اين مرحله‬ ‫شفا دادن‬ ‫بزندان افكندن - نگهداشتن‬ ‫پاك كردن - زدودن‬ ‫خراش سوزن‬ ‫سرزنش كردن‬ ‫پس از آن - از آن به بعد‬ ‫شاد‬ ‫شتافتن - تسريع زدن‬ ‫ماموريت - فرمان‬ ‫موافقت - راضي شدن‬ ‫بزرگي - جاه - مقام‬ ‫قو‬ ‫مجمع - همگذاري‬‫جلسه عمومي‬ ‫اعلن كردن - اخطار كردن‬ ‫ارزاني داشتن - بخشيدن‬ ‫ابديت - جاودانگي‬ ‫عروس - تازه عروس‬ ‫اعتراض كردن - مخالفت كردن‬ ‫اتحاد - پيوستگي‬ ‫بطور برجسته - بطور چشمگيري‬ ‫در خور - مناسب‬ ‫دخالت كردن‬ ‫سخت - دشوار‬

- her next trial she brought upon herself through her curiosity and, still more, her vanity. - she felt that she must see what that beauty- charm in the box was; and perhaps, use a little of it … - she was unable to resist the temptation; she opened the box. - to her sharp disappointment she saw nothing there, it seemed empty. Immediately, however, a deadly languor took possession of her and she fell into a heavy sleep. - at this juncture the god of love himself stepped forward. - cupid was healed of his wound by now and longing for psyche. It is a difficult matter to keep love imprisoned. - in a moment he had wiped the sleep from her eyes and put it back into the box. - then waking her with just a prick from one of his arrows, and scolding her a little for her curiosity. - he bade her take Proserpine's box to his mother and he assured her that all thereafter would be well - while the joyful psyche hastened on her errand, the god flew up to Olympus.

- he went straight to Jupiter, the father of gods and men, consented at once to all that cupid asked. - he said, "you have done me great harm in the past, seriously injured my good name and my dignity by making me change myself into a bull and a swan and so on. - then he called a full assembly of the gods, and announce to all, including Venus, that cupid and psyche were formally married, and that he proposed to bestow immortality upon the bride.

- this, of course, completely changed the situation. Venus could not object to a goddess for her daughter-in-law; the alliance had become eminently suitable.

- she could not be much on the earth to turn men's heads and interfere with her own worship. - love and the soul (for that is what psyche means) had sought and after sore trials, found each other; 22

union ‫وصلت - اتحاد و اتفاق‬ condemn ‫محكوم كردن - محكوم شدن‬ ‫انتقاد كردن‬ criticize hatred ‫دشمني - كينه - تنفر‬ disgust ‫نفرت - بيزاري - بيزاري كردن‬ intense ‫زياد - شديد - مشتاقانه‬ disloyalty ‫بي وفايي - خيانت‬ caution ‫احتياط - پيش بيني - هوشياري‬ stick ‫سوراخ كردن - چسبيدن - فرو رفتن‬ beguile ‫گول زدن - اغفال كردن - فريب خوردن‬ alike ‫يكسان - يكجور - بتساوي‬ laughter ‫خنده - قاه قاه خنده‬ loving ‫دوستدار - محبوب‬ mock ‫ساختگي - تقليدي - استهزاء كردن‬ mockingly ‫بطور ساختگي - استهزاء آميز‬ wile ‫حيله - فريب - اغوا كردن‬ conquer ‫پيروزي يافتن بر - فتح كردن‬ irresistible ‫غيرقابل مقاومت - سخت - قوي‬ steal (stole) ‫دستبرد زدن - بسرقت بردن‬ wit ‫هوش - قوه تعقل‬ spring (sprung) ‫ظاهر شدن - جهيدن‬ foam ‫كف - جوش و خروش - حباب هاي ريز‬ rise ‫برخاستن - ناشي شدن از - صعود كردن‬ ‫زايش دريايي‬ sea-birth waft ‫روي هوا يا آب شناور ساختن - بهوا راندن‬ ever ‫همواره‬ embroider ‫آراستن - قلب دوزي كردن‬ radiant ‫تابناك - درخشنده‬ battle ‫نبرد - ستيز‬ ‫قهرمان‬ heroe theme ‫موضوع - مطلب‬ treacherous ‫خيانتكار - خائن‬ malicious ‫بدانديش‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

and that union could never be broken. - reproach: to condemn; criticize. - loath: to feel great hatred or disgust for somebody or something - rapture: pleasure; intense delight. - betray: show somebody disloyalty. - prudence: caution; wisdom. - prick: small pointed stick. - Venus was the goddess of love and beauty, who beguiled all, gods and men alike.
- the laughter-loving goddess, who laughed sweetly or mockingly at those her wiles had conquered.

- the irresistible goddess who stole away even the wits of the wise.

- in the later poems she is said to have sprung from the foam of the sea, and her name was explained as meaning "the foam-risen" - this sea-birth took place near Cythera, from where she was wafted to Cyprus. - both islands were ever after sacred to her, and she was called Cytherea or the Cyprian. - the winds flee before her and the storm clouds; sweet flowers embroider the earth; the waves of the sea laugh; she moves in radiant light. - it was natural that she should cut a poor figure in the Iliad, where the battle of heroes is the theme.

- in later poems she is usually shown as treacherous and malicious, exerting a deadly and
destructive power over man.

23

exert ‫اعمال كردن - بكار بردن‬ destructive ‫ويرانگر - مخرب‬ lame ‫چلق - لنگ‬ forge ‫كوره آهنگري - جعل‬ myrtle ‫مورد سبز‬ dove ‫فاخته - قمري‬ sparrow ‫گنجشك خانگي‬ combination ‫تركيب - آميزش‬ elaborate ‫داراي جزئيات - استادانه ساخته شده‬ thorny ‫خاردار‬ industrious ‫ماهر - زبردست‬ distract ‫حواس پرت كردن - گيج كردن‬ affection ‫مهرباني - عاطفه‬ perch ‫فرود آمدن - نشيمنگاه پرنده‬ woolly ‫پشمالو - پشم دار‬ foolishness ‫نابخردي - ناداني‬ deceive ‫گول زدن - فريب دادن‬ insist (on) ‫اصرار ورزيدن‬ ‫قاره‬ continent decline ‫زوال - انحطاط‬ ‫فروپاشي امپراطوري رم‬ fall of the roman empire compromise ‫) توافق - مصالحه - (قرارداد‬ at least to stumble along in ‫در حدي كه حداقل بال و پايين‬ ‫دنيا را بشناسيد‬ the world faculty ‫قوه ذهني - استعداد‬ wander about helplessly‫نااميدانه، اين سو و آن سو مي‌رفتي‬ ‫د‬ altogether ‫روي هم رفته - از همه جهت‬ re-orient ‫دوباره ميزان كردن - دوباره آشنا كردن‬ get a new running start ‫مسير جديد را از نو شروع كردن‬ cease ‫دست كشيدن - ايستادن‬ association ‫وابستگي‬ ‫حذف كردن‬ omit done, but not done with ‫انجام شده ولي به همراه كاري انجام نشده است‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- in most stories she is the wife of Hephaestus, the lame and ugly god of the forge. - the myrtle was her tree; the dove her bird, sometimes, too, the sparrow and the swan.

- alliance: combination. - banquet: elaborate and formal meal usually for a special event. - briar: thorny bush. - diligent: hard-working; industrious. - distract: to stop somebody concentrating on something. - embrace: take a person into one's arms as a sign of affection. - poise: to stand; to perch. - fleece: woolly hair like that of a sheep. - folly: foolishness. - psyche was deceived by her sisters. - by insisting on seeing her sisters, psyche wanted to increase her joys.
- history may also mean study of past events especially the economic development of a continent or the world.

- they seem to mean is that they have never had a course in history, or have never read Gibbon's decline and fall of the roman empire, or Mr.. Rhodes's history of the united states from the compromise of 1850, or other books similar to these. - every man, woman, and child knows some history enough at least to stumble along in the world. - all your other faculties working properly, but memory entirely gone. - what could you do in that case? Wander about helplessly, seeing and hearing things, taking them in as altogether new, not at all knowing what they might mean in relation either to the past or the future. - you would have to re-orient yourself and get a new running start. - in short, you would be a lost soul because you had ceased to have any knowledge of history, the history of your personal doings and associations in the past. - we might as well omit the word "past" since everything said and done is already in the past as soon as it is said or done. Done, but not done with. 24

‫كنيم‬ to live our lives intelligently‫زندگي خود را هوشمندانه سپري‬ so far as ‫تا آنجا كه‬ thus ‫بدينگونه - بدينسان‬ ‫پيش بيني كردن‬ anticipate predict ‫پيشگويي كردن‬ distinction ‫تميز - فرق - امتياز‬ interpret ‫ترجمه كردن - تفسير كردن‬ settling a dispute ‫نشست كردن يك مشاجره - مصالحه‬ slip ‫لغزش - خطا - از قلم انداختن‬ stagger ‫متناوب - ترديد داشتن - بتناوب كار كردن‬ ‫لغزش‬ trip ‫دوباره تعديل‬ readjust leave out ‫حذف كردن‬ a matter of hours nationality ‫مليت‬ ‫ديگر‬ any longer commonplace ‫پيش پا افتاده - معمولي‬ complication ‫پيچيدگي - بغرنجي‬ ‫اسكانديناوي‬ Scandinavian achievement ‫دست يابي - پيروزي‬ ‫انتظار داشتن‬ await settlement ‫توافق - واريز‬ do away with eliminate ‫حذف كردن - بيرون كردن‬ UNIT 8 expectation ‫انتظار - چشم داشت - توقع‬ plot ‫موضوع اصلی - طرح‬ narrate ‫داستانی را تعریف کردن - شرح دادن‬ arise ‫بوجود آوردن - ناشی شدن‬ desperate ‫نا اميد - بيچاره‬ pioneer ‫پيشگام - پيشقدم‬ surgeon ‫جراح‬ bond ‫عهد و ميثاق - ضمانت - قرارداد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- we have to remember many things said and done in order to live our lives intelligently; and so far as we remember things said and done we have a knowledge of history. - thus everyone has some knowledge of history, and it is quite essential that every one should have, since it is only by remembering something of the past that we can anticipate something of the future. - please note that I do not say predict the future. - history doesn’t make a distinction between past and present. - how is "past" interpreted in paragraph 3? - compromise: agreement; settling a dispute. - stumble: to trip; slip; stagger.

- reorient: to adjust again; to readjust. - omit: to leave out; to delete. - the world has got smaller. people travel from one part of it to another in a matter of hours. - and increasingly, men and women from different nationalities, cultures and races meet, marry. - mixed marriages are not something which one thinks about as strange any longer; they have become commonplace. - or similar culture groups, such as the Scandinavians and the Germans. - anticipate: expect; await. - compromise: agreement; settlement. - do away with: to make an end of; eliminate.

- in reading stories, people have different expectations. - some pay attention to the plot of the story to see how things happen. - some people also may like the way that real life is narrated and how things that might be considered unimportant are described in detail. - a desperately ill child, a pioneering surgeon and a bond forged for life.

25

forge ‫جلو رفتن - كوبيدن‬ exceptional ‫استثنايي‬ ‫برتري داشتن بر‬ excel ‫صداي زير‬ soprano soloist ‫تك نواز - تك خوان‬ choir ‫كر - بصورت دسته جمعي سرود خواندن‬ pulled muscle ‫كشيدگي عضلت‬ ‫رضايتبخش‬ satisfactory stab ‫تير كشيدن - خنجر زدن‬ itch ‫خارش - خارش كردن‬ ٌ ‫دائما‬ constantly scratch ‫خراشيدن - خاراندن‬ bang ‫محكم زدن‬ agony ‫درد - رنج‬ frustration ‫نا اميدي‬ ‫متخصص‬ specialist admit ‫پذيرفتن - راه دادن‬ grim ‫عبوس‬ ‫دكتري ابرو در هم كشيده‬ grim-faced doctor tumour ‫غده‬ spinal ‫فقراتي - وابسته به ستون فقرات‬ cord ‫ريسمان - طناب نازك‬ spinal cord ‫نخاع‬ ultimate ‫نهايي - آخر‬ rob ‫دستبرد زدن‬ limb ‫عضو - عضو بدن - دست يا پا‬ sensation ‫احساس - حس‬ growth ‫تومور‬ radiation ‫تابش - پرتوافشاني‬ plead ‫درخواست كردن - لبه كردن‬ sat round ‫دور (چيزي) نشستن‬ ‫عمل پنهاني‬ undercurrent gloom ‫افسردگي - دلتنگي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- at the age of seven, Julian Thurston was an exceptional runner who enjoyed football and excelled at swimming. - gifted with a rich soprano voice, he was also a soloist in the choir at Ocklynge School

- his mother thought at first he had just pulled a muscle. - they took Julian from one doctor to another, but none could give a satisfactory explanation. - meanwhile, a stabbing pain in his back began waking Julian at night, and his arms itched so much that he was constantly scratching.

- as the pain increased, he banged his head in agony and frustration.

- in early December, a specialist at London's Middlesex hospital admitted Julian for tests. - finally, a few days before Christmas, a grim-faced doctor came to Jane. "I'm sorry," he said. "your son has a large tumour inside his spinal cord."

- ultimately it robbed his limbs of sensation and strength.

- "surgery," the doctor said, "is impossible. There is no way to remove the growth without destroying the spinal cord." the only treatment that might slow tumour was radiation. - "is there anywhere I could take him for help?" Jane pleaded. - on Christmas day, the family sat round Julian's bed, ate Christmas dinner and tried to laugh at Ron's Jokes. But an undercurrent of gloom ran through the whole day.

26

‫غم پنهاني چ‬ undercurrent of gloom track down ‫پيگيري كردن‬ ‫صحبت مي‌كرد‬ told of ‫ملقب‬ nicknamed technique pioneered ‫تكنيك جديد‬ ‫جراح اعصاب كودكان‬ paediatric neurosurgeon there is question of money ‫مسئله اصلي پول است‬ ‫ثروتمند‬ wealthy ‫چشم پوشيدن از‬ waive up front ‫هزينه‬ charge anguish ‫دلتنگي - اضطراب‬ glimmer ‫روشنايي ضعيف - نور كم‬ ‫نور اميدي‬ a glimmer of hope prospect ‫چشم انداز - پيش‌بيني - انتظار‬ ‫معادل‬ equivalent ‫‌گراييد‬ just as hope was fading ‫هنگامي كه اميد آنها به نااميدي مي‬ hand ‫با دست كاري را انجام دادن‬ ‫پاكت‬ envelope cheque ‫چك‬ pay off ‫پرداخت كردن (تمام ديون) - تسويه كردن‬ mortgage ‫) رهن - گرو - (دين‬ sandy-haired ‫موهاي تازه رو به سفيدي گذاشته‬ ‫رفتار بسيار متواضعانه‬ down-to-earth manner put Jane at her ease ‫جين را دلداري داد‬ orderly ‫) خدمتكار (بيمارستان‬ ‫با چرخ بردن‬ wheeled theatre ‫تالر‬ ‫اتاق جراحي مركزي‬ center's operating theatre expose ‫بي پناه گذاشتن - بي حفاظ كردن‬ membrane ‫غشاء - پوست‬ ‫غشاء خاكستري رنگ‬ the grey-coloured membrane cut through that ‫آن را از وسط بريد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- Ann Markham tracked down the article and, reading it, realized the case sounded remarkably similar

to Julian's. it told of a young American boy nicknamed Aaron Alligator. - his spinal-cord tumour had been removed through a new technique pioneered by Fred Epstein, a paediatric neurosurgeon at the new York university Medical center. - "there is question of money," Stanhope informed Epstein. "the boy's family is not wealthy." - "no problem" Epstein said quickly. "I'll waive my fee. But the hospital needs 7000 dollars up front. - I'm sorry I can't do anything about the hospital charges. - after months of anguish, Jane and Ron Thurston had at last a glimmer of hope.

- however, the prospect of raising 4000 pounds (the equivalent of 7000 dollars) seemed impossible. - just as hope was fading, the Thurston's received a surprise visit from Pan Cradduck. - Pam handed Ron an envelope. Inside was a cheque for 4000 pounds --money she had been saving to pay off her mortgagee.

- Epstein came into the boy's room. Tall sandy-haired, with a ready smile and down-to-earth manner, the 45-year-old surgeon quickly put Jane at her ease. - at 7 am on January 20, orderlies wheeled Julian towards the center's operating theatre.

- Epstein opened his back, exposing the grey-coloured membrane that covers the spinal cord, and cut through that to reach the cord itself.

27

fissure natural fissure ‫بافت طبيعي‬ ‫پرتو‬ beam cauterize ‫سوزاندن - داغ كردن‬ vessel ‫رگ‬ peel ‫كندن - پوست كندن‬ reddish-brown ‫قهوه‌اي مايل به قرمز‬ inflict ‫ضربت زدن - ضربت وارد كردن‬ ‫جبران ناپذير‬ irreparable cavity ‫حفره - گودال‬ cavitational ‫ماوراء صوت‬ ultrasonic surgical ‫وابسته به جراحي - عمل جراحي‬ aspirator ‫) هواكش (نام دستگاه) - چرك كش (در جراحي‬ vibrate ‫ارتعاش داشتن - نوسان كردن‬ ‫دستگاه جراحي ماوراء صوت‬ cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirator pencil-like ‫شبيه مداد‬ ‫در مقابل‬ against break up ‫تفكيك كردن - تجزيه‬ ‫عمل مكيدن‬ suction ‫محتاط‬ gingerly trip ‫لغزش خوردن - لغزش‬ ٌ ‫اصل ٌ - ابدا‬ none there was no room for error ‫جايي براي هيچ اشتباه نبود‬ ٌ ‫دائما‬ permanently paralyse ‫فلج كردن - از كار انداختن‬ bit by bit ‫ذره ذره‬ ‫كشش عضلت‬ muscle tension ‫ماساژ دادن‬ massage step back ‫دور شدن‬ ‫اتاق بهبودي‬ recovery room emerge ‫پديدار شدن - بيرون آمدن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- using a laser, Epstein carefully cut along a natural fissure in the cord. - the laser's beam cauterized the small vessels as it moved along.

- finally, peeling the cord open, Epstein looked down at the long, reddish-brown tumour. - even if the surgery succeeded, Epstein worried that the tumour might already have inflicted irreparable damage. - the surgeon now reached for the cavitational ultrasonic surgical aspirator, a pencil-like ultrasonic instrument with a tip that vibrates 26000 times a second.

- breaking up the tissue is touches and then suctioning it out. - looking through the operating microscope, Epstein gingerly moved the vibrating trip against Julian's tumour. - there was no room for error -- none. Even the smallest slip could permanently paralyse the patient.

- bit by bit, the tumour began to disappear. Hours passed, to ease Epstein's muscle tension, a nurse massaged his neck.
- a 3 o'clock, 8 hours after Julian had been wheeled in for surgery, Epstein stepped back from the operating table.

- minutes later, Epstein and Jane walked to the recovery room. As they stood over the boy, waiting
Julian slowly emerged from his deep sleep.

28

‫تكان دادن‬ wiggle intensive ‫شديد‬ ‫مراقبت‌ ويژه‬ intensive care ‫آزمايشگاه‬ laboratory benign ‫خوش خيم‬ ‫شانس كمي‬ slight chance recur ‫عود كردن - تكرار شدن‬ odds ‫سيستم دفاعي‬ immune system stride (strode) ‫گام‌هاي بلند برداشتن‬ briskly ‫به تندي - با چابكي‬ ‫كنار تختخواب‬ the side of the bed grip ‫محكم گرفتن‬ slide (slid) ‫لغزش - لغزيدن‬ tiled floor ‫موزائيك اتاق‬ expression ‫سيما - قيافه - چهره‬ harden ‫سخت كردن - سخت شدن - ماسيدن‬ his expression hardened ‫چهره‌اش در هم كشيده بود‬ ‫تصميم‬ determination unsteady ‫لرزان‬ debt ‫بدهي - دين‬ gratitude ‫قدرداني كردن - سپاسگزاري‬ deepen ‫)گود كردن - (عميق شدن‬ ‫ ي‌شد‬deepened debt of gratitude felt ‫وظيفه سپاسگزاري عميق‌تر احساس م‬ lounge ‫سالن استراحت‬ pavilion ‫غرفه نمايشگاه - عمارت كله فرنگي‬ ‫لباس آبي جراحي‬ blue theatre garb lively young ‫جوان شاداب‬ ‫عليرغم‬ despite ‫اهدا كردن‬ dedicate mist ‫تري چشم‬ ‫چشماش از اشك شوق پر شدند‬ his eyes misting over nod ‫تكان دادن سر به نشانه توافق‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- "can you wiggle your toes for me?" Epstein asked. - Julian remained in intensive care for five days. The laboratory confirmed that his tumour was benign.

- although there was a slight chance that the growth might recur, the odds were much greater that his immune system would destroy it.

- one morning in late January, Epstein strode briskly into Julian's room, "ok Julian," he said. "if you can walk, you can go home." - with help, Julian shifted his legs over the side of the bed. Jane gripped his hands as he slowly slid his feet on to the tiled floor.

- his expression hardened with determination, the boy managed five short, unsteady steps.

- as the months and years passed, the debt of gratitude Julian felt towards Epstein Deepened.

- in 19990, shortly before Christmas, 30 young patients formed a noisy circle around a piano in the lounge of the new York university medical centre pavilion. - In the corner, dressed in his blue theatre garb and white medical coat, stood Fred Epstein. - a lively young man with dark hair and a smile made his way to the centre of the room. Julian, now 16, appeared calm despite the emotion of the moment. - he paused as he lifted his violin. "I'd like to dedicated this to Dr. Epstein," he said, his eyes misting over. - then with a nod to his accompanist, Julian began to play a complex work by Elgar. 29

‫همراهي كننده‬ accompanist complex ‫پيچيده‬ erupt ‫منفجر شدن - فوران كردن‬ ‫كف زدن‬ applause cheer ‫هورا - هلهله كردن‬ clamour ‫سر و صدا - غوغا‬ carol ‫سرود شب عيد ميلد مسيح‬ ‫نقص‬ handicap ‫آغاز تولد‬ birth minor ‫كمتر - كوچكتر - خردسال‬ a minor itching problem facility ‫وسيله - امكان‬ torment ‫زجر - شكنجه - آزار‬ sensible ‫معقول - مشهود - محسوس‬ realistic ‫واقع بين‬ attentive ‫مواظب - متوجه - با دقت‬ cautious ‫هوشيار - محتاط‬ thankfulness ‫سپاسگزاري‬ ‫كف زدن‬ clap bankrupt ‫ورشكست كردن يا شدن‬ seek (sought) ‫جستجو كردن - طلبيدن‬ ‫تبليغات‬ publicity plight ‫گرفتاري - مخمصه‬ ‫سرد‬ crisp bundle ‫دسته كردن - مجموعه - بقچه بستن‬ crew ‫خدمه‬ passer ‫عابر - گذرنده‬ honk ‫صداي بوق ماشين‬ ‫بوق‬ horn threaten ‫تهديد كردن - ترساندن‬ case mount ‫بالغ شدن بر - زياد شدن‬ metropolitan ‫وابسته به پايتخت يا شهر عمده‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- when he finished, the room erupted with applause and cheering. Then the audience clamoured for Christmas carols.

- Julian was not handicapped at birth. - a minor itching problem - lack of hospital facilities. - pain; suffering; torment: agony - sensible; realistic: down-to-earth - carefully; attentively; cautiously: gingerly - thankfulness; appreciation: gratitude - cheer; clapping: applause. - Epstein, worried that their medical expenses might bankrupt them, sought publicity for the family's plight.

- so one crisp, sunny January morning joined by Julian's father, Epstein bundled the boy into a wheelchair and rolled him down the middle of first avenue, the busy road in front of the hospital. - a local television crew followed closely. It recorded passers- by staring in surprise, drivers honking their horns, and Epstein making this case for this family threatened by mounting medical bills.

- New York's Metropolitan Taxicab Board of Trade, Learning that Ron Thurston was a fellow cabby, 30

‫تاكسي‬ taxicab board ‫هيئت مديره‬ trade fellow ‫مرد - شخص‬ cabby ‫راننده تاكسي‬ rally ‫پشتيباني كردن - دوباره جمع آوري كردن‬ fund ‫سرمايه - سرمايه گذاري كردن‬ ‫افزايش سرمايه‌گذاري‬ fund-raising donate ‫بخشيدن - هديه دادن‬ sponsor ‫حامي - ضامن - مسئوليت چيزي را قبول كردن‬ walkathon ‫مدير مدرسه‬ headmaster spell ‫هجي كردن - درست نوشتن‬ pledge ‫متعهد شدن - التزام داشتن‬ substantiate ‫با دليل و مدرك اثبات كردن‬ woe ‫غصه - علمت اندوه و غم‬ ‫سپاسگزاري‬ acknowledgment insusceptible ‫غير مستعد - تاييد ناپذير‬ structure ‫تركيب - ساختار‬ indication ‫اشاره‬ approval ‫موافقت - تصويب‬ ‫بي جان شدن‬ deaden innovator ‫نوآور - بدعت گذار‬ ‫بهبودي يافتن‬ recuperate scrape ‫خراشيدن - خراش‬ underlying ‫در زير قرار گرفته‬ tendency ‫گرايش - ميل - علقه‬ contrary ‫مخالف - معكوس‬ ٌ ‫ظاهرا‬ superficially shiver ‫ارتعاش - لرزيدن‬

had already paid for Julian's sister and Ron to fly to New York.

- school and local organizations rallied round to help the Thurston's with fund-raising events: sales of donated goods, a sponsored swim and a walkathon.

- Julian's headmaster, Alan Clark, suggested a sponsored spell. Pupils seized on the idea, knocking on doors in Eastbourne after school in search of sponsors to pledge a small sum for each word the pupils could spell correctly. - confirm: prove; verify; substantiate - gloom: misery; sadness; woe. - gratitude: thankfulness; appreciation; acknowledgment. - immune: free; protected; insusceptible. - membrane: a thin layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connecting structures or organs. - nod: a quick up and down movement of the head; an indication of approval. - paralyse: deaden; lose feeling in or control of a part of body. - pioneer: leader; innovator. - recover: heal; improve; recuperate. - scratch: to scrape; to use the nails to scrape. - undercurrent: hidden; an underlying tendency or force often contrary to what is superficially evident.

- vibrate: shake; shiver.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

31

UNIT 10 transcendental ‫متعالي - غيرجبري‬ meditation ‫عبادت - تفكر - انديشه - تعمق‬ physical (mental) ‫)جسماني - بدني - فيزيكي (روحي - فكري‬ achieve ‫دست يافتن - نائل شدن‬ philosophy ‫فلسفه - حكمت‬ supporter ‫حامي - پشتيبان‬ the science of being ‫علم بودن‬ ‫هنر زيستن‬ the art of living ‫جيب‬ pocket founder ‫بنيان گذار‬ ‫سازمان بزرگ جهاني‬ huge worldwide organization transcendental meditation ‫تفكر ماوراي الطبيعه‬ ‫خشن‬ scraggly vegetarian ‫سبزي خوار - گياه خوار‬ celibate ‫بي جفت - مجرد - عزب‬ ‫راهب‬ monk but he has one ‫اما او هم خاطراتي دارد‬ ranger ‫جنگل بان‬ pursue ‫پيگيري كردن - دنبال كردن‬ major ‫رشته‬ disciple ‫مريد - پيرو - هواخواه‬ religious ‫مذهبي - روحاني‬ legend ‫افسانه‬ ‫مردم عادي‬ common person seclusion ‫گوشه‌نشيني - انزوا‬ hook ‫) گرفتار كردن - بدام انداختن - ربودن - (پيوستن‬ mass media ‫رسانه‌هاي جمعي - ارتباط جمعي‬ adherent ‫هواخواه - پيرو‬ ‫متفكر‬ mediator gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- transcendental meditation is "a technique of meditation in which deep mental and physical relaxation is achieved especially through the use of sacred beliefs."

- its philosophy teaches that mind can go beyond matter, and that man can know more than he really sees or experiences.

- "I have no pockets," says Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, founder of the huge, worldwide organization that teaches transcendental meditation: "I deal in wisdom, not in money"

- he is a tiny man, with a scraggly beard, long messy hair, and a voice that has been described as a 33 1/3 rpm record played at 78 rpm. He is a vegetarian, takes no drugs, is celibate. - because he is a monk, he feels he is "not expected" to think of his past. But he has one. Born the son of an Indian forest ranger, he graduated in 1942 at the age of 24. - but instead of pursuing a career in his major (physics), he became a disciple of religious leader Swami Brahmananda (Guru Dev).

- The maharishi was left, according to legend, with the job of developing a form of meditation for the common person. - the result, which he announced after 2 years of seclusion in Himalayas, was transcendental meditation. He first taught T.M. in India, then brought it to the west, and where he soon hooked into western technology and mass media. - his adherents have included stevie Wonder, Peggy Lee, The beach boys, and Joe Namath. - between 1961 and 1972, more than 100,000 people became mediators. 32

‫نظم و قاعده محترم‬ respected discipline armed services ‫خدمات ارتش‬ research ‫تحقيق - پژوهش‬ ‫سازمان‌هاي تجاري‬ business organizations scientific community ‫جامعه علمي‬ ‫وابسته به علم فيزيولوژيكي‬ physiological explore ‫سياحت كردن - كاوش كردن‬ ‫جنبه‬ aspect ‫دستورات مشرق زمين‬ eastern disciplines levitation ‫)شناوري (در هوا‬ headquarters ‫) مركز فرماندهي - (مركز اداري‬ ‫جلسه آغازين‬ initial session alleged(ly) ‫) دليل آوردن - اقامه كردن - (بنا به گفته‌اي‬ levitate ‫برخاستن - بلند شدن - شناور شدن‬ foam ‫كف‬ rubber ‫لستيك - كائوچو‬ mat ‫بوريا - حصير‬ thoughtfully ‫انديشمندانه‬ lay (laid) ‫خواباندن - گذاردن‬ blend ‫تركيب‬ ‫عملي بودن‬ practicality ‫روحاني‬ spirituality state of deep rest ‫حالت استراحت عميق‬ awake ‫بيدار شدن - بيدار ماندن - بيدار كردن‬ alert ‫هوشيار - گوش به زنگ‬ cosmic ‫كيهاني - وابسته به كيهان‬ consciousness ‫هوشياري - آگاهي‬ it can lead ‫آن مي‌تواند منجر شود به‬ ‫روشنفكري‬ enlightenment ‫عصر روشنفكري‬ age of enlightenment prestigious ‫با اعتبار - با حيثيت - معتبر‬ ‫موسسه‬ institution document ‫سنديت دادن - تاييد كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- it had become a respected discipline, researched by the armed services, used in schools and colleges, and taught by business organizations.

- in June, 1977, he realizing he had convinced the scientific community of the physiological and mental benefits of T.M., began to explore other aspects of meditation and Eastern disciplines, like levitation.

- at his Swiss headquarters, during an initial session, 90% of the 900 teachers who were there allegedly were able to learn to levitate, some landing rather smartly on the foam rubber mats which had been thoughtfully laid on the floor.

- T.M. is a blend of western practicality and Eastern spirituality, a quickly taught technique of meditation which produces a state of deep rest in which the mind remain awake and alert.

- it can lead to cosmic consciousness. The maharishi feels that if only 5% of the people in the world meditate, we will enter an age of enlightenment, with universal peace and less crime.

scientists from prestigious institutions like Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have documented its physiological effects: a drop in block pressure, less intake of oxygen and output of carbon dioxide, less strain on the heart and respiratory system, less stress. 33

‫مقدار جذب چيزي به درون‬ intake oxygen ‫اكسيژن‬ output ‫بازده - توليد‬ ‫دي اكسيد كربن‬ carbon dioxide strain ‫كشش - فشار - زور زدن‬ ‫دستگاه تنفس‬ respiratory system irritable ‫زود رنج - تند مزاج‬ reaction ‫عكس العمل - واكنش‬ impart ‫بيان كردن - افشا كردن‬ preparatory ‫مقدماتي‬ initiate ‫وارد كردن - بنياد نهادن - نخستين قدم را برداشتن‬ ceremony ‫مراسم - تشريفات‬ handkerchief ‫دستمال - دستمال گردن‬ cleanse ‫پاك كردن - تطهير كردن‬ spirit ‫روح - روان‬ ‫نمادي‬ symbolic ‫نشان اهدايي‬ symbolic offering chant ‫مناجات - سرود - سرود يا آهنگ خواندن‬ temperament ‫سرشت - طبيعت - فطرت‬ profession ‫پيشه - حرفه - شغل‬ literal ‫دقيق - واقعي - معني اصلي‬ initiation ‫نخستين قدم - وارد شدن‬ attend ‫حضور يافتن‬ ‫جلسه‌هاي بررسي‬ checking sessions take the phone off the hook ‫سيم تلفن را از پريز بكشيد‬ innocence ‫پاكي - بي گناهي‬ ‫با تمام خلوص‬ in all innocence slip (away) ‫)اشتباه - خطا - سهو كردن (حذف شدن عبارتي‬ dive into your mind again ‫در اعماق ذهن خود غرق شويد‬ ‫وقتي زمان به پايان مي‌رسد‬ when the time is up abrupt ‫ناگهان - تند - ناگهاني‬ brotherhood ‫برادري - انجمن برادري و اخوت‬ monastery ‫صومعه - دير‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

people who meditate do better in school and on the job, are less irritable, and have faster reaction times.

- T.M. people say that in order for you to learn how to meditate correctly, you need to have the techniques imparted to you by a T.M. teacher, who, after 2 preparatory sessions will initiate you in a ceremony to which you bring 3 pieces of fruit, 6 fresh flowers and a clean handkerchief (cleansing of the spirit).

- these are put under a colour photograph of Guru Dev as symbolic offerings. - the teacher chants in Sanskrit, then gives you your mantra, one of 17 available, based on your temperament and profession. - a mantra is a Sanskrit word that may or may not have a literal meaning. The most widely used mantra in the world is Om Mani Padme Hum. After your initiation, you attend three checking sessions where you find out if you are meditating in the right way. - if you meditate in the house, sit in a comfortable chair, take the phone off the hook, put pets in another room. close your eyes and silently repeat the mantra "in all innocence" if it slips away, let it. Let your mind do what it wants. - when and if you reach the conscious level, return to the mantra and "dive' into your mind again. - when the time is up, sit quietly for two or three minutes and open your eyes very slowly to avoid too abrupt a return to the outside world.

34

‫‪tie‬‬ ‫‪watchful‬‬ ‫‪band‬‬ ‫‪reputation‬‬ ‫‪eternity‬‬ ‫‪disapprove‬‬ ‫‪succession‬‬ ‫‪wander‬‬ ‫‪parable‬‬ ‫‪precede‬‬ ‫‪monastic‬‬ ‫‪novice‬‬ ‫‪order‬‬ ‫‪life-denying‬‬ ‫‪Buddhist order‬‬ ‫‪parental‬‬ ‫‪consent‬‬ ‫‪ever since‬‬ ‫‪bow‬‬ ‫‪pressure‬‬ ‫‪nun‬‬ ‫‪absorb‬‬ ‫‪dilute‬‬ ‫‪northern‬‬ ‫‪induct‬‬ ‫‪conduct‬‬ ‫‪pass on‬‬ ‫‪oversensitive‬‬ ‫‪touchy‬‬ ‫‪supernatural‬‬ ‫‪untidy‬‬ ‫‪distinguish‬‬ ‫‪occupy‬‬ ‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬

‫رابطه‬ ‫مواظب - مراقب - هوشياري‬ ‫دسته - متحد شدن‬ ‫شهرت - آبرو‬ ‫ابديت - جاوداني - بي پايان‬ ‫ناپسند شمردن - رد كردن‬ ‫توالي - ترادف - جانشيني‬ ‫سرگردان بودن - آواره بودن‬ ‫داستان اخلقي - تمثيل‬ ‫مقدم بودن - جلو بودن از‬ ‫رهباني‬ ‫نوآموز - مبتدي‬ ‫دسته - فرقه مذهبي‬

‫والديني - وابسته به پدر و مادر‬ ‫رضايت - موافقت‬ ‫تعظيم كردن - خم شدن‬ ‫مشقت - مصائب و سختي ها‬ ‫راهبه‬

‫شمالي - ساكن شمال‬ ‫وارد كردن - گماشتن بر‬

‫53‬

revolution temper

UNIT 13 once ‫يكبار‬ ‫سرخپوستان آمريكايي‬ American Indian while perhaps open to question ‫در حالي كه پاسخ به اين‬ ‫پرسش مشخص است‬ non-literate ‫بي سواد‬ ‫باربري‬ porterage devote (devoted) ‫) وقف كردن - اختصاص دادن - (مختص‬ consideration ‫توجه - ملحظه - رسيدگي‬ burden ‫بار مسئوليت - تحميل كردن - بار - وزن‬ ‫حامل‬ carrier adjunct ‫الحاقي - افزوده‬ any adjuncts to their task ‫نوع كمك هاي اضافي آنها‬ ‫روشي كه‬ the manner in which load ‫بار - كوله بار‬ distinct ‫تميز - فرق - تشخيص‬ ‫فرهنگي‬ cultural sexual ‫جنسي‬ distinct cultural & sexual differences ‫اختلفات بارز فرهنگي و جنسي‬ enclose ‫در ميان گذاشتن - در جوف قرار دادن‬ handle ‫سروكار داشتن - بكار بردن‬ container ‫ظرف - محتوي - كانتينر‬ at the side ‫در پهلوي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- once, a national park ranger commented that "the American Indian could carry everything he could pack on his wife's back". - while perhaps open to question, this remark does make an important point. - the basic means of transport of non-literate peoples was, indeed, human porterage. - therefore, within any writing devoted to transport, consideration must be given to human burden carriers and any adjuncts to their task.

- the manner in which loads are carried shows distinct cultural and sexual differences.

- among American college students, books and notebooks, when not enclosed in a briefcase or other handled container, are carried in different fashions by men and women. - the men carry their books at the side, resting on the bent hand and pinned between the forearm 36

‫تكيه دادن‬ rest (on) bent ‫خم شده - خم‬ pin ‫متصل كردن به - گير افتادن‬ forearm ‫ساعد - بازو‬ hip ‫كفل - قسمت ميان ران و تهيگاه‬ ‫ديگر وسيله حمل‬ other handled container crook ‫كجي - خم كردن - كج كردن‬ in the crook of the arm ‫در حالي كه بازوي خود را خم كرده‬ ‫حمل بار‬ burden-bearing tropical ‫گرمسيري - نواحي گرمسيري‬ ‫واقع در جنوب غربي‬ southwestern feminine ‫جنس زن - مربوط به جنس زن - مونث‬ trait ‫ويژگي - خصيصه‬ ً ‫ندرتا ً - گاها‬ infrequently pad ‫پارچه نرم‬ cushion ‫ليه گذاشتن - زيرسازي كردن‬ ً ‫مخصوصا‬ especially (specially) seat ‫نشاندن - جايگزين ساختن‬ ‫با پاهاي گشاد از هم‬ astride accord ‫دلخواه - طيب خاطر - جور كردن‬ ‫به دلخواه خود‬ its own accord ‫حمل بار در پشت‬ back-carrying involve ‫وارد كردن‬ auxiliary ‫كمكي - كمك دهنده - امدادي‬ peasant ‫روستايي - كشاورز - دهقاني‬ the hill regions ‫نواحي كوهستاني‬ tumpline shoulder bag ‫كوله پشتي‬ catchall ‫) ظرف يا مخزن اشياء گوناگون (سبد - گنجه‬ ‫آزاد كردن‬ free (freed) route ‫راه - مسير - خط سير‬ ‫در طول مسير‬ along the route yoke ‫يوغ‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

and the hip.

- the women more commonly carry their books in the crook of the arm, resting against the lower chest. - burden-bearing on the head was quite common, for both sexes, in tropical Africa, but was found only among the women in the southwestern Pueblos. - it was similarly a feminine trait in Indonesia. - not infrequently those who carried loads on their heads used a pad or ring to cushion and steady the load. - small children, especially, were carried, seated astride the hip.

- because the load will usually not stay in place of its own accord, back-carrying involved a wide variety of auxiliary devices.

- carrying baskets were found in peasant Europe, in the hill regions of southeast Asia and Indonesia.
- they might be supported on the back by shoulder straps, by a tumpline, or by both of these.

- the shoulder bag, used as a catchall, was found in central Australia. Its use freed the hands to carry weapons or for other purposes along the route.

- in northern Europe, for example burdens were carried on shoulder yokes. These wooden devices 37

suspend pole stick litter elaborate sedan souther Asiatic origin infant incapacitated readily feeble abandon in origin aged footgear don (donned) toughen trail aboriginal arctic zone hemisphere traction camp overlook illiterate clarify tension hook stabilize dangle

‫آويزان شدن يا كردن - معلق كردن‬ ‫دسته بلند چيزي‬ ‫چوب - عصا - چماق‬ ‫تخت روان - كجاوه‬ ‫استادانه درست شده - با شكوه‬ ‫خودرو سواري داراي دو صندلي عقب و جلو‬ ‫باد جنوبي‬ ‫آسيايي - اهل آسيا‬ ‫خاستگاه - بنياد - اصل‬ ‫كودك - بچه - طقل - بچه كمتر از 7 سال‬ ‫ناتوان - معلول‬ ‫ضعيف - نحيف - عاجز‬ ‫رها كردن - واگذار كردن‬ ‫در اصل‬ ‫مسن‬ ‫پاپوش‬ ‫پوشيدن - بر تن كردن‬ ‫سفت كردن - سفت شدن‬ ‫بومي - سكنه اوليه - اهل يك آب و خاك‬ ‫وابسته به قطب شمال‬ ‫قلمرو - بخش‬ ‫نيم كره‬ ‫كشش - انقباض‬ ‫اردوگاه - چادر‬ ‫چشم پوشي كردن - چشم انداز‬ ‫بي سواد - عامي - درس نخوانده‬ ‫روشن كردن - توضيح دادن‬ ‫فشار - كشش - تحت فشار قرار دادن‬ ‫به شكل قلب در آوردن - گير آوردن‬ ‫استوار كردن - ثابت شدن‬ ‫آويزان بودن - آويزان كردن - آويختن‬

lay across both shoulders, passing behind the neck, and had a burden suspended from each end. - and shoulder supported the balance pole of the far east. - this pole, a simple long stick, was carried in line with the direction of travel with a load suspended from each end. - the litter, or the elaborated sedan chair, was probably souther Asiatic in origin.

- except for the litter, and the carrying of infants and small children, there was very little carrying of human loads. - in most non-literate societies the incapacitated either travelled by animal or by vehicle, or they did not travel at all. One can readily understand why the feeble aged or those seriously ill or wounded were frequently abandoned to their fate.

- many non-literate people did not wear footgear at all times, but donned foot coverings only for travel. - even the most toughened foot welcomes some protection when on the trail and there were very few people who did not have some sort of footgear for travel. - skis, to permit travel over deep snow, were known aboriginally in the old world in the arctic zone from Lapland to eastern Siberia. - snowshoes were found in the northern reaches of both hemispheres. - travel on snowshoes was not as fast as on skis but the former gave better traction when pulling a load and were generally more useful in bush or around camp. - in speaking of foot travel, one may not overlook another important class of auxiliaries. - illiterate societies. - comment: discuss; explain; clarify. - bend: bring into tension. - crook: curve; hook; bend. - steady: balance; secure; stabilize. - suspend: dangle. 38

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

fragile ‫شكننده - ترد - لطيف‬ pollution ‫آلودگي‬ virtual ‫واقعي - مجازي - معنوي‬ ‫سادگي‬ simplicity urban ‫شهري‬ photochemical smog ‫مه و دود - مه غليظ حاصل از بخارهاي شيميايي‬ troublesome ‫پرزحمت - رنج آور - دردسر دهنده‬ particulate ‫بصورت ذره - داراي ذرات ريز‬ matter ‫ماده - جسم - مهم بودن‬ outdoor ‫بيرون - بيروني - هواي آزاد‬ ‫دودكش لوكوموتيو يا كشتي يا ساختمان‬ smokestack strict ‫سخت - اكيد‬ ordinance ‫فرمان - تقدير - امر - حكم‬ emission ‫نشر - بيرون دادن‬ ‫تصويب كردن‬ pass fallout ‫باران راديو اكتيو- ذرات راديواكتيوي كه از جو به زمين‬ ‫مي‌ريزد‬ haze ‫مه - بخار - ناصافي يا تيرگي هوا‬ ‫باد جنوبي‬ souther sunlight ‫نور خورشيد - انعكاس نور خورشيد‬ ‫آلوده كننده‬ pollutant hence ‫از اين رو - بنابراين - پس از اين‬ refinery ‫پاليشگاه - تصفيه خانه‬ worsen ‫بدتر كردن - بدتر جلوه دادن‬ priority ‫حق تقدم - برتري‬ prod ‫برانگيختن - ترغيب‬ crankcase ‫محل اتصال ميل‌لنگ- جاي ميل لنگ‬ eliminate ‫حذف كردن‬ ‫ترشح كردن‬ discharge air shed desert ‫ترك كردن - گريختن - بيابان‬ ‫بوته‬ shrub projecting ‫برجسته‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- feeble: weak; fragile. - air pollution affects virtually al of the world's cities. For simplicity, pollution-suffering urban centers can be broken down into two categories "brown air" cities, which suffer from photochemical smog produced mostly by autos; and "grey air" cities, where industrial smog generated by coal and oil burning is the major pollution problem.

- air pollution first became troublesome in the 1940s, when particulate matter increased to some
400 tons per day.

- this came mostly from outdoor burning and industrial smokestacks, so strict emission ordinances were passed in 1947.

- although particulate fallout decreased, the city was still bothered by remained a mystery until the early 1950s, when a professor at Cal Tech accidentally identified the Los Angeles smog as a mixture of complex hydrocarbons. Souther California sunlight baked the original pollution until secondary pollutants, such as ozone, were produced; hence the name "photochemical smog."

- at first the city pointed the finger at the numerous oil refineries in the area and ordered them to control their emissions. But the smog worsened. - but research was given a low priority in Detroit. Only after constant prodding by Los Angeles did the industry. - eight years later, the first simple crankcase emission control devices appeared on California cars. - these eliminated about 20 percent of the hydrocarbons discharged by an auto, and only after more elaborate responds were required in 1966 did total hydrocarbon emissions in the loss angels air shed begin decreasing. - abandon: leave; desert. - bush: land covered by bushes or shrubs. - hip: the projecting back part of the body. 39

cripple handicap tropic humid

‫لنگ - لنگ كردن - فلج كردن‬ ‫ناقص‬ ‫گرمسيري - گرمسير‬ ‫نمناك - بخاردار - مرطوب‬

- incapacitate: cripple; disable; handicap. - tropical: of the tropics; hot and humid.

UNIT 14 ‫به مخاطره انداختن‬ endanger ‫پيش به سوي سلمتي‬ walk your way to health stair ‫پله‬ ‫كار شاق‬ ordeal bypass cardia-rehabilitation ‫ناتواني قلبي‬ stamina ‫استقامت - طاقت - بنيه - نيروي حياتي‬ build up ‫جبران كردن‬ ‫سبك تر‬ lighter seven stone lighter ‫هفت استون سبكتر‬stone=6.35 kg impressive ‫گيرا - برانگيزنده‬ ‫كلسترول‬ cholesterol moderate ‫معتدل - مليم - ميانه رو‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- how may inactivity endanger a person's health? - at 35, his health was so poor that even climbing stairs was an ordeal. Then he had a heart attack. - after bypass surgery, Stephen's surgeon told him he could not enter an organized cardia-rehabilitation program until he was able to walk a mile. - Stephen went on a strict diet and began walking regularly, building up his stamina. - two years later, he was seven stone lighter and his heart rate at rest was an impressive 48 beats per minute - in one aerobics research study, researchers found that poor fitness can be as dangerous as smoking or high cholesterol. 40

bout ‫كشمكش - تقل - يك دوره مسابقه يا بازي‬ substantially ‫به طور قابل توجهي‬ ‫عجيب و غريب‬ odds ‫ناراحتي قلبي‬ odds of dying of heart disease ‫احتمالت ناخوانده مردن از‬ decline ‫انحطاط - زوال - كاستن - رو به زوال گزاردن‬ associate ‫هم پيوند - شريك - شريك كردن - همدم شدن‬ ageing ‫بال رفتن سن‬ retain ‫نگاه داشتن - از دست ندادن - حفظ كردن‬ ‫بطور منظم‬ regularly sensible ‫معقول - آگاهانه‬ programme ‫برنامه - دستور - روش كار‬ dramatic ‫) مهيج - (اساسي‬ well-being ‫سلمتي‬ gain ‫منفعت - سود - سود بردن‬ sedentary ‫نشسته - غيرمتحرك‬ ‫سرزنده و بشاش‬ brisk pace ‫قدم زدن- با گام‌هاي آهسته و موزون حركت كردن‬ ease ‫راحت كردن - تسكين دادن‬ ‫درد‬ ache muscle ‫ماهيچه‬ ‫مفصل‬ joint ‫سفت‬ stiffen atrophy ‫لغر - ضعف بنيه‬ ‫كشش‬ stretching strengthening exercises ‫ورزش‌هاي تقويت كننده‬ defence ‫دفاع - دفاع كردن‬ ailment ‫بيماري مزمن - درد - ناراحتي‬ subject ‫در معرض - در معرض بودن يا قرار دادن‬ ‫فشار بال‬ high-impact shock ‫صدمه - ضربه سخت‬ limb ‫عضو بدن - دست يا پا‬ ‫بر عكس‬ by contrast exert ‫اعمال كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- the good news is that moderate bouts of walking can substantially reduce the odds of dying of heart disease, cancer and other causes.

- in fact researchers believe that half the decline generally associated with ageing is due to inactivity

- by exercising, a person may retain as much as 80 percent of his physical abilities between the ages of 30 and 70. - a sensible walking programme can make dramatic improvement in physical and emotional well-being.

- and the greatest health gains are enjoyed by completely sedentary people who become moderately active - who walk at a brisk pace for half an hour a day.

- ease aches and pains: muscles and joints stiffen and atrophy when they are not used regularly.

- walking (including stretching and strengthening exercises) is one of the best defences against these ailments because it keeps the body flexible without subjecting it to too much stress.

- during high-impact activities, like running and aerobics, your feet hit the ground with a force equal to two to four times your weight. The shock can damage joints and muscles, especially in the lower limbs. - walking, by contrast, exerts a force of only one and a half times your weight.

41

compete ‫رقابت كردن با - مسابقه دادن‬ marathon ‫مسابقه دو ماراتون‬ intense ‫شديد - سخت‬ tendon ‫زردپي - پي‬ par ‫برابري - تساوي - تعادل‬ ‫شكستگي‬ fracture pelvis ‫لگن خاصره‬ switch ‫)جريان را عوض كردن - تعويض - (روي آوردن‬ ‫باعث شدن‬ lead (to) as par for the sport ‫بخشي از آسيب‌هاي ورزشي‬ race ‫بسرعت رفتن - مسابقه‬ ‫غبطه خوردن‬ begrudge gravity ‫جاذبه زمين‬ ‫كه روزگاري صاف و محكم بود‬ once-firm flesh flesh ‫گوشت - مغز ميوه‬ ‫حجم عضلت‬ muscle mass weigh ‫وزن داشتن - وزن كردن‬ younger self ‫زمان جواني خود‬ vigorous ‫)قوي - شديد - پر زور - (فعالنه‬ synchronize ‫همزمان كردن - از حيث زمان با هم مطابق كردن‬ ‫ضربه‬ stroke achieve ‫انجام دادن - به انجام رساندن‬ shapely ‫خوش تركيب - خوش ريخت‬ ‫گام‌هاي استوار‬ power stepping tone ‫سفت كردن‬ buttock ‫)كفل - (ران‬ ‫گردش جريان خون‬ circulation ligament ‫رباط‬ tendinity synchronized arm‫ضربات حركتي بازوان را تجديد حيات داده‬ strokes all the major muscle groups ‫تمام گروه عضلت عمده بدن‬ ‫فشار رباط‬ ligament strains fiber ‫بافت‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- Susan Henricks, 34, used to compete in marathons. Her intense training led to pulled tendons and other injuries, but she accepted them as par for the sport.

- then a few years ago, when doctors found a fracture in her pelvis, Susan switched to race walking, which demands more muscle strength than running yet places less stress on the back and joints.

- as we grow older, we all begrudge gravity's effect on our once-firm flesh. The problem is that, after the age of 30, inactive adults lose muscle mass.

- thus a 50-year-old who weighs the same as he did at 20 may still look heavier than his younger self. - for many people, a vigorous walking program using powerful, synchronized arm strokes can help achieve a shapelier body.

- this activity -which I call power stepping- helps to strengthen and tone all the major muscle groups including your shoulders and arms, your back and stomach, and your legs and buttocks. - it also improves circulation and makes your muscle fibbers more flexible. - this may help you avoid some common injuries that afflict weekend athletes: pulled muscles, ligament strains and tendonitis.

42

‫تكرار كردن‬ replicate figure of your teenage years ‫قيافه نوجواني خود‬ trim ‫پيراسته - مرتب - برازنده‬ ‫سبك زندگي‬ lifestyle ophthalmologist ‫چشم پزشك‬ ponder ‫انديشه كردن - تفكر كردن‬ pondering time ‫زمان انديشيدن‬ tranquillizer ‫مسكن - آرامبخش‬ moody ‫بداخلق - اخمو - ترشرو‬ egg (on) ‫تحريك كردن‬ ‫از سر گرفتن‬ take up ‫دستگاه عصبي‬ nervous system gear ‫دنده - اسباب - پوشش‬ ‫آخرين درجه ممكن‬ high gear psychiatrist ‫روانپزشك‬ brisk ‫تند - سرزنده و بشاش‬ insomnia ‫بيخوابي (غيرعادي) - مرض بيخوابي‬ antidote ‫پادزهر - ضد سم‬ ‫پيمانه وزن مايع‬ pint aggression ‫پرخاشگر - تعرض‬ ‫چهار پيمانه تعرض‬ four pints of aggression dedicated ‫وقف شده - اختصاصي‬ cover ‫طي كردن‬ ‫مدارك‬ evidence mount ‫)بالغ شدن بر - (مبين اين است‬ stimulate ‫تحريك كردن - انگيختن‬ ex-servicemen visual organization ‫قوه بينايي‬ ‫زيست شيمي‬ biochemistry account ‫ذكر علت كردن - دليل موجه اقامه كردن‬ strengthen your heart ‫قلب شما را تقويت مي‌كند‬ precaution ‫احتياط - احتياط كردن‬ pay off ‫پرداخت كردن (تمام ديون) - نتيجه نهايي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- you may not be able to replicate the figure of your teenage years, but power steeping will help you to look as fit, trim and healthy as is possible for your age and lifestyle.

- Dr Hampton Roy, a 53-year-old ophthalmologist, walks seven miles to work three times a week. - the exercise provides "pondering time" and has proved to be a natural tranquillizer.

- over the next three years he became increasingly moody. Egged on by his wife. He took up walking again and hasn’t stopped since. - daily life is full of stressful events that shift the nervous system into high gear.

- Dr Claude miller, a psychiatrist, recommends a brisk 15-minute walk whenever tension builds, and again two hours before bedtime if you suffer from insomnia. - it's the best antidote to what he calls the "four pints of aggression" delivered daily to our doors.

- Henry David and Charles dickens were dedicated walkers and covered thousands of miles in their lifetime. - now evidence is mounting that regular daily exercise does indeed stimulate the brain.

- a study of 55- to 70-year-olds at an ex-servicemen's hospital found that those who took one-hour walks three times a week for four months improved their reaction time, visual organization and memory over others who remained sedentary or did non-aerobic exercises. - increased circulation of oxygen and blood, as well as changes in the brain's biochemistry, may account for these improvements. - still, her precautions have paid off. She avoided heart problems until late in life. Over the past year, madly has walked 4000 miles. 43

‫با وجود اين‬ still unfit ‫ناشايسته - نامناسب‬ beneficial ‫سودمند - مفيد‬ ‫تجويز كردن‬ prescribe ankle ‫قوزك پا‬ hip ‫كفل - مفصل ران‬ osteoporosis ‫پوكي استخوان‬ density ‫چگالي - تراكم‬ denser ‫انبوه تر - متراكم تر - چگالي تر‬ weight-bearing exercise battle ‫مبارزه كردن - جنگ كردن‬ alleviate ‫كم كردن - سبك كردن‬ adequate ‫كافي‬ ‫كلسيم‬ calcium bone loss ‫ضايعه استخواني‬ vitality ‫انرژي و زنده دلي - قدرت يا خاصيت حياتي‬ vigour ‫قدرت - توان‬ likelifhood ‫احتمال - همانندي - امر محتمل‬ ‫احتمال‬ probability striking ‫برجسته - قابل توجه‬ sensational ‫شورانگيز - مهيج‬ spectacular ‫تماشايي - منظره ديدني‬ immobile ‫بي حركت - بي جنبش‬ decay ‫پوسيدگي - تنزل كردن - زوال‬ degenerate ‫رو به انحطاط گذاردن - فاسد شدن‬ covet ‫طمع به چيزي داشتن‬ relieve ‫تسلي دادن - كمك كردن - فرو نشاندن‬ fuel ‫غذا - سوخت‬ shed ‫افكندن - ريختن - پوست انداختن‬ ‫كافي‬ sufficient plentiful ‫وافر - فراوان‬ malady ‫ناخوشي - بيماري‬ remedy ‫درمان - درمان كردن - چاره‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- this extra pumping trains the heart to work more efficiently and thus beat more slowly than the heart of an unfit person. So beneficial is walking that it is the exercise most doctors prescribe. - for five years, Tricia Stevens, 57, has been an active walker. She started because of ankle and hip pain and the fear that she would develop osteoporosis as had her mother, who broke both hips. - the density of your bones depends on how much you exercised and what you ate as a child and young adult. - the denser your bones at the growing age, the less your risk of developing asteoporosis. Walking, a weight-bearing exercise, slows bone loss and may even promote growth. Though osteoporosis is best battled when you're young, it can be alleviated in later life. - a university study found that women with osteoporosis who took an adequate amount of calcium and walked for one hour a day three days a week for 22 months increased their bone density at the spine by six per cent. - stamina: strength; vitality; vigour. - odds: chance; likelihood; probability. - dramatic: striking; sensational; spectacular.

- sedentary: inactive; lazy; immobile. - atrophy: to decay; to degenerate. - begrudge: to envy; covet. - alleviate: to ease; reduce; relieve. - after the age of 25, metabolism -the rate at which your body burns fuel- slows, and fat becomes harder to shed. - adequate: enough; sufficient; plentiful. - ailment: disease; sickness; malady. - antidote: remedy; anything that relieves. 44

rear rival discharge breach fault grand splendid log parallel

‫پشت - عقب‬ ‫رقابت كردن - حريف - رقيب‬ ‫ادا كردن - مرخص كردن‬ ‫نقض - ايجاد شكاف كردن‬ ‫تقصير - نقص‬ ‫بسيار عالي - مهم‬ ‫با شكوه - با جلل - عالي‬ ‫سفرنامه كشتي‬ ‫موازي - برابر - برابر كردن‬

- buttocks: bottom; behind; rear end. - compete: to fight; to rival; to contest. - exert: to discharge. - fracture: breach; fault - impressive: grand; splendid. - log: to travel; to walk. - synchronize: to adjust; to parallel; to match.

UNIT 16
it is more than somewhat humbling to

‫نهايت خواري است كه‬ ‫مختصري - قدري - تا حدي‬ ‫پديده - حادثه‬

somewhat phenomenon gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- it is more than somewhat humbling to be forced to admit that we still know all too little about the phenomenon of learning.

45

‫روان شناس‬ psychologist marvellous ‫حيرت آور - عجيب‬ divide 4 by 2 2 ‫تقسيم كردن عدد 4 بر‬ distinguish ‫تميز دادن - تشخيص دادن‬ considerable ‫شايان - قابل توجه‬ facilitate ‫آسان كردن - كمك كردن - تسهيل كردن‬ ideal ‫ايده آل - كمال مطلوب‬ ‫از لحاظي‬ for one thing ‫آزمايشي‬ experimental experimental evidence ‫دليل تجربي‬ ‫تجربه عملي‬ experience the most elaborate educational plant ‫پيچيده ترين بناي آموزشي‬ plant ‫نهال‬ construct ‫ساختن - بنا كردن - ايجاد كردن‬ worth far less ‫ارزش كمتري دارد‬ ‫توجه مستقيم‬ undivided attention ‫ايده ال اين است‬ ideally to go around ‫تا همه جا بروند‬ regiment ‫هنگ - گروه بسيار‬ general ‫ژنرال‬ ‫گروهبان‬ sergeant promise ‫وعده - قول - نويد‬ depersonalize ‫بي شخصيت كردن - فاقد شخصيت كردن‬ envision ‫خيال بافي كردن - در رويا ديدن‬ instruction ‫آموزش‬ than one might dream ‫بيش از آنچه تصور مي شود‬ ‫ادامه دادن‬ carry on process ‫بانجام رساندن - تهيه كردن - مراحلي را طي كردن‬ simulate ‫تقليد كردن - وانمود كردن‬ extent ‫مقدار - حد - اندازه‬ to some extent ‫تا اندازه اي‬ feed (fed) (into) ‫پروردن - خوراك دادن‬ raw ‫خام - نارس‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- psychologists have yet discover exactly what marvellous internal change makes it possible for the infant to say his first word, the 12 year-old to divide 3254 by 589, and the adult to distinguish Bach from Beethoven. - we do know a considerable amount about the conditions that facilitate learning, enough to tell us that the educational techniques currently used in most of our classrooms are far from ideal. - for one thing, we know from experimental evidence what jams Garfield knew from experience.

- the most elaborate educational plant yet constructed is worth far less to a student than the undivided attention of a great teacher like mark Hopkins. We know that students tend to learn less in a lecture class than in a discussion group.

- ideally, each student should have his own personal tutor -and a good one, at that. The trouble is that there are not enough teachers, good or otherwise, to go around. - we need an army where we have only a regiment. And we need an army of generals, not sergeants.

- computer teaching machines offer great promise for the future, and far from being the depersonalizing threat many people envision, such machines can give better individual instruction than one might dream

- someday they even will carry on "conversations" with students. This goal may not be quite as distant as it seems. Now that computer teaching machines are beginning to be able to process natural languages, they can simulate, at least to some extent, the normal conversation of teacher and student. - a program devised by one teacher--a mark Hopkins, let us say-- can be fed into as many machines as we have the raw materials and the inclination to produce. 46

‫اجازه بدهيد بگوييم‬ let us say inclination ‫نهاد - سيرت - تمايل‬ lag ‫عقب ماندن - لنگيدن‬ imagination ‫تصور - پندار‬ flexibility ‫انعطاف پذيري‬ flesh-and-blood tutor ‫) معلم گوشت و خون (انساني‬ information-processing ‫فرآيند اطلعات‬ communicate ‫مراورده كردن - مكاتبه كردن - گفتگو كردن‬ adapt ‫وفق دادن - سازوار كردن‬ interpret ‫ترجمه كردن - تفسير كردن‬ generate ‫توليد كردن - بوجود آوردن‬ ally ‫متحد كردن - پيوستن - يكي كردن‬ nonautomate ‫غير اتوماتيك‬ ‫ارائه اطلعات‬ presentation of information drill ‫تمرين كردن - حل تمرين‬ recitation ‫از بر خواني - از حفظ خواني‬ ‫ارزيابي‬ evaluation separate functions ‫كارهاي جداگانه‬ sequentially ‫بطور مداوم - بطور پي در پي‬ more or less ‫كم و بيش‬ ‫فواصل زماني زياد‬ widely-spaced intervals rather than coming at each step ‫به جاي اينكه در هر گام اجرا‬ ‫شود‬ critical moment ‫لحظه حساس، بحراني، انتقادي‬ modify ‫تغيير دادن - اصلح كردن‬ homogenous ‫همانندي - تشابه‬ smooth ‫روان - مليم - دلنواز‬ ‫تبادل اطلعات دو طرفه‬ two-way flow of information feature ‫ويژگي - ريخت - تركيب - خصوصيات‬ ‫مقدم بودن‬ precede preclude ‫مسدود كردن - مانع جلو راه ايجاد كردن‬ curricular ‫مربوطه به برنامه تحصيلي‬ sequence ‫پي رفت - رشته‬ until he has mastered it ‫تا بطور كامل آنرا ياد بگيرد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- and though computer technology still lags far behind theory, it appears that we someday may be able to produce a machine which will respond to the student with as much imagination as flexibility as a flesh-and-blood tutor. - education is an information-processing activity which requires the teacher not only to communicate information, but to adapt to his student, to interpret the student's response, and to generate new specific material.

- the ability of the computer teaching machine to perform these last 3 tasks is what allies it with the human tutor and distinguishes it both from other types of teaching machines and from nonautomated teaching techniques now in use. - in usual school or college classroom, the presentation of information, practice and drill, recitation, and evaluation all are separate functions, occurring more or less sequentially and at widely-spaced intervals.

- recutation or practice, rather than coming at each step, usually occurs after a large block of material has been presented. - by the time the teacher discovers that his students did not understand him, the critical moment for modifying his presentation is gone. - these provided for a homogenous, smooth, two-way flow of information between teacher and student. - a particularly important feature of this smoothly flowing process is that, since "test" precede the presentation of each new step, failure on a given test precludes presentation of the next step. - in other words, the student stays with each step of the curricular sequence until he has mastered it.

47

‫ظاهرا‬ apparently represent ‫نمايش دادن - فهماندن - بيان كردن‬ crucial ‫وخيم - قاطع - بسيار سخت‬ conventional ‫) عرفي - قراردادي - (سنتي‬ vary ‫فرق داشتن‬ ‫متغير‬ variable constant ‫ثابت - دائمي‬ ‫مقدار زمان متغير‬ variable amount of time priori ‫اوليه - مقدم‬ mastery ‫)اربابي - سلطه - (توفيق يافتن‬ emphasis ‫تاكيد - اهميت‬ efficiency ‫كفايت - كارآيي - ميزان لياقت‬ transmission ‫انتقال - عبور - سرايت‬ ‫در يادگيري موضوع‬ on mastery of the subject take off ‫برخاستن‬ ‫فعل و انفعال‬ interaction corrupt ‫فاسد كردن - خراب كردن‬ revise ‫تجديد نظر كردن - اصلح كردن‬ ‫تعويض پذير‬ changeable given ‫معين - معلوم - مفروض‬ superiority ‫برتري - تفوق‬ ‫محاوره‌اي‬ conversational dominate ‫حكمفرما بودن - تسلط داشتن‬ administrative ‫اداري - اجرايي‬ assemble ‫گرد آوردن - فراهم آوردن‬ loop ‫حلقه‬ superficial ‫صوري - سطحي - ظاهري‬ transmit ‫انتقال دادن - فرافرستادن‬ ‫وسايل صوتي و بصري‬ audio-visual devices amplify ‫وسعت دادن - بال بردن - افزودن‬ diverge ‫انشعاب يافتن‬ ‫استاد‬ master exempt ‫معاف - آزاد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- note that this apparently simple idea represents a crucial difference between education as it is now practised and education as it could be. - in the conventional classroom, each student spends the same amount of material that varies from student to student. - with a computer teaching machine, each student spends a variable amount of time to learn a constant amount of material, and there is no a priori reason that the amount of time taken should not be that required for complete mastery.

- computer teaching machines offer the hope that the emphasis in education can be taken off efficiency of information transmission and put back where it belongs, on mastery of the subject.

- computer teaching can make interaction with the student faster. - computers will corrupt education. - to change; revise: modify. - variable: changeable; varying. - given the obvious superiority of conversational interaction, why does the classroom lecture dominate our current educational technology?

- the most important reason is that it is administravtively simple to assemble a class and present an open loop lecture. - a lecture is superficially efficient, because information may be transmitted to a very large class by a single lecturer. - the computer teaching machine shares with the human lecturer and with educational television and other audio-visual devices- the ability to amplify and diverge information from a single master, directing it to a very large number of students. - however, the computer teaching machine is happily exempt from the most serious drawback of 48

drawback flow utilize feedback merely demonstrate conventional humbling degrading humiliating rank captain lieutenant inspector comprehend recount customary proceed deductive

‫اشكال - زيان‬ ‫سليس بودن - روان شدن - جريان‬ ‫استفاده كردن از - بكار زدن‬ ‫باز خورد‬ ‫انحصارا ً - به تنهايي‬ ‫شرح دادن - نشان دادن‬ ‫عرفي - قرارداري‬ ‫فروتني‬ ‫تنزل كردن - تنزل دادن‬ ‫تحقيرآميز - خفيف كننده‬ ‫درجه دادن‬ ‫سروان‬ ‫ستوان‬ ‫بازرس - مفتش‬ ‫فهميدن - درك كردن‬ ‫برشمردن - شمارش مجدد - يكايك گفتن‬ ‫عادي - مرسوم‬ ‫پيش رفتن - اقدام كردن‬ ‫استقرايي يا قياسي‬

other information from student to teacher. - because they do not utilize feedback, one-way information systems such as films and television are simply communication systems. - they are not "new" teaching methods; they merely serve to enhance the demonstrated limitations of the conventional lecture. - humbling: degrading; humiliating.

- sergeant: an officer having a rank below a captain, or lieutenant or inspector.

- interpret: comprehend; understand. - recite: to repeat; recount. - conventional: standard; customary. - a priori: proceeding from a known cause to a related effect; deductive; based on a hypothesis or theory.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

49

UNIT 17 ‫برآورده كردن احتياجات بشر‬ to meet man's needs challenge ‫)به مبارزه طلبيدن - (تلش‬ ‫فرصت‬ opportunity achievement ‫موفقيت - دستيابي‬ typical ‫نوعي‬ approach ‫نزديك شدن - نزديك آمدن‬ potential ‫عامل بالقوه - داراي استعداد نهاني - پتانسيل‬ primary ‫ابتدايي - نخستين‬ meaningful ‫پرمعني - معني دار‬ existence ‫هستي - موجوديت‬ labour ‫كار - زحمت‬ lot ‫سهم - بهره‬ labour has always been the lot ‫كار هميشه بهره انسان بوده است‬ of man supreme ‫عالي - اعلي‬ fulfil ‫انجام دادن - تمام كردن - برآوردن‬ unique ‫بي همتا - بي مانند‬ individual ‫شخص - فرد - منحصر به فرد‬ according to ‫بر طبق - مطابق‬ innate ‫غريزي - فطري‬ potentiality ‫عامليت بالقوه - استعداد نهاني‬ within the limits of reality ‫در چهارچوب محدوديت هاي واقعي‬ dominant ‫برتر - مافوق - مقتدر‬ institution ‫موسسه - نهاد‬ ‫تجديد ساختار دادن‬ restructure ‫منعكس كردن‬ reflect dual ‫دوتايي - دو جنبه اي‬ ‫اگر مقصود لذت بردن از زندگي پرمعنا باشد‬ if it is to enjoy a meaningful life oriented ‫جهت دار - متمايل به‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- leaders in industry claim to offer challenge and the opportunity for achievement in the business world.

- But they must learn to recognize that the typical management approach to man as a worker actually blocks man's efforts to achieve his ful potential. - the primary function of any human organization is to help man enjoy a meaningful existence.

- labour has always been the lot of man, but the changes brought by the industrial revolution have for the first time given him the opportunity to satisfy both his animal and his human needs. - as Carl Jung said: "the supreme goal of man is to fulfil himself as a creative, unique individual according to his own innate potentialities and within the limits of reality."

- industry is the dominant institution in our civilization. - and therefore must restructure itself to reflect man's dual nature and needs if it is to enjoy a meaningful life.

- not all jobs in industry have the potential to be challenging and achievement-oriented. 50

‫جهتي مشخصي براي پيروزي‬ achievement-oriented do contain possibilities ‫داراي امكانات هستند‬ striking ‫برجسته - قابل توجه‬ ً ‫كمبود قابل توجه موفقيت - شديدا‬ the striking lack of success ‫فاقد موفقيت‬ motivation ‫انگيزش - محرك‬ portray ‫تصوير كشيدن - توصيف كردن - مجسم كردن‬ turnover ‫تغيير و تبديل - برگشت - حجم معاملت‬ morale ‫دلگرمي - روحيه - روحيه جنگجويان‬ dissatisfaction ‫نارضايتي - ناخشنودي‬ excellent ‫عالي‬ ‫مزاياي شغلي‬ fringe benefits rather ‫بلكه - تا يك اندازه‬ boredom ‫خستگي - مللت‬ initial ‫نخستين - ابتدايي‬ drudgery ‫كار سخت و خسته كننده‬ ‫البته نيازي به اين كار نيست‬ this need not happen ‫عوامل انگيزش‬ motivational factors exotic ‫مرموز - عجيب و غريب - بيگانه‬ correspondence ‫ارتباط - مراسلت - مكاتبات‬ section ‫بخش - دايره‬ shareholder ‫سهم دار - صاحب سهام‬ sophisticated ‫خبره و ماهر - در سطح بال‬ intricacy ‫پيچيدگي - بغرنجي - تودرتويي‬ ownership ‫مالكيت - دارندگي‬ dividend income ‫سود سهام درآمد‬ and the like ‫و مانند آن‬ ً ‫قبل‬ previously engineer ‫مهندس‬ ‫ضمانت كردن‬ insure ‫از قبل آماده‬ built inquiry ‫پرسش - سوال - استعلم - تحقيق - بازجويي‬ routinize ‫بجريان عادي انداختن - عادي يا روزمره كردن‬ procedure ‫رويه - پردازه‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- but many more than one might expect of today's jobs do contain possibilities. - one example of the striking lack of success of the present money motivation system is portrayed in the case of today's computer programmers.

- yet there is a high turnover rate and low morale among computer programmers. - the cause of dissatisfaction is not the pay, for these men receive high salaries and excellent fringe benefits. - rather, the problem is boredom; after the initial challenge, most companies allow their computer programming to turn into routine drudgery. This need not happen: certainly it would not be difficult to build some true motivational factors into a job with as much as potential challenge as this.

- a job does not have to be as exotic as computer programming to have challenge. - one large company has a correspondence section to answer the questions of its shareholders many of whom were not sophisticated in the intricacies of security laws.

- to answer questions on transfer of ownership, dividend income, and the like, this company employs a number of girls who previously worked under a system engineered to insure that no wrong information was given.

- the answers to the shareholder letters were not so much written as "built". - when an inquiry came in, it went through a routinized procedure which used answers copied from form paragraphs for every possible question.

51

salutation ‫سلم - درود - سلم اول نامه - تعارف - تهيت‬ closing ‫عبارات پاياني‬ supervisor ‫سرپرست - ناظر‬ signature ‫امضاء - امضاء كردن‬ in practice productivity ‫سودمندي - حاصلخيزي‬ employee ‫مستخدم - كارگر‬ absentee ‫غايب - شخص غايب‬ ‫كارمند‬ high employee turnover‫دست به دست گشتن نامه به دست‬ absentee rates ‫)معطلي طولني (بر اثر غياب كارمندها‬ expert ‫ماهر - خبره - كارشناس‬ ‫به عبارتي، برگردان امور‬ say transfer taxes pace ‫پيمودن - گام زدن‬ authority ‫قدرت - اختيار - اجازه‬ progression ‫تصاعد - پيشرفت‬ bounce ‫بيرون انداختن - مورد توپ و تشر قرار دادن‬ compose ‫درست كردن - ساختن - سرودن‬ markedly ‫بطور مشخصي‬ absenteeism ‫حالت غايب بودن - غيبت‬ measure ‫ميزان - حد‬ ‫تقسيم بندي‬ rationalizing ‫تزريق كردن‬ inject volition ‫خواست - اراده‬ motivated ‫هدفدار - انگيزنده‬ exceed ‫بالغ شدن بر - قدم فراتر نهادن‬ self-motivation ‫علقه شخصي - انگيزه شخصي‬ classic example ‫بهترين نمونه - نمونه بارز‬ abrupt ‫ناگهاني - بي خبر‬ worldly ‫اين جهاني - دنيوي - مادي‬ attitude ‫گرايش - حالت - روش و رفتار‬ hygiene factors ‫فاكتورهاي بهداشتي‬ analogy ‫قياس - مقايسه - شباهت‬ preventive ‫پيش گير - عامل ممانعت‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- a girl combined the proper answers, made sure that the salutation and closing were in the correct formal style, and handed the letter to the supervisor for checking. - the supervisor checked every letter, then sent it out over her signature. - in practice, the system resulted in too many errors, low productivity, and high employee turnover and absentee rates.

- first, each girl was made an expert in some area, Say transfer taxes. - she, not the supervisor was the authority for the girls to turn to on that subject. - the natural progression was then to let the girls send out their mail without passing it on to the supervisor. The girls were to be responsible for the letters and if any bounced back from the
shareholders, they would go back to the girls.in the final week, girls were told to compose their own letters.

- the result? Errors were markedly reduced, morale raised, productivity increased, and employee turnover and absenteeism dropped. - the supervisor found time for numerous measures to improve conditions in the department. - all this, not be increasing salary, or rationalizing the job, but by injecting responsibility, challenge, and the opportunity for growth. In short, by motivation. - motivation cannot be bought, a motivated man will do things of his own volition that far exceed what he could be made to do by offers of food or money. - the strongest kind of motivation is self-motivation. Consider the artist, a classic example of self-motivation. He may be starving, but still he paints. - turnover: an abrupt change. - sophisticated: having much worldly experience and knowledge. - morale: attitude. - I chose to call the dissatisfiers the hygiene factors, drawing by analogy on the medical meaning of the word "preventive and environmental."

52

environmental intrinsic hygienic profit stockholder toil cultured absolute ultimate establishment UNIT 18 authority statesman gravitaional inspire overhang branch plunk inspiration or so the story goes fame astronomer bublicly stated recant mathematician dispute disputed apple tremendously insightful interpretation teaching associate declining

‫محيطي‬ ‫ذاتي - باطني - حقيقي - شايسته‬ ‫بهداشتي‬ ‫سود - نفع - سود بردن‬ ‫صاحب سهم - صاحب موجودي‬ ‫كار پر زحمت‬ ‫پرورش يافته - متمدن‬ ‫مطلق - كامل‬ ‫نهايي - غايي‬ ‫تاسيس - استقرار‬ ‫منبع سريع و موثق‬ ‫سياستمدار‬ ‫گرايشي - جاذبه اي‬ ‫الهام بخشيدن - القاء كردن‬ ‫آويزان بودن‬ ‫شاخه‬ ‫تلپي افتادن - ضربت - با صداي تلپ‬ ‫الهام‬ ‫داستان به اين منوال ادامه مي يابد‬ ‫شهرت - نام - آوازه‬ ‫ستاره شناس‬ ‫در برابر عموم علم كرد‬ ‫حرف خود را رسما ً پس گرفتن‬ ‫رياضيدان‬ ‫مباحثه كردن - جدال كردن‬ ‫سيب مورد بحث‬ ً‫به طور فاحش - شديدا‬ ‫بصيرت - بينش‬ ‫شرح - بيان - تفسير - ترجمه‬ ‫تعاليم‬ ‫همكار - رفيق‬ ‫انحلل - زوال‬ - hygiene factors are not an intrinsic part of a task, they are related to the conditions under which a task is to be performed. A good hygienic environment can prevent job dissatisfaction, but cannot create true job satisfaction or happiness. - dividend: profit; a share of profits paid to a stockholder. - drudgery: labour, toil - sophisticated: cultured; having acquired wordly knowledge. - supreme: absolute; ultimate. - turnover: the number of workers hired by a given establishemtn to replace those who have left. - a great authority on the teaching of history once said: "everyone knows what history is until he … - history is made, not by statesmen or soldiers, but by historians who prepare the records. - Newton's gravitational was not inspired by a falling apple. - sir Isaac Newton was taking tea under the apple trees in the family gardens at woolsthorpe one summer's afternoon in 1665 when an apple fell from an overhanging branch, plunked him on the head and immediately provided the inspiration for his law of gravitation. Or so the story goes.

- it may indeed have happened that way, but no one knows for certain. Even the famed british astronomer sir harold spencer jones, true, later recanted, nothing that "one cannot be sure either way"

- long after the great english mathematician had died and 73 years from the time the disputed apple fell. - voltaire admired sir isaac and his theories tremendously and offered a clear, insightful interpretation of his teachings.

- but his only source for the apple story was sir isaac's niece, who had married one of her uncle's closest associates. She and her husband lived with and kept house for newton in his declining years. 53

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

bit ‫ذره - تكه - ريزه‬ another bit of evidence ‫مدرك ديگر‬ adherent ‫پيرو - طرفدار - هواخواه‬ Rev. (Reverend) ‫عاليجناب - جناب كشيش‬ biography ‫بيوگرافي‬ mysteriously ‫مرموز - اسرارآميز‬ physician ‫پزشك‬ ‫كشيش‬ cleric prominent ‫برجسته - وال‬ antiquarian ‫عتيقه شناس - باستاني - وابسته به قديم‬ amid ‫در ميان - وسط‬ reminisce ‫يادآوري كردن - به خاطر آوردن‬ ً‫پيشتر - قبل‬ formerly notion ‫تصور - انديشه - نظريه‬ occasion ‫فرصت مناسب - وهله - موقعيت‬ contemplative ‫تفكري - وابسته به غور و تفكر‬ witness ‫شاهد - مدرك - ديدن - شهادت دادن‬ incident ‫شايع - رويداد - حادثه‬ firsthand ‫مستقيم - اصلي - دست اول‬ anecdote ‫قصه - حكايت - ضرب المثل‬ ludicrous ‫خنده آور - مضحك - مزخرف - چرند‬ undoubtedly ‫مسلما ً - بدون شك - بدون ترديد‬ hypothesize occurrence importunate hit fairness in all fairness institute fruitbearing graft crucially quest gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade ‫فرض كردن - برانگاشتن‬ ‫رخداد - اتفاق - واقعه‬ ‫سمج - سماجت آميز‬ ‫موفقيت - ضربت - به هدف زدن‬ ‫بي طرفي‬ ‫با كمال بي طرفي‬ ‫موسسه - بنياد‬ ‫ميوه اي‬ ‫قلمه - پيوند زدن‬ ً‫بطور سخت - اكيدا‬ ‫تحقيق - جستجو كردن‬

- another bit of evidence, one that is taken quite seriously by the story's adherent, is Rev. william stukely's biography of newton, written in 1752 though unpublished, mysteriously, until 1963.

- stukely, a physician, cleric, and prominent antiquarian, wrote that the he was once enjoying afternoon tea with sir isaac amid the woolsthorpe apple trees when the mathematician reminisced that "he was just in the same situation as, when, formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. it was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood."

- note, however, that stukely did not claim to have witnessed the apple incident firsthand.

- meanwhile, important early biographers of newton include no mention of the anecdote at all. - and the great german astronomer thought the story too ludicrous for words. "undoubtedly," he once hypothesized, "the occurrence was something of this sort: there comes to newton a stupid importunate man, whos asks him how he hit upon his great discover.

- in all fairness, it should be noted that the babson institute in wellesely, claims to own a fruit-bearing tree grafted from the one that figured so crucially in Newton's thinking.

- the institute was founded by roger babson, the man who made the study of gravity and the quest 54

‫ضد جاذبه‬ antigravity campus ‫فضاي باز‬ significance ‫مفهوم - معني - قدر‬ ً ‫فورا‬ readily fiddle ‫ويولن زدن‬ unfounded ‫بي اساس - بي پايه‬ rumour ‫شايعه - شايعه گفتن يا پخش كردن‬ albeit ‫اگرچه - ولواينكه‬ emperor ‫امپراتور - فرمانفرما‬ imperial ‫شاهنشاهي - امپراتوري‬ gleefully ‫با خوشحالي - شادماني‬ ‫آواز يكنفره‬ aria execrable ‫نفرت انگيز - ملعون - مكروه‬ ‫اپرا‬ opera flame ‫شعله - زبانه آتش‬ fancy ‫خيال - وهم - تصور كردن‬ summon ‫فراخواندن - فراخواني - احضار‬ recital ‫از برخواني - تك نوازي‬ composition ‫تركيب - سرايش - قطعه هنري‬ contemporary ‫معاصر - همزمان‬ ‫تاريخ نويس‬ historian chronicle ‫شرح وقايع بترتيب تاريخ - تاريخچه‬ chronicler ‫وقايع نگار‬ gut (gutted) ‫غارت كردن - حريصانه خوردن‬ A.D. break out ‫شيوع يافتن - تاول زدن‬ ‫افسانه‬ tale lute ‫عود - عود زدن‬ lyre ‫چنگ - بربط‬ dispel ‫برطرف كردن - دفع كردن - طلسم را باطل كردن‬ myth ‫افسانه - اسطوره‬ ‫به هيچ وجه‬ by no means undermine ‫)از زير خراب كردن- تحليل بردن-(تضعيف كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

for an antigravity machine his life's work. - also on display on the babson campus is sir Isaac's bed, whose significance should be readily obvious: it was only the force of gravity which allowed sir isaac to rest on it. - nero didn’t fiddle while rome burned. - it is only an unfounded rumour, albeit an old one, that the mad emperor nero started a fire near the imperial palace and then climed to the top of the tower of Maecenas, where he gleefully played his fiddle, sang arias from his own execrable operas, and watched the city go up in flames.

- true, nero did fancy himself a poet and musician, and often summoned audiences to attend recitals of his compositions.

- but according to the contemporary historian and chronicler Tacitus, the fire which gutted rome in 64 A.D. could not possibly have been nero's doing; at the time it broke out, nero was at his villa in Antium 30 miles away.

- besides, the violin wasn’t even invented until the 16th cetury, although in some versions of the tale nero plays a lute or lyre. - but the dispelling of the fiddling myth by no means undermines Nero's hard-won reputation for ruthlessness and cackling depravity. A cold-blooded persecutor of christians, and extortionist, and a debauchee, he outraged even the wildly licentious romans with his public wantonness.

55

reputation ‫شهرت - خوشنامي‬ hard-won reputation ‫شهرت معروف‬ ruthlessness ‫بي باكي - ظالمي‬ cackle ‫وراجي - قات قات كردن - هرزه درايي‬ depravity ‫تباهي - فساد - هرزگي‬ persecutor ‫آزاردهنده - اذيت كننده‬ cold-blooded ‫خونسرد - بي عاطفه‬ extortionist ‫كلش - اخاذ‬ debauchee ‫هرزه - فاسق‬ outrage ‫تخطي - بي حرمت ساختن‬ licentious ‫شهوتران - هرزه - ول‬ roman ‫رمي - اهل رم‬ wantonness ‫سركشي - عياشي‬ ‫زناي با محرم و نزديكان‬ incest treachery ‫خيانت - بي وفايي‬ ‫بيوه‬ widow slain ‫مقتول - كشته شده‬ infidelity ‫كفر (در زناشويي) - خيانت‬ scheme ‫توطئه شدن - نقشه طرح كردن‬ eliminate ‫حذف كردن - محو كردن - بيرون كردن‬ succession ‫جانشيني - توالي‬ ‫از رديف جانشيني امپراطوري‬ the line of imperial succession adoptive ‫انتخابي - اقتباسي‬ ‫خواهر خوانده‬ adoptive sister slay (slew, slain) ‫با خشونت كشتن - به قتل رساندن‬ paving ‫آجرفرش - سنگفرش‬ ‫راه را هموار كردن‬ paving the way accession ‫)جلوس - نيل ( به جاه و مقام بخصوص سلطنت‬ throne ‫تخت - سرير - بر تخت نشستن‬ lust ‫حرص و آز - شهوت‬ bloodlust ‫خون آشامي‬ barely ‫بطور عريان - آشكارا‬ tenure ‫تصرف - تصدي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- indeed, incest and treachery seem to have run in the family. - consider that his widowed mother, Agrippina, married her own uncle, the emperor Claudius, who had recently slain his wife for her infidelities. - later Agrippina schemed to eliminate Claudius's son, Britannicus from the line of imperial succession and encouraged Nero to marry octavia, who was Claudius's daughter and Nero's own adoptive sister.

- then she slew Claudius, paving the way for her son's accession to the throne.

- but the bloodlust had barely begun. Early in his tenure as emperor, Nero took his own mother as his mistress. Plagued with guilt, he ended the relationship and subsequently had the woman put to death.

56

mistress plague guilt plagued with guilt subsequently put to death adultery innocent murder patrician conflagration abysmally unpopular it is known glut temple religious statuary shrine commit arson political foe holocaust in any event uncharacteristic intelligence compassion put out blaze oversee shelter render

‫معشوقه - دلبر - كدبانو‬ ‫افت - طاعون - دچار طاعون كردن‬ ‫گناه‬ ‫در طاعون گناه گرفتار شد‬ ً ‫متعاقبا‬ ‫محكوم به مرگ كرد‬ ‫زنا - بي عفتي‬ ‫بي گناه - بي تقصير‬ ‫به قتل رساندن‬ ‫نجيب زاده - اشرافي‬ ‫آتش‌سوزي بزرگ‬ ً‫بطور ژرف - عميقا‬ ‫منفور - بدنام - غيرمحبوب‬ ‫معروف است‬ ‫پر كردن - اشباع كردن‬ ‫معبد‬ ‫مذهبي‬ ‫تنديس‬ ‫زيارتگاه - معبد - جاي مقدس‬ ‫مرتكب شدن‬ ‫آتش زني - ايجاد حريق عمدي‬ ‫سياسي‬ ‫دشمن - مخالف‬ ‫همه سوزي - كشتار همگاني‬ ‫به هر حال‬ ‫غير مشخصه‬ ‫هوش - آگاهي - فهم‬ ‫دلسوزي‬ ‫خاموش كردن‬ ‫شعله درخشان يا آتش مشتعل‬ ‫سرپرستي كردن - سركشي كردن به‬ ‫پناهگاه‬ ‫تسليم داشتن - تحويل دادن‬ 57 - but there is no evidence that he committed such arson. - more likely it was the work of his political foes, who thought that the holocaust would be blamed on him. In any event, nero acted with uncharacteristic intelligence and compassion, first helping to put out the blaze, then overseeing thedesign of the city and providing food and shelter for those rendered homeless. - not long thereafter, he accused his wife, octavia, of an adultery of which he knew she was innocent, had her murdered, and married the wealthy patrician Popaea Sabina.

- none of this did nero's name any credit, and by the time of the great conflagration he was abysmally unpopular. - it is known that he had wanted the entire city redesigned and rebuilt, to accomplish this task, particularly since the city's streets and squares wrere glutted with temples, religious statuary, and family shrines which he was powerless to remove.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

civic ‫شهري - مدني - اجتماعي - كشوري‬ rather than ‫بلكه‬ ‫ديوانگي‬ insanity intend ‫قصد داشتن - بر آن بود‬ neropolis ‫شهر نرو‬ slum ‫محله كثيف - خيابان پرجمعيت‬ widen ‫پهن كردن - عريض كردن‬ beautify ‫زيبا كردن - قشنگ كردن - آرايش دادن‬ ‫بازهم‬ still ebb ‫افول كردن - فروكش كردن - فروكش‬ ‫حامي‬ supporter praetorian ‫وابسته به قدرت قضاوت مادون كنسولي رومي‬ anniversary ‫سوگواري ساليانه - جشن يادگاري - سالگرد‬ stab ‫خنجر زدن - زخم زدن - زخم چاقو‬ throat ‫گلو‬ assistance ‫همدستي - كمك‬ scribe ‫كاتب نسخه هاي خطي - منشي‬ glass ‫آبگينه - شيشه‬ slipper ‫كفش راحتي - دمپايي‬ corset ‫تنگ‬ ‫افسانه‬ legend ً‫بهيچوجه - ابدا‬ whatsoever extant ‫موجود - باقيمانده - نسخه‬ score ‫نشان - ثبت كردن‬ represent ‫نمايش دادن - بيان كردن‬ representing the down ‫معرف فجر است‬ ً ‫آزار كردن - جفا كردن - دائما‬ persecute‫مزاحم شدن و اذيت‬ ‫كردن‬ foul ‫ناپاك - پليد‬ temper ‫خلق - خشم - غضب‬ ‫خواهران بداخلق و ناپاك‬ foul tempered sisters ً ‫نهايتا‬ ultimately rescue ‫رهايي دادن - رهانيدن‬ bedeck ‫آرايش كردن - زينت دادن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- one historian clamis that Nero really did set the fire himself, but out of civic responsibility rather than insanity, and that in the new rome which he designed, and intended to name Neropolis, slums were cleared, streets were widened, and buildings were beautified.

- still, Nero's popularity continued to ebb. His supporters left him, hid enemies grew stronger, and the praetorian guard, the imperial bodyguard, would not serve him.

- on June 9, 68 A.D. the anniversary of octavia's murder -nero stabbed himself in the throat with the assistance of his scribe, Epaphroditus.

- while cinderella may have valued beauty over comfort, it isn't likely that she would have punished her feet by corseting then in glass slippers. - to be sure, none but the most recent versions of the cinderella legend make any mention whatsoever of glass slippers, and their presence in the story as most people know it is the result of a translator's error. - there are actualy over 500 extant versions of the tale in scores of languages. - the original version goes back even further and is thought to have been a nature myth in which cinderella, representing the dawn, is persecuted by her foul-tempered sisters, representing the dark clouds of night, and is ultimately rescued by the sun -- the handsome prince.

- but they are made variously of gold, silver, or some other rare metal, sometimes bedecked with 58

gleam gem squirrel fur anthology fairy subtitle goose vanish reworking welfare outstanding inhumane renown observe joyfully merrily wickedness corruption disloyalty destruction pastime amusement originate civil officer precisely league millionaire appoint committee investigate settle

‫نورضعيف - نور دادن - تظاهر موقتي‬ ‫گوهر - جواهر - جواهر نشان كردن‬ ‫سنجاب‬ ‫خز - پوستين‬ ‫كلچين ادبي - منتخبات نظم و نثر‬‫پري - جن - افسونگري‬ ‫عنوان‬ ‫غاز‬ ‫ناپديد شدن - غيب شدن‬ ‫تجديد نظر‬ ‫آسايش - رفاه‬ ‫برجسته‬ ‫غيرانساني‬ ‫شهرت - اشتهار‬ ‫مشاهده كردن - ديدن‬ ‫شادي‬ ‫شادي - خوشحالي‬ ‫نابكاري - بدجنسي‬ ‫فساد - انحراف‬ ‫بي وفايي - ناسپاسي - خيانت‬ ‫خرابي - ويراني - تخريب‬ ‫سرگرمي - تفريح - ورزش‬ ‫سرگرمي - تفريح‬ ‫سرچشمه گرفتن‬ ‫غيرنظامي - مدني‬ ‫افسر - مامور‬ ‫دقيق - صريح - معين‬ ‫گروه ورزشي‬ ‫ميليونر‬ ‫برقرار كردن - تعيين كردن‬ ‫كميسيون - كميته‬ ‫بازرسي كردن - تحقيق كردن‬ ‫معين كردن - واريز كردن‬

gleaming gems --but never of glass. - in the earliest french versions, Cinderella wore Pantoufles en vair, "slippers of white squirrel fur" these were the versions that the french writer Charles worked from when he wrote "cendrillon," his version of Cinderella, which appeared in 1697 in his anthology of fairy tales subtitled "Tales of Mother Goose."

- by that time the word vair had long since vanished from use, and Charles confused it with verre, pronounced the same but meaning "glass." - an intelligent ruler who was interested in people's welfare. - an outstanding religious person who was loved by his people. - a ruthless person who performed inhumane acts. - prominent: famous; renowned. - witness: observe; see. - gleefully: joyfully; merrily. - depravity: wickedness; corruption. - infidelity: faithlessness; disloyalty. - holocaust: great or total destruction - Baseball, the great american pastime, did not originate in America.

- nor did Abner Doubleday, a civil war army officer, have anything whatsoever to do with inventing it. - around the turn of this century, few people were agreed on precisely how baseball had come to be. - in 1907, sporting-goods millionaire Albert Spalding, formerly a major league baseball star, appointed a committee of seven to investigate the game's early history and settle once and for all where, when and how baseball had originated.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

59

farce compose politician scholar ferret approve nationalistic purely infinite inheritance adopt illegal antique decorate expel abolish eradicate demolish theorize insist disregard greed insult offend harm oppress celebrated memorial statue betrayal baseless illogical wilful

‫نمايش خنده آور - تقليد - كار بيهوده‬ ‫درست كردن - ساختن‬ ‫سياستمدار‬ ‫دانشور - دانش پژوه - محقق‬ ‫كنجكاوي كردن - كاوش‬ ‫تصويب كردن - موافقت كردن‬ ‫ملي گرا‬ ‫خالصانه‬ ‫بيكران - ليتناهي - نامحدود‬ ‫وراثت - ميراث - ارث‬ ‫به فرزندي پذيرفتن‬ ‫غيرقانوني‬ ‫عتيقه - كهنه - باستاني‬ ‫پيراستن - زينت دادن‬ ‫بيرون انداختن - منفصل كردن‬ ‫برانداختن - از ميان بردن - منسوخ كردن‬ ‫ريشه‌كن كردن - از بين بردن‬ ‫ويران كردن - خراب كردن‬ ‫استدلل نظري كردن - فرضيه به وجود آوردن‬ ‫اصرار ورزيدن‬ ‫ناديده گرفتن - اعتنا نكردن‬ ‫حرص - طمع‬ ‫بي احترامي كردن به - خوار كردن‬ ‫تخطي كردن - رنجاندن‬ ‫آسيب - صدمه - ضرر‬ ‫ذليل كردن - ستم كردن بر - تعدي كردن‬ ‫تجليل كردن - تقديس كردن - جشن گرفتن‬ ‫يادگر - يادبود - لوحه يادبود‬ ‫تنديس - پيكره‬ ‫خيانت - افشاء سر‬ ‫بي اساس - بي ماخذ‬ ‫غيرمنطقي‬ ‫خودسر - مشتاق - مايل‬

- but the committee was a farce. Composed of politicians, business men, and not to ferret out the truth about baseball's beginnings, but rather to approve without question the nationalistic Spalding's unfounded belief that baseball was purely American phenomenon.

- abysmal: endless; infinite. - accession: inheritance; succession. - adopt: accept as a child. - adultery: infidelity; illegal relations between a man a woman. - antiquarian: person interested in collection, sale, and study of antiques, especially old rare books. - bedeck: decorate. - dispel: expel; eliminate. - eliminate: abolish; eradicate. - gut: destroy; demolish. - hypothesize: propose; theorize. - importunate: person insisting on his demands. - licentious: disregarding the rules of behaviour. - lust: greed; desire; passion. - outrage: offend; insult. - outrage: offend; insult. - persecute: abuse; harm; oppress. - prominent: famous; renowned; celebrated. - shrine: memorial; statue. - treachery: disloyalty; betrayal. - unfounded: baseless; illogical. - wanton: cruel; wilful; wild. 60

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

UNIT 19 poetry intense verse factual down-to-earth textbook

‫جامه سرايي - شعر - فن شاعري‬ ‫قوي - مشتاقانه‬ ‫نظم - شعر - به نظم آوردن‬ ‫واقعي - حقيقت امري‬ ‫واقع بين - عملي - حقيقي - واقعي‬ ‫كتاب درسي - رساله‬

- poetry is a record of experience told in words that are as intense and beautiful as possible. - most poetry is written in a form which we call verse. - the language of poetry is directly the opposite of the factual and down-to-earth language of textbooks.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

61

‫نثر‬ prose perception ‫درك - دريافت - ادراك‬ playful ‫سربهوا - تفريح و بازي - سرزنده و شوخ‬ fugitive ‫زودگذر - فاني - بي دوام - فراري‬ catch ‫جلب كردن - بدست آوردن - گرفتن‬ drop ‫رها كردن - انداختن‬ definite ‫معين - قطعي‬ mount ‫صعود كردن - بال رفتن‬ ‫تعبير كردن‬ put stairway ‫پلكان - راهرو پله‬ humour ‫شوخي - مزاح‬ despondency ‫غم - دلسردي - حزن‬ warfare ‫جنگاوري - ستيز - جنگ‬ reform ‫بهسازي - بازساخت‬ horror ‫دهشت - ترس - بيزاري‬ gap ‫شكاف - رخنه - اختلف زياد‬ ‫زخم عظيم‬ gaping wound commonplace ‫پيش پا افتاده - معمولي‬ fable ‫افسانه - داستان - حكايت اخلقي‬ quarrel ‫ستيزه - اختلف - دعوا‬ prig ‫شخص منفور - ميخ كوچك - آدم خودنما‬ bun ‫يكجور كلوچه - دم خرگوش‬ sphere ‫فلك - گردون - دايره - احاطه كردن‬ disgrace ‫خفت - رسوايي - سيه رويي‬ occupy ‫اشغال كردن‬ spry ‫چابك - چالك - زرنگ‬ deny ‫رد كردن - حاشا كردن‬ track ‫(پيگردي كردن - شيار - باريكه - (راه - مسير‬ crack ‫)تركيدن - شكاف برداشتن - (شكستن‬ nut ‫)آجيل - (پسته‬ loud ‫پرصدا - پرجلوه - رسا‬ quiver ‫لرزيدن - ارتعاش‬ battle-cry ‫فرياد جنگ‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- and the form of most poetry is the opposite of that of prose, such as used in novels and short stories. - to some people, "poetry is something secret and pure, some magical perception lighting up the mind for a moment, like reflections in the water, playful and fugitive. - your true poet catches the charm of something or anything, dropping the thing itself. - there is nothing fixed or definite in the way poetry works. - it often mounts, as Emerson put it, "by the stairway of surprise."

- there is nothing in human experience that the poet may not touch, city or country, love or death, nature, history, humour, despondency, travel, reading, warfare, friendship, reform.

- the poet may describe the horrors of war and the gaping wound in a dying youth.

- in all of their works poets found new meanings in commonplace human activities and experience. - the mountain and the squirrel, had a quarrel, and the former called the latter "little prig" - bun replied, "you are doubtless very big; but all sorts of things and weather, must be taken in together, to make up a year, and a sphere. - and I think it no disgrace, to occupy my place. If I'm not so large as you, you are not so small as I, and not half so spry. - I'll not deny you make a very pretty squirrel track; talents differ; all is well and wisely put; if I cannot carry forests on my back, neither can you crack a nut.

- the loud love of peace makes one quiver more than may any battle-cry.

62

vile ‫شرم آور - پست‬ propaganda ‫تبليغات - تبليغ‬ imminent ‫قريب الوقوع - حتمي‬ self-assertion ‫خود بيانگري - خود را جلو اندازي - خودپسندي‬ impose ‫تحميل كردن‬ ‫به طور مطمئن‬ confidently dread ‫ترس - وحشت‬ attend ‫)توجه كردن - حضور داشتن (در‬ dying ‫مردني - نزار‬ await ‫منتظر بودن - در كمين نشستن‬ ‫شاخه‬ bough lineage ‫)سطربندي - (دودمان‬ plow ‫خيش - گاوآهن - شخم زدن‬ toil ‫محنت - رنج - زحمت كشيدن‬ sowing ‫كاشتن - كشت و زرع كردن‬ field ‫زمين - صحرا - كشتزار‬ seed ‫بذر - تخم - كاشتن‬ grain ‫دانه‬ sturdy (sturdiness) ‫تنومند - قوي - ستبر‬ clay ‫خاك رس - گل‬ vein ‫سياهرگ - وريد‬ ‫حرف هاي شيرين و پاك‬ clean words good old days ‫روزهاي شيرين گذشته‬ ‫توت فرنگي‬ strawberry sultry ‫خيلي گرم و مرطوب - شرجي‬ glisten ‫درخشيدن - برق زدن‬ dip ‫غوطه دادن - فرو بردن‬ fond ‫مشتاق - شيفته - علقمند‬ ‫به اتمام رسيدن‬ o'er = over willing ‫راضي - راغب - خواهان‬ reluctant ‫بي ميل‬ plaything ‫اسباب بازي - بازيچه‬ gaze ‫خيره نگاه كردن - چشم دوختن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- why should one love peace? It is so obviously vile to make war. - loud peace propaganda makes war seem imminent. - it is a form of war, even, self-assertion and being wise for other people. - some governments impose the war on people. - expressing one's views confidently: self-assertion - Nor dread nor hope attend, a dying animal; a man awaits his end dreading and hoping all; many times he died, many times rose again …

- I never saw a wild thing sorry for itself. A small bird will drop frozen dead from a bough without ever having felt sorry for itself. - my grandmothers were strong. They followed plows and bent to toil. They moved through fields sowing seed. They touched earth and grain grew.

- they were full of sturdiness and singing. - smelling of soap and onions and wet clay, with veins rolling roughly over quick hands, they have many clean words to say. My grandmothers were strong, why am I not as they?

- there were never strawberries, like the ones we had, that sultry afternoon, sitting on the step of the open french window, facing eachother, your knees held in mine, - the blue plates in our laps, the strawberries glistening, in the hot sunlight, we dipped them in sugar, looking at eachother. - as a fond mother, when the day is o'er, leads by the hand her little child to bed, half willing, half reluctant to be led, and leave his broken playthings on the floor, still gazing at them through the open door, nor wholly reassured and comforted by promises of others in their stead, which, though more splendid, may not please him more;

63

wholly ‫كامل ً - به طور كامل‬ reassure ‫دوباره اطمينان كردن - دوباره قوت قلب دادن‬ stead ‫مكان - جا‬ splendid ‫با شكوه - با جلل‬ deal ‫سروكار داشتن - معامله كردن‬ scarce ‫نادر - كمياب‬ transcend ‫برتري يافتن - سبقت جستن‬ worship ‫ستايش - پرستش كردن‬ surround ‫احاطه - فرا گرفتن‬ love's coming ‫عشق مي رسد‬ ‫غنچه گل سرخ‬ rosebud ‫هواي لطيف‬ thin air creep ‫خزيدن - مور مور شدن‬ tune ‫آهنگ - آواز - نوا‬ player ‫نوازنده‬ lily ‫سوسن سفيد - زنبق‬ faint ‫ضعيف - كم نور - غش كردن - ضعف كردن‬ vow ‫عهد - پيمان - نذر‬ declare ‫اظهار داشتن - گفتن‬ pilgrim ‫مسافر - زائر - مهاجر‬ shy ‫شرمسار - خجالتي‬ grief ‫غم - اندوه - غصه - حزن‬ hail ‫تگرگ‬ tempest ‫توفان - تندباد‬ sword ‫شمشير‬ devotion ‫وقف - هواخواهي - جانسپار‬ blow ‫دميدن - وزيدن - تركيدن‬ vitality ‫انرژي و زنده دلي - قدرت حياتي‬ eternity ‫ابديت - جاوداني‬ nest ‫آشيانه - لنه‬ shoot ‫رويش شاخه - جوانه زدن‬ shell ‫صدف - پوست - قشر‬ rainbow ‫رنگين كمان‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- so nature deals with us, and takes away our playthings one by one, and by the hand leads us to rest so gently, that we go scarce knowing if we wish to go or stay, being too full of sleep to understand how far the unknown tanscends the what we know. - the poet worships the nature. - the nature helps us to understand our surroundings. - quietly as rosebuds, talk to thin air, love came so lightly, I knew not he was there. - quietly as lovers, creep at the middle noon, softly as players tremble, in the tears of a tune;

- quietly as lilies, their faint vows declare, came the shy pilgrim; I knew not he was there.

- quietly as tears fall, on a warm sin, softly as griefs call, in a violin; - without hail or tempest. Blue sword or flame, love came so lightly, I know not that he came.

- a death blow is life blow to some who till they died, did not alive become. Who had they lived, had died but when they died, vitality begun. - the poet believes in eternity. - my heart is like a singing bird, whose nest is in a watered shoot; my heart is like an apple-tree, whose boughs are bent with thickest fruit; my heart is like a rainbow shell, that paddles in a halcyon sea; my heart is gladder than all these, because my love is come to me.

64

paddle ‫دست و پا زدن - حركت كردن در ميان آب‬ halcyon ‫روز آرام - ايام خوش گذشته‬ raise ‫برپا كردن - بال بردن‬ ‫سكوي مخصوص جلوس افراد برجسته‬ dais silk ‫ابريشم‬ down ‫)كرك - كرك صورت پايين - (پر‬ vair ‫خز‬ dyes ‫رنگ كردن - رنگ‬ carve ‫حك كردن - تراشيدن - كنده كاري كردن‬ dove ‫قمري - فاخته‬ pomegranate ‫انار - درخت انار‬ ‫طاوس‬ peacock grape ‫انگور‬ ‫گل زنبق‬ fleurs-de-lys (lily) abstract ‫خيالي - غيرعملي‬ subjective ‫دروني - ذهني‬

- raise me a dais of sild and down; hand it with vair and purple dyes; carve it in doves and pomegranates, and peacocks with a hundred eyes; work it in gold and silver grapes, in leaves and silver fleurs-de-lys; because the birthday of my life is come, my love is come to me.

- the feeling of love is subjective and abstract.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

65

UNIT 20 portable ‫قابل حمل - قابل انتقال - سبك‬ cushion ‫متكا - بالش‬ stuff ‫پر كردن - چپاندن - كال - جنس‬ ‫ذخيره كننده گرما‬ heat-storing silicon ‫سيليكون‬ power ‫نيرو بخشيدن - نيرومند كردن‬ ‫دستگاه تنظيم گرما‬ thermostat fuse ‫فيوز - فتيله گذاشتن در‬ ‫بچه داري‬ baby duty ‫جوابگو‬ respondent survey ‫بررسي كردن‬ ‫اشكار كردن‬ reveal useless ‫بي فايده‬ ‫بايد چاره ديگر انديشيد‬ something's got to change ‫مواظب باشيد‬ watch it court ‫دادگاه‬ ‫حكم كردن‬ rule fire ‫بيرون كردن‬ ‫اضافه كار‬ overtime repercussion ‫عكس العمل- واكنش- دفع- برگشت- پس‌زني‬ possible‫بازتاب‌هاي سوء احتمالي اين اقدام برشهرت شركت‬ repercussion on the company's reputation set up ‫نصب كردن‬ dorm ‫خوابگاه‬ ‫تقليل دادن‬ cut back doctorate ‫درجه دكتري‬ ‫كاري را با اشتياق و عجله انجام دادن‬ rush presentation ‫نمايش - ارائه‬ vote ‫راي - راي دادن‬ sky-high ‫)خيلي بال در آسمان - (سير صعودي‬ property ‫دارايي - مال‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- for those cold-season footbal and ice-hockey games and fishing trips, here is hotton, a portable cushion stuffed with heat-storing silicon rubber.

- powered for 30-40 minutes by a car cigarette lighter, it will maintain a surface temperature of 40 C for five hours. - priced from $92, it includes a thermostat and fuse for safety.

- in the U.S., 85.9% of respondents agreed that "one doesn’t necessarily have to have children just because one gets married." - however, a 1991 survey by the magazine of 1,233 japanese revealed that 63% believe government efforts to raise the birth rate are "useless." something's got to change.

the courts recently ruled that Hitachi was within its rights to fire a worker who refused overtime.

- worried about the possible repercussions on the company's reputation, however, Hitachi is setting up dorms with private rooms, improving work conditions, and cutting back on working hours.

- Hitachi employs 880 people with doctorates and in an effort to hold on to them, in rushing to change its image.

- land prices sky-high - the most expensive commercial property in the world, in Tokyo's Ginza district, was estimated at 66

district ‫بخش - ناحيه‬ estimate ‫برآورد‬ ‫مترمربع‬ square meter residential ‫مسكوني - قابل سكني‬ price tag ‫برچسب قيمت كال‬ slight ‫اندك - كم‬ dip ‫پايين آمدن - فرورفتگي‬ context ‫زمينه - مفاد - سابقه - ديرينه‬ dramatic rise ‫صعود نمايشي - صعود مهيج‬ financial daily ‫روزنامه مالي‬ downward ‫پايين - رو به پايين‬ ‫خلء فرهنگي‬ culture gap progress ‫پيشرفت‬ ‫موسسه تحقيق پيشرفت اجتماعي و صنايع جهاني‬ global industrial and social progress research institute ‫مرموز‬ secretive ‫مورد بحث و مذاكره مجدد قرار دادن‬ talk over pick up ‫وسايلشان را جمع مي‌كنند‬ ‫نظرات خيلي مهم‬ choice comments negotiate ‫گفتگو كردن - مذاكره كردن‬ murmur ‫زمزمه - سخن نرم‬ juicy ‫)آبدار - براني - (پرچربي‬ steak ‫كباب‬ ‫سيب زميني پخته‬ baked potato apple pie ‫كلوچه سيب - مرباي سيب‬ oversea ‫آنطرف دريا‬ ‫عميقا ً در من اثر گذاشت‬ touched me deeply left handed ‫چپ دست‬ agent ‫نماينده - وكيل - مامور‬ ‫ترتيب دادن‬ arrange audition ‫آزمايش هنرپيشه‬ amaze ‫متحير ساختن - مبهوت كردن‬ burst ‫از هم پاشيدن - قطع كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

$2.8 million per square meter.

- the most expensive residential square meter, located in Tokyo's Chiyoda Ward, carried a price tag of $910,000 down 1.6% from last year. - the decrease, however, is only a slight dip in the context of a dramatic rise in land prices since the early 1980s.

- a financial daily, calculates that in both Tokyo and Osaka, land prices have risen about 250% . - the word dip in the second paragraph should mean downward movement. - a survey of 70 managers at 29 japanese companies in the U.S. and 14 U.S. companies in Japan by MITI's Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute yielded some choice comments. - U.S. managers think that the Japanese are always secretive , and keep everything to themselves. - and Japanese managers commented that whenever they are just getting ready to talk something over, 5 o'clock comes and the americans all pick up and go home.

- "poor dear," she murmured, "you must be starving. How about a juicy steak, baked potato, salad and some apple pie?"

- after 46 years of marriage, my husband and I were separated when he had to go overseas for 6 weeks - in his first letter home, he wrote: "I miss you like my right arm." thjis touched me deeply -- until I remembered several hours later that he is left handed. - an agent arranged and audition with a producer for his client, a talking dog who told jokes and sang songs. - the amazed producer was about to sign a contract when suddenly a larger dog burst into the room, grabbed the talking hound by the neck and bounded out. 67

grab hound bound tense strike outcome backlash impact standing

‫قاپيدن‬ ‫سگ شكاري - سگ تازي‬ ‫جهيدن‬ ‫شديد - سفت - سخت‬ ‫زدن - ضربه زدن - برخورد‬ ‫نتيجه - حاصل - عاقبت - سرانجام‬ ‫واكنش شديد‬ ‫زير فشار قرار دادن - ضربه‬ ‫اعتبار - دوام شهرت - معتبر‬ - dramatic: tense; striking. - repercussion: outcome; backlash; impact.

- reputation: standing; position; prestige.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

68

UNIT 21 enthusiasm ‫جديت - اشتياق - شور و ذوق‬ determination ‫عزم - تصميم - اراده‬ ‫هويج‬ carrot donkey ‫الغ - خر‬ maze ‫جاي پر پيچ و خم‬ ‫سودمندي‬ productivity employee ‫كارگر - كارمند‬ ‫آدم عادي در كوچه و بازار‬ the man in the street ‫تكان سر به علمت توافق‬ nod approving ‫موافقت كردن - تصويب كردن‬ folk ‫مردم - قوم - گروه‬ this bit of folk wisdom ‫اين نكته عاقلنه مردمي‬ contradict ‫تناقض داشتن با - رد كردن‬ maxim ‫پند - مثل - گفته اخلقي‬ trot ‫) يورتمه - يورتمه رفتن - (پيش كشيدن‬ man does not live by bread alone ‫زندگي انسان تنها وابسته به غذا‬ ‫نيست‬ in spite of ‫با وجود - علي‌رغم‬ plod ‫زحمت كشيدن - با زحمت كاري را انجام دادن‬ ‫موش صحرايي‬ rat dependable ‫قابل اطمينان - مورد اعتماد‬ ‫سخن معتبر‬ dependable statemnt ‫زاده شده‬ borne out observation ‫مشاهده - ملحظه‬ adhere ‫توافق داشتن - متفق بودن‬ wage ‫دستمزد - مزد - اجرت‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- morale means state of confidence, enthusiasm, determination, etc. - money is the great motivation, the carrot that makes the donkey go, the grain that waits at the end of the maze. - if you want increased productivity from your employees, give them a raise. - the man in the street nods approvingly at this bit of folk wisdom, and management, which should know better, nods just as approvingly.

- there is yet another bit of wisdom that directly contradicts the first maxim, but when the donkey and the carrot are trotted out, it remains forgotten. - no one remembers that a wise man once said, "man does not live by bread alone." and, in spite of all the donkeys that plod after their carrots, in spite of all the rats that learn to pick their ways through elaborate mazes, it remains the more dependable statement, the one that is borne out by observation and experience.

- many in industry continue to adhere to the belief that an increase in wages motivates the worker to increase his output, which in turn leads to higher wages that further motivate the worker and so on. 69

output ‫توليد - بازده - خروجي‬ which in turn ‫كه به نوبه خود‬ ‫و همينطور ادامه مي‌يابد‬ and so on concept ‫عقيده - فكر - تصور كلي‬ rationality ‫عقلنيت - خردپذيري - درستي‬ self-evident ‫بديهي - خود آشكار‬ accord ‫جور كردن - وفق دادن - هماهنگي‬ immoral ‫هرزه - فاسد - بد سيرت‬ irrational ‫نامعقول - غيرعقلني - گنگ - مبهم‬ bring in ‫وارد كردن - آوردن‬ inadequacy ‫بي كفايتي - نامناسبي - نارسايي‬ insecurity ‫ناامني - تزلزل‬ inferior ‫پست - نامرغوب - درجه دوم‬ ‫و مانند آن‬ and the like big picture ‫تصوير بزرگ‬ scrutiny ‫بررسي - رسيدگي - تحقيق - موشكافي‬ or else ‫وگرنه - وال‬ probe ‫جستجو - كاوش - تحقيق‬ ‫در اصل‬ originally cure ‫)شفا دادن - (حل كردن‬ ‫نامعقولي‬ irrationality ‫به طور علج ناپذير‬ incurably rational ‫عقلني - معقول - عقلي‬ call in ‫فراخواندن - تو خواني - تو خواندني‬ process ‫فرآيند - روند - جريان‬ rationalization ‫عقلني كردن - دليل تراشي‬ ‫عقلنيت شغلي‬ job rationalization which involves ‫كه مستلزم‬ reduce ‫تبديل - كاهش يافتن - كاستن - كم كردن‬ ‫سطح مسئوليت‬ level task sterile ‫نازا - بي حاصل - بي بار‬ behavioral ‫رفتاري - سلوكي‬ conclude ‫نتيجه گرفتن - استنتاج كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- yet, although this concept of what motivates man does not fit reality, industry does not question the rathionality of the concept. That, to them, is self-evident. - if the results are not in accord with theory, then it must be the worker who is at fault, either because he is immoral or irrational. - so the experts then are brought in to solve the problem. They study the worker and fiand that he has "feelings" of inadequacy, insecurity, inferior status, and the like.

- he does not understand the big picture, his job, his boss, or himself. - the boss comes under scrutiny as well. Obviously, he does not communicate properly with the worker, or else the worker would understand his boss and his job. - the end result of the probing is that nobody understood anybody. Called in originally to cure irrationality, the experts end up saying that man is incurably irrational, and the best that can be done is to fit "irrational" man as closely as possible into the "rational" system.

- this fitting of man into the system is achieved by a process often called job "rationalization" which involves having jobs reduced to their simplest components by industrial engineer, and level task.

- when these sterile tasks cause dissatisfaction in the workers, the behavioral scientists are brought in. after careful study, they conclude that the worker in fact does not get any satisfaction from his tasks and advise that the worker should be given a sense of achievement, but do not go so far as 70

‫يك حس موفقيت‬ a sense of achievement so far as ‫تا آنجا كه - تا آن اندازه كه‬ infringe ‫تخلف كردن از - تجاوز كردن از‬ achievement ‫دست يابي - پيروزي - كار بزرگ‬ domain ‫حوزه - قلمرو‬ fulfil ‫تكميل كردن - تمام كردن‬ dampen ‫تعديل كردن - خفه شدن‬ ‫مشاور‬ counsellor complaint ‫شكايت - دادخواهي‬ counsel ‫اندرز - مشاوره - رايزني‬ ‫بجاي‬ for ‫چيزي بيش از اين نيست‬ little more than express itself ‫ابزار وجود كردن‬ interference ‫تداخل - مداخله‬ production ‫فرآوري - توليد‬ ‫ترغيب كننده‬ prodder dissipation ‫اتلف - هدر دادن‬ ignorance ‫ناداني - بي خبري - جهل‬ ‫سوء تفاهم‬ misunderstanding prevailing ‫متداول - غالب‬ ‫انگيزه پولي‬ money motivation ‫غيرمنطقي‬ unmotivated paradoxically ‫متناقضاً- در ظاهر مهمل و در واقع درست‬ executive ‫مدير - مجري‬ subsistence ‫امرار معاش - حق معاش‬ spur ‫تحريك كردن - باعث شدن - برانگيختن‬ conditioned ‫شرطي - مشروط‬ theorist ‫نظريه پرداز‬ reward ‫پاداش دادن - اجر دادن - پاداش‬ demonstrate ‫ثابت كردن - نشان دادن - شرح دادن‬ evoke ‫احضار كردن - فراخواندن - برگرداندن‬ ‫محرك پاسخ‬ stimulus-response stimulus-reward ‫محرك پاداش‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

to infringe upon the domain of the industrial engineers by suggesting that jobs should be designed to fulfil man's need for achievement.

- to dampen the frustrations of the workers, human relation counsellors are listening to their complaints

- but much of the counselling amounts to little more than telling the employee how well the system would function if he stopped being irrational and allowed his "rational" motivation for money to express itself. - the end result of the interference by the production-prodders hired by industry is the dissipation of some very real human potential -- all because of ignorance or misunderstanding of human nature and the basis of human motivation.

- when the worker fails to respond to the prevailing system of money motivation, he is called irrational and "unmotivated." paradoxically, the executive who already has the money he really needs, and continues to work a 12-, 14- or even 16-hour day, is called "motivated." in neither case does the myth of money motivation explain satisfactorily why the men act the way they do. - money is not a great motivator unless, perhaps, workers are kept below the subsistence level so they must work harder to eat more. To say that man can be spurred to heights of achievement by the promise of food puts him in the category of Pavlov's conditioned dog. - such a belief, while it may not bother some theorists, just is not true bother some theorists, just is not ture. - of course, as Pavlov demonstrated, there are ways to evoke a response without actually having to present the reward. Instead of stimulus-reward, you can have stimulus-response.

71

innate ‫فطري - ذاتي - غريزي‬ realization ‫ادراك - درك - فهم‬ ‫درك نفس‬ self-realization craving ‫هوس - ويار‬ crave ‫آرزو كردن - طلبيدن - اشتياق داشتن‬ accomplishment ‫انجام - اجرا - پيشرفت - كمال هنر - فضيلت‬ sate ‫راضي كردن - فرونشاندن - سير كردن‬ incentive ‫انگيزه - محرك - مشوق‬ ‫تحريك كردن‬ drive objection ‫ايراد - اعتراض‬ protest ‫اعتراض - شكايت‬ ‫اجرا كردن‬ execute accustom ‫عادت دادن - آشنا كردن‬ ‫مالكيت طبيعي‬ possessed naturally inherent ‫ذاتي - اصلي‬ contribution ‫سهم - اعانه - كمك - خدمت‬ psychology ‫علم روانشناسي - معرفت نفس‬ determining ‫تعيين‬ content ‫مقدار - حجم - گنجايش‬ growth ‫رشد - ترقي - پيشرفت - نمود‬ individuality ‫شخصيت - فرديت - ويژگي فردي‬ ‫خلقيت‬ creativity ً‫فقط - منحصرا‬ solely hygiene seekers ‫جويندگان بهداشت - هواخواهان بهداشت‬ relief of dissatisfaction ‫رهايي از نارضايتي‬ avoidance ‫كناره گيري - پرهيز - اجتناب‬ fixate ‫تثبيت كردن - محكم كردن - متمركز كردن‬ maturity ‫بلوغ - كمال‬ ‫هدر دادن‬ dissipate labyrinth ‫پلكان مارپيچ - ماز‬ conduct ‫رفتار - كردار‬ saying ‫حديث - پند - حكمت‬ investigate ‫رسيدگي كردن - تحقيق كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- no external stimulus is needed, because it comes from man's innate need for self-realization, from his need to fulfil his potential as a person. - and this need is just as real as his need for food. Just as a desire for food will not be satisfied by a book, neither will his craving for accomplishment be sated by a piece of apple pie.

- motivation: incentive; drive. - complaint: objection; protest. - a person having authority in an organization: execute. - condition: to adapt; to accustom to. - innate: inherent: possessed naturally. - the greatest contribution of psychology has been in determining the content of man's physical needs.

- the external effects and characteristics of psychology growth of self-realization are being increasingly studied, and some of the known characteristics are: learning, discovering new relationship between events, greater individuality through development of innate potentialities and creativity. - there were some individuals who reported receiving job satisfaction solely from hygiene factors. - these hygiene seekers, who are motivated to seek only relief of dissatisfaction have not reached the stage of personal development in which the need for self-realization is active. In other words, hygiene seekers, seek happiness by avoidance behaviour and are fixated at a low level of maturity.

- dissipate: to cause to lose; waste. - maze: a confusing network of walled pathways; labyrinth. - maxim: principle or rule of conduct; saying. - probe: to examine; investigate. 72

rouse action incite prompt subsist

‫به هيجان در اوردن - حركت دادن‬ ‫جنبش - حركت - عمل‬ ‫انگيختن - تحريك كردن‬ ‫برانگيختن - سريع - عاجل‬ ‫زيست كردن - گذران كردن‬

- prod: to rouse; to action. - spur: to incite; prompt. - subsist: to exist; to maintain life.

UNIT 22 ‫فكاهي نويس‬ joke writer steward ‫ميهماندار هواپيما‬ reciting ‫از بر خواندن - با صداي موزون خواندن‬ safety instructions ‫دستورات امنيتي‬ prick ‫به حركت واداشتن - تحريك كردن‬ ‫هواپيما‬ aeroplane (airplane) upright ‫راست - قائم - عمودي‬ lean ‫تكيه زدن - تكيه كردن‬ grab ‫ربودن - قاپيدن‬ get a message across ‫پيغامي را برساند‬ humour ‫خلق - شوخي‬ trick ‫حيله - نيرنگ - فوت و فن‬ ‫مجموعه كمدي‬ comedy collection ‫با شتاب نوشتن‬ jot down aside ‫) جداگانه - تنها - (شوخي‬ one-liner ‫بذله - لطيفه‬ pig ‫خوك - گراز‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- as a joke writer for Bob Hope for 20 years, Gene Perret had taken hundreds of flights. - so he was only half listening when the air steward began reciting safety instructions.

- suddenly Perret's ears pricked up. "there may be 50 ways to leave your lover," the steward said, "but there are only five ways to leave this earoplane." - and then: "please return your seat to its upright and motst uncomfortable position. Later you may lean back and break the knees of the passenger behind you." - Perret uses this story to make a serious point: humour can grab someone's attention and get a message acros. Some people can't tell a joke to save their lives." - the secret is developing your own style, learning a few tricks and taking the time to practise. - the first step Perret recommends is building a "comedy collection." Jot down 25 jokes, asides or stories that you find funny. - then work out whether you are better with stories or one-liners. Don’t try to be what you're not. - matching people with the wrong material is "like teaching a pig to sing," Perret says. "it not only 73

annoy ‫دلخور كردن - رنجاندن‬ recite ‫از بر خواندن‬ deprecate ‫بد دانستن - قبيح دانستن‬ ‫شوخي خود نقدي‬ self-deprecating humour self-depreciation ‫تحقير نفس - كوچك شماري خود‬ comic ‫خنده آور - مضحك‬ multisyllabic ‫چند هجايي‬ ‫با آب و تاب‬ stilted contemptible ‫خوار - پست - قابل تحقير‬ scoundrel ‫رذل - لت‬ steal (stole) ‫دزديدن - دستبرد زدن‬ ‫چوب پنبه‬ cork offender ‫متخلف - تخطي كننده‬ ‫ابله‬ jerk insult ‫توهين - توهين كردن به‬ ‫ميانه صحبت‬ mid-speech storm (ed out) ‫)حمله كردن - يورش آوردن - (فريادش بلند‬ ‫شد‬
never to cut too close to the bone ‫آزار‬ ‫ندادن‬

wastes your time, it annoys the pig." - he tells a story about helping his little daughter prepare to recite a poem at kindergarten. - when he offered to write one for her, she said, "no, Dad, this is in front of the whole school. I'd rather it was good." nothing puts people more at ease than self-deprecating humour. - adapt your material to your style. Comic material has to be put into the speaker's own words. - W. C. Fields loved multisyllabic words and the stilted sentence--"what contemptible scoundrel stole the cork from my lunch?" Bob Hope would call the offender by a simpler word, like jerk.

- ‫بي گدار به آب نزند‬

tease ‫كسي را دست انداختن - سر به سر گذاشتن‬ jest ‫شوخي كردن‬ ‫هدفگيري كردن‬ target inability ‫ناتواني - درماندگي‬ catch fish ‫صيد ماهي‬ spot ‫تشخيص دادن - ديدن - نقطه - خال‬ golf course ‫زمين گلف‬ golf-cart ‫چرخ گلف‬ ‫صليب سرخ‬ red cross thumb ‫شست‬ rule of thumb ‫قانون كلي - قانون عمومي‬ gibe ‫دست انداختن - طنز گفتن - سخن طعنه‌آميزگفتن‬ open and close ‫شروع و تمام شود‬ formulaic ‫) مثل يا وابسته به فرمول - (قانونمند‬ signal insecurity ‫نشانه تزلزل - نشانه ناامني‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- be careful with insulting humour. Once at a company function, Perret based a whole routine on a copying machine that never worked. In mid-speech, the manager of the department that made the machine, stormed out. - it taught Perret never to cut too close to the bone. He now teases audiences only about matters that they joke about themselves. - when Bob Hope jests with a president, he doesn’t make foreign policy a target, but the president's golf game, or his inability to catch fish.

- "you can always spot Gerry Ford on the golf course," Hope once said. "his golf-cart is the one with the red cross painted on top."

- perret"s rule of thumb on any critical gibe is: when in doubt, leave it out.

- he advises people to forget the idea that a speech should open and close with a joke. - that kind of formulaic speaking could signal insecurity.

74

guffaw set up drive home reinforcement frog swaller swallow bang flat

‫قاه قاه - قاه قاه خنديدن‬ ‫) برپا كردن - مقدمه چيني - (در بر گرفتن‬ ‫فهماندن‬ ‫تقويت‬ ‫قورباغه - وزغ‬ ‫قورت دادن - بلعيدن‬ ‫بستن - محكم زدن‬ ‫صاف - تخت - بي مزه‬ ‫جبرانش سخت است‬

- if you still insist on a guffaw before getting into your talk, remember that an opening joke or story must have a strong point that will set up the entire speech. - to drive home your messsae, put the joke after it. For instance, … - one executive told his employees he wanted them to attack their most pressing problems first. the reinforcement: "as we used to say back home, it you got a frog to swaller, don’t look at it too long."

- if you feel you need to end your talk with a joke, make sure you go out with a bang. When a closing joke falls flat, it is almost impossible to recover. - even the most experienced comedians have to be prepared for an accasional misfire.

it's almost impossible to recover

comedian ‫نويسنده نمايشنامه هاي خنده دار - كمدين‬ ‫اتفاقي‬ occasional misfire ‫عمل نكردن گلوله‬ ‫جواب ندادن اتفاقي‬ occasional misfire pro ‫طرفدار‬ pull out ‫ترك كردن - بيرون آمدن‬ bungle ‫سرهم بندي كردن - خراب كردن‬ life saver ‫)نجات غريق - (حمايت كننده‬ ‫شما همه با اون موافقيد‬ you all side with her hint ‫تذكر - ايما‬ hilarious ‫خنده دار - مضحك‬ come across ‫مواجه شدن - بر خوردن به‬ stewardess ‫) مهماندار هواپيما (زن‬ ‫الگوهاي پيش ساخته‬ pre-establish patterns grasp ‫قاپيدن - چنگ زدن‬ grip ‫چنگ زني - چنگ‬ wit ‫بزله گويي - طبع مزاح‬ disgrace ‫خفت - رسوايي - توهين‬ dishonour ‫ننگ - ننگين كردن‬ contempt ‫تحقير - اهانت - خفت‬ comical ‫مضحك - شگفت انگيز‬ half listening ‫كامل ً (به كسي يا چيزي) گوش ندادن‬ work out ‫برنامه‌ريزي يا فكر كردن درباره چيزي‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- that's when the pros pull out their life-saver --a line that helps make up for the bomb. - when Bob Hope bungles a line, he sometimes follows it by saying, "my wife told me that story would never work. I see you all side with her." - a few more hints: keep your material short, tell it slowly and, no matter how hilarious they are, don’t laugh at your own jokes while you're telling them. - even experienced joke writers come across interesting jokes unexpectedly. - the stewardess was attracting the attention of the passengers to something which they would probably not pay much attention. Humour does not follow pre-established patterns. - grab: grasp; grip; get. - humour: joke; wit. contempt: disgrace; the state of being dishonoured.

- hilarious: comical. - they were half listening to the news, although it was important. - I've worked out a new way of doing it. 75

‫با عصبانيت حرف زدن‬ storm out cut too close to the bone ‫آزردن‬ to go out with a bang ‫جلب توجه كردن - تاثير گذاشتن‬ to fall flat ‫رد شدن - تاثير نداشتن‬ to side with someone ‫حمايت كردن - موافق بودن‬ ‫اصطلحي‬ idiomatic marital ‫زوجي‬ conflict ‫كشمكش - ستيزه‬ inevitable ‫اجتناب ناپذير - ناگزير‬ repeated ‫پي در پي - مكرر‬ ‫بحران‬ crises ‫ماه عسل‬ honeymoon realistically ‫بطور واقع بين - بطور واقع گرايانه‬ recapture ‫پس گرفتن - دوباره تسخير كردن‬ melt into passionate ‫شهواني - احساساتي - هوس آلود - پرحرارت‬ ‫عشق ورزي‬ lovemaking idealized ‫صورت خيالي و شاعرانه دادن - دلخواه سازي‬ cushion ‫) مستهلك شدن - ( كم كردن‬ hostility ‫عداوت - خصومت - دشمني‬ mutual ‫دو طرفه - متقابل‬ ‫علئق دو طرفه‬ mutual interests joint ‫مشترك - متصل‬ ‫دارايي هاي مشترك‬ joint finances reasonable outcome ‫نتيجه منطقي‬ spoil ‫غنيمت - فساد - تباهي‬ mismanage ‫بد اداره كردن - بدگرداندن‬ disapprove ‫رد كردن - ناپسند شمردن‬ incline ‫كج كردن - خم كردن - متمايل كردن‬ ‫بطرف بال‬ upward point ‫متوجه ساختن - اشاره‬ rouge villain ‫ناكس - آدم پست‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- "don’t you know who I am?" she stormed out. - his comments about her size cut too close to the bone. - the team won their last four games, going out with a bang. - the joke fell flat. - the kids always sided with their mother against me. - define the following idiomatic expressions as used in the mentioned paragraphs. - no situation in life can be as stressful as marital conflict which seems to have no solution. - in particular, you have to learn to find your way through the inevitable and repeated crises of all marriages. - the first time of change in the relationship is when the honeymoon is over. Then people begin to experience more fully and realistically what it means to share one's life with another person. - the couple want to get through the rouhg periods in order to recapture the recent ideal experience of the honeymoon. Quarrels between young lovers often melt into passionate lovemaking.

- loving memories of powerful, idealized love cushion the conflicts of this early period in a marriage. - such memories increase, not lessen, the hostility between the couple. But such couples have other resources --friendships, shared activities, mutual interests, joint finances and, of course, children.

- in this case, the ending of the marriage in some way seems the only reasonable outcome. - bungle: ruin; spoil; mismanage. - deprecate: criticize; disapprove; condemn. - lean: to incline the weight of the body so as to be supported. - prick: to point upward. - scoundrel: rogue; villain.

76

artificially

‫بطور مصنوعي يا ساختگي‬

- stilted: artificially formal.

UNIT 23 it's shame you're hopeless sting stinging remarks zap rush hours queue

‫جاي تاسف دارد‬ ‫تو بي دست و پايي‬ ‫نيش - زخم - نيش زدن‬ ‫اظهار نظرهاي نيش دار‬ ‫آزار رساندن‬

- you're hopeless, that's a beautiful dress. It's a shame they didn’t have your size. - stinging remarks zap us every day, often when we're least prepared. They seem to be everywehre: on the road, when rush hour brings out the worst in people; in queues, when everyone's patience is wearing thin; at work and tat the dinner table, where people feel free to be rude.

‫ساعات شلوغ - ساعات پرازدحام‬ ‫صف اتوبوس و غيره‬ everyone's patience is wearing thin ‫طاقت همه به پايان مي‌رسد‬ criticism ‫عيب جويي - انتقاد‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- there are so many styles of criticism that it's impossible to catalogue them all. There are common, 77

‫فهرست كردن‬ catalogue there ‫ عادي روزمره هستند‬zaps are common, everyday ‫بعضي از سخنان ريش‌دار مكالمات‬ hurtful ‫پرآزار - مضر‬ dizzy ‫گيج - گيج شدن‬ bust ‫سينه‬ comment ‫اظهار نظر‬
insensitive

everyday zaps (congratulations! You've finally done it.) and others so hurtful they leave us dizzy and upset (how do you manage to keep your bust so small?)

beyond belief pluck up ‫دل و جرات - بُروز دادن - بيرون كشيدن‬ snap ‫سخن نيش دار گفتن - ناگهاني - با خشونت حكمي را‬ ‫دادن‬ haven ‫پناهگاه - جاي امن‬ ‫خويشاوند‬ relative tender ‫حساس - حساس بودن‬ ‫مي تونيم آنرا نشون دكتر بديم‬ we can have it seen to until then ‫تا آن زمان‬ put-down ‫از روي ترحم - پست كردن - تحقير‬ ‫توهين آراسته‬ welldressed insult insult ‫توهين - خوار كردن‬ otherwise known as ‫به گونه اي ديگر آن را ... مي نامند‬ constructive criticism ‫انتقاد سازنده‬ which is anything but ‫) كه هر چيزي هست به جز (انتقاد‬ ‫همراه كسي رفتن‬ company candour ‫خلوص صفا - رك گويي‬ ‫مشت زدن بر‬ punch gut ‫شكم - روده‬ punch in the gut ‫مشت كوفته شده بر سينه - زخم زبان زده‬ ‫شده‬ vicious ‫)فاسد - بدطينت - نادرست - (خطرناك‬ counter attack ‫ضدحمله‬ deflect ‫منحرف كردن - شكستن‬ barb ‫خار - پيكان - نوك‬ boost ‫ترقي دادن - ترقي‬ ‫عزت نفس‬ self-esteem strategy ‫استراتژي - تدبير‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

‫بي عاطفه - بي روح - بي حس - كرخت‬ ‫ماوراي باورها‬

- there are comments insensitive beyond belief. When a man had plucked up the courage to tell his mother that his wife had left him, his mother snapped, "what took her so long?"

- families are supposed to be havens from the world. But, in fact, relatives say things nevery would outside the family, often with the exuse "you know I wouldn't say this if I didn’t love you." - one woman remembers standing at the bathroom mirror at the tender age of 12 when her mother remarked,"Don’t worry, darling. If your nose gets bigger we can have it seen to." untill then, it had never even occurred to her that her nose was less than perfect. - my favourite category of put-down is the welldressed insult otherwise known as "constructive criticism" (which is anything but.)

- you can recognize these by the company they keep--usually such phrases as "I hope you don’t mind if I'm honest" somehow, you're supposed to admire the critic for his candour and appreciate his conern, while you try to recover from the punch in the gut.

- it's easy, when defending yourself from insults, to get caught in a vicious cycle of attack and counter attack. - fortunately there are ways to deflect the barb--and boost self-esteem. Next time you are the vitim of criticism, try one of these strategies.

78

behind unload step back consider the source single out dump cut up

‫آنسوي‬ ‫تخليه كردن - خالي كردن‬ ‫خودت رو كنار بكش‬ ‫به اصل نقد توجه كن‬ ‫انتخاب كردن‬ ‫رها كردن‬

- look behind the insult
- people who criticize have a lot of hurt to unload. If you can't work out what's really bothering them, ask.

remember, not every criticism has your name on it. So step back and consider the source. - the waiter isn't singling you out for trouble: his wife dumped him the night before. - the driver who cut you up isn't out to get you: he's rushing to the beside of a sick child. - let him in, boost him on his way. When you give people the benefit of the doubt like this, you'll feel soothed by your grace.

‫خرد كردن - خراب كردن‬ he's rushing to the beside of a ‫عجله مي‌كند تا كنار بچه بيمارش باشد‬ sick child let him in ‫او را پذيرا باشيد - اجازه بدهيد بيايد تو‬ boost him on his way ‫بيشتر تحويلش بگيريد‬ doubt ‫نامعلومي - دودلي - شك‬ soothe ‫تسكين دادن - دلجويي كردن - آرام كردن‬ grace ‫بخشيدن - بخشايندگي - فيض و بركت‬ the gentle art of verbal self-defence ‫كتاب هنر ظريف دفاع كلمي‬ ‫از خود‬ unspoken ‫سربسته - فاش نشده‬ assumption ‫انگاشت - پنداشت - فرض‬ ‫قرباني‬ victim bait ‫دام - طعمه دادن‬ critic ‫نقدگر - نگوهشگر - منتقد‬ stand up to ‫مقابله كردن - در مقابل چيزي ايستادن‬ ‫بكنيد‬ one trick is to be direct ‫يك راه حل اين كه مقابله مستقيم‬ defuse ‫بي خطر كردن - خنثي كردن‬ comeback ‫جواب - توجيح - بهانه - دليل قانوني‬ alternative ‫چاره - پيشنهاد متناوب‬ as an alternative ‫راه حل جايگزين آن اينست كه‬ you are on to their game ‫شما حق بازيشون را متوجه شديد‬ ‫مچ كسي را در حال انجام كاري گرفتن‬ being caught in the act material ‫جنس - ماده‬ upholster ‫رومبلي زدن - روكشيدن مبل‬ devote ‫وقف كردن - فدا كردن‬ immaculate ‫معصوم - كامل ً تميز و مرتب‬ ‫جاسوسي كردن‬ spy (spied) cobweb ‫تار عنكبوت‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- in the Gentle Art of Verbal Self-Defence, Suzette Elgin suggests dividing an attack into its parts and responding to the unspoken assumption--without playing the victim.

- the secret is to examine what was said--and unsaid-- before you get emotionally involved. - face your critic. - it's not easy to stand up to insults. - one trick is to be direct. Defuse the negatvie comment with come-backs such as "is there any reason you would want to hurt my feelings?" as an alternative, ask the person to clarify his or her statement: "what did you mean by that?"

- as soon as critics know you are on to their game they will leave you alone. Nothing shames more than being caught in the act. - someone once said to a friend of mine, "a new skirt? That looks like material you'd use to upholster a chair." the women replied, "well, come and sit on my lap." - another woman told me about her mother, who has devoted her life to keeping an immaculate house. One day the mother spied a cobweb in hey daughter's kitchen and asked, "what's that" her daughter quipped, "a nature project." making light of life is one the best weapons against insults.

79

quip ‫كنايه - ايهام گفتن‬ a nature project ‫نقشه طبيعت‬ ‫ساده گرفتن زندگي‬ making light of life wit ‫بذله گويي - مزاح - لطافت طبع‬ quick wit ‫بذله گوي حاضر جواب‬ cope ‫از عهده برآمدن - حريف شدن‬ set up signals ‫نشانه‌هايي را براي خود وضع كنيد-عملكردمتقابل‬ ‫حوله‬ towel embarrass ‫شرمسار شدن - خجالت دادن‬ come up ‫پيش آمدن - مطرح شدن‬ that serves the same purpose ‫همان هدف را بيان مي‌كند‬ serve a purpose ‫حامل هدفي بودن - منظور داشتن‬ cutting remark ‫عبارت نيش دار‬ brush off ‫) اخراج بي ادبانه - (چشم پوشي كردن‬ go along ‫همراهي كردن‬ persist ‫سماجت كردن - اصرار كردن‬ remark ‫اظهار بيان - توجه‬ grant ‫بخشش - اعطا - اعطا كردن - تعهد كردن‬ agreeable ‫سازگار - دلپذير - مليم‬ immobilize ‫از حركت انداختن - ثابت نگه داشتن‬ ‫اگر با نظريه شخص خودتون را موافق نشان دهيد‬ by being agreeable, you ‫آن را از حركت باز مي داريد‬ immobilize it ignore ‫رد كردن - ناديده پنداشتن - چشم پوشيدن‬ ‫بقا‬ survival cultivate ‫كشت كردن - ترويج كردن - پروراندن‬ wipe (off ) ‫پاك كردن‬ imaginary ‫خيالي - تصوري‬ spot ‫لكه‬ ‫بايد اشتباه كرده باشم‬ I must have been mistaken feign ‫وانمود كردن - بخود بستن‬ blink ‫تجاهل كردن - پلك را بستن و دوباره سريع باز كردن‬ yawn ‫دهن دره كردن - خميازه كشيدن‬ assault ‫حمله - تهاجم‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

- a quick wit can cope with almost anyone.

- she began carrying a small towel, and whenever he made a hurtful remark she put it on her head. he was so embarrassed that he stopped. - another family came up with a phrase that serves the same purpose. Once after Sunday dinner, their guest commented."oh, that was wonderful! Chicken is cheap these days, isn't it? - now, whenever one of them makes a cutting remark, someone says, "chicken is cheap," and they all laugh. - brush it off. Go along with whatever is said. If your wife says, "you've gained about 20 pounds, haven't you, dear? Respond: "actually it's closer to 25." if she persists, "aren't you going to do anything about it?" try: "probably not, just be fat for a while." a remark has power only if you grant it power. By being agreeable, you immobilize it.

- ignore the insult. Note the comment, realize, it doesn’t belong to you and simply let it go. The ability to forgive is one of the most important survival skills we can cultivate. - next time someone zaps you, wipe an imaginary spot off your shirt. When the person asks what you are doing, say, "oh, I thought something hit me, but I must have been mistaken."

- or feign lack of interest. Blink, yawn, look away. People hate to think they're boring.

- try to accept some verbal assoult as the normal venting of the frustration we all enounter. Most of 80

‫حملت كلمي‬ verbal assaults venting ‫دفع - بيرون ريختن‬ encounter ‫روياروي شدن - مواجه شدن با‬ ‫در مواردي‬ on occasion ten per cent of the time ‫ده درصد اوقات‬ turn out ‫)وارونه كردن - (برگرداندن‬ thoughtless ‫بي فكر - بي ملحظه - ناشي از بي فكري‬ regret ‫نادم شدن - تاسف خوردن‬ ‫پوست كلفت باشيد‬ develop a thick skin impact ‫اثر - تاثير‬ decline ‫رد كردن - نپذيرفتن - رو به زوال گذاشتن‬ abuse ‫)سوء استفاده - بدرفتاري كردن به - (اهانت‬ establish ‫برقرار كردن - احراز كردن - اثبات كردن‬ worth ‫ارزش - قيمت - بهاء‬ degrade ‫خفت دادن - پست كردن‬ ‫كيف پول‬ purse put down ‫)پست كردن - (اهانت‬ hand ‫دادن - با دست كاري را انجام دادن‬ hurl ‫پرت كردن - انداختن‬ guise ‫ماسك - ظاهر‬ ‫در لواي عشق و دوستي‬ under the guise of love affectionate ‫مهربان - خونگرم‬ disregard ‫ناديده گرفتن - اعتنا نكردن‬ observation ‫مشاهده - ملحظه - نظر‬ neutralize ‫خنثي كردن‬ sympathetic ‫همدرد - دلسوز - غمخورا‬ fellowship ‫رفاقت - دوستي - هم صحبتي‬ gathering ‫گردآوري - انجمن - اجتماع‬ award ‫جايزه - امانت گذاردن - پاداش دادن‬ instruct ‫)بيان نحوه كار به كسي - تعليم دادن (به‬ watch out ‫مراقب بودن - مواظب‬ ‫كارمندان‬ staff switch ‫عوض كردن‬ gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

us try not to insult others, but on occasion we make mistakes.

- ten per cent of the time, something you've just bought will turn out to be cheaper elsewhere. - ten per cent of the time, even your best friend may say something thoughtless and regret it. - in other words, develop a thick skin. It is often easier to assume that people are doing the best they can, and that many are simplyh unaware of the impact of their behaviour. - after a man had verbally attacked buddha, he responded, "my son, if someone declined to accept a present, to whom would it belong?" the man answered, "to him who offered it." "and so" said Buddha "I decline to accept your abuse." - the world is full of people who establish their worth by degrading others. They have pockets and purses full of put-downs--and they'll hand them out to anyone.

- refuse to accept their insults, even when hurled under the guise of love. By ignoring them, you'll reduce tension, strengthen your relationships and increase your joy. - an insult may look very affectionate. - points that people disregard. - everyday observations. - some hurting words can be neutralized by asking questions about them. - tender: loving; kind; sympathetic. - company: fellowship; friendship; gathering. - grant: give; award - clothes shops usually instruct their sales staff to watch out customers who switch sizes of one part of a two piece outfit.

81

‫تجهيز كردن‬ outfit two-piece outfit ‫لباس دو تكه‬ ahead ‫جلو - در امتداد حركت كسي‬ pyjamas ‫پيژامه - لباس خواب‬ rummage ‫زير و رو كردن - كاويدن‬ ‫با جستجوي زياد در آوردن‬ rummage out handbag ‫كيف دستي - كيف زنانه - چمدان كوچك‬ assistant ‫دستيار - شاگرد مغازه‬ section ‫قسمت - قطعه‬ indignant ‫خشمگين - رنجيده - متغير‬ our home was on the market ‫خانه ما در معرض فروش بود‬ ‫مشاورين املك‬ estate agents prospective ‫مربوط به بعد از اين - احتمالي‬ ‫زمان جفت گيريش فرا رسيد‬ come into season tom-cat ‫گربه نر‬ invasion ‫تاخت و تاز - هجوم‬ directness ‫صراحت - مستقيم بودن‬ spin (spun) ‫تنيدن - ريسيدن‬ ‫عنكبوت‬ spider steady ‫پي در پي - مدام - استوار - محكم‬ shaky ‫لرزنده - لرزان - متزلزل‬ unstable ‫متزلزل - نااستوار‬ disgrace ‫توهين - خفت آوردن - رسوايي‬ imitate ‫تقليد كردن - پيروي كردن‬ asylum ‫پناهگاه‬ flawless ‫بي عيب‬ draw in ‫در حلقه در آوردن - تو كشيدن‬ participant ‫شركت كننده - شريك‬ inconsiderate ‫بي پروا - بي ملحظه‬ ‫شيوه‬ tactic discharge ‫خالي كردن - تخليه‬

- once, a woman ahead of me was buying pyjamas. While she was rummaging out her handbag, the assistant checked both sections in her purchase and said, "madam you have a small top and a large bottom"

- indignant, the customer looked him and replied, "you don’t look so great either!" - our home was on the market, and estate agents were constantly showing it to prospective buyers.

- I was away at work each day, so this was not a problem until my beautiful persian cat came into season. Anxious that she remain indoors, I put up a large sign: "please do not let cat out!" - another agent must have let your tom-cat out, because he was waiting at the door while I was … - assault: attack; invasion -- candour: sincerity; honesty; directness. - cobweb: the web spun by a spider. - constant: regular; steady. - dizzy: shaky; unstable; unsteady. - embarrass: shame; disgrace. - feign: to pretend; to imitate. - haven: asylum; refuge; shelter. - immaculate: clean; tidy; flawless. - involve: to draw in as a participant. - rude: impolite; inconsiderate. - strategy: design; tactic; approach. - vent: to release; to discharge.

gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade

82

‫42 ‪UNIT‬‬ ‫‪moral‬‬ ‫اخلق - اخلقي - معنوي‬ ‫‪sense‬‬ ‫شعور - حس - معني‬ ‫‪what is right‬‬ ‫آنچه حق و درست است‬ ‫‪legal rights‬‬ ‫حقوق قانوني - حقوق مشروع‬ ‫‪obligations‬‬ ‫الزمات - وظايف‬ ‫‪morality‬‬ ‫سيرت - اخلقيات‬ ‫اصول رفتار خوب‬ ‫‪principles of good behaviour‬‬ ‫‪analysis‬‬ ‫تجزيه - تحليل - موشكافي‬ ‫‪functional‬‬ ‫كاركردي - اساسي‬ ‫‪dictate‬‬ ‫امر كردن - دستور دادن - تحميل كردن‬ ‫‪conscience‬‬ ‫وجدان‬ ‫‪puzzle‬‬ ‫متحير شدن - معما‬ ‫‪puzzling relation‬‬ ‫رابطه شگفت آور‬ ‫‪consequence‬‬ ‫پيامد - اثر - نتيجه‬ ‫‪capture‬‬ ‫دستگير كردن - غنيمت گرفتن - گرفتن‬ ‫‪betray‬‬ ‫خيانت كردن به‬ ‫‪fellow‬‬ ‫مرد - شخص‬ ‫‪give in‬‬ ‫تسليم شدن - از پا در آمدن‬ ‫‪reward‬‬ ‫پاداش دادن - اجر دان‬ ‫‪handsomely‬‬ ‫)بطور مطبوع - (سخاوتمندانه‬ ‫‪torture‬‬ ‫شكنجه دادن - زجر دادن - عذاب دادن‬ ‫‪inform‬‬ ‫اطلع دادن - گفتن - گزارش دادن‬ ‫‪over‬‬ ‫پيش از‬ ‫‪shield‬‬ ‫حامي - سپر - پوشش - حفاظت كردن‬ ‫‪criminal‬‬ ‫جاني - مجرم‬ ‫‪accomplice‬‬ ‫همدست - شريك جرم - معاون جرم‬ ‫‪grudgingly‬‬ ‫از روي كينه يا لج - از روي بي ميلي‬ ‫‪milder‬‬ ‫مليم - سست - مهربان - خفيف - نرم‬ ‫‪nonordinary‬‬ ‫غيرعادي - غيرمعمول‬ ‫‪correspondence‬‬ ‫ارتباط - مطابقت‬ ‫‪frequent‬‬ ‫تكرار شونده - مكرر‬ ‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬ ‫38‬

‫‪designate‬‬ ‫معين كردن - برگزيدن - گماشتن - نامزد كردن‬ ‫‪altruism‬‬ ‫نوع پرستي - بشر دوستي - غيرپرستي‬ ‫‪loyalty‬‬ ‫صداقت - وفاداري - وظيفه‌شناسي‬ ‫‪possibly‬‬ ‫شايد - اصل ً - بهيچوجه‬ ‫‪cohesiveness‬‬ ‫به هم پيوستگي - چسبندگي‬ ‫متكي بودن به‬ ‫‪rest‬‬ ‫‪occurrence‬‬ ‫اتفاق - تصادف - رويداد - رخداد - حادثه‬ ‫‪namely‬‬ ‫يعني - براي مثال - بنام - با ذكر نام‬ ‫‪violate‬‬ ‫)مختل كردن - تخلف كردن از - (شكستن‬ ‫‪customary‬‬ ‫عادي - مرسوم - عرف‬ ‫‪overt‬‬ ‫آشكار - واضح - علني‬ ‫‪violation‬‬ ‫تخلف - تخطي‬ ‫‪confine‬‬ ‫محدود كردن - منحصر كردن‬ ‫انتخاب‬ ‫‪choice‬‬ ‫‪persist‬‬ ‫سماجت كردن - پافشاري كردن - اصرار كردن‬ ‫‪doggedly‬‬ ‫سرسختانه - لجوجانه‬ ‫‪exemplify‬‬ ‫با مثال فهمانيدن - با نمونه نشان دادن‬ ‫‪laboratory‬‬ ‫آزمايشگاه - لبراتور‬ ‫شرايط‬ ‫‪terms‬‬ ‫‪persistence‬‬ ‫اصرار - پافشاري‬ ‫‪nonreinforced‬‬ ‫غيرمسلح - غير مستحكم - تقويت نشده‬ ‫عليرغم‬ ‫‪in the face of‬‬ ‫‪extinction‬‬ ‫انهدام - انقراض - اعدام - خاموش سازي‬ ‫در اصطلح عرف‬ ‫‪common-sense terms‬‬ ‫‪indicating determination‬‬ ‫مشخص كننده عزم‬ ‫‪will‬‬ ‫اراده‬ ‫توانايي نهاد‬ ‫‪strength of character‬‬ ‫‪specify‬‬ ‫تعيين كردن - معين كردن - مشخص كردن‬ ‫‪self-satisfaction‬‬ ‫ارضاي نفس - خود خشنودي‬ ‫رهبري دروني‬ ‫‪inner-direction‬‬ ‫‪at times‬‬ ‫گاه گاه - گاه گاهي - گاهي اوقات‬ ‫اسير كننده‬ ‫‪captor‬‬ ‫‪prisoner‬‬ ‫زنداني - اسير‬ ‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬ ‫48‬

‫بطور نمايان يا محسوس‬ ‫‪sensibly‬‬ ‫‪reasonably‬‬ ‫معقولنه - با دليل‬ ‫اكيدا ً - دقيقا ً‬ ‫‪strictly‬‬ ‫فرصت طلب‬ ‫‪opportunistic‬‬ ‫‪gain‬‬ ‫بدست آوردن - فايده بردن‬ ‫‪compliance‬‬ ‫اجابت - تسليم - مطلوبيت - فرمانبرداري‬ ‫‪common definition‬‬ ‫تعريف كلي‬ ‫‪weigh‬‬ ‫سنجيدن - وزن كردن - وزن داشتن‬ ‫شامل بودن‬ ‫‪involve‬‬ ‫‪according to‬‬ ‫بر طبق - مطابق‬ ‫قانون تصميم گيري‬ ‫‪decision rule‬‬ ‫‪anomalous‬‬ ‫غيرعادي - متناقض - بي شباهت‬ ‫‪anomaly‬‬ ‫غير متعارف - خلف قاعده - نابهنجاري‬ ‫‪pose‬‬ ‫مطرح كردن - گذاردن - قراردادن‬ ‫‪common sence‬‬ ‫عرف - عقل سليم‬ ‫روابط نظام يافته - روابط اصولي ‪systematized relations‬‬ ‫داراي روش يا قاعده كردن - اسلوب دادن به ‪systematize‬‬ ‫‪classical economics‬‬ ‫اقتصاد كلسيك‬ ‫‪behaviourist‬‬ ‫رفتارگرا - رفتارگرايي‬ ‫فرضيات يادگيري رفتارگرايي ‪behaviourist learning theories‬‬ ‫‪operant‬‬ ‫موثر - عامل - كاركننده‬ ‫‪relevant‬‬ ‫مربوط - مناسب‬ ‫‪procedure‬‬ ‫رويه - طرز عمل - روش - شيوه‬ ‫اصولي‬ ‫‪systematic‬‬ ‫‪to what extent‬‬ ‫تا چه حدي‬ ‫‪moral outcomes‬‬ ‫نتايج اخلقي‬ ‫‪substitution‬‬ ‫جانشيني - تعويض - جايگزيني‬ ‫‪errorless‬‬ ‫نداشتن خطا - بدون خطا‬ ‫آزمون و خطا‬ ‫‪trail and error‬‬ ‫روند اجتماعي‬ ‫‪social trend‬‬ ‫‪gradually‬‬ ‫بتدريج - رفته رفته‬ ‫آزارنده‬ ‫‪aversive‬‬ ‫‪slavery‬‬ ‫بردگي - برده داري‬ ‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬ ‫58‬

‫‪abolish‬‬ ‫از ميان بردن - منسوخ كردن - برانداختن‬ ‫بي اف اسكينر استاد دانشگاه هاوارد‪Harvard's B. F. skinner‬‬ ‫خاطر نشان كردن‬ ‫)‪point (out‬‬ ‫‪wage‬‬ ‫دستمزد - اجرت - اجير كردن‬ ‫‪wage society‬‬ ‫جامعه كارگري‬ ‫‪maintenance‬‬ ‫ابقاء - نگهداري‬ ‫‪reinforcement‬‬ ‫استحكام - تقويت - مدد‬ ‫‪lash‬‬ ‫تازيانه - شلق‬ ‫‪productive‬‬ ‫پر حاصل - پر بار‬ ‫‪ingenuity‬‬ ‫قوه ابتكار - نبوغ - هوش‬ ‫‪alter‬‬ ‫تغيير دادن - اصلح كردن‬ ‫‪continual‬‬ ‫پيوسته - پي در پي - هميشگي‬ ‫‪establish‬‬ ‫داير كردن - بنا نهادن‬ ‫حمايت كردن‬ ‫‪maintain‬‬ ‫‪subtle‬‬ ‫زيرك - ماهرانه - دقيق‬ ‫تعريف كردن‬ ‫‪define‬‬ ‫‪explicitly‬‬ ‫صريحا ً - بطور وضوح‬ ‫‪objective‬‬ ‫مقصود - معقول‬ ‫‪repertoire‬‬ ‫مجموعه - موجودي - مقدورات - فهرست‬ ‫‪organism‬‬ ‫سازمان - ارگانيسم‬ ‫‪approximation‬‬ ‫تخمين - تقريب‬ ‫به روشني مشخص شده‬ ‫‪explicity specified‬‬ ‫‪in the desired direction‬‬ ‫در جهت مورد نظر‬ ‫‪establishment‬‬ ‫تاسيس - برپايي‬ ‫‪training‬‬ ‫پرورش - تعليم - آموزش‬ ‫‪implicit‬‬ ‫التزامي - بي شرط - ضمني‬ ‫‪irrelevant‬‬ ‫نامربوط - بي ربط‬ ‫‪unsuccessful‬‬ ‫شكست - عدم موفقيت‬ ‫‪employ‬‬ ‫بكار گماشتن - استخدام كردن - مشغول كردن‬ ‫‪exhort‬‬ ‫نصيحت كردن - تشويق و ترغيب كردن‬ ‫‪train‬‬ ‫آموزش دادن‬ ‫‪possibility‬‬ ‫امكان - احتمال‬ ‫‪terminal repertoires‬‬ ‫مجموعه هاي نهايي‬ ‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬ ‫68‬

‫تا حال‬ ‫‪to date‬‬ ‫‪haphazard‬‬ ‫اتفاقي - برحسب تصادف‬ ‫توسعه اصول اخلقي ناميده مي‌شود ‪called development of‬‬ ‫‪morality‬‬ ‫‪raise‬‬ ‫اقامه كردن - پروراندن‬ ‫‪internalize‬‬ ‫باطني ساختن - دروني كردن‬ ‫‪superego‬‬ ‫شخصيت اخلقي - نفس اماره - وجدان‬ ‫‪pick up‬‬ ‫بدست آوردن - آشنا شدن‬ ‫روانكاو‬ ‫‪psychoanalyst‬‬ ‫‪castration‬‬ ‫اختگي - اخته كردن‬ ‫‪anxiety‬‬ ‫تشويش - دلواپسي‬ ‫‪castration anxieties‬‬ ‫‪therapist‬‬ ‫درمان شناس - درمانگر‬ ‫‪existentially‬‬ ‫بطور وجودي‬ ‫‪postpone‬‬ ‫عقب انداختن - به تعويق انداختن‬ ‫‪environment‬‬ ‫محيط‬ ‫رها كردن‬ ‫‪release‬‬ ‫‪cripple‬‬ ‫زمين گير - عاجز - فلج كردن‬ ‫‪bond‬‬ ‫قيد - رابطه - الزام‬ ‫قيد و بندهاي فلج كننده‬ ‫‪crippling bonds‬‬ ‫‪regard‬‬ ‫نگريستن - ملحظه كردن‬ ‫‪accompaniment‬‬ ‫همراهي - مشايعت‬ ‫‪discrimination‬‬ ‫قرق گذاري - تبعيض‬ ‫‪dictate‬‬ ‫امر كردن - تحميل كردن‬ ‫نوعدوستانه‬ ‫‪altruistic‬‬ ‫‪spontaneous‬‬ ‫خود به خود - خود انگيز‬ ‫‪existential‬‬ ‫مربوط به هستي - وجودي‬

‫‪gathered by: Mojgan Fathzade‬‬

‫78‬

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