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**Differential Equations and Applications
**

Mathematics 54–Elementary Analysis 2

Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines-Diliman

1/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

=

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

=

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

=

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation.

((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1,

(3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Introduction

Deﬁnition.

A differential equation is an equation involving a function of one

variable and its derivatives.

Examples.

1

dy

dx

=6−3x

2

2

du

dy

=e

−y

y

3

3

d

2

u

dx

2

=tanxsec

2

x

4

v

=

1

x

2

+5

Deﬁnitions.

1

The order of a differential equation is the highest order of the

derivative in the equation. ((1)–(2) are of order 1, (3)–(4) are of

order 2.)

2

A solution of a differential equation is a function that satisﬁes

the equation.

2/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Differential Equations

Consider the differential equation

dy

dx

=

tan

2

3x

y

2

−1

.

Notice that the above equation can be written as

_

y

2

−1

_

dy =tan

2

x dx

Deﬁnition

A differential equation that can be expressed in the form

f (x)dx =g(y)dy is said to be separable.

3/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Differential Equations

Consider the differential equation

dy

dx

=

tan

2

3x

y

2

−1

.

Notice that the above equation can be written as

_

y

2

−1

_

dy =tan

2

x dx

Deﬁnition

A differential equation that can be expressed in the form

f (x)dx =g(y)dy is said to be separable.

3/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Differential Equations

Consider the differential equation

dy

dx

=

tan

2

3x

y

2

−1

.

Notice that the above equation can be written as

_

y

2

−1

_

dy =tan

2

x dx

Deﬁnition

A differential equation that can be expressed in the form

f (x)dx =g(y)dy is said to be separable.

3/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution:

We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C,

C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

1

Find a solution of

dy

dx

=

cos3x

sin2y

.

Solution: We have

sin2y dy = cos3x dx

⇒

_

sin2y dy =

_

cos3x dx

⇒ −

1

2

cos2y +C

1

=

1

3

sin3x+C

2

.

Combining C

1

and C

2

, the solution has the form

1

2

cos2y +

1

3

sin3x =C, C ∈ R

4/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution:

The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable.

Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

General Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

2

Solve

du

dx

=

x

1−u

2

u

2x

2

+1

.

Solution: The given equation is separable. Indeed,

u

1−u

2

du =

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒

_

u

1−u

2

du =

_

x

2x

2

+1

dx

⇒−

_

1−u

2

+C

1

=

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+C

2

⇒C =

1

2

_

2x

2

+1+

_

1−u

2

.

5/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution:

The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C

=⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Particular Solution of a Differential Equation

Example.

3

Find the equation of the curve that passes through (0, 1) and

whose slope at any point

_

x, y

_

is given by

y cosx

1+y

2

.

Solution: The equation of the curve satisﬁes

dy

dx

=

y cosx

1+y

2

.

⇒

1+y

2

y

dy = cosx dx

⇒

__

1

y

+y

_

dy =

_

cosx dx

⇒ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

+

1

2

y

2

= sinx+C. (a)

But (0, 1) is a point on the above curve. Thus, we have

ln|1| +

1

2

(1)

2

=sin0+C =⇒ C =

1

2

.

6/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Deﬁnition.

An orthogonal trajectory to a set of curves is a curve that intersects

each curve orthogonally (perperdicularly).

That is, the tangent lines

at the points of intersection are perpendicular.

7/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Deﬁnition.

An orthogonal trajectory to a set of curves is a curve that intersects

each curve orthogonally (perperdicularly). That is, the tangent lines

at the points of intersection are perpendicular.

7/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Deﬁnition.

An orthogonal trajectory to a set of curves is a curve that intersects

each curve orthogonally (perperdicularly). That is, the tangent lines

at the points of intersection are perpendicular.

7/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Example.

1

Consider the set of circles with center at the origin x

2

+y

2

=C.

x−axis, y−axis, lines with

equation y =Cx are orthogonal

trajectories to the given set of

circles

8/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Example.

1

Consider the set of circles with center at the origin x

2

+y

2

=C.

x−axis, y−axis, lines with

equation y =Cx are orthogonal

trajectories to the given set of

circles

8/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Example.

1

Consider the set of circles with center at the origin x

2

+y

2

=C.

x−axis,

y−axis, lines with

equation y =Cx are orthogonal

trajectories to the given set of

circles

8/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Example.

1

Consider the set of circles with center at the origin x

2

+y

2

=C.

x−axis, y−axis,

lines with

equation y =Cx are orthogonal

trajectories to the given set of

circles

8/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Example.

1

Consider the set of circles with center at the origin x

2

+y

2

=C.

x−axis, y−axis, lines with

equation y =Cx are orthogonal

trajectories to the given set of

circles

8/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Computing Equations of Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =Cx

2

.

dy

dx

(of o.t.) =

−1

dy

dx

(of given)

9/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Computing Equations of Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =Cx

2

.

dy

dx

(of o.t.) =

−1

dy

dx

(of given)

9/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Computing Equations of Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =Cx

2

.

dy

dx

(of o.t.) =

−1

dy

dx

(of given)

9/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx

(

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories of y =Cx

2

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2Cx (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒y =Cx

2

⇒C =

y

x

2

⇒ m=2

_

y

x

2

_

x =

2y

x

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

x

2y

.

Solving, we obtain y

2

=−

1

2

x

2

+K.

10/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x

(

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin y =x

2

+C.

⇒m=

dy

dx

=2x (

dy

dx

of the given curve)

⇒−

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

(of the O.T.)

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

2x

.

Solving, we obtain y =−

1

2

ln|x| +K.

11/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin siny =e

x

+C.

Use implicit differentiation to compute m=

dy

dx

(of the given curve):

d

dx

_

siny

_

=

d

dx

_

e

x

+C

_

⇒cosy

dy

dx

= e

x

+0

⇒

dy

dx

= e

x

secy

The equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=−

1

e

x

cosy

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

sec+tany

¸

¸

=e

−x

+K.

12/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0

⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

.

But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Orthogonal Trajectories

Example.

Consider the set of parabolas with vertex at the origin Cx

2

+y

2

=1.

⇒2Cx+2y

dy

dx

=0 ⇒

dy

dx

=−

Cx

y

_

dy

dx

of the given curve

_

Also, C =

1−y

2

x

2

⇒m=−

1−y

2

xy

. But −

1

m

=m

⊥

=

dy

dx

so

the equation of the O.T. satisﬁes the differential equation,

dy

dx

=

xy

1−y

2

.

Solving, we obtain ln

¸

¸

y

¸

¸

−

1

2

y

2

=

1

2

x

2

+K.

13/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t

⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0

⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

Exponential Growth and Decay

A population is said to be growing (or decaying) exponentially if its

instantaneous rate of increase (or decrease) at any given time is

proportional to the present population at that time. (e.g., bacterial

culture and radioactive decay)

P(t) -population at any time t ⇒

dP

dt

=kP(t), k constant

⇒

1

P

dP = k dt

⇒lnP = kt +C

⇒P(t) = e

kt+C

.

To ﬁnd C:

Let t =0 ⇒P(0) =e

C

⇒P(t) =P(0) e

kt

,

where P(0) is the population at time t =0.

14/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000.

Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2

⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2,

P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

.

Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 1.

There are 1000 bacteria at a time and the number doubles after 30

mins. (a) Find the population of the culture at any time t. (b) How

many will be present in 2 hrs? (c) How long will it take before 64000

is present?

(a) Set P(0) =1000. Find k:

when t =

1

2

(30 mins), 2000 =P

_

1

2

_

=1000e

1

2

k

⇒e

1

2

k

=2 ⇒e

k

=4.

Therefore, P(t) =1000(4)

t

.

(b) When t =2, P(2) =16000.

(c) We must ﬁnd t such that 64000 =1000(4)

t

. Hence t =3 hrs.

15/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0).

Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4)

= P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 2.

A bacterial culture triples its population triples its population after

an hour. If 81M were present at the end of 4hrs, how many were

present initially.

We must ﬁnd P(0). Note that 3P(0) =P(1) =P(0) e

k·1

⇒e

k

=3.

81M=P(4) = P(0) e

4k

= P(0)

_

e

k

_

4

= P(0) (3)

4

.

Hence, P(0) =1M.

16/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

4 g.

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay.

Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

4 g.

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

4 g.

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs

⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0)

=P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

The half-life of a radioactive substance is the time required for

one-half of it to decay. Radioactive decay is exponential since at

every moment a certain fraction of a radioactive material decays.

Example 3.

Element X has a half life of 3 yrs. If 64g of it is present at a time, how

much of it will be present after 16 yrs.

Half-life of 3yrs ⇒P(3) =

1

2

P(0) =P(0) e

3k

⇒e

3k

=

1

2

.

Find P(16):

P(16) =P(0) e

16k

=64

_

e

3k

_

16

3

=64

_

1

2

_

5

1

3

=

64

32

3

2

=

3

4 g.

17/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0):

P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

DE Solution Ortho Trajectories Exponential Growth/Decay

P(t) =P(0) e

kt

Example 4.

30% of a radioactive substance disappears in 15yrs. Find its half-life.

Find t such that P(t) =

1

2

P(0): P(15) =P(0) −.3P(0) =0.7P(0).

P(15) =P(0) e

15k

⇒P(0) e

15k

= 0.7P(0)

⇒e

15k

= 0.7

⇒e

k

= (0.7)

1

15

.

We have

1

2

P(0) =P(t) ⇒

1

2

P(0) = P(0) e

kt

⇒

1

2

=

_

e

k

_

t

= (0.7)

t

15

⇒t =

−15ln2

ln0.7

.

18/ 18

- The Notion of Dimension in Geometry and Algebra[Manin]
- Lecture 11 (Conics in Polar Coordinates)
- Lecture 10 (Calculus of Polar Curves)
- Lecture 9 (Polar Coordinates and Polar Curves)
- Lecture 8 (Parametric Equations)
- Lecture 7 (Hyperbola and Focus Directrix Equation)
- Lecture 6 (Conic Sections)
- Lecture 4 (Improper Integrals)
- Lecture 3 (Trigonometric Substitution and Partial Fractions)
- Lecture 2 (Trigonometric Integrals)
- Lecture 1 (Review)
- Lecture 1 (Integration By Parts)

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