This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(ETC) Part-IV 8th Semester Examination, 2006
Time : 3 hours Full Marks : 100
Use separate answerscript for each half. Answer SIX questions, taking THREE from each half. Two marks are reserved for neatness in each half.
FIRST HALF 1. a) What is a biomaterial? State same desirable properties of a biomaterial. Name some common biomaterials. Discuss in brief the transmission of ECG signals using telemetry principles.
a) Why is silicon not a biocompatible material? How can it be made biocompatible? Explain the method with schematic diagram. b) Discuss in brief the method for estimation of oxygen content of blood using optical fibre. (10+6)
What is dye densitometry method? How does this method help to estimate the blood flow rate? What are the sources of error in the measurement?
b) Name the three basic types of electrodes for measurement of bioelectric potentials. What is the major advantage of floating-type skin surface electrodes? What do you understand by the term "reference electrode"? (8+8)
What is a biopotential? Explain polarization depolarization and repolarization with an action potential waveform.
b) Explain the basic operation of blood pressure measurement using silicon based mechanical sensors. (8+8) 5. a) Discuss the automatic method of measuring blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic). What is the major source of error in such measurement technique. What is meant by mean arterial pressure? How is it measured? (8+8)
(ETC-803/5) 6. Write short notes on (any two) : i)
Optical fibre based sensors in invasive measurements ii)
Pulsed doppler technique of blood pressure measurement iii) Defibrillators.
SECOND HALF 7. a) Explain with a time - phase diagram the correlation of the mechanical pumping of the heart, including the opening of the values with the electrical excitation events. b) Draw the waveshape of blood pressure on a time base and explain it. 8. a) (10+6)
What are the position of the various leads required for ECG measurement? Why are the vector sums of the projections on the frontal-plane cardiac vector at any instant onto the three axes of the Einthoven triangle zero?
b) Discuss briefly with block diagram the principle of operation of an ECG instrument. How is the heart rate measured from an ECG? Does it depend on the paper speed? Explain. (8+8) 9. a) Why is a pacemaker needed? What are the different functions and modes of operation of a pacemaker? On what factor does the pacing threshold of a pacemaker depend? Discuss with block diagram the internal circuitry of a typical pacemaker. What special protections are normally kept for indication of low battery power.
A certain patient monitoring unit has an input amplifies with a common mode rejection ratio of 100,000:1 at 60 Hz. At other frequencies, the common mode rejection ratio is 1000:1. Do you consider these ratios adequate for monitoring the ECG? Explain. Explain the principle of computerized axial tomography and compare its method of visualization with conventional X-ray methods. (8+8) Discuss the template cross correlation and subtraction methods for detection of QRS complex in a ECG waveform. What is major drawback of template technique of measurements?
— (3) —
Why is the T wave positive in a normal ECG given that it represents repolarization of the ventricles? Explain. (12+4)
Discuss the matched filter technique that can be used for the estimation of R-R interval in a ECG waveform. it is physically realizable.
b) Design a matched filter for the waveform shown in Fig. 1 and determine when
Discuss the properties of matched filters that can be deduced from the above design. (8+8)
. . .
, - ^
, - ,
■ . - , , - . , v - - v . - . • - . - ; ; -
■ ■ : - : -
■ ■ - ■ ' ■ - • -