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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

LI CM N

hon thnh n ny, em xin t lng bit n n Thy Nguyn Vn Dng, tn tnh hng dn trong sut qu trnh nghin cu v ti ny. D thy rt bn rn nhng vn ginh thi gian hng dn, gii thiu sch tham kho v.vKhi em gp kh khn,vng mt trong qu trnh nghin cu thy tn tnh gip em. Em chn thnh cm n qu Thy, C trong khoa in in T, Trng i Hc Tn c Thng tn tnh truyn t kin thc trong 4 nm hc tp. Vi vn kin thc c tip thu trong qu trnh hc khng ch l nn tng cho qu trnh nghin cu, tm hiu v n m cn l hnh trang qu bu em bc vo i mt cch vng chc v t tin. V cm n nhng li ng vin, s gip tn tnh ca cc bn trong lp 07DD2D. Cui cng em knh chc qu Thy, C, cng cc bn di do sc khe v thnh cng trong cng vic.

Sinh vin: Trn Quang Anh

Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN

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Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy..thngnm 2011 Ging vin hng dn Nguyn Vn Dng

Sinh vin: Trn Quang Anh

Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

NHN XT CA GING VIN HNG DN

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Tp. H Ch Minh, ngy..thngnm 2011 Ging vin phn bin

Sinh vin: Trn Quang Anh

Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

DANH MC CC T VIT TT
1xEV- DO 1x Evolution Data Optimized 3G 3GPP Third Generation Third Generation Global Partnership Project Third Generation Global Partnership Project 2 Pha 1- Ti u d liu Th h 3 D n hi nhp ton cu th h 3

3GPP2 A. ACELP

Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction Coder Automatic Gain Control Adaptive Multi-Rate codec

B m ho on tuyn tnh c kch thch bi m i s. B iu khin tng ch t ng B m ho v gii m a tc thch nghi H thng in thoi di ng tin tin (M) Hip hi cng nghip v tuyn ca Nht Bn

AGC AMR

AMPS ARIB B. BER BLER BoD BPSK BSIC

Advanced Mobile Phone System Association of Radio Industry Board

Bit Error Rate Block Error Rate Bandwidth on Demand Binary Phase Shift Keying Base station identity code

Tc li bit. Tc li Block Bng thng theo yu cu Kho dch pha nh phn. M nhn dng trm gc

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA


BTS C. CDG CDMA CN CRC CRNC D. DL DRNC DSSS Downlink Drift RNC Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum The CDMA Development Group Code Division Multiple Access Core Network Cylic Redundancy Check Controlling RNC Base Tranceiver Station

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng


Trm gc

Nhm pht trin CDMA Truy nhp phn chia theo m Mng li M vng kim tra d tha B RNC ang ph trch iu khin

ng xung B RNC iu khin tri H thng tri ph chui trc tip

E. EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for Evolution Cc tc d liu tng cng cho s tin ho Cng sut bc x ng hng tng ng Vin chun ho vin thng Chu u

EIRP Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power ETSI European Telecommunication Standard Institute F. FDD Frequency Division Duplex

Phng thc song cng phn chia theo tn s

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng


a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s

FDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access Frame Error Rate

T s li khung

FER G. GGSN GPRS GPS GSM

Gateway GPRS Support Node General Packet Radio Service Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Telecommunication

Nt h tr cng GPRS Dch v v tuyn gi chung. H thng nh v ton cu. H thng vin thng di ng ton cu

H. HCM Handover Completion Message Thng ip hon thnh chuyn giao ng ton cu B ng k thng tr Truy nhp gi ng xung tc cao

HLR HSDPA

Home Location Registor High Speed Downlink Packet Access Handover

HO I.

Chuyn giao

IMT-2000 International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 IMT- MC IMT- DS IMT- Multicarrier IMT- Direct Sequence

Thng tin di ng ton cu 2000

IMT a sng mang. IMT tri ph chui trc tip

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IMT- TC IMT-SC IP ITU IMT- Time Code IMT Single Carrier Internet Protocol

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng


IMT m thi gian IMT n sng mang. Giao thc Internet

International Telecommunication Lin hp vin thng quc t. Union Giao din gia RNC v nt B Giao din gia 2 RNC.

Iub Iur K. KPI L. LOS M. ME MMS MRC MSC Mobile Equipment Multimedia Messaging Service Maximum Ratio Cobining Line of sight Key performace Indicator

B ch th hiu nng chnh.

Tm nhn thng

Thit b di ng Dch v nhn tin a phng tin Kt hp theo t s ln nht

Mobile Service Switching Centre Trung tm chuyn mch dch v di ng.

O. OVSF Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor H s tri ph bin i trc giao.

P. PCU Packet Control Unit n v iu khin gi

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PN PSMM Pseudo Noise Pilot Strength Measurement Message

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng


Gi tp m Thng ip o c cng knh hoa tiu

Q. QPSK Quardrature Phase Phase Shift Keying Kho dch pha cu phng.

R. RAM RAT RNC RNS RRC Radio Access Mode Radio Access Technology Radio Network Controller Radio Network subsystem Radio Resoure Control protocol Ch truy nhp v tuyn. Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn. B iu khin mng v tuyn. Phn h mng v tuyn Giao thc iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn Thut ton qun l ti nguyn v tuyn.

RRM S. SFN SGSN SHO SIP SIR SMS SNR

Radio Resouse Management

System Frame Number Serving GPRS Support Node. Soft Handover Session Initiation Protocol Signal to Interference Ratio Short Messaging Service Signal to Noise Ratio Site Selection Diversity

S hiu khung h thng. Nt h tr GPRS phc v Chuyn giao mm. Giao thc khi to phin T s tn hiu trn nhiu Dch v nhn tin ngn. T s tn hiu trn tp m

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA


SSDT Transmission Spread Spectrum Multiple Access

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng


Pht phn tp la chn site

SSMA T. TDD

a truy nhp tri ph.

Time Division Duplex

Phng thc song cng phn chia theo thi gian a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian iu khin cng sut pht Chuyn giao vi l do lu lng

TDMA TPC TRHO U. UE UL UMTS

Time Division Multiple Access Transmission Power Control Traffic Reason Handover

User Equipment Uplink Universal Mobile Telecommunication System UMTS Subscriber Identify Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network

Thit b ngi s dng ng xung H thng vin thng di ng ton cu.

USIM UTRAN

Modul nhn dng thu bao UMTS Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS

V. VLR W. WCDMA Wideband Code Division Multiple Access a truy nhp phn chia theo m bng rng Visitor Location Registor B ng k tm tr

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

MC LC
LI M U ......................................................................................................................................... 1 CHNG 1 TNG QUAN CNG NGH WCDMA ........................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 GII THIU CHUNG .......................................................................................................... 3 H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H 3 IMT-2000............................................. 3 NGUYN L CDMA ............................................................................................................ 4 Nguyn l tri ph CDMA ............................................................................................ 4 K thut tri ph v gii tri ph ................................................................................. 5 K thut a truy nhp CDMA...................................................................................... 6

1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.4

MT S C TRNG CA LP VT L TRONG H THNG WCDMA. .............. 7 Cc m tri ph . ............................................................................................................ 7 Phng thc song cng. .............................................................................................. 10 Dung lng mng. ....................................................................................................... 10 Phn tp a ng- B thu RAKE............................................................................... 11 Cu hnh chc nng ca my pht v my thu v tuyn ............................................ 14

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 1.5

CU TRC MNG TRUY CP V TUYN ................................................................. 15 Cc c im ca WCDMA ........................................................................................ 15 Cc c tnh k thut c bn ca WCDMA .............................................................. 17 Cu trc mng WCDMA ............................................................................................ 18

1.5.1 1.5.2 1.5.3

CHNG 2 CHUYN GIAO TRONG H THNG 3G WCDMA .................................................... 23 2.1 KHI QUT V CHUYN GIAO TRONG CC H THNG THNG TIN DI NG 23 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 Cc kiu chuyn giao trong h thng 3G WCDMA .................................................. 23 Cc mc tiu ca chuyn giao..................................................................................... 25 Cc th tc v php o chuyn giao ........................................................................... 26

CHUYN GIAO MM (SHO) ........................................................................................... 28 Chuyn giao mm ........................................................................................................ 28 Chuyn giao mm hn ................................................................................................. 29

2.2.1 2.2.2

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA


2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Nguyn l chuyn giao mm. ...................................................................................... 30 Cc thut ton ca chuyn giao mm ........................................................................ 33 Cc c im ca chuyn giao mm. .......................................................................... 35

CHNG 3 IU KHIN CNG SUT TRONG H THNG 3G WCDMA ................................. 38 3.1 3.2 GII THIU CHUNG ........................................................................................................ 38 IU CHNH CNG SUT TRN NG TRUYN V .......................................... 39

3.2.1 Thm d truy nhp........................................................................................................... 39 3.2.2 Vng iu khin m .......................................................................................................... 40 3.2.3 Vng iu khin khp kn ................................................................................................. 41 3.2.4 3.3 Qu trnh thc hin vng iu khin m v vng iu khin khp kn ................... 43

IU CHNH CNG SUT TRN NG TRUYN I ........................................... 45

KT LUN........................................................................................................................................... 47 PH LC ............................................................................................................................................. 48 CC KNH UTRA ............................................................................................................................. 48 TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................................. 51

Sinh vin: Trn Quang Anh

Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

LI M U
Ra i vo nhng nm 40 ca th k XX, thng tin di ng c coi nh l mt thnh tu tin tin trong lnh vc thng tin vin thng vi c im cc thit b u cui c th truy cp dch v ngay khi ang di ng trong phm vi vng ph sng. Thnh cng ca con ngi trong lnh vc thng tin di ng khng ch dng li trong vic m rng vng ph sng phc v thu bao khp ni trn ton th gii, cc nh cung dch v, cc t chc nghin cu pht trin cng ngh di ng ang n lc hng ti mt h thng thng tin di ng hon ho, cc dch v a dng, cht lng dch v cao. 3G T thp nin 1990, Lin minh Vin thng Quc t bt tay vo vic pht trin mt nn tng chung cho cc h thng vin thng di ng. Kt qu l mt sn phm c gi l Thng tin di ng ton cu 2000 (IMT-2000). IMT-2000 khng ch l mt b dch v, n p ng c m lin lc t bt c ni u v vo bt c lc no. c nh vy, IMT-2000 to iu kin tch hp cc mng mt t hoc v tinh. Hn th na, IMT-2000 cng cp n Internet khng dy, hi t cc mng c nh v di ng, qun l di ng (chuyn vng), cc tnh nng a phng tin di ng, hot ng xuyn mng v lin mng.. Cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 c xy dng theo tiu chun GSM, IS-95, PDC, IS-38 pht trin rt nhanh vo nhng nm 1990. Trong hn mt t thu bao in thoi di ng trn th gii, khong 863,6 triu thu bao s dng cng ngh GSM, 120 triu dng CDMA v 290 triu cn li dng FDMA hoc TDMA. Khi chng ta tin ti 3G, cc h thng GSM v CDMA s tip tc pht trin trong khi TDMA v FDMA s chm dn vo qun lng. Con ng GSM s ti l CDMA bng thng rng (WCDMA) trong khi CDMA s l CDMA2000. Ti Vit Nam, th trng di ng trong nhng nm gn y cng ang pht trin vi tc tng i nhanh. Cng vi hai nh cung cp dch v di ng ln nht l Vinaphone v Mobifone, Cng Ty Vin thng Qun i (Viettel), S-fone v mi nht l Cng ty c phn Vin thng H Ni v Vin Thng in Lc tham gia vo th trng di ng chc hn s to ra mt s cnh tranh ln gia cc nh cung cp dch v, em li mt s la chn phong ph cho ngi s dng. V vy, cc nh cung cp dch

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

v di ng Vit Nam khng ch s dng cc bin php cnh tranh v gi c m cn phi n lc tng cng s lng dch v v nng cao cht lng dch v chim lnh th phn trong nc. Trong s cc nh cung cp dch v di ng Vit Nam, ngoi hai nh cung cp dch v di ng ln nht l Vinaphone v Mobifone, cn c Viettel ang p dng cng ngh GSM v cung cp dch v di ng cho phn ln thu bao di ng Vit Nam. V vy khi tin ln 3G, chc chn hng p dng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA. Chnh v vy trong n ny 2 em chn d ti TM HIU TNG QUAN CNG NGH WCDMA. Em xin chn thnh cm n s hng dn, gip ca thy Nguyn Vn Dng em hon thnh n ny.

Tp H Ch Minh, Ngy........thng.........nm 2011 Sinh vin thc hin Trn Quang Anh

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN CNG NGH WCDMA

1.1 GII THIU CHUNG Cng vi s pht trin mnh m ca cng ngh thng tin, p ng nhu cu ngy cng cao v cc dch v ca h thng thng tin di ng, nht l cc dch v truyn s liu i hi cc nh khai thc phi a ra h thng thng tin di ng mi. Trc bi cnh hip hi vin thng quc t ITU a ra n tiu chun ho xy dng h thng thng tin di ng th h ba vi vi tn gi l IMT- 2000. ng thi cc c quan v tiu chun ho xc tin vic xy dng mt tiu chun ho p dng cho IMT2000 thng qua d n 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project). H thng thng tin di ng th h ba c ra i t d n 3GPP c gi l h thng thng tin di ng UMTS/WCDMA. 1.2 H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H 3 IMT-2000 Thng tin di ng th h th 3 xy dng trn c s IMT-2000 c a vo phc v t nm 2001. Mc ch ca IMT-2000 l a ra nhiu kh nng mi nhng cng ng thi bo m s pht trin lin tc ca thng tin di ng th h 2. Cc tiu ch chung xy dng IMT- 2000 nh sau: Tc ca th h th ba c xc nh nh sau: 384 Kb/s i vi vng ph sng rng. 2 Mb/s i vi vng ph sng a phng. S dng di tn quy nh quc t 2GHz nh sau: ng ln : 1885-2025 MHz. ng xung : 2110-2200 MHz. L h thng thng tin di ng ton cu cho cc loi hnh thng tin v tuyn: Tch hp cc mng thng tin hu tuyn v v tuyn. Tng tc vi mi loi dch v vin thng. S dng cc mi trng khai thc khc nhau: trong cng s, ngoi ng, trn xe, v tinh. C th h tr cc dch v nh: m bo chuyn mng quc t.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

m bo cc dch v a phng tin ng thi cho thoi, s liu chuyn mch theo knh v s liu chuyn mch theo gi. D dng h tr cc dch v mi xut hin. C kh nng chuyn vng ton cu. C kh nng s dng giao thc Internet. Hin nay hai tiu chun c chp thun cho IMT- 2000 l : WCDMA c xy dng trn c s cng tc ca Chu u v Nht Bn. Cdma2000 do M xy dng. 1.3 NGUYN L CDMA 1.3.1 Nguyn l tri ph CDMA Cc h thng s c thit k tn dng dung lng mt cch ti a. Theo nguyn l dung lng knh truyn ca Shannon c m t trong (1.1), r rng dung lng knh truyn c th c tng ln bng cch tng bng tn knh truyn. C = B. log2(1+S/N) (1.1)

Trong B l bng thng (Hz), C l dung lng knh (bit/s), S l cng sut tn hiu v N l cng sut tp m. V vy, i vi mt t s S/N c th (SNR), dung lng tng ln nu bng thng s dng truyn tng. CDMA l cng ngh thc hin tri tn hiu gc thnh tn hiu bng rng trc khi truyn i. CDMA thng c gi l k thut a truy nhp tri ph (SSMA).T s rng bng tn truyn thc vi rng bng tn ca thng tin cn truyn c gi l li x l (GP ) hoc l h s tri ph. GP = Bt / Bi hoc GP = B/R Trong Bt :l rng bng tn truyn thc t Bi : rng bng tn ca tn hiu mang tin B : l rng bng tn RF R : l tc thng tin Mi quan h gia t s S/N v t s Eb/I0, trong Eb l nng lng trn mt bit, v I0 l mt ph nng lng tp m, th hin trong cng thc sau : (1.2)

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng


S Eb R Eb 1 N I0 B I0 Gp

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

(1.3)

V th vi mt yu cu Eb/I0 xc th, nh, li x l cng cao, th t s S/N yu t cu cng th u thp. Trong h thng CDMA tin, IS-95, bng thng truy dn l ng u 95, truyn 1.25MHz. Trong h thng WCDMA, bng thng truyn khong 5MHz. h ng truy ng Trong CDMA, mi ngi s d m dng c gn mt chui m duy nht (m tri i n ph) tr tn hiu thng tin thnh m tn hiu bng rng trc khi truyn i. Bn thu tri t c truy bit c chu m ca ngi s dng v gii m khi phc tn hi gc. c chui ng gi c hiu 1.3.2 K thut tri ph v gii tr ph K i tri Tr ph v gii tri ph l hot ng c bn nht trong cc h thng DSi ho t h CDMA. D liu ngi s dng ng l chu bit c iu ch BPSK c t l R. D chui tc Hot ng tr ph chnh l nhn mi bit d liu ngi s dng v mt chui n bit ng tri i d ng vi m, c g l cc chip. y, ta l n=8 th h s tri ph l 8, ngh l thc hin c gi y ngha iu ch tr ph BPSK. Kt qu tc d liu l 8xR v c dng xu hin ngu nhin tri c ng xut (gi nhiu) nh l m tri ph. Vic tng t d liu ln 8 ln p ng vic m rng u) m c tc n (vi h s l 8) ph ca tn hiu d li ngi s dng c tri ra. Tn hi bng rng u i hiu ny s truyn qua cc knh v tuyn n u cui thu. c n tuy

Hnh 1.1 Qu trnh tr ph v gii tri ph tri Trong qu trnh gii tri ph, cc chui chip/d liu ngi s dng tri ph gi , chu c nhn t c tng bit vi cng cc chip m 8 c s dng trong qu trnh tr ph. i ng tri

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

Nh trn hnh v tn hiu ngi s dng ban c khi phc hon ton. h ng u c

1.3.3 K thut a truy nhp CDMA K p M mng thng tin di ng l m h thng nhiu ngi s dng, trong mt t ng mt s lng l ngi s dng chia s ngu ti nguyn vt l chung truyn v nhn ng ln ngun t thng tin. Dung l lng a truy nhp l mt trong cc yu t c b ca h thng. K p m n thut tri ph tn hiu cn truyn em l kh nng thc hin a truy nh cho cc h i ph n li n nhp thng CDMA. Trong lch s thng tin di ng tn ti cc cng ngh a truy nhp ng l i ngh khc nhau : TDMA, FDMA v CDMA. S khc nhau gia chng c ch ra trong S a hnh 1.2.

Hnh 1.2 Cc cng ngh a truy nhp ngh Trong h thng a truy nhp theo t s FDMA, cc tn hi cho cc ngi s h p tn u dng khc nhau c truyn trong cc knh khc nhau vi cc t s iu ch khc ng n v n nhau. Trong h thng a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA, cc tn hi ca h p i hiu ngi s dng khc nhau c truyn i trong cc khe th i gian khc nhau. V cc n thi Vi cng ngh khc nhau, s ngi s dng l nht c th chia s thi cc knh vt ng ln ng l l c nh. Tuy nhin trong h thng CDMA, cc tn hiu cho ng s dng khc ng t u ngi nhau truyn i trong cng mt bng tn ti cng mt thi i c t t i im. Mi tn hiu ngi s d dng ng vai tr nh l nhi i vi tn hiu ca ngi s dng khc, do u i s dung lng c h thng CDMA gn nh l mc nhiu, v khng c con s ln nht ng ca n m ng s c nh, nn dung l nh, lng ca h thng CDMA gi l dung l mm. ng c ng Hnh 1.3 Ch ra mt v d lm th no 3 ngi s dng c th truy nh ng thi Ch ng nhp trong mt h thng CDMA. t h

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

Hnh 1.3 Nguyn l c a truy nhp tri ph ca Ti bn thu ng s dng 2 s gii tri ph tn hiu thng tin c n tr li tn i ngi u ca hiu bng hp, ch khng phi tn hi ca bt c ngi no khc. B v s tng u h i hiu i Bi quan cho gi m ca ngi s dng mong mu v cc m ca ng s dng khc gia ng mun a ngi l rt nh vic tch sng kt hp s ch cp nng lng cho tn hi mong mun v , ng hiu mt phn nh cho tn hiu ca ngi s dng khc v bng tn thng tin. n nh n li x l v c im bng r m rng ca qu trnh x l em l nhiu li ch cho li cc h th CDMA, nh hiu sut ph cao v dung lng mm. Tuy nhin, t c ng t ph m. tt nhng li ch yu c vic s dng k thut iu khin cng su nghim ngt v i cu ng k t chuyn giao mm, trnh cho tn hiu c ngi s dng ny che thng tin c ngi n m u ca ng ca s dng khc. ng 1.4 MT S C TRNG CA L VT L TRONG H TH TS P THNG WCDMA. 1.4.1 Cc m tr ph . tri Trong h thng tri ph chui tr tip DSSS, cc bit d li c m ho vi h i trc liu mt chui bit gi ngu nhin (PN). M i gi u Mng v tuyn UMTS mng s dng mt tc ng s chip c nh l 3.84Mcps em li m bng thng sng mang x x 5MHz. D liu t p c gi qua giao di v tuyn WCDMA c m ho 2 ln tr khi c iu ch i din n c v truyn i. Qu trnh ny c m t trong hnh v sau: n tr

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 1.4 Qu trnh tri ph v trn Nh vy trong qu trnh trn c hai loi m c s dng l m trn v m nh knh. M nh knh: l cc m h s tri ph bin i trc giao OVSF gi tnh trc giao gia cc knh c cc tc v h s tri ph khc nhau. Cc m la chn c xc nh bi h s tri ph. Cn phi ch rng: Mt m c th c s dng trong cell khi v ch khi khng c m no khc trn ng dn t mt m c th n gc ca cy m hoc l trn mt cy con pha di m c s dng trong cng mt cell. C th ni tt c cc m c chn la s dng hon ton theo quy lut trc giao. M trn. M trn c s dng trn ng xung l tp hp chui m Gold. Cc iu kin ban u da vo s m trn n. Chc nng ca n dng phn bit cc trm gc khc nhau. Thng qua m phng, n c xc nh l t s gia t tng quan v tng quan cho khi thay i s chip b ct bt do thay i t s S/N. Kt qu c ch ra trong bng 1.1. Bng 1.1 Quan h gia S/N v s chip b ct bt

C hai loi m trn trn ng ln , chng dng duy tr s phn bit gia cc my di ng khc nhau. C hai loi u l m phc. M th nht l m ho Kasami rt rng. Loi th hai l m trn di ng ln thng c s dng trong cell khng pht hin thy nhiu ngi s dngtrong mt trm gc. l chui m Gold c chiu di l 241-1.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 1.5 H thng tri ph DS-CDMA

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Mt li x l N=W/B = t s ca tc chip / tc k hiu v cn c gi l h s tri ph (SF) th hin mc chng nhiu bng rng s t c nh s dng qu trnh trn (nhn) v lc (tng quan). Nu thu c mt bn sao b tr ca tn hiu cn thu (tc l mt thnh phn sng trong hiu ng nhiu tia), qu trnh trn bi cc song tri ph my thu khng lm gim rng bng tn ca tn hiu ny nu hm tng quan ca dng sng tri ph c cc thuc tnh mong mun nht nh tha mn bi cc chui gi ngu nhin. Nh vy, h thng tri ph DS thu c mt li x l chng nhiu do hin tng nhiu tia t tn hiu cn thu cng nhu chng hin tng jamming hoc nhiu t nhng thu bao khc. Kh nng ny ca h thng tri ph DS tch ra tn hiu cn thu v kh nhiu do hin tng nhiu tia c khai thc bi mt k thut thu gi l Rake, k thut ny s thu cc tia song n my thu qua nhiu ng khc nhau (multipath) s dng cc mch pht chui PN c cc thi gian tr khc nhau, sp xp li cc tia sng ny theo thi gian v sau kt hp chng thu c mt li phn tp (k thut thu rake c cp n phn sau). 1.4.2 Phng thc song cng. Hai phng thc song cng c s dng trong kin trc WCDMA: Song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) v song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD). Phng php FDD cn hai bng tn cho ng ln v ng xung. Phng thc TDD ch cn mt bng tn. Thng thng ph tn s c bn cho cc nh khai thc theo cc di c th bng 2x10MHz, hoc 2x15MHz cho mi b iu khin. Mc d c mt s c im khc nhau nhng c hai phng thc u c tng hiu sut gn ging nhau. Ch TDD khng cho php gia my di ng v trm gc c tr truyn ln, bi v s gy ra ng gia cc khe thi gian thu v pht. V vy m ch IDD ph hp vi cc mi trng c tr truyn thp, cho nn ch TDD vn hnh cc pico cell. Mt u im ca TDD l tc d liu ng ln v ng xung c th rt khc nhau, v vy m ph hp cho cc ng dng c c tnh bt i xng gia ng ln v ng xung, chng hn nh Web browsing. Trong qu trnh hoch nh mng, cc u im v nhc im ca hai phng php ny c th b tr. 1.4.3 Dung lng mng. Kt qu ca vic s dng cng ngh a truy nhp tri ph CDMA l dung lng ca cc h thng UMTS khng b gii hn cng, c ngha l mt ngi s dng c th b sung m khng gy ra nghn bi s lng phn cng hn ch. H thng GSM c s lng cc lin kt v cc knh c nh ch cho php mt lu lng ln nht c tnh ton v hoch nh trc nh s dng cc m hnh thng k. Trong h thng

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

UMTS b c ngi s dng mi no s gy ra mt lng nhiu b sung cho nhng t i s u b ngi s d dng ang c mt trong h th thng, nh hng n ti ca h thng. Nu c a h s m th mc tng nhiu do tng ti l c c gii hn dung lng chnh trong m m i cu ng mng. Vic cc cell b co hp li do ti cao v vic tng dung lng ca cc cell m cc cell c b i vi a ln cn n c mc nhiu thp l cc hiu ng th hin c im dung l n m p hi m lng xc nh nhiu trong cc mng CDMA. Chnh v th m trong cc mng CDMA c im u m ng th ng c dung l mm. c bit, khi quan tm chuyn giao mm th cc c cu ny ng t, n m c lm cho vic hoch nh mng tr nn ph tp. vi phc 1.4.4 Phn t a ng- B thu RAKE. tp Truyn Truy sng v tuyn trong knh di ng mt t c trng bi cc s n c c phn x, s suy hao khc nhau ca nng l ,s a lng tn hiu. Cc hin t n tng ny gy ra do cc vt cn t nhin nh to nh, cc qu idn n hiu truyn sng a t c q ng ng.

Hnh 1-5 Truy sng a ng 5 Truyn Hi ng a ng thng gy ra nhi u kh khn cho cc h thng truyn dn u ng nhiu h v tuyn. M trong nhng u im c cc h thng DSSS l tn hi thu qua cc n. Mt m ca ng hiu nhnh a ng vi tr truyn khc nhau v c n cng tn hiu khc nhau l c th ci u li thin hiu su ca h thng. kt h cc thnh phn t cc nhnh a u sut t hp ng mt cch nht qun, c thit phi tch ng cc thnh phn . Tnh nghim tr t cn i ph n trng ca pha inh nhiu tia c gim i trong iu ch bng rng WCDMA v cc tn hi truyn u u ch ng hiu qua cc ng khc nhau c thu nh mt cch c lp. Nhng hi tng pha inh c nhn p. hin vn thng x ra trong h thng ny do khng th loi b hon ton hin tng ng xy ng th c pha inh nhi tia, v khi hin tng pha inh nhi tia thng xuyn x ra th b gii nhiu ng nhiu ng xy iu ch khng th x l tn hiu mt cch lp. th t c

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Phn tp l mt bin php tt lm gim pha inh, c ba loi phn tp l phn tp thi gian, phn tp tn s v phn tp khng gian. Phn tp thi gian c thc hin nh vic s dng phng php an xen k v cc m sa li. H thng WCDMA thc hin phn tp tn s bng cch tri nng lng tn hiu ra mt bng tn rng trong khi pha inh la chn tn s thng ch c nh hng trong mt rng bng tn 200300kHz. Phn tp khng gian hay phn tp theo ng truyn c th c thc hin theo ba cch sau: - Thit lp nhiu ng tn hiu (chuyn giao mm) kt ni my di ng vi hai hoc nhiu BS. - S dng mi trng truyn lan a ng nh chc nng tri ph nh my thu qut (Rake receiver) s thu v t hp cc tn hiu pht vi cc thi gian tr pht khc nhau. - t nhiu anten ti BS

Hnh 1.6 Cc loi phn tp trong WCDMA Phn tp anten (phn tp khng gian) c th c p dng d dng cho c cc h thng FDMA v TDMA. Phn tp theo thi gian c th c p dng i vi tt c cc h thng s c tc m truyn dn cao p ng c p dng d dng trong h thng WCDMA.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Phm vi rng ca phn tp khng gian (phn tp ng truyn) c th c cung cp bi c tnh duy nht ca chui trc tip h thng WCDMA v mc phn tp cao s em li cht lng tt hn trong mi trng nhiu di ng (EMI) ln. B iu khin a ng tch ra dng sng PN nh s dng b tng quan song song. My di ng s dng ba b tng quan, cn BS s dng bn b tng quan. My thu c b tng quan song song gi l my thu qut (my thu RAKE), n tm thu tn hiu qua mi ng, t hp v gii iu ch tt c cc tn hiu thu c. Hin tng pha inh c th xy ra trong mi tn hiu thu nhng khng c s tng quan gia cc ng thu.V vy, t hp ca cc tn hiu thu c c tin cy rt cao, v kh nng xy ra hin tng pha inh ng thi trong tt c cc tn hiu thu l cc k thp. Trong cc h thng WCDMA, b thu RAKE c s dng thc hin chc nng ny. Mt b thu RAKE bao gm nhiu b thu c gi l finger. B thu RAKE s dng cc b cn bng v cc b xoay pha chia nng lng ca cc thnh phn tn hiu khc nhau c pha v bin thay i theo knh trong s chm sao. Sau khi iu chnh tr thi gian v cng tn hiu, cc thnh phn khc nhau c kt hp thnh mt tn hiu vi cht lng cao hn. Qu trnh ny c gi l qu trnh kt hp theo t s ln nht (MRC), v ch c cc tn hiu vi tr tng i cao hn rng thi gian ca mt chip mi c kt hp. Qu trnh kt hp theo t s ln nht s dng tc chip l 3.84Mcps tng ng vi 0.26s hoc l chnh lch v di ng dn l 78m. Phng php ny gim ng k hiu ng phadinh bi v khi cc knh c c im khc nhau c kt hp th nh hng ca phadinh nhanh c tnh bnh qun. li thu c t vic kt hp nht qun cc thnh phn a ng tng t vi li ca chuyn giao mm c c bng cch kt hp hai hay nhiu tn hiu trong qu trnh chuyn giao.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 1.7 My thu qut (Rake receiver) 1.4.5 Cu hnh chc nng ca my pht v my thu v tuyn a) Cc chc nng phn pht Cc chc nng ca phn pht c m t di y. Sau khi m ha, gn cc m sa li v x l an xen, tn hiu thoi v s liu c iu ch phn tri ph. Sau tn hiu c iu ch trc giao v gi i trn sng mang pht n my pht v tuyn.

Hnh 1.6 Cc chc nng phn pht trong h thng WCDMA b) Cc chc nng phn thu

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Tn hiu thu c gii iu ch trc giao sau khi bin i tn s v loi b tp m. Tip theo, tn hiu thu c a n phn x l tng hp qut (rake synthesizing). Sa li v gii xen k, sau n phn gii m knh thu li tn hiu ban u.

Hnh 1.7 Cc chc nng phn thu trong h thng WCDMA 1.5 CU TRC MNG TRUY CP V TUYN 1.5.1 Cc c im ca WCDMA WCDMA c cc c im sau y. a) Hiu sut s dng tn s cao V nguyn tc, dung lng tim nng ca h thng c xem nh ging nhau ngay c khi cc cng ngh a truy cp nh TDMA v FDMA c ng dng, Trong khi CDMA thng c coi l c hiu sut s dng tn s cao, iu ny nn c hiu theo ngha l trong CDMA rt d nng cao hiu sut s dng tn s. V d, CDMA c th t c mt mc tn hiu chc chn nh s dng k thut iu chnh cng sut cc k phc tp t c cng mc hiu sut nh vy. Vic s dng cc cng ngh c bn ca h thng CDMA theo ng cch s em li hiu sut s dng tn s cao cho h thng. b) D qun l tn s Do CDMA cho php cc ln cn chia s cng mt tn s nn khng c qui hoch tn s. Ngc li, trong cc h thng s dng FDMA v TDMA cn phi c bit ch n qui hoch tn s, c nhiu kh khn lin quan n qui hoch tn s do v tr lp t cc trm trong thc t thng dn ti vic phi xt n nhng mu truyn lan sng bt qui tc v cc c tnh a hnh phc tp. Cn phi ch rng cc qui hoch tn s khng hon chnh s lm gim hiu sut s dng tn s. CDMA khng cn c qui hoch tn s nh th. c) Cng sut pht ca my di ng thp Nh c qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) m h thng WCDMA c th gim c t s Eb/No (tng ng vi t s tn hiu trn nhiu) mc chp nhn c, iu ny khng ch lm tng dung lng h thng m cn lm gim cng

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

sut pht yu cu khc phc tp m v nhiu. Vic gim ny ng ngha vi gim cng sut pht yu cu i vi my di ng. N lm gim gi thnh v cho php hot ng trong mt vng rng ln hn vi cng sut thp khi so vi h thng TDMA hoc h thng tng t c cng cng sut. Ngoi ra, vic gim cng sut pht yu cu s lm tng vng phc v v gim s lng BS yu cu khi so vi cc h thng khc. Mt u im ln hn xut pht t qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht trong h thng WCDMA l n lm gim cng sut trung bnh. Trong a s trng hp th mi trng truyn dn l thun li i vi WCDMA. Trong cc h thng bng hp th cng sut pht cao lun lun c yu cu khc phc hin tng pha inh theo thi gian. Trong h thng WCDMA, cng sut trung bnh c th gim v cng sut yu cu ch c pht i bi vic iu khin cng sut pht ch tng khi xy ra pha inh. d) S dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn mt cch c lp trong ng ln v ng xung. Trong CDMA, rt d cung cp mt cu hnh khng i xng gia ng ln v ng xung. V d, trong cc h thng truy nhp khc nh TDMA s rt kh phn chia cc khe thi gian cho ng ln v ng xung ca mt thu bao c lp vi cc thu bao khc. Trong FDMA, rt kh thit lp cu hnh khng i xng cho ng ln v ng xung v rng bng tn sng mang ca ng ln v ng xung s phi thay i. Ngc li, trong CDMA, h s tri ph (SF) c th c thit lp c lp gia ng ln v ng xung i vi thu bao v nh c th thit lp cc tc khc nhau ng ln v ng xung. iu ny cho php s dng hiu qu cc ti nguyn v tuyn ngay c trong cc loi hnh thng tin khng i xng nh truy nhp Internet. Khi khng pht s liu th ti nguyn v tuyn khng b chim dng. Do , nu mt thu bao ch thc hin truyn tin trn ng ln v mt thu bao khc ch thc hin truyn tin trn xung th cc ti nguyn v tuyn c s dng tng ng ti nguyn cho mt cp ng truyn ln v xung. Thng thng, TDMA v FDMA s phi phn chia hai cp ti nguyn v tuyn trong cc trng hp nh vy. e) Cc thuc tnh bng rng ca WCDMA cho hiu sut cao hn nhiu tc s liu Bng thng rng cho php truyn dn tc cao. N cng cung cp c hiu qu cc dch v khi c s kt hp cc dch v tc thp v cc dch v tc cao. V d, trong TDMA, cc tc truyn dn khc nhau c th c cung cp bng cch thay i s khe thi gian c phn chia, nhng tc thp nh tc khi ch

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

truyn tn hiu thoi ca my di ng vn yu cu cng mc cng sut nh nh mc cng sut yu cu cho cc dch v tc cc i. f) Ci thin cc gii php chng hiu ng pha inh nhiu tia. Cng ngh thu phn tp RAKE (thu bng nhiu anten) gip nng cao cht lng tn hiu thu bng cch tch ring cc tn hiu nhiu tia thnh cc tn hiu mt tia thu v kt hp li. Khi bng thng rng s ci thin gii php truyn lan sng v cng sut thu yu cu s khng cn cao v hiu qu phn tp ng truyn lm s ng truyn tng ln. iu ny gip gim cng sut pht v tng dung lng. g) Gim t l gin on tn hiu Bng thng rng lm gia tng tc bit trong knh iu khin v to ra kh nng gim t l b gin on tn hiu thu. Nh , my di ng c th thu cc tn hiu mc thp trong ch ri tit kim ngun. iu ny gip ko di thi gian ch ca pin my di ng. 1.5.2 Cc c tnh k thut c bn ca WCDMA Bng 1.2 Trnh by cc c tnh k thut c bn ca WCDMA. Phng thc truy nhp Phng thc truyn 2 chiu (song cng) rng bng thng Tc chip Khong cch sng mang Tc d liu di khung s liu M hiu chnh li Phng thc iu ch s liu Phng thc iu ch tri ph H s tri ph (SF) Phng thc ng b gia cc trm gc Phng thc m ha thoi CDMA tri ph trc tip FDD 5 MHz 3.84 Mc/s 200 kHz ~ 2Mbit/s 10, 20, 40, 80 ms M Turbo, m xon ng xung: QPSK, ng ln BPSK ng xung: QPSK, ng ln HPSK 4 ~ 512 D b (cng c th s dng ch ng b) AMR (1.95 kbit/s 12.2 kbit/s)

Ghi ch: AMR: M ha nhiu tc thch ng BPSK: iu ch pha hai trng thi

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA


FDD: Song cng phn chia tn s HPSK: iu ch pha hn hp (lai) QPSK: iu ch pha bn trng thi 1.5.3 Cu trc mng WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 1.8 Cu trc trong UMTS

a) Mng li CN (Core Network) Nhng chc nng chnh ca vic nghin cu mng li UMTS l: Qun l di ng, iu khin bo hiu thit lp cuc gi gia UE v mng li Bo hiu gia cc nt trong mng li nh ngha cc chc nng gia mng li v cc mng bn ngoi Nhng vn lin quan n truy nhp gi Giao din Iu v cc yu cu qun l v iu hnh mng

Mng li UMTS c th chia thnh 2 phn: thnh phn chuyn mch knh gm: MSC, VLR v cng MSC. Thnh phn chuyn mch gi gm nt h tr dch v GPRS (SGSN: Serving GPRS Support Node) v cng nt h tr GPRS (GGSN: Gateway GPRS Support Node). Mt s thnh phn ca mng nh HLR v AUC c chia s cho c hai phn. Cu trc ca mng li c th c thay i khi cc dch v mi v cc c im mi ca h thng c a ra. Cc phn t chnh ca mng li nh sau :

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

HLR (Home Location Register: Thanh ghi nh v thng tr) l mt c s d liu trong h thng thng tr ca ngi s dng, lu tr cc bn gc cc thng tin hin trng dch v ngi s dng, hin trng v dch v bao gm: thng tin v dch v c php s dng, cc vng roaming b cm, thng tin cc dch v b sung nh: trng thi cc cuc gi i, s cc cuc gi i N c to ra khi ngi s dng mi ng k thu bao vi h thng, v c lu khi thu bao cn thi hn. Vi mc ch nh tuyn cc giao dch ti UE (cc cuc gi v cc dch v nhn tin ngn), HLR cn lu tr cc thng tin v tr ca UE trong phm vi MSC/VLR hoc SGSN. MSC/VLR (Mobile Service Switching Center: Trung tm chuyn mch dch v di ng) l mt b chuyn mch(MSC) v c s d liu(VLR) phc v cho UE v tr tm thi ca n cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh. Chc nng MSC c s dng chuyn mch cc giao dch s dng chuyn mch knh, chc nng VLR l lu tr bn sao v hin trng dch v ngi s dng l khch v thng tin chnh xc v v tr ca thu bao khch trong ton h thng. Phn ca h thng c truy nhp thng qua MSC/VLR thng l chuyn mch knh. GMSC (MSC cng): l mt b chuyn mch ti v tr m mng di ng mt t cng cng UMTS kt ni vi mng ngoi. Tt cc kt ni chuyn mch knh n v i u phi qua GMSC. SGSN (Nt h tr GPRS phc v) c chc nng tng t nh MSC/VLR nhng thng c s dng cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi. GGSN (Node cng h tr GPRS) c chc nng gn ging GMSC nhng phc v cc dch v chuyn mch gi. Mng ngoi c th chia thnh 2 nhm: Cc mng chuyn mch knh: Cc mng ny cung cp cc kt ni chuyn mch knh, ging nh dch v in thoi ang tn ti v d nh ISDN v PSTN. Cc mng chuyn mch gi: Cc mng ny cung cp cc kt ni cho cc dch v d liu gi, chng hn nh mng Internet.

b) Truy nhp v tuyn mt t UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Acess Network) UTRAN bao gm mt hay nhiu h thng con mng v tuyn RNS (Radio Network Subsystem). Mt RNS l mt mng con trong UTRAN v gm mt b iu khin mng

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

v tuyn RNC (Radio Network Controller) v mt hay nhiu Node B. Cc RNC v cc Node B c kt ni vi nhau bng giao din Iub. Cc c tnh chnh ca UTRAN : H tr UTRAN v tt c cc chc nng lin quan. c bit l cc nh hng chnh ln vic thit k l yu cu h tr chuyn giao mm v cc thut ton qun l ti nguyn c th WCDMA. m bo tnh chung nht cho vic x l s liu chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi bng mt ngn xp giao thc giao din v tuyn duy nht. m bo tnh chung nht vi GSM khi cn thit. B iu khin mng v tuyn RNC RNC l phn t mng chu trch nhim iu khin cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca UTRAN. N giao din vi CN (thng thng vi mt MSC v mt SGSN) v kt cui giao thc iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn RRC (Radio Resource Control), giao thc ny nh ngha cc bn tin v cc th tc gia MS v UTRAN. N ng vai tr nh BSC. Cc chc nng chnh ca RNC : iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn Cp pht knh Thit lp iu khin cng sut iu khin chuyn giao Phn tp Macro Mt m ha Bo hiu qung b iu khin cng sut vng h

Node B (trm gc) N thc hin mt phn khai thc qun l ti nguyn v tuyn nh iu khin cng sut vng trong. V phn chc nng n ging nh trm gc GSM. Lc u Node B c s dng nh l mt thut ng tm thi trong qu trnh chun ho nhng sau n khng b thay i. Chc nng chnh ca Node B l x l lp vt l (L1) giao din v tuyn nh m ha knh, an xen, tri ph, iu ch... c) Thit b ngi s dng UE (User Equipment)

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

UE l s kt hp gia thit b di ng v module nhn dng thu bao USIM (UMTS subscriber identity). Ging nh SIM trong mng GSM/GPRS, USIM l th c th gn vo my di ng v nhn dng thu bao trong mng li. Thit b di ng (ME: Mobile Equipment) l u cui v tuyn. Modun nhn dng thu bao UMTS (USIM: UMTS Subscriber Identity Modulo) l mt th thng minh cha thng tin nhn dng thu bao, thc hin cc thut ton nhn thc v lu gi cc kho nhn thc cng mt s thng tin thu bao cn thit cho u cui. d) Cc giao din m c bn ca UMTS: Giao din Cu: y l giao din gia th thng minh USIM v ME. Giao din ny tun theo tiu chun cho cc th thng minh. Giao din Uu: y l giao din v tuyn WCDMA. Uu l giao din nh UE truy cp c vi phn c nh ca h thng, v v th c th l phn giao din m quan trng nht trong UMTS. L giao din khng dy (duy nht) ca mng UMTS. Tt c giao din khc u c dy dn ht. Lin lc trn giao din ny da vo k thut FDD/TDD WCDMA Giao din Iu: Giao din ny kt ni UTRAN ti mng li. UMTS kh nng xy dng c UTRAN v CN t cc nh sn xut khc nhau Giao din Iu l giao din kt ni gia mng li CN v mng truy nhp v tuyn UTRAN. Giao din ny gm hai thnh phn chnh l: - Giao din Iu-CS: Giao din ny ch yu l truyn ti lu lng thoi gia RNC v MSC/VLR. Vic nh c giao din Iu-CS ph thuc vo lu lng d liu chuyn mch knh m ch yu l lng ting. - Giao din Iu-PS: L giao din gia RNC v SGSN. nh c giao din ny ph thuc vo lu lng d liu chuyn mch gi. Vic nh c giao din ny phc tp hn nhiu so vi giao din Iub v c nhiu dch v d liu gi vi tc khc nhau truyn trn giao din ny. Giao din Iur: Giao din m Iur h tr chuyn giao mm gia cc RNC t cc nh sn xut khc nhau, v v th b sung cho giao din m Iu. Giao din Iub: Iub kt ni mt Nt B v mt RNC. UMTS l mt h thng in thoi di ng mang tnh thng mi u tin m giao din gia b iu khin v trm gc c chun ho nh l mt giao din m hon thin. Ging nh cc giao din

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

m khc, Iub thc y hn na tnh cnh tranh gia cc nh sn xut trong lnh vc ny.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

CHNG 2 CHUYN GIAO TRONG H THNG 3G

WCDMA
2.1 KHI QUT V CHUYN GIAO TRONG CC H THNG THNG TIN DI NG Cc mng di ng cho php ngi s dng c th truy nhp cc dch v trong khi di chuyn nn c thut ng t do cho cc thit b u cui. Tuy nhin tnh t do ny gy ra mt s khng xc nh i vi cc h thng di ng. S di ng ca cc ngi s dng u cui gy ra mt s bin i ng c trong cht lng lin kt v mc nhiu, ngi s dng i khi cn yu cu thay i trm gc phc v. Qu trnh ny c gi l chuyn giao . Chuyn giao l mt phn cn thit cho vic x l s di ng ca ngi s dng u cui. N m bo tnh lin tc ca cc dch v v tuyn khi ngi s dng di ng di chuyn t qua ranh gii cc t bo. Trong cc h thng t bo th h th nht nh AMPS, vic chuyn giao tng i n gin. Sang h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 nh GSM v PACS th c nhiu cch c bit hn bao gm cc thut ton chuyn giao c kt hp cht ch trong cc h thng ny v tr chuyn giao tip tc c gim i. Khi a ra cng ngh CDMA, mt tng khc c ngh ci thin qu trnh chuyn giao c gi l chuyn giao mm. 2.1.1 Cc kiu chuyn giao trong h thng 3G WCDMA C 4 kiu chuyn giao khc nhau trong mng di ng WCDMA. l: a) Chuyn giao trong cng mt h thng ( Intra-system HO ) Chuyn giao trong cng h thng c th c chia thnh chuyn giao cng tn s v chuyn giao khc tn s. Chuyn giao cng tn s xut hin gia cc cell thuc cng sng mang WCDMA. Chuyn giao khc tn s xut hin gia cc cell hot ng trn cc tn s sng mang khc nhau. b) Chuyn giao ngoi h thng ( Inter-system HO ) Chuyn giao ngoi h thng xut hin gia cc Cell thuc 2 cng ngh truy xut v tuyn (RAT) khc nhau hoc cc ch truy xut khc nhau. Trng hp c mong i thng gp nht trong kiu th nht l gia h thng WCDMA v GSM/EDGE. Chuyn giao gia cc h thng CDMA khc nhau cng thuc kiu chuyn giao ny.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Ly mt v d v chuyn giao gia cc ch truy xut khc nhau l gia UTRA FDD v UTRA TDD. c) Chuyn giao cng ( Hard Handover:HHO ) Chuyn giao cng l mt th loi ca cc th tc chuyn giao, trong tt c cc kt ni c ca mt trm di ng c gii phng trc khi mt kt ni mi c thit lp. i vi cc knh yu cu thi gian thc th n c ngha l ngt mt kt ni ngn ca knh, cn i vi cc knh khng yu cu thi gian thc th HHO c ngha l khng tn hao. Chuyn giao cng c th t trong kiu chuyn giao cng tn s hoc khc tn s. d) Chuyn giao mm ( SHO ) v chuyn giao mm hn ( Softer HO ) Chuyn giao mm l chuyn giao gia hai BS khc nhau, cn chuyn giao mm hn l chuyn giao gia t nht 2 sector ca cng mt BS. Trong sut qu trnh chuyn giao mm, MS giao tip mt cch tc th vi hai (chuyn giao hai ng) hoc nhiu cell ca cc BS khc nhau thuc cng RNC (Intra-RNC) hoc cc RNC khc nhau (InterRNC). Trn ng xung my di ng nhn hai tn hiu vi t s kt hp ln nht; ng ln, knh m ho di ng c pht hin bi c hai BS (chuyn giao hai ng), v c gi n RNC cho vic la chn kt hp. Hai vng iu khin cng sut tch cc tham gia vo qu trnh chuyn giao mm, mi vng cho mt BS. Trong trng hp chuyn giao mm hn, MS c iu khin t nht bi hai sector ca cng BS, do RNC khng c tham gia v ch c mt vng iu khin cng sut tch cc. Chuyn giao mm v mm hn ch s dng mt sng mang, do chng l cc qu trnh chuyn giao trong cng mt tn s.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 2.1 Cc loi chuyn giao trong h thng 3G 2.1.2 Cc mc tiu ca chuyn giao Chuyn giao c th c khi to t 3 cch khc khc nhau: my di ng khi xng, mng khi xng v my di ng h tr. My di ng khi xng: My di ng tin hnh o cht lng, chn ra cc BS v b chuyn mch tt nht, vi s h tr ca mng. Kiu chuyn giao ny nhn chung to ra mt cht lng lin kt ngho nn c o bi my di ng. Mng khi xng: BS tin hnh o c v bo co vi b iu khin mng RNC, RNC s a ra quyt nh liu c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng. Chuyn giao do mng khi xng c thc hin cho cc mc ch khc ngoi vic iu khin lin kt v tuyn, chng hn nh iu khin phn b lu lng gia cc cell. Mt v d ca trng hp ny l chuyn giao vi l do lu lng (TRHO) c iu khin bi BS. TRHO l mt thut ton thay i ngng chuyn giao cho mt hay nhiu s ri i sang cell lin k t mt cell c th tu thuc vo ti ca cell . Nu ti ca cell ny vt qu mc cho trc, v ti cell ln cn di mt mc cho trc khc, th cell ngun s thu hp li vng ph sng ca n, chuyn lu lng n cell ln cn. V th, tc nghn (block) tng th b gim i, tn dng tt hn ngun ti nguyn cc cell. H tr my di ng: Trong phng php ny c mng v my di ng u tin hnh o c. My di ng bo co kt qu o c t cc BS gn n v mng s quyt nh c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng. Cc mc ch ca chuyn giao c th tm tt nh sau:

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

m bo tnh lin tc ca cc dch v v tuyn khi ngi s dng di ng di chuyn qua ranh gii ca cc t bo. Gi cho QoS m bo mc yu cu. Lm gim nh mc nhiu trong ton b h thng bng cch gi cho my di ng c kt ni vi BS tt nht. Roaming gia cc mng khc nhau Cn bng ti. S khi xng cho mt qu trnh chuyn giao c th bt ngun t cht lng dch v ca lin kt (UL hoc DL), s thay i ca dch v, s thay i tc , cc l do lu lng hoc s can thit vn hnh v bo dng. 2.1.3 Cc th tc v php o chuyn giao Th tc chuyn giao c th c chia thnh ba giai on: o lng, quyt nh v thc hin. Trong giai on o lng chuyn giao, cc thng tin cn thit thc hin quyt nh chuyn giao c o. hng xung, trm di ng thc hin cc php o o t s Ec/I0 ca CPICH (Common Pilot Channel) ca Cell dch v ca n v cc Cell ln cn. i vi mt s loi chuyn giao no , cc php o khc l ht sc cn thit. Trong giai on quyt nh chuyn giao, cc kt qu o lng c so snh vi ngng c xc nh trc v sau n quyt nh c bt u thc hin chuyn giao hay khng. Cc gii thut chuyn giao khc nhau s c cc iu kin kch hot khc nhau. Trong giai on thc hin, qu trnh chuyn giao c hon thnh v cc thng s lin quan cng c thay i tu theo cc kiu chuyn giao khc nhau.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

o lng l nhim v quan trng trong qu trnh chuyn giao: Mc tn hiu trn ng truyn dn v tuyn thay i rt ln ty thuc vo fading v tn hao ng truyn. Nhng thay i ny ty thuc vo mi trng trong cell v tc di chuyn ca thu bao. S lng cc bo co o lng qu nhiu s nh hng n ti ca h thng. thc hin chuyn giao UE, trong sut qu trnh kt ni, UE lin tc o cng tn hiu ca cc cell ln cn v thng bo ti RNC. Nguyn tc chung thc hin thut ton chuyn giao c m t trong hnh 2.2. iu kin u l cc iu kin thc hin cc quyt nh ca thut ton da trn cc tn hiu hoa tiu do UE thng bo.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 2.2 Nguyn tc chung ca thut ton chuyn giao Ngng gii hn trn: l mc ca tn hiu kt ni t gi tr cc i cho php tha mn 1 cht lng dch v yu cu. Ngng gii hn di: l mc ca tn hiu kt ni t gi tr cc tiu cho php tha mn 1 cht lng dch v yu cu. Do , mc tn hiu kt ni khng c nm di ngng . Gii hn chuyn giao: l thi im m cng tn hiu ca cell bn cnh (cell B) vt qu cng tn hiu ca cell hin ti 1 lng nht nh (cell A). Tp tch cc: l mt danh sch cc cell m UE kt ni ng thi ti, mng truy nhp v tuyn (UTRAN). 2.2 CHUYN GIAO MM (SHO)

Chuyn giao mm c gii thiu bi cng ngh CDMA. So vi tiu chun chuyn giao cng th chuyn giao mm c mt s u im li th hn. Tuy nhin, n cng c nhng nhc im nh s phc tp v s tiu th ngun ti nguyn b sung.Vic quy hoch tng ph chuyn giao mm (soft handover overhead) l mt trong nhng thnh phn c bn ca vic quy hoch v ti u ho mng v tuyn.
2.2.1 Chuyn giao mm Chuyn giao mm ch c trong cng ngh CDMA. So vi chuyn giao cng thng thng, chuyn giao mm c mt s u im. Tuy nhin, n cng c mt s cc hn ch v s phc tp v vic tiu th ti nguyn tng ln. Vic quy hoch chuyn giao

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

mm ban u l mt trong cc phn c bn ca ca vic hoch nh v ti u mng v tuyn. Trong phn ny s trnh by nguyn l ca chuyn giao mm. UE pht n v thu t hai node B ny ng thi. UE thu ng thi thng tin t cc node B v kt hp chng c thng tin tt nht. ng ln, thng tin pht i t UE c cc node B thu li ri chuyn n RNC c kt hp chung. Trong chuyn giao mm cc node B u pht lnh diu khin cng sut UE vng chng ln vng ph ca hai on cell thuc hai node khc nhau (chuyn giao hai ng).

Hnh 2.3 Chuyn giao mm 2 ng 2.2.2 Chuyn giao mm hn

Chuyn giao mm hn l chuyn giao c thc hin khi UE chuyn giao gia 2 sector ca cng mt cell hoc chuyn giao gia 2 cell do cng mt BS qun l. y l loi chuyn giao trong tn hiu mi c thm vo hoc xa khi tp tch cc, hoc thay th bi tn hiu mnh hn trong cc sector khc nhau ca cng BS.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 2.4 Chuyn giao mm hn

2.2.3 Nguyn l chuyn giao mm. Chuyn giao mm khc vi qu trnh chuyn giao cng truyn thng. i vi chuyn giao cng, mt quyt nh xc nh l c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng v my di ng ch giao tip vi mt BS ti mt thi im. i vi chuyn giao mm, mt quyt nh c iu kin c to ra l c thc hin chuyn giao hay khng. Tu thuc vo s thay i cng tn hiu knh hoa tiu t hai hay nhiu trm gc c lin quan, mt quyt nh cng cui cng s c to ra giao tip vi duy nht 1 BS. iu ny thng din ra sau khi tn hiu n t mt BS chc chn s mnh hn cc tn hiu n t BS khc. Trong thi k chuyn tip ca chuyn giao mm, MS giao tip ng thi vi cc BS trong tp hp tch cc (Tp hp tch cc l danh sch cc cell hin ang c kt ni vi MS). Hnh 2.5 ch ra s khc nhau c bn ca chuyn giao cng v chuyn giao mm.

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

Hnh 2.5 S so snh gia chuyn giao cng v chuyn giao mm. v n Trong : ( (pilot_Ec/I0)1 v (pilot_Ec/I0)2 l Ec/I0 ca knh hoa tiu nhn t BS1 v a nh BS2, D l h s d tr tr. h L do ra d tr tr trong thu ton chuyn giao cng l trnh hiu ng a thut ng ping-pong hiu ng ny xy ra khi mt my di ng di chuyn qua li bin gii mt pong, y m n l cell, chuy giao cng s xut hin. Ngoi s di ng ca MS, nh h chuyn n. s nh hng phadinh ca cc knh v tuy c th nh h tuyn ng nghim trng bi hiu ng ping-pong. u Bngvic a ra d tr tr, hiu ng ping-pong c th c gi nh bi v my c ng c gim di ng s khng thc hin chuyn giao ngay tc th n cc BS t hn. d tr ng s n t n tt cng ln, hi ng ping-pong cng t nh hng. Tuy nhin khi d tr ln th n, hiu ng. tr cng nhi Hn th na, my di cn gy ra nhiu b sung t cc cell ln cn nhiu. ng ti do lin k c cht lng km khi b tr V th, vi chuyn giao c t tr. ng, gi tr ca d tr tr kh l quan trng. Khi chuyn giao xu hin, lin kt lu l tr n xut t lng u tin vi BS1 s b ngt trc khi thit lp lin k mi vi BS2 , cho nn chuy giao cng l p kt chuyn qu trnh c trc khi thc hin. ct Trng hp chuyn giao mm c ch ra trong hnh 2.5(b), tr ng h trc khi (pilot_ Ec/I0)2 v qu (pilot_ Ec/I0)1 , min l i kin khi xng chuy giao mm c vt n iu ng chuyn p ng, MS vn chuyn sang trng thi chuyn giao mm v m lin kt mi c ng, v ng chuy t thit lp. Tr khi BS1 b ct (iu ki ngt chuyn giao c p ng), th MS s p. Trc u kin c giao tip p ng thi vi c BS1 v BS2. V th, khc vi chuyn giao c n cng, chuyn giao

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

mm l qu trnh thc hin trc khi c m th c ct. Mt s cc thut ton ngh h t c tr chuyn giao m n mm v cc iu kin c n c s dng trong cc thu ton khc n ca ng thut nhau. Qu trnh chuy giao mm khc nhau trn cc h chuyn m hng truyn d khc nhau. Hnh n dn 2.4 minh ho iu ny. Trn ng ln, MS pht tn hi u vo khng trung nh anten a ho ng hiu nh hng ca n. Hai BS trong tp hp tch cc c th ng thi nh tn hiu nh h s a t p c n s dng l tn s cc h thng CDMA. Sau , cc tn hi c chuy n b iu i ng hiu c chuyn khin mng v tuyn RNC cho s k hp c chn la. Khung t hn c chn v ng tuy t t nhng khung khc th b loi b. V th trn ng ln khng cn c knh m rng h ng b . th n m tr chuyn giao m n mm. Trn ng xung, cc tn hiu tng t cng c pht ra nh cc BS v MS c u t c nh th kt h cc tn hiu t cc BS khc nhau khi n pht hin th cc tn hiu l p hi y cc thnh ph a ng b sung. Th phn Thng th s dng chin lc k hp c t s ln c kt nht, vic ny s tng thm li ch gi l phn tp v m.Tuy nhi c s i c nhin, h tr chuyn giao mm trn ng xung, c thit t nht mt knh n m ng, cn t ng xung m rng (i vi c 2 loi chuyn giao mm). Knh ng xung m rng tc i c m). K ng ng ti ngi s dng khc nh l nhi b sung trn giao di v tuyn. V th h tr chuyn ng nhiu din n. th giao mm trn ng xung cn nhiu ti nguyn hn. Kt qu l, trn m u K ng xung, hiu sut c chuyn giao mm ph thu s iu chnh gia h s tng ch phn tp v t ca thuc m v s tiu tn ti nguyn tng thm. n

Hnh 2.6 Nguyn l ca chuyn giao mm c

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

2.2.4 Cc thut ton ca chuyn giao mm Hiu sut ca chuyn giao mm thng lin quan n thut ton. Hnh 3-17 a ra thut ton chuyn giao mm ca IS-95A (cn gi l thut ton cdmaOne n gin).

Hnh 2.7 Thut ton chuyn giao mm IS-95A

(1) Ec/I0 pilot vt qu T_ADD, MS gi thng ip o cng pilot (PSMM) v truyn tn hiu pilot n tp hp ng c. (2) BS gi mt thng ip iu khin chuyn giao (HDM). (3) MS chuyn tn hiu pilot n tp hp tch cc v gi thng ip hon thnh chuyn giao (HCM- Handover Completion Message). (4) Ec/I0 pilot xung di mc T_DROP, MS bt u b nh thi ngt chuyn giao. (5) B nh thi ngt chuyn giao kt thc hot ng. MS gi mt PSMM. (6) BS gi mt HDM. (7) MS gi mt tn hiu pilot t tp hp tch cc n tp hp ln cn v gi HCM. Tp hp tch cc l mt danh sch cc cell hin ang c kt ni vi MS; tp hp ng c l danh sch cc cell hin khng c s dng trong kt ni chuyn giao mm, nhng gi tr Ec/I0 pilot ca chng b sung vo tp hp tch cc; Tp hp ln cn (tp hp gim st) l danh sch cc cell m MS lin tc kim o, nhng gi tr Ec/I0 pilot ca chng khng b sung vo tp hp tch cc. Trong IS-95A, ngng chuyn giao l mt gi tr c nh ca Ec/I0 pilot nhn c. N c th d dng thc hin, nhng kh khn trong vic x l s thay i ti ng. Da vo thut ton ca IS-95A, mt vi thut ton cdmaOne c hiu chnh c

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

xut cho IS-95B v cdma2000 vi s bin i ng ch khng phi ngng c nh. Trong h thng WCDMA, s dng thut ton phc tp hn nhiu, c minh ho trong hnh 2.5

Hnh 2.8 Thut ton chuyn giao mm trong WCDMA Trong : Reporting_range l ngng cho chuyn giao mm. Hysteresis_event1A l tr b sung Hysteresis_event1B l tr loi b Hysteresis_event1C l tr thay th Reporting_range Hysteresis_event1A c gi l Window_add Reporting_range + Hysteresis_event1B c gi l Window_drop

T : l khong thi gian khi xng.


pilot_Ec/I0 :cht lng c lc v c o Ec/I0 ca CPICH;

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Best_pilot_Ec/I0 l cell c o v c cng mnh nht trong tp hp tch cc; Best_candidate_pilot_Ec/I0 l cell c o c cng mnh nht trong tp hp gim st. Worst_candidate_pilot_Ec/I0 l cell c o c cng yu nht trong tp hp tch cc. Tp hp tch cc Active Set : L tp hp cc cell c kt ni chuyn giao mm vi UE. Tp hp ln cn/ tp hp gim st (Neighbour set/Monitored set): L danh sch cc cell m UE lin tip o, nhng pilot_Ec/I0 khng mnh b sung vo tp hp tch cc. Thut ton chuyn giao mm c th c m t tm tt nh sau: Nu pilot_Ec/I0 > Best_pilot_Ec/I0 - (Reporting_range + Hysteresis_event1A) xt trong mt khong thi gian T v tp hp tch cc cha y, th cell c b sung vo tp hp tch cc. Hot ng ny c gi l S kin 1A hay B sung lin kt v tuyn. Nu pilot_Ec/I0 < Best_pilot_Ec/I0 - (Reporting_range - Hysteresis_event1B) xt trong khong thi gian T, th cell b loi b khi tp hp tch cc. Hot ng ny c gi l S kin 1B hay S loi b lin kt v tuyn. Nu tp hp tch cc y v Best_candidate_pilot_Ec/I0 > Worst_Old_pilot_Ec/I0 + Hysteresis_event1C xt trong mt khong thi gian T, th cell yu nht trong tp hp tch cc c thay th bi mt cell ng c kho nht trong tp hp ng c. Hot ng ny gi l S kin 1C hoc l S kt hp b sung v loi b lin kt v tuyn. Trong thut ton chuyn giao mm ca WCDMA, s dng ngng tng i ch khng phi ngng tuyt i. So vi IS-95A, li ch ln nht ca thut ton trong WCDMA ny s tham s ho d dng m khng cn iu chnh cc thng s cho cc vng nhiu thp v cao do cc ngng tng i. 2.2.5 Cc c im ca chuyn giao mm. So vi phng thc chuyn giao cng truyn thng, chuyn giao mm c nhng u im r rng, nh loi tr hiu ng ping-pong v to ra s lin tc trong truyn

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

dn (khng c ng qung trong chuy giao mm). Khng c hiu ng ping-pong c n ngt n u ngha l t trong bo hiu mng thp hn v trong chuyn giao m th khng c suy i p chuy m, hao d li do truyn dn b ngt nh trong chuy giao cng. u t chuyn Ngoi i khin di ng, cn c mt l do khc thc hi chuyn giao mm iu ng, m n trong WCDMA; cng vi iu khin cng su chuyn giao mm c v n sut, m cng c s dng nh l m c cu gim nhiu. Hnh 2.9 ch ra 2 m hnh. Trong hnh (a), ch s dng t u. ch ch iu khin cng su t, trong hnh (b) s dng c iu khin cng su v chuyn giao n sut, s n sut mm.

Hnh 2.9 S suy gim nhiu do c chuyn giao mm trong UL Gi s rng MS di chuy t BS1 n BS2. Ti v tr hin ti tn hi pilot nhn c t ng chuyn n u BS2 m hn t BS1. iu ny c ngh l BS2 tt hn BS1. nh u ngha Trong hnh (a) vng iu khin cng su tng nng lng pht MS m n sut ng n bo QoS trn ng ln khi MS di chuy ra xa khi BS phc v ca n, BS1. Trong o ng chuyn hnh (b), MS ang trong trng thi chuy giao mm: c BS1 v BS2 u ng thi lng ng chuyn nghe MS. Sau tn hiu nhn c chuyn n RNC kt hp. Trn hi c chuy p. ng ln, s kt hp chn la c s dng trong chuyn giao mm. Khung kh hn c chn p ch ng chuy m. khe la v khung y hn b loi b. Bi v BS2 tt hn BS1, p ng QoS mc tiu, a yu i cng sut pht yu cu t MS th hn cng sut cn thit trong m hnh (a). V t c thp t th, nhiu c to ra bi MS ny trn ng ln tht hn khi c chuy giao mm v u i t chuyn chuyn giao m n mm lun gi cho MS kt ni vi BS tt nht. Trn c t. ng xung,

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

tnh hung phc tp hn. Mc d vic kt hp theo h s ln nht em li li phn tp macro, vn yu cu cc knh ng xung m rng h tr chuyn giao mm. Tm tt cc c im chnh ca chuyn giao mm nh sau: u im Gim hin tng ping-pong, t dn ti gim tng ph v s lng ti trn mng bo hiu Truyn dn lin tc, khng xy ra gin on sut trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm. Khng c s d tr tr, dn ti tr hon thp hn. Gim nhiu hng ln, dn n: cht lng truyn thng tt hn cho mt s lng ngi dng nht nh ng thi tng s lng ngi dng vi cng mt Qos yu cu. Cc rng buc v thi gian trn mng t hn, iu ny c ngha l thi gian xp hng c c mt knh mi t BS mong mun s di hn, gip cho xc sut chn v rt cuc gi gim i. Nhc im Phc tp hn trong vic thc hin qu trnh chuyn giao cng Cn phi b sung thm ngun ti nguyn mng hng xung ( ti nguyn v m v cng sut)

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Tm hi tng quan WCDMA u ng

GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

CHNG 3 IU KHI CNG SUT TRONG H N T

THNG 3G WCDMA NG
3.1 GI THIU CHUNG GII M tiu ca vic s dng iu khi cng sut l khc nhau trn c u khin t ng ln v ng xu ng. Cc mc tiu ca iu khin cng sut c th tm tt nh sau : u khi t Kh phc hiu ng gn-xa trn ng ln. Khc Ti u dung lng h thng bng vi iu khin nhiu. i ng vic Lm tng t a tui th pin ca u cui di ng. ti a Hnh 3.1 ch ra hiu ng gn-xa trn ng ln. Tn hiu t cc MS khc nhau ch xa c truy i trong cng bng tn m cch ng thi trong cc h thng WCDMA. c truyn n mt i h Khng c i khin cng sut, tn hi n t MS gn vi BS nh c th chn cc tn g iu u t hiu t cc MS khc cch xa BS hn. Trong tnh hung xu nht, m MS c cng sut t t, mt qu ln c th chn ton b mt cell. Gi php l phi p dng i khin cng sut n th t Gii u m bo r o rng cc tn hiu n t cc cui khc nhau c cng cng su hay c u i sut cng t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SIR) khi chng BS. u n

Hnh 3.1 Hiu ng gn-xa (i khin cng sut trn xa (iu t ng ln) Trn ng xung, khng c hiu ng gn-xa do m hnh mt-ti-nhiu.iu ng, hi khin cng su c nhim v b nhiu bn trong cell gy ra bi cc tr sut u b i trm di ng, c bit l nhi gn bin gii ca ca cc cell ny (c ch ra trong hnh 3.2). H th t nhiu a ( Hn na, iu khin cng sut trn ng xu u khi ng xung c nhim v lm gim t m thiu ton b nhiu bng cch gi QoS ti mc gi tr mc tiu ng gi c

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GVHD: Nguy Vn Dng Nguyn

Hnh 3.2 B nhi bn trong cell (i khin cng sut nhiu n (iu ng xung) Trong hnh 3.2, MS2 phi chu nhiu nhiu bn trong cell hn MS1. V th ph u nhi u V p ng m tiu cht lng ging nhau, c nhiu nng lng c pht cho cho cc ng mc ng cn ng cp knh ng xu ng xung gia BS v MS2. Vic iu ch u chnh cng sut l rt cn thi mt h thng WCDMA hot ng tt v n thit ng ho tt c cc thu bao WCDMA u chia s cng mt bng tn v tuy nh vic s dng u s n tuyn cc m tp am gi nhiu ngu nhin v do m thu bao c xem nh t m ngu p gi u mi c tp nhin i v i cc thu bao khc. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut thc hin gii i vi t c quyt bi ton xa g t gn nh ni trn v tng ti a dung l i lng. iu chnh cng sut t l cng sut pht t m thu bao c iu chnh sao cho cng sut t tc i nh thu ca moi thu bao trm gc l bng nhau ( n khng k n cc lo tp m khc a ng nu n loi m ch xt suy hao truyn lan v tuy th qu trnh iu chnh cng sut s iu n n tuyn nh su chnh thu bao xa trm gc s pht cng su ln hn thu bao gn trm gc) sut n 3.2 I IU CHNH CNG SUT TRN T NG TRUYN V N V 3.2.1 Thm d truy nhp d M vn cn phi gii quyt ngay trong vi iu chnh cng su l cng t t vic nh sut sut pht ban u ca my di ng. Trc khi my di ng thit l lin h vi trm t ng. Tr t lp gc, my di c, ng khng th c iu ch u chnh cng sut bi trm g Nh vy, cu hi c. t ra l khi my di ng mi bt u th truy cp vo trm gc th m cng sut no t u th c mc my di nn s dng pht yu cu ca n ? thi im ny, tr gc vn cha ng c m trm to ra s lin lc vi thu bao di ng v trm gc khng bit v tr ca thu bao di ng tr ng. C hai la chn: ng. l My di ng c th th truy nh ti trm gc vi mt cng sut cao. Cng sut p t su cao nh v s lm tng kh nng tr gc thu c yu cu truy nh ca my di vy m u nhp

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GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

ng. Tuy nhin, nhc im ca vic pht cng sut khi u cao l cng sut ny s gy nhiu ti cc thu bao hin ang c qun l trong . My di ng c th yu cu truy nhp trm gc vi mt cng sut thp. Cng sut thp nh vy s lm gim kh nng trm thu c yu cu truy nhp ca my di ng. Nhng u im l my di ng ny s khng gy nhiu nhiu ti cc thu bao khc. Gii php c chn l khi my di ng mi bt u th truy nhp h thng n ph mt chui cc thm d truy nhp. Cc tham d truy nhp l mt chui mc cng sut tng dn. My di ng pht thm d truy nhp u tin ca n mt mc cng sut tng i thp, sau n i mt p ng phn hi t trm gc. Nu sau mt khong thi gian tu my di ng khng thu c mt bn tin xc nhn t trm gc th my di ng pht thm d th hai vi mt cng sut cao hn. Qu trnh ny s lp li cho n khi my di ng thu c bn tin xc nhn phn hi t trm gc. Ngoi ra, my di ng cn s dng mc cng sut n thu c t trm gc c tnh cng sut ban u ca n. Ni cch khc, nu my di ng nhn c mt tn hiu mnh t trm gc th n cho rng trm gc gn v nh vy n s pht khi u vi mt mc cng sut thp. Nu my di ng nhn c mt tn hiu yu t trm gc th n cho rng trm gc xa v nh vy n s pht khi u vi mt mc cng sut tng i cao. 3.2.2 Vng iu khin m Qu trnh m t trn goi l qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m, ch l mt qu trnh hot ng iu khin my di ng v khng lin quan g n trm gc. Qu trnh iu khin theo vng m ny din ra lin tc sau khi trm gc xc nhn yu cu truy nhp ca my di ng v sau khi my di ng bt u pht trn mt knh lu lng. Sau khi mt cuc gi c thit lp v khi my di ng di chuyn trong phm vi , suy hao ng truyn gia my di ng v trm gc s lin tc thay i. Kt qu l cng sut thu ti my di ng s thay i v hot ng iu chnh cng sut theo vng m s lin tc dm st cng sut thu ca my di ng v s tip tc iu chnh cng sut pht ca my di ng. Mt ch quan trng l qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m nh m t trn s c tnh suy hao ng truyn i. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut ny c s dng b cho nhng thay i chm v nh hng ca hiu ng che chn ( log normal). Trong c mt s tng quan gia cc suy hao trn ng truyn i v ng truyn v. Tuy nhin, do cc ng truyn i v v thng s dng cc tn s

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GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

khc nhau (FDD), qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m l khng v qu chm b cho hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh. Lu rng hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh l ph thuc vo tn s v xy ra trn mi khong na bc sng. Ni cch khc, do hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh l ph thuc vo tn s, chng ta khng th s dng qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m (trong gi thit suy hao trn ng truyn hng i bng vi suy hao ng truyn hng v) b cho hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh, 3.2.3 Vng iu khin khp kn Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c s dng b cho nhng dao ng v cng sut do hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh. N l mt vng iu khin khp kn trong lin quan n c trm gc v my di ng di ng. Mi khi my di ng chim mt knh lu lng v bt u thng tin vi trm gc, qu trnh iu khin cng sut theo vng khp kn s hot ng cng vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m. Trong qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp, trm gc lin tc gim st ng truyn v v o cht lng ng truyn. Nu cht lng ng truyn nhn c xu th trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng, qua ng truyn i tng cng sut. Nu cht lng ng truyn l qu tt th c ngha l cng sut trn ng truyn v vt mc, trong trng hp ny, trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut. V mt nguyn l, t l khung (FER) c th dung ch th v cht lng ng truyn. Nhng v cn mt thi gian di cho trm gc tch ly cc bt tnh ton FER nn / (hoc SIR) c s dng lm thng tin ch th cht lng ng truyn v. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn trn ng truyn v nh sau: 1. Trm gc lin tc gim st / trn ng truyn v 2. Nu / l qu cao ( tc l nu n vt qu mt ngng nht nh) th trm gc ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut pht. 3. Nu / l qu thp ( tc l nu n rt xung di mt ngng nht nh) th trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut pht. Trm gc gi cc lnh iu chnh cng sut ti my di ng qua ng truyn i. Cc lnh iu chnh cng sut c t trong cc bt iu chnh cng sut (PCBs). Lng cng sut ca my di ng tng v gim trn mi PCB thng l +1 dB v -

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GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

1dB. V qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn l chng li pha inh Rayleigh nhanh nn p ng ca my di ng vi cc lnh iu chnh cng sut ny cn phi rt nhanh. V l do ny, cc PCB c gi trc tip trn knh lu lng. Thc t l cc bt c rt trm (Robbed) ra khi knh lu lng gi cc PCB ny. C ba im b xung cho qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn. Cc bt iu chnh cng sut khng c bo v chng li. Do cc PCB c gp vo knh lu lng i sau b m ha xon. V th, cc PCB khng c bo v chng li. iu ny c thc hin gim tr c hu khi gii m v tch ra cc bt bo v chng li. Cn nh l iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c s dng chng li hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh, cc PCB khng c bo v chng li my di ng c th nhanh chng thu li PCB v iu chnh cng sut pht ca n cho ph hp. Hu qu l xc sut li bt vi kn ph iu chnh cng sut c th cao hn so vi knh lu lng nu khng c s d phng c bit. iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c mt vng trong v mt vng ngoi. Tin ca qu trnh iu khin vng trong l c tn ti mt ngng SIR c xc nh trc bi cc quyt nh tng gim cng sut c to ra. Do chng ta lun c duy tr mt FER c th chp nhn c v do trong mt mi trng di ng khng c s tng quan mt-mt gia FER v / , nn gi tr ngng / cn phi c iu chnh ng duy tr mt FER c th chp nhn c. Vic iu chnh ngng / ny ( s dng bi iu chnh cng sut vng trong) c xem nh vng ngoi ca qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo tiu chun v mi nh sn xut c s h tng t do thc hin cc thut ton iu chnh cng sut vng ngoi ca chnh h. Lu rng cc thut ton ny hu nh lun l c quyn ca nh sn sut.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 3.3 Vng iu khin trong v vng iu khin ngoi im cui cng lin quan ti s iu chnh cng sut treo vng khp kn trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm. Trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm mt my di ng duy tr lin lc vi hai hoc ba trm gc khi n chuyn tip gia chng. Trong thi gian chuyn giao mm, my di ng thu cc lnh iu chnh cng sut t hai hoc ba trm gc v cc lnh ny c th c s xung t (tc l mt trm gc c th yu cu my di ng tng cng sut trong khi cc trm gc khc li c th yu cu my di ng gim cng sut). Trong tnh hung ny, my di ng tun theo qui lut sau: Nu bt c mt trm gc no ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut, th my di ng s gim cng sut. My di ng s ch tng cng sut nu tt c cc trm gc lin quan n qu trnh chuyn giao mm ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut. 3.2.4 Qu trnh thc hin vng iu khin m v vng iu khin khp kn Cng sut pht ca my di ng l mt hm ca qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m v vng khp kn ca h thng. Cc hnh 3.4(a) v 3.4(b) ch ra qu trnh thc hin ca lc iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v. i vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn, trm gc c ton b vng iu khin ngoi v mt phn ca vng iu khin trong, my di ng c cc phn khc ca vng iu khin trong. i vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m, ton b phn iu khin theo vng m nm trong my di ng. Trong hnh 3.4(a) trm gc thu tn hiu ng truyn v t my di ng. u tin trm gc gii iu ch v c tnh FER ca ng truyn v.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 3.4(a) Cc chc nng iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v c thc hin bi trm gc Thng tin ny trn cht lng khung ng truyn v c dn ti mt thit b tnh ngng, iu chnh ngng / da trn cht lng khung thu c. ng thi, trm gc cng to ra mt gi tr / c tnh ca ng truyn v. Sau gi tr / v gi tr / c tnh c so snh. Nu gi tr c tnh ln hn gi tr ngng th / ca ng truyn l cao hn gi tr cn thit duy tr mt cht lng khung tt, theo mt PCB c gi tr 1 c gi i ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut. Nu gi tr c tnh l nh hn gi tr ngng th / ca ng truyn l thp hn gi tr cn thit duy tr mt cht lng khung tt, theo mt PCB c gi tr o c gi i ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut. Cc PCB c php vo knh lu lng hng i v c pht ti my di ng/

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Hnh 3.4(b) Cc chc nng iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v c thc hin bi my di ng V my di ng (hnh 3.4(b)) my di ng thu tn hiu ng truyn i. N khi phc PCB v da PCB a ra quyt nh tng cng sut ln 1 dB hoc giam cng sut i 1 dB. Vic quyt nh l s hiu chnh theo vng khp kn. S hiu chnh c kt hp vi cc gi tr vng m v kt qu sau khi kt hp c dn n my pht n c th pht mt mc cng sut ph hp.

3.3 IU CHNH CNG SUT TRN NG TRUYN I Trong trng hp l tng, vic iu chnh cng sut l khng cn thit trong ng truyn i. L do l trm gc ang pht tt c cc knh lu lng nht qun trong cng mt bng tn RF. Tuy nhin, trong thc t mt my di ng ring c th gn mt ngun nhiu nghim trng v phi chu mt nhiu nn ln, hoc mt my di ng c th chu suy hao ng truyn ln trn tn hiu tng hp thu c ngoi tp m nhit. Nh vy, vic iu chnh cng sut hng i l vn cn thit. Tuy nhin, ni

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

chung yu cu iu chnh cng sut i vi ng truyn i l khng nghim ngt nh yu cu i vi ng truyn v. Tiu chun qui nh my di ng phi bo co phn hi ti trm gc cht lng ng truyn lng ca ng truyn i. My di ng lin tc gim st FER ca ng truyn i v n bo co FER ny v trm gc trong mt bn tin c gi l bn tin bo co php o cng sut (PMRM). N c th gi bn tin ny theo mt trong hai cch sau: My di ng bo co thng k PMRM My di ng ch bo co PMRM khi FER vt qu mt ngng nht nh.

Trm gc nhn bit cht lng ng truyn i, sau c th iu chnh cng sut pht ca n ti my di ng. Thut ton chnh xc ca qu trnh xc nh cng sut mt ln na li ty thuc vo cc nh sn xut cu trc h tng ring bit. Qu trnh ny hu nh lun l c quyn ca mi nh sn xut.

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

KT LUN
Hin nay thut ng 3G khng cn xa l trn vi nhng t chc c nhn lin quan n lnh vc vin thng v thm ch c nhng ngi s dng dch v vin thng di ng trn ton th gii. L mt trong hai phng n k thut c coi l c kh nng trin khai rng ri khi pht trin h thng thng tin di ng ln 3G (WCDMA, v cdma2000), WCDMA c coi l cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn c th p ng nhng ch tiu ca h thng thng tin di ng th h 3: l h thng truyn thng a phng tin; giao tip gia ngi vi ngi c th tng cng bng cc hnh nh m thanh c cht lng cao, kh nng truy cp thng tin v dch v cc mng cng cng, mng c nhn h tr tc d liu cao v x l linh hot. Phn tch cc thut ton qun l ti nguyn v tuyn, c bit l hai thut ton quan trng nht, c trng nht ca WCDMA so vi cc h thng thng tin di ng trc . y l mt bc quan trng cho cng vic quy hoch mng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA. Hng pht trin ca ti: - Tip tc nghin cu su hn cc kha cnh k thut ca cng ngh WCDMA v h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 UMTS. - Nghin cu quy hoch mng chi tit, quy hoch mng li. Tin hnh hoch nh xy dng h thng UMTS c th cng vn hnh vi cc h thng thng tin di ng khc. - Nghin cu cc gii php cng ngh quy hoch mi nh anten thng minh, cc thut ton pht hin nhiu ngi s dng ti trm gc tng cng dung lng mng, v vng ph sng ca mng. -

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

PH LC CC KNH UTRA
Lp UTRA c ba loi knh, chng c nh x ti nhau : cc knh logic nh x vo cc knh vn chuyn ; cc knh vn chuyn nh x vo cc knh vt l. Cc knh logic : BCCH PCCH DCCH CCCH DTCH CTCH Broadcast Control Channel Knh iu khin qung b Paging Control Channel Knh iu khin tm gi

Dedicated Control Channel Knh iu khin ring Common Control Channel Knh iu khin chung Dedicated Traffic Channel Knh lu lng ring Common Traffic Channel Knh lu lng chung

Cc knh vn chuyn: C 2 kiu knh vn chuyn knh chung v knh ring. DCH: Dedicated Transport Channel Knh vn chuyn ring. DCH mang thng tin ring ca ngi s dng; d liu ngi s dng v cc thng tinh iu khin cho cc lp trn ca lp vt l. Ch c DCH h tr iu khin cng sut v chuyn giao mm. BCH: Broadcast Channel- Knh qung b. BCH c pht qung b t Node B, mang cc thng tin cho ton b cell v v th m c mc cng sut pht kh cao. FACH: Forward Access Channel - Knh truy nhp ng xung. FACH mang d liu iu khin trn ng xung, nhng n cng c yu cu

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GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

vic gi d liu gi. Mt h thng c th c nhiu knh FACH PCH: Paging Channel- Knh tm gi Knh ng xung ny bao gm cc thng tin tm gi gi t mng thng bo cho cc thit b u cui bit mng mun khi to giao tip thng tin. RACH: Random Access Channel Knh truy nhp ngu nhin. RACH c thit k mang cc thng tin iu khin nhng cng c th gi mt lng s liu nh qua n. CPCH: Uplink Common Packet Channel Knh gi chung ng ln. Knh ny tng t nh knh RACH, n s dng gi d liu trn ng ln nhng vic truyn dn c th din ra lu hn trong cu trc RACH. Cng vi knh RACH n hnh thnh nn thnh phn i ngc ca knh FACH. DSCH: Downlink Shared Channel Knh chia s ng xung. DSCH mang s liu ngi s dng hoc l thng tin iu khin. c im chnh ca knh ny l c tc bit bin i trn c s khung ny n khung khc. DSCH lin kt vi mt hay nhiu knh ring ng xung.

Knh vt l. PCCPCH Primary Common Control Physical Channel Knh vt l iu khin chung s cp Secondary Common Control Physical Channel Knh vt l iu khin chung th cp. Physical Random Access Channel Knh truy nhp ngu nhin vt l Dedicated Physical Data Channel Knh d liu vt l ring

SCCPCH

PRACH

DPDCH

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA


DPCCH PDSCH

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

Dedicated Physical Control Channel Knh iu khin vt l ring Physical Downlink Shared Channel Knh vt l chia s ng xung Physical Common Packet Channel Knh vt l gi chung. Synchronisation Channel Knh ng b Common Pilot Channel Knh hoa tiu chung Acquisition Indication Channel Knh ch th ginh quyn Paging Indication Channel Knh ch th tm gi CPCH Status Indication Channel Knh ch th trng thi CPCH

PCPCH SCH CPICH AICH PICH CSICH

CD/CAICH Collision Detection/Channel Assignment Indicator Channel Knh b ch th n nh knh/ pht hin va chm

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Tm hiu tng quan WCDMA

GVHD: Nguyn Vn Dng

TI LIU THAM KHO

1. H thng thng tin di ng Ti liu cho kha bi dng KS. Nguyn Vn Thun 2. Thng tin di ng th h 3. Tp 1, Tp 2 - Nguyn Phm Anh Dng 3. http://vntelecom.org 4. http://www.dientuvienthong.net 5. www.google.com.vn

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