acorn squash additives adzuki beans - shaped like acorn, winter squash up to 15 cm in diameter with deeply-ridged, green skin and orange flesh. - for list of permitted additive and the corresponding E numbers see Glossary(additives) - native to China, reddish-brown beans with a subtle sweet flavour used in savoury dishes and are in sweet preparations in China and Japan. Also made into a paste. Other bean varieties: black, borlotti, cannellini, cranberry, fava, flageolet, Great Northern, green, Italian green, kidney, lima, pinto, red, white (navy), yellow wax, agar-agar aïoli a la mode a l'anglaise al dente amandine - tasteless white powder derived from seaweed used as a vegetarian gelling agent alternative to gelatine - garlic mayonnaise; also a Provençal of poached salt cod, potatoes and vegetables which is served with that mayonnaise - French for "in the mode of", describing how a dish is prepared. In America, ice cream with pie - boiled and served without sauce - cooked only till firm to the bite (usually of pasta) - garnished with almonds 20thC. A haddock is headed, cleaned and dry salted overnight, then hung to dry. It is then smoked at high heat over a hardwood fire. arrowroot aspic au gratin bain-marie bake blind baking powder - powdered root of an American plant of the same name; starch used for thickening sauces leaving them clear as opposed to the opaque look from cornflour - clear jelly made from the cooked juices of meat or chicken - cooked food, covered with a sauce and/or butter, sprinkled with crumbs or grated cheese and browned under a grill - French for double boiler - separate baking of pastry in a flan dish, often weighted with something (eg ceramic balls) - raising agent which contains baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) plus an acid, usually cream of tartar (tartaric acid), used in recipes without acid in the other ingredients which start reacting when wet (so have to be baked soon after mixing with other ingredients); the ratio is two parts cream of tartar to one part sodium bicarbonate plus often a smidgen of salt baking soda balsamic - another name for sodium bicarbonate; it reacts with an acid in other ingredients (eg yoghurt) to produce bubbles of carbon dioxide, which expand during cooking and so lighten the dough. - Italian vinegar; the original product is aged and processed for at least 12 years, is wonderful and costs hundreds of pounds a bottle; the commercial grade imitation is made of wine vinegar with colouring, caramel and sometimes thickeners like guar gum or cornflour. with no ageing Barbary duck barding baron basmati rice besan beurre manié beurre noir - see duck - covering meat or poultry with bacon to prevent it drying out during cooking - the largest roasting joint of beef, consisting of saddle and hindquarters - long-grain, nutty flavour rice originally grown in the Himalayan foothills in India. - Indian flour from ground, dried chickpeas used as a thickener, and in doughs and noodles - softened butter combined with an equal amount of flour used for thickening sauces - butter cooked till brown mixed with a few drops of vinegar sometimes with the addition of capers and parsley, and poured on skate and eggs cocotte bicarbonate of soda – see baking soda biltong bisque blanch blanquette boiled baby blind baking - air-dried, cured meat strips (beef or game) similar to but better than American beef jerky, but considered finer - thick soup made of pureed seafood and cream. - raw vegetables briefly boiled in water; often then "shocked" i.e. plunged immediately and briefly into iced water to stop the cooking process and preserve colour and crunch. - veal, poultry or rabbit stew in a creamy sauce - an old dish of suet pudding boiled with nutmeg, raisins and cinnamon - baking pastry for flans or tarts before adding the topping. It is usually done in the flan tin, the base pricked several times with a fork, and some cooks weight down the pastry by putting on baking paper covered with dried beans or tiny marbles (sold as ceramic baking beans) though it is seldom necessary, baking is usually in a 200°C oven for about 30 mins when the pastry should be turning slightly brown. bloater - herring soaked in brine and smoked (less than a kipper)

Arbroath smokie - originally from Auchmithie, a small fishing village three miles north of Arbroath, but the fishermen moved down at the start of the

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Bombay duck borage bordelaise bouquet garni braising brandade brochette broiling brule buckling bulgur wheat butterfly cacciatore cajun canel caramelise carbonnade caster sugar chafing dish chantilly chard chasseur chateaubriand chausson chickpea chiffonade chining choux pastry chowder clafouti coddling coffee

- sun-dried bummaloe fish - a blue-flowered plant with hairy leaves that taste somewhat like cucumber; used primarily in salads. - cooked in red wine sauce, often with beef marrow - in English, a faggot of herbs; usually consist of bay leaf, thyme, parsley, marjoram (sometimes also tarragon and chervil) - browning in hot fat and then cooking slowly in a covered pot in little liquid, with vegetables - cooked on a skewer or spit - American for grilling - with a caramelised sugar glaze - whole smoked herring - whole-wheat grain including the germ which has been cooked, dried and cracked - splitting meat, fish, fowl down the centre, cutting almost, but not completely through. The two halves are then opened flat to resemble a butterfly - with a sauce of tomatoes, herbs, onion and garlic - culinary style in southern USA derived from French; the spices usually include chilli powder, pepper, garlic, ginger and allspice - creating small V-shaped grooves on the surface of fruits or vegetables using a canelle knife, then slicing to create a decorative border on the slices - heating sugar until it liquefies and become a clear syrup ranging from golden to dark brown. Fruits and vegetables with natural sugars can be caramelized by sauteeing, roasting or grilling, giving them a sweet flavour and golden glaze - beef stew with beer - refined sugar with a grain size intermediate between the larger granulated and the finer icing - a dish kept above a heat source to keep food warm - slightly sweetened whipped cream, sometimes with a dash of vanilla - vegetable related to the beet, used for its leaves and stalks, high in iron, and vitamins A and C. - cooked with mushrooms, onion and white wine - centre cut of a beef fillet - French for turnover - called garbanzo beans in America, common in Mediterranean, Indian, and Middle Eastern dishes. - sliced into very thin strips or shreds usually of vegetables (French = "made of rags") - separating ribs from backbone to make carving easier - as used in éclairs - American dish somewhere between a soup and a stew, generally made with fish or shellfish; derived from a corruption of chaudron - pudding of fresh fruit topped with batter, cooked and served hot, often with whipped cream - cooking eggs slowly in simmering water - there are two commercial species of coffee beans: arabica, which is more susceptible to disease, but considered to taste better than rubusta (Coffea canephora) which has 40 to 50% more caffeine but is more bitter and is said to have a burnt rubber or wet cardboard smell. Many espresso blends are based on dark-roasted robusta but industrial roasters use a steam treatment to remove undesirable flavours for mass-marketed coffee blends. Other species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan. Caracoli, also known as peaberry, is a coffee bean which develops singly inside the coffee cherry compared with the normal two (~4% of all beans) and is supposed to have a stronger flavour and hence are expensive - Bolivian clean, yet mild, well-balanced flavour - Brazilian Santos, grown in the Sao Paolo region, taking its name from the port through which it is shipped; smooth, moderate acidity, medium body, sweet undertones, earthy - Colombian clean. - Colombian Excelso - Colombian Supremo - Costa Rica Tarrazu - Dominican Barahona largest (larger than excelso), highest quality beans, mild, almost buttery body, balanced between acidity, high-altitude; fragrant, rich, clean, bright, light to medium body, lingering crisp aftertaste hints of citrus, floral, caramel medium body, rich, fruity, winey undertones smooth, slightly nutty, with no bitterness - Cuba Turquino, named for the highest peak; rich, creamy, sweet, with undertones of notes, honey, heavy body, smooth aftertaste - Ethiopean Mocha Djimma daily pickings of ripe beans to be water processed, the hulls "fermenting" for 24 - 48 hours before the beans are washed

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- Ethiopian Sidamo, primarily harvested from wild trees at 5,000 - 6,000 feet; rich, smooth, spicy, earthy, exotic, acidic, tangy, thickbodied. - Ethiopean Yirga cheffe, delicate, fruity, smooth, light - Guatemala aromatic, lively, acidy, yet soft and mild, very heavy bodied a district known for producing finer flavour. usually sun dried on the tree before picking, then hulled dry, low acid, heavy-bodied, - Guatemala Antigua

- Indonesian Kalossi Celebes

concentrated flavour, spicy, grown at high elevations, small quantities imported - Jamaica Blue Mountain good body with strong smell, unusually sweet and mild - Java - Kenya Peaberry - Kenya AA - Kopi Luwak or civet coffee comes from berries eaten on Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi by the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) and excreted undigested. Vietnam has weasel coffee which comes from the droppings of coffee beans after weasels eat robusta coffee cherries. The inner bean of the berry is not digested, but enzymes in the stomach of the civet are thought to add to the flavour by breaking down proteins that give coffee its bitter taste. The excreted beans, still covered in some inner layers of the cherry, are washed and given only a light roast to prevent destroying complex flavours. Kopi Luwak (kopi is Indonesian for coffee and luwak is the palm civet) is the most expensive coffee in the world, costing up to £40 per quarter pound, and is sold mainly in Japan and United States. - Malabar Monsoon AA sweetness - Malawi - Mexico - Mysore - Nicaraguan - Panama sweet, spicy, very rich, light body, full aroma rich, full-bodied, hints of chocolate smooth, medium body, acidity, fruity, sweet aftertaste the best is from the Boquete region; more complex and distinctive than Costa Rica, the high-gropwn has pleasant smooth, full bodied, slightly floral exposed to monsoon winds in warehouses which increases body and reduces acidity; smooth, rich, slight clean, slightly fruity

- Nicaragua Talia

acidity, fruit notes, clean taste - Panama Esmeralda - Papua - Peru - El Salvador - Sumatra strong, rich, acidity, heavy-bodies, earthy, slightly spicy, dry, smooth - Sumatra Ling Tong - Zimbabwe Peaberry, the highest grade of Zimbabwe coffee, complex, milder than Ethiopian, well-balanced, with chocolate overtones. - there are many versions served in coffee bars so only a few sample labels are here - Americano: espresso added to hot water, giving a similar strength but different flavour than drip coffee - cappuccino: espresso coffee with about twice as much heated and frothed up milk added - espresso: coffee made by forcing superheated water (ideally at about 12 bar) through ground coffee beans - latte: Italian for milk; in English-speaking countries a coffee that in Italy is called "caffè e latte" hence the same as café au lait. Generally one third espresso and two-thirds steamed milk, sometimes with a layer of foamed milk approximately one quarter inch thick on the top (like cappuccino but the foam is spooned on and less of it) - machiato: espresso coffee with a dash of cold milk confit conserve consommé contrefilet coulis court bouillon couscous creme fraiche croquette - meat (usually fowl, but could be pork) cooked in its own fat - see extra jam - clarified concentrated stock - boned out sirloin of beef - puree of vegetables, fish or poultry - vegetable stock, used for poaching fish - granular small-pelleted semolina - cow’s-milk cream allowed to mature but not to go sour, and alternative to sour cream - cooked food moulded into a shape, dipped in egg and crumbs, and fried

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croustade curd cheese curdle curry dariole daube deglacer demerara double boiler dredge duck egg plant en casserole en cocotte en croute escalope estouffade extra jam faggot of herbs fat free fines herbes fish

- small fried or baked bread filled with savoury mixture - soft, smooth, full-fat slightly sharp cow-mil cheese - fresh milk or sauce separating as the result of acid or excessive beating - coriander, turmeric, fenugreek, cumin, mustard, chilli, cayenne, garlic fennel, cardamom, clove, ginger - small cup-shaped mould for jellies, puddings etc - stew of braised beef and vegetables, usually red wine - in English, deglaze; diluting pan juices by adding wine, sauce or cream to make a gravy - brown sugar with largish crystals - a pan fitting into another so the bottom can contain boiling water, thus ensuring a steady and not excessive heat in the top which might contain melting chocolate, a sauce etc - lightly coating with flour, breadcrumbs or cornmeal to brown the food and provides a crunchy surface - Barbary duck have a little less fat and a slightly more gamey flavour than the domestic kind - American for aubergine - pot roasting (pretty well the same as en cocotte) - pot roasting - food wrapped in pastry prior to cooking - thin slice of veal, turkey, pork etc, cut from top of leg - brown stock; also a specific brown stew - must by law contain 45g fruit per 100g and 60g sugar; can also be called conserve or preserve > see also jam; reduced sugar jam - » see bouquet garni - means less than 0.15g per 100g - mixture of parsley, tarragon, chives and chervil - anchovy - Arbroath smokie: hot-smoked haddock; poach or grill - black bream: dark grey back and pale gold stripes along sides; better than red bread; July-December - bloater: whole ungutted herring, dried, salted and cold-smoked; clean, grill, fry on day of purchase - bluefish: not very firm, quite oily; grill - brill: delicate flat fish, smaller and inferior to turbot; bake, grill, fry, poach; June-February - brisling: young sprat - brown shrimp: translucent alive; hard to peel but with good flavour; February-October - buckling: hot-smoked herring - capitaine rouge: emperor bream with pink flesh - carp: flavour depends source but can be improved by soaking three hours in salted water; poach, braise, bake; mid-June-March - chicken halibut: smaller than true halibut - cod: June-February - coley (coalfish, saithe): strong flavour, larger flakes than cod, and coarser texture; good for fish cakes; August-February - crawfish: like a larger lobster without large claws; coarser texture than lobster; April-October - crayfish: freshwater; brown alive, bright red cooked; like small lobster but claws contain little meat - dab: smaller than plaice; grill, fry, bake; September-May - dentex: good quality bream - Dover sole: true sole; the tough dark outer skin should be removed by fishmonger; finely-textured, delicate flavour, best flat fish - Dublin bay prawns (scampi, Norway lobsters, langoustine): like small lobster; April-November - emperor (emperor bream): related to sea bream; white flesh; bake, grill, poach - finnan haddie: haddock smoked on the bone; loses its flavour quickly; poach, steam, pies, fish cakes - flounder (fluke): same family as brill and plaice; March-November - Greenland halibut (mock halibut): inferior to real halibut; June-March - grey mullet: bake, poach, grill; September-February - grouper: white flesh with good flavour; bake, fry, grill, poach - guilt head bream (dorade): gold mark on front of head and gold spot on each cheek; best bream; bake, grill, fry - gurnard - haddock: cod family; firm white flesh, finer flakes than cod; poach, bake, grill, fry; May-February - hake: tender white flesh; bake, poach, fry, grill; June-March

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- halibut - herring: bony with good flavour; bake, fry, grill; May-December - hoki: similar to code and haddock - huss (dogfish, rig, flake or rock salmon): related to sharks; has cartilagenous backbone which is to be removed by fishmonger; firm white flesh has distinct but not strong flavour; used for fish and chips; braise, stew; throughout year - John Dory - kipper: split, salted and smoked herring - lemon sole: good flavour but not as good as Dover sole; May-March - ling - lobster: blue alive, scarlet boiled; male brighter and smaller with larger claws, female has broader tail and more tender flesh and contains spawn; buy ones heavy for their size, best at 450-900g (1-2lbs), tail should spring back, avoid old lobsters with white shells; April-November - mackerel: eat on the day of purchase; grill, fry, bake, souse; throughout year - megrin: similar to brill and turbot; good flavour and texture comparable with plaice or lemon sole; May- February - monkfish - Pacific salmon: - parrotfish: soft delicate flesh; deteriorates quickly; bake, braise, grill, poach - perch - pike: coarse very bony flesh; needs soaking; bake, boil, rinse and sieve for quennelles or gefilte fish - pilchard: adult sardines; deteriorates rapidly - pink shrimp: grey alive; not as tasty as brown - plaice: grill, poach, bake, fry; May-February - pompano: bake, grill - prawns: grey-beige uncooked, pink cooked - rainbow trout: farmed; whitish flesh; bake, grill, poach, fry; March-September - red bream: red tinged on back and black spot on side behind the head; June-February - red herring: whole dried and smoked dyed read; salty, strong smoky flavour; for mousses, pates - red mullet: smaller than grey mullet; firm white flesh with good but delicate flavour; bake, grill, fry; May-November - rockfish (catfish, wolf fish): firm flesh tinged with pink; good flavour; fry, bake, poach; September-February - salmon: wild spring-autumn - sardine: good frozen; bake, grill, fry; throughout year - sea bass (loup de mer, white salmon, bass salmon): firm white flesh with delicate flavour; bake, poach, grill; August-March - sea trout (salmon trout): firm pink flesh with delicate salmon-like flavour; bake, poach; March-July - shark: firm dry flesh; best with spices and flavoursome sauces; stew, braise, marinate in oil with seasoning - skate: kept for a day before wings are skinned; like huss and shark has cartilaginous skeleton and wings have spines; wings have fresh, mild smell when ready but strong ammoniacal when stale; braise, poach, grill, fry; May-February - smelt (sparling): pure white flesh; strong smell (?violets and cucumbers); delicate flavour; clean by pressing entrails through cut just below gills; shallow or deep fry; January-March - smoked trout: rainbow trout; requires no cooking - snapper: white flesh; good with spices or strong sauces; bake, grill, braise, stew - sprat: herring family; October-March - swordfish: firm-textured; marinate in oil, lemon juice and spices; grill, fry, bake, braise - tuna (tunny): improves with marination; grill, fry, bake, braise - turbot: white firm flesh with good flavour; poach, bake, grill, fry; April-February - whitebait: young sprat or herring; throughout year - whiting: cod family: fresh soft flesh is flaky; deteriorates rapidly; very delicate flavour to bland; poach, bake, fry; June-February - witch (Torbay sole): similar to lemon sole but slightly smaller; May-February flambé flamiche florentine flour - pouring alcohol – usually brandy – onto a dish and then setting light to it for show - ingredients include spinach - milling wheat usually removes most of the bran and germ (which account for 28% of the wheat grain weight), leaving the endosperm, which is the whitest part of the grain, because it is 75% starch. The flour is passed along a roller over sieves allowing different grades

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to fall through. Flour is graded according to ‘ash mass’ which is a measure of mineral content and hence of how close it is to whole grain and hence to protein content. ash ~0.4% ~0.55% ~0.8% ~1% >1.5% protein UK/US German ~9% pastry flour ~11% all-purpose flour ~14% high gluten flour ~15% first clear flour ~13% white whole wheat 405 550 812 1050 1600 wheat flour type French 40 55 80 110 150

Thus the chemical composition of flour can vary and even small differences can have substantial differences in result (extraction means the percentage of flour from the grain) extraction > water proteins starch sugars lipids cellulose minerals - see also self-raising fricassee fudge galantine galette garam masala - stew of chicken, rabbit, veal and vegetables fried in butter and then cooked with stock, butter and cream - soft caramel made from sugar, butter and milk - dish of boned and stuffed poultry or meat, glazed with aspic and served cold - wholemeal pancake; flat cake traditionally baked for Twelfth Night; a flat cake of mashed potato - 2 parts cumin seed, one part black pepper with cloves and cardamom seeds OR 6 parts black pepper, 5 parts cumin, 2½ parts ground cardamom, 2 parts cinnamon, 2 parts ground cloves, 1 part mace (+optional 6 parts coriander, 2 parts ground bay) gelatine ghee gluten - clarified butter - a viscous, sticky protein in wheat Amonum A member of the ginger family; grains of paradise plant resembles cardamom, turmeric and ginger. It is a perennial spreading by rhizomes and forming dense clumps. Plants attain heights of 4 to 5 feet, with lanceolate, glabrous leaves up to 9 inches long. Seeds are borne in ovoid or flask-shaped, pubescent capsules 2 to 3 inches long. The plant is native to the coastal areas of Africa's Gulf of Guinea - Liberia, Ivory Coast, Togo, Nigeria and Cameroon – and grows only in hot humid tropical climates. Seeds were formerly used as a substitute or adulterant of pepper. Outside west Africa, grains now are rare, mainly in flavouring beer, ale, gin and vinegars. The grain has a slowly intensifying and lingering heat, like pepper, at the back of the mouth, pleasantly tempered, reminiscent of jasmine, hazelnut, butter and citrus, with an oiliness similar to nuts. It is an ingredient in 'raz al hanout' a Moroccan spice mixture. Constituents include gingerol, shagaol, paradol granita harissa - water ice, sorbet - hot chilli paste based on chilli, garlic and olive oil, plus ground caraway seed, ground cumin seed, roast red pepper OR 250 g fresh chillis, 3 tspn cumin, 4 cloves garlic, 1 tspn tomato puree, 2 tspn smoked sweet paprika, salt, 3 tspn ground caraway, 1 tspn ground black cumin seed, 100 g piquillo (or 1 large long red pepper roast and seeded), 1 yblspn red wine vinegar, 6 tblspn olive oil, black pepper home made icing sugar jam jardinière julienne jus lié kipper - not factory-produced, created on the premises - very fine-powdered sugar - must by law contain 35g fruit per 100g, and 60g sugar; can also be called conserve or preserve > see also extra jam - a garnish of fresh spring vegetables - vegetables cut into thin sticks; usually referring to a mixture of carrots, celery, leek, and cooked with just butter - thickened gravy - split herring soaked in brine, smoked over wood chips 50% 72% 14.5 14.5 6 - 7.5 72 - 74 1-2 1-2 0.4 - 0.6 0.1 0.2 - 0.5 80% 14 8 - 11 65 - 70 1-2 0.8 - 1.0 0.3 - 0.6 85% 14 8 - 13 64 - 69 2 .0- 2.5 1.0 - 1.5 0.6 - 1.0 0.6 - 0.8 whole wheat 14 9 - 14 64 - 68 1.6 - 2.0 1.2 - 2.0 2.0 - 5.0 0.7- 0.9 1.5 - 2.5 2.0 - 3.0 10 - 15 60 - 65

0.15 - 0.20 0.2 - 0.4

grains of paradise – also called Guinea pepper, atar, alligator pepper, Melegueta pepper; Aframomum melegueta (Zingiberaceae) Zingiberaceae

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kirsch larding laver low fat lukewarm mace macedoine magret marinade marmalade marmite matelote merguez meuniere minerals muesli mushrooms natural navarin niçoise noisettes normande panaché paprika

- German liqueur from cherries - inserting strips of fat (lardons) or bacon into a dry cut of meat to make the meat more succulent and tender - an edible purple seaweed - less than 3g of fat per 100g; in a spread it means it contains less than 40g of fat per 100g; very low fat no more than 20 to 30g per 100g - in cooking it usually means about blood heat, ie 37°C - the dried flesh round the nutmeg kernel - diced vegetables or fruit - duck breast - a sauce in which meats are kept some time in the hope the ingredients will add to the flavour and the acids break down the texture to soften it before cooking - a jam of citrus fruit with at least 20g fruit per 100g - thick earthenware or metal pot for long slow cooking of casseroles - fish stew with wine or cider - spicy, red sausage from North Africa made with beef or lamb and flavoured with harissa - French for the miller's wife; fish cooked in butter, with parsley and lemon juice - necessary ones are calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium - raw rolled oats, nuts and dried fruit mixed and eaten for breakfast - common types are the chanterelle, enoki, morel, oyster, shiitake - naturally-produced ingredients that have not been sterilised, pasteurised, frozen or concentrated - casserole of lamb and young root vegetables - includes tomatoes and garlic - roundish shapes of lamb, mutton, or beef, at least 1 inch thick, often cut from loin or best end of neck - in the Norman style: cooked with cider and cream - mixed - the dried and powdered capsicum annum from Spain and other countries but the best from Hungary which accordingly commands a premium spice, it fetches the highest prices, though it represents only 10% of the world's supply. Paprika was introduced to Hungary in the 17th century during the Turkish occupation, when it was known as Turkish pepper. The Hungarian pimento (Capsicum annum L) is sharp and pointed, rather like a chilli, and is between four and five inches long. It is thick-fleshed, tough and leathery. Drying is important because pigmentation doubles during this time. Then they are ground between millstones and sieved to form an orange-red powder. Not the brightest red paprika is the hottest – the orange coloured one will make you really cry. The seeds, which are 40 per cent oil help to sustain the texture and colour. Milling generates friction, and the heat begins a gentle caramelisation. The premium powder comes from the best hand-picked peppers, selected for purity and depth of colour. Hungarians consume 6,000 tonnes a year, half of which goes into food processing (eg salami). Hungarians consume 6,000 tonnes a year, half of which goes into food processing (eg salami). Frying paprika will make it bitter and destroy its delicate flavour. The small quantity of oil that gives paprika its character oxidises so it should be stored in a cool, dry place away from heat and sunlight perhaps in the fridge. It comes in a range of strengths of flavour and heat – here are the most common ones in ascending order of pungency and strength - különleges (special) the mildest/sweetest, with a deep bright colour - édes csemege (sweet delicate) mild - csipösmentes csemege (sting-free delicate) mild, light red, rich flavour - csemege (delicate) similar to csipmentes, but a little spicier - csipös csemege (delicate with bite) - édesnemes (sweet noble) the most common type, brightly coloured and mildly spicy - felédes (half sweet) medium - csemege pikáns (pungent delicate) stronger than csemege - rozsa (rosy) - csipös/erös (with bite/strong) hottest, light brown-orange made from small cherry peppers

paner à l’anglaise - coated with egg and breadcrumbs

parboil parfait parmentier

- briefly boiling to cook food only partially so dense food like carrots and potatoes can be added at the last minute to quicker-cooking ingredients; generally ‘shocked’ in iced water briefly to preserve colour and texture - dish containing potatoes; after Antoine Parmentier who introduced the potato into France

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passata pasta

- puree of tomatoes - acini di peppe: smallest of the grain-shaped agnolotti (priest caps): small stuffed crescents annallini: tiny rings bavettine: narrow linguine bucatini: hollow strands cannaroni: wide tubes (also called zitoni) canelloni: large tubes capalveneri: thin noodles capelletti: stuffed hat-shapes capellini: thinnest spaghetti cavatappi: short thin spirals cavetelli: short ripple-edged shells chitara: long thin strips conchiglie: shell-shaped conchigliette: smaller version of concighilie coralli: small tubes used in soup ditali: small macaroni ½ inch long farfallini: small farfalle farfalle: bow-shaped fedelini: thin spaghetti fetucce: flat egg noodles ½ inch wide fetucelle: flat egg noodles about inch wide

fetuccine: flat egg noodles about ¼ inch wide fusilli: fluted tube gemelli: 1½ inch twists like two twisted strands of spaghetti gnocchi: small ripple-edged shells lasagne: long strips 2 to 3 inches wide linguine: narrow ribbons macaroni maruzze: alternative name for conchiglie mafalde: broad flat ripple-edged noodles mezzani: short curved tubes penne: diagonally cut wide tubes, either ribbed or plain pezzocheri: thicl buckwheat noodles quadrettini: flat squares ravioli: stuffed pillows rigatoni: ribbed macaroni rotelle: small spoked wheels route: wheel-shaped semini: tiny grain-like spaghetti: solid strands spaghettini tagliarini: long noodles 1/8 inch wide tagliatelle: flat and narrow ribbon torglione: screw-shaped tortellini: small stuffed twists similar to cappeletti vermicelli: fine strands zitoni: wide tubes (also called cannaroni) paupiette - thin slices of meat rolled round a savoury filling

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pearl barley pimenton poêle polenta pot roast prosciutto protein puff pastry pulses pure puy lentils quenelle quinoa raising agent ramekin ratafia reduced fat remoulade

- has been hulled and milled until the barley grain looks like small pearls – it cooks more quickly than untreated barley and is sometimes added to soups - smoked paprika - frying pan - maize meal boiled in water with olive oil with the addition of a little grated cheese, lightly baked or fried - cooking meat slowly by moist heat in a covered pot either on top of the stove or in the oven, useful for tougher cuts of meat - Italian dry-cured ham - sources: meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs, legumes, bread, cereals, nuts - finest pastry containing only butter as fat; like flaky but richer and firmer - generic term for beans, peas and lentils - no additives or contamination by other foods - small green lentils, generally from France, said to be superior - light egg-shaped dumplings of fish, veal or chicken with eggs and bread, poached and served with a sauce (often natua) - nutty-flavoured grain - see baking powder - small, round ceramic dish for individual servings of soufflé, creme brulée etc - flavouring from bitter almonds; liqueur from fruit stones; tiny macaroon - food containing less than 75% of the fat in the normal product - often mayonnaise-based, sometimes curry flavoured, and invariably contains chopped pickles or piccalilli; it can contain horseradish, paprika, anchovies, capers. Originally for serving with meat, now often accompaniment to seafood dishes especially pan-fried breaded fish fillets (primarily sole and plaice).

reduced sugar jam - can have 35g to 55g sugar per 100g; some add preservative to offset this > see also jam, extra jam

rennet rice

- extract of the stomach lining of calves and used to coagulate milk for junket or curd - arborio: used in risotto - basmati: long grain with fragrant flavour; used in biryani and pilau; cook without salt - carnaroli - carolina - patna - piedmont - vialone nano

rocket rollmops roux saffron salmi sautee savarin mould seasoning

- mildly pungent plant grown like spinach and eaten in salads. Also known as arugula. - filleted herring soaked in brine and vinegar, then rolled and bottled with onions and spices - flour fried in butter and used as base for sauces - from the stigma of a crocus - casserole of game - rapid frying of food in hot fat - ring shaped dish with hole in the middle of the sort used for making rum baba etc - in most recipe books it means add salt and pepper convert ordinary flour to self-raising, add about 2½ teaspoon (ie 12ml) of baking powder to 500g of ordinary flour.

self-raising flour - flour containing raising agent, generally baking powder (bicarbonate of soda plus an acid, usually cream of tartar (tartaric acid)); to shortcrust pastry - commonly-used pastry based on two parts flour to one part fat; used for fruit and meat pies, tarts and flans skillet sousing strong flour suet supreme sweating tammy tea - American for frying pan - pickling in brine or vinegar - high protein and gluten content suitable for baking bread - fat around beef and lamb kidneys - wing and breast fillet of fowl in one piece - gently cooking in fat in covered pan - to strain soups and sauces through fine woollen cloth - black tea is graded by size not quality - grades pekoe means open leaves are plucked from the tip of the plant – the leaf bud and two leaves below. orange pekoe - long, thin, closely-twisted leaves - is better than pekoe.

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souchong: large coarse leaves generally from the tip broken orange pekoe broken orange pekoe fannings broken pekoe fannings dust - green teas: graded on the age of leaves and style of presentation - gunpowder: small, tight balls of young and medium leaves and buds - imperial: larger and looser pellets rolled from older leaves - hyson: loose, long, twisted leaves of various ages young hyson – young leaves rolled long and thin - twankay: unrolled leaves of poor quality - oolong: fanciest or Extra Fancy (best) fancy extra choice (or extra fine) common (worst). - abbreviations: TGFOP - tippy golden flower orange pekoe (the first three words all mean leaf and bud at the tip of the twig); FTGFOP fine tippy golden flowery orange pekoe; superfine tippy golden flowery orange pekoe - vintage: the leaves are the product of one harvest, and are not blended with any others. - first flush: the leaves were plucked in the first growth of the season. It usually produces a very light, delicate drink. - second flush: second-growth harvest. More robust and complex than first flush. - autumn flush: harvest after the rainy season. - common types Assam: black, I*ndia Ceylon: black, Ceylon Darjeeling, black, India Dimbula: black, Ceylon Earl Grey, black, India English breakfast: black, India/Ceylon Lapsang Souchong: black, China Nilgiri: black, India Russian Caravan: black Sikkim: black, India tenderloin timbale tofu tournedo traditional vanilla velouté veronique vitamin - American for fillet - cup-shaped earthenware or metal mould and the dish prepared in it - a virtually tasteless soya bean curd made by pressing a soya bean paste into blocks - a recipe or process of at least three generation duration - the seed pods of a Mexican orchid - golden roux plus white veal, chicken or fish sauce has been added - in a sauce of wine and cream - A (retinol) for skin, mucous membranes and eyes -- milk products, egg yolk, liver, fish (esp fatty fish), fruit, cabbage, lettuce, carrots - B1 (thiamin, aneurin) nerves, muscle, appetite, blood -- cereals, beans, meat, potatoes, nuts - B2 (riboflavin) tissue respiration -- liver, milk, eggs - B6 (pyridoxine) -- most foods - B12 (cyanocobalamin) nerves -- liver, fish, eggs - C (ascorbic acid) for cells, skin, resistance to infection -- fruit, vegetables - D for bones and teeth (acute shortage causes rickets) -- liver, fish oils, butter, eggs - E cell membranes, muscle tone, fertility -- oils, eggs butter, wholemeal cereals - K blood clotting -- leafy vegetables, meat whey - liquid which separates from curds when milk curdles

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zest zucchini

- the skin of citrus usually removed in thin shreds - Italian and American for courgette

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