Aircraft Engineering (AVEN 1920) Gulfstream G200 By Philip Chu z3420180

Table of Contents
1. Introduction .............................................................................................. 1 2. Specification ............................................................................................. 4 3. Calculation ................................................................................................ 7 3.1 Coefficient of Lift (CL) ........................................................................ 7 3.2 Drag................................................................................................ 10 3.3 Coefficient of Drag .......................................................................... 11 3.4 Induced Drag .................................................................................. 15 3.5 Parasitic Drag ................................................................................. 17 3.6 Aspect Ratio.................................................................................... 18 3.7 Wing Loading.................................................................................. 19 3.8 Span Loading .................................................................................. 21 3.9 Power Loading ................................................................................ 22 3.10 Lift-to-drag Ratio .......................................................................... 23 3.11 Thrust-to-weight Ratio .................................................................. 24 3.12 Maximum G-Loading and Maximum Banking Angle ..................... 26 3.13 Tire Pressure ................................................................................. 27 4. Wing........................................................................................................ 28 5. Empennage ............................................................................................. 32 6. Flight Controls......................................................................................... 32 7. Power Plants ........................................................................................... 34 8. Structure ................................................................................................. 39 9. Landing Gear ........................................................................................... 39 10. Systems ................................................................................................. 41 10.1 Environmental Control Systems (ECS) .......................................... 41 10.2 Electrical Systems.......................................................................... 43 10.3 Rain and Ice Protection Systems.................................................... 43 10.4 Fuel Systems ................................................................................. 45 10.5 Avionic Systems............................................................................. 46 11. Cabin ..................................................................................................... 48 12. References ............................................................................................ 50

1. Introduction
First introduced in 1999, the Gulfstream G200 is a twin engine business jet manufactured by Gulfstream Aerospace. It was originally designed by Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) and the G200 formerly went by the name of IAI Galaxy along with Yakolev OKB in a risk-sharing partnership back in the 1980s, with the latter responsible for the design and manufacturing of the forward fuselage and empennage. Due to delays in production schedule by the latter, EADS Sogerma was later given the job of manufacturing the fuselage and empennage. The purpose of the aircraft was to function as a business jet with transatlantic crossing capabilities, and was later incorporated into several military fleets acting as light or VIP transport. 250 G200s were produced before it ceased in 2011 as it was being succeeded by the improved version of the G200, the Gulfstream G280. In the following report, the performance parameters in terms of data and calculations and the aircraft itself will be analyzed in order to relate them to the G200’s role as a business jet with transatlantic capabilities.

2. Specifications
Basic Dimensions Wing Span Gross Wing Area Wing Aspect Ratio Overall Length Overall Height Tail Plane Span Wheel Track Wheel Base Weights Maximum Ramp Weight Maximum Take-off Weight Maximum Landing Weight Maximum Zero Fuel Weight Mid-Cruise Weight Maximum Payload Payload with Maximum Fuel Fuel Capacity Altitudes Maximum Certified Altitude Service Ceiling Cruising Altitude

Gulfstream G200
17.70 m (Over winglets) 34.3 m2 9.1 18.97 m 6.53 m 6.86 m 3.30 m 7.39 m

16,148 kg 16,080 kg 13,608 kg 10,886 kg 12,247 kg 1,724 kg 181 kg 6,804 kg

13,715 m 12,075 m 11,885 m

Speeds Cruise Speed 494 kt (915 km/h) at FL310 [mid-cruise weight=12,247 kg] 459 kt (850 km/h) [normal] Cruising Mach Number 0.75 [Long Range] 0.80 [Normal] VMO 310 kt (574 km/h) from S/L to FL100 [IAS] 330 kt (611 km/h) from FL100 to FL 200 [IAS] MMO 360 kt (667 km/h) from FL200 to FL250 [IAS] 0.85 Vs 112 kt (208 km/h) [flaps and gear down, at maximum landing weight, IAS] Powerplant Thrust By-pass Ratio Tires Size Range 26x6.6R14 6,133 km [2 crew + 4 pax at M0.75, NBAA IFR reserves] 6,469 km [ferry] G-limit +2.63/-1 [flaps and gear up]
Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofans 26.9 kN each [flat rated] 4.5:1

Cabin Dimensions Length 7.44m [excluding flight deck] 9.30m [including flight deck] Width 2.18m [at shoulder] 1.73m [at floor] Height 1.91m

Figure 1. Blueprint of the Gulfstream G200

3. Calculations
*all calculations are done to 3 decimal places

3.1 Co-efficient of lift (CL) The coefficient of lift (CL) is a co-efficient without dimension relating the ratios of lift force to the force produced by dynamic pressure multiplied by area responsible for creating lift. There are, of course, many more CLs as air density varies along different flight levels, but the ones for take-off, landing and cruise are the relatively more major ones. The formula for calculating the co-efficient of lift is given as: 𝐶𝐿

= 1
2 𝐿

𝜌𝑣 2 𝑆

,

where L is equal to the lift force, ρis the corresponding air density at the specified altitude, υrefers to the corresponding speed of the aircraft and S is the area of the aircraft’s wings. In the following calculations, lift is assumed to be equal to weight, wing area is constant at 34.3 m2 , and the air density used is 1.2256 kgm-3 at sea level.

3.1.1 Co-efficient of lift during cruise (CL Cruise)

At cruising altitude (11,885 m): Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 x 0.2535 Speed (v) = 850 km/h =236.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Weight (W) = 12,247 kg (mid-cruise weight) Wing area (S) = 34.3 m2 CL Cruise = 12,247 kg x 9.8 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 x 0.2535)x((236.111 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

=0.404 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the co-efficient of lift during cruise is 0.404.

3.1.2. Co-efficient of lift during take-off (CL TO)

At sea-level: Air density (p) =1.2256 kgm-3 Speed (v)= 1.15 x Vs = 1.15 x 208 km/h = 66.444 ms-1 (3 d.p.)* Weight (W)= 16,080 kg (MTOW) Wing area (S)= 34.3 m2 CL TO = 16080 kg x 9.8 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((66.444 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

= 1.698 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the co-efficient of lift at take-off is 1.698
*Stall speed provided is in terms of MLW, flaps and gear down.

3.1.3. Co-efficient of lift during landing (CL Landing)

At sea-level: Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 Speed (v) = 1.3 x Vs = 1.3 x 208 km/h = 75.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Weight(W) = 13,608 kg (MLW) Wing area (S) =34.3 m2 CL Landing = 13608 kg x 9.8 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((75.111 ms−1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

= 1.125 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the co-efficient of lift at landing is 1.125.

3.1.4. Maximum Co-efficient of lift (CL Max) By varying the angle of attack (α) of the aerofoil, lift can be varied and hence, CL can also be varied. As the angle of attack increases, CL increases linearly until maximum possible lift is achieved, and at this point CL achieves maximum value and is known as CL Max and α reaches the critical angle of attack. Beyond this point, any further increase in α does not produce any more additional lift and starts to decrease instead, resulting in what is known as an aerodynamic stall. The typical critical angle of attack is at approximately 15 degrees (Figure 2.).

Assuming at sea-level,
Figure 2. Graph illustrating the relationship-3 between CL

Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm and α

Speed (v)= Vs = 208 km/h =57.778 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Weight (W)= 16,080 kg (MTOW) Wing area (S) =34.3 m2 16080 kg x 9.8 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((57.778 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

CL Max =

=2.246 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the maximum coefficient of lift is 2.246

3.2 Drag

The total drag of an aircraft moving through air is the sum of its induced drag and parasitic drag, in which the former is generated as air is re-directed by the airfoil to generate lift whilst the latter is the drag generated as a result of an object moving through a fluid. Parasitic drag can be separated into a few components, namely form drag being the most prominent, skin friction and interference drag.

Figure 3. Graphical representation of the relationship between Total Drag and Airspeed

As illustrated by Figure 3., induced drag is the greater component of total drag at lower airspeeds due to the fact that a larger angle of attack is required to generate lift. As the airspeed increases, induced drag decreases but form drag increases as air is flowing at relatively faster velocities around the aircraft, increasing form drag. In order to quantify drag, the co-efficient of drag can be implemented.

3.3 Co-efficient of Drag (CD) The co-efficient of drag (CD) is a dimensionless quantity which measures the drag upon an object moving through a fluid environment, which in this case, measures the drag of an aircraft moving through air. The formula for CD is: 𝐶𝐷

= 𝑇

1 2 2 𝜌𝑣 𝑆

where T is equal to thrust, ρis the corresponding air density at the specified altitude, υrefers to the corresponding speed of the aircraft and S is the area of the aircraft’s wings. In the following calculations, thrust is assumed to be equal to drag where thrust is constant, wing area is constant at 34.3 m2 and the air density used is 1.2256 kgm-3 at sea level. As total drag is the sum of induced drag and parasitic drag, the co-efficient of drag can also be expressed as:

CD = CDI + CD0
3.3.1 Co-efficient of drag during cruise (CD Cruise)

At cruising altitude (11,885 m): Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 x 0.2535 Speed (v) = 850 km/h =236.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Thrust = Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Wing area (S) = 34.3 m2 53800 N 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 x 0.2535)x((236.111 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

CD Cruise =

= 0.181 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the co-efficient of drag during cruise is 0.181.

3.3.2. Co-efficient of drag during take-off (CD TO)

At sea-level: Air density (p) =1.2256 kgm-3 Speed (v)= 1.15 x Vs = 1.15 x 208 km/h = 66.444 ms-1 (3 d.p.)* Thrust = 2 x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Wing area (S)= 34.3 m2 53800 N 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((66.444 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

CD TO =

= 0.580 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the co-efficient of drag during take-off is 0.580.
*Stall speed provided is in terms of MLW, flaps and gear down.

3.3.3. Co-efficient of drag during landing (CD Landing)

At sea-level: Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 Speed (v) = 1.3 x Vs = 1.3 x 208 km/h = 75.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Thrust = 2 x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Wing area (S) =34.3 m2

CD Landing =

53800 N 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((75.111 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

= 0.454 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the co-efficient of drag during landing is 0.454.

3.3.4. Maximum co-efficient of drag (CD Max)

Assuming at sea-level, Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 Speed (v)= Vs = 208 km/h =57.778 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Thrust = 2 x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Wing area (S) =34.3 m2 53800 N 1 x (1.2256 kgm−3 )x ((57.778 ms −1 )2 )x (34.3 m2 ) 2

CD Max =

=0.767 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the maximum coefficient of drag is 0.767.

3.4 Induced Drag When an airfoil moves through the air, it not only creates lift through redirecting air, but drag is also created due to a downforce. As induced drag is related to lift, induced drag increases as the angle of attack increases.

Figure 4. Diagram of airflow and resultant lift and drag of an airfoil

At lower speeds, induced drag tends to be greater due to the larger angle of attack required to generate lift to compensate for reduced lift generated due to low airspeed.

3.4.1. Co-efficient of induced drag during cruise (CDI Cruise) As the co-efficient of induced drag is calculated at cruise conditions, it is the lesser component of the co-efficient of drag as implied by Figure 3. The co-efficient of induced drag is a measurement of the drag generated as a result of lift generation by the airfoil, in which the formula for induced drag is :

1 DI = ρν2 SCDI 2

where

CDI = πeAR

CL 2

and 𝐶𝐿

= 1
2 𝐿 𝜌𝑣

2 𝑆

,

CDI =

L2 1 ρ2 ν2 S2 πeAR 4

In the equation, AR is the aspect ratio which will be discussed further on, and e is the wing span efficiency value which is assumed to be 0.85 in calculations.
* for accuracy, the value of AR used in the following calculation is not restricted to 3 decimal places.

At cruising altitude (11,885 m): Air density (p) = 1.2256 kgm-3 x 0.2535 Speed (v) = 850 km/h =236.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Weight (W) = 12,247 kg (mid-cruise weight) Wing area (S) = 34.3 m2 CL Cruise = 4.04047582 x 10-3 CD Cruise = 0.181116907 Aspect Ratio (AR) = 9.133819242 During straight and level cruise, lift equals to weight, hence:

CDI =
CDI Cruise = 1
4

W2 1 2 4 2 4 ρ ν S πeAR
(12247 kg)2

x (1.2256 kgm−3 x 0.2535)2 x (236.111)4 x (34.3m)2 x 0.85π x (9.133819242)

= 6.969 x 10-5 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the co-efficient of induced drag during cruise is 6.969 x 10-5.

3.5 Parasitic Drag Parasitic drag is the larger component of total drag acting on an aircraft at higher airspeed, and can be separated into a few components, namely form drag being the most prominent, skin friction and interference drag. Form drag is the drag generated upon an object moving through a fluid, and as for skin friction, its occurrence is due to the friction between the flow of air along the surface of the aircraft. As for interference drag, it mainly occurs during transonic flow where the range of airspeeds is between Mach 0.8 and 1.2, in which the Gulfstream 200 barely touches the lower limit and hence is not a major factor contributing towards parasitic drag.

3.5.1. Co-efficient of parasitic drag (CD0)
* for accuracy, the values of CD and CDI used in the following calculation are not restricted to 3 decimal places.

As the co-efficient of parasitic drag is calculated at cruise conditions, it is the greater component of the co-efficient of drag as implied by figure b. Based on the fact that we have

CD = CDI + CD0 ,

CD0 = CD − CDI

CD Cruise = 0.181116907 CDI = 6.969340152 x 10-5

CD0 = (0.181116901) − (6.969340152 x 10−5 )
= 0.181 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the co-efficient of parasitic drag is 0.181.

3.6 Aspect Ratio (AR) The aspect ratio (AR) of an aircraft is one of the indicators of its performance in terms of maneuverability and efficiency, where the aspect ratio of an aircraft is given by the formula:

Aspect Ratio =

Wingspan2 (m2 ) Wing Area (m2 )

.

Generally, aircraft with low aspect ratios then to have greater maneuverability and are often found on fighter planes due to a higher roll rate. When compared to a low-AR wing, an equal amount of wing movement in a high-AR wing due to aileron deflection would have less of a rolling action on the fuselage due to the relatively longer distance between the ailerons and the fuselage. This results in a large amount of inertia needed to be overcome in a maneuver. In terms of efficiency, aircraft with lower AR compared to one of similar weight but larger AR experiences a larger induced drag, as a larger downward velocity is needed to lift the aircraft with the smaller AR. Despite high-AR wings having less induced drag, they tend to have larger parasitic drag due to a larger wing area and leading-edge area. Despite so, for aircraft to be as efficient as possible, a higher AR is preferable as it implies that the wingspan is relatively longer. The effects on efficiency can be explained through wing-tip vortices, where they only affect the portion of the wings closet to the wingtips, in which a longer wing would mean a smaller portion of the wing being affected by the vortices, which reduces the reduction in lift generated as a result of the vortices, making flight more fuel efficient in terms of lift.

Also, the section drag co-efficient (Cd) can be inversely correlated to the chord length to a certain power depending on the airfoil, where a smaller chord length would result in a larger Cd.

For the Gulfstream 200: Wingspan = 17.70m Gross wing area = 34.3m2
(17.70 m)2 34.3 m2

∴Aspect Ratio =

=9.134 (3 d.p.)

3.7. Wing Loading Other than aspect ratio, another general indicator of an aircrafts general maneuverability is its wing loading. The formula for wing loading is given as :

Wing Loading (kg m−2 ) =

Weight (kg) Wing Area (m2 )

Lift is generated by the airfoils of an aircraft due to the motion of air across the surfaces of the wing. A larger wing area implies that a larger volume of air is moved, therefore, generates more lift when compared to an aircraft of similar weight but with a smaller wing area at any velocity. Due to greater lift generated, aircraft with low wing loading are able to take-off and land at comparably lower speeds. This can be supported by the formula for the co-efficient of lift, where: 𝐶𝐿

= 1 𝐿 𝜌𝑣

2 𝑆 2 W S

, and since L=W based on assumption, 𝐶𝐿

= 1
2 𝑊 𝜌𝑣

2 𝑆

,

in which

= ρ𝑣 2 CL can be derived where
2

1

W S

is wing loading.

By further re-arranging the terms, 𝑣

=

2

(2 x 9.8) ρCL

W S

, in which the relation between speed and wing loading

can be clearly seen. Other than the effect of wing loading on take-off and landing velocities, it also plays a role in the rate of climb and cruise performance of an aircraft, in which a lower wing load has a better rate of climb as less speed is needed to generate the additional lift during climb in relative terms. During cruise, less thrust is needed to maintain enough lift for level flight and thus, has a higher cruising efficiency in general. However, the large wings implied by a small wing load results in greater parasitic drag, and hence wings with heavier loading are more suited to high speed flight and maneuvers. In terms of stability, aircraft with higher wing loads then to have smoother flight as compared to those with lower wing loads. Gross wing area = 34.3m2 Weight = 16,080 kg (MTOW) ∴ Wing Loading =
16080 kg 34.3 m2

=468.805 kg m-2 (3 d.p.) Therefore, the wing loading is 468.805 kg m-2.

3.8. Span Loading Related to wing loading, span loading is also an indicator of flight stability and efficiency. The formula for span loading is :

Weight (kg) Span Loading (kg m ) = Wingspan (m)
−1

The efficiency behind a smaller span loading can be attributed by the fact that a longer wingspan results in the wingtip vortices of an aircraft affecting a relatively smaller portion of the wing as noted in the wing loading section aforementioned. However, a small span loading renders a plane less maneuverable due to a larger moment, thus, combat and aerobatic aircraft generally have a higher span loading, as opposed to long-range airliners and gliders, where fuel efficiency is more important for the former and greater lift to sustain flight for a longer time for the latter.

Weight = 16080 kg (MTOW) Wingspan = 17.70 m

Span Loading =

16080 kg 17.70 m

= 908.475 kg m-1 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the span loading is 908.475 kg m-1.

3.9. Power Loading (weight-to-power ratio) The power loading of an aircraft measures actual performance of the engines and the performance of the aircraft as a whole where the weight is divided by the power output of the engines. The formula for power loading is:
Weight (kg) Power (W)

Power loading (kg W −1 )

,

where Power= Thrust x Speed. 3.9.1. Power loading during take-off

Weight = 16080 kg (MTOW) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Speed = 1.15 x Vs = 1.15x 208km/h =66.444 ms-1 (3 d.p.) 16080 kg 53800 N x 66.444 ms −1

Power Loading =

= 4.498 x 10-3 kg W-1 (3 d.p.) = 4.498 kg kW-1 Therefore, the power loading during take-off is 4.498 kg kW-1. 3.9.2. Power loading during cruise

Weight = 12,247 kg (mid-cruise weight) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Speed = 850 km/h =236.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) Power Loading = 12247 kg 53800 x 236.111 ms −1

= 9.641 x 10-4 kg W-1 (3 d.p.) = 0.9641 kg kW-1 Therefore, the power loading during cruise is 0.9641 kg kW-1.

3.9.3. Power loading during landing

Weight = 13,608 kg (MLW) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Speed = 1.3 x Vs = 1.3 x 208 km/h = 75.111 ms-1 (3 d.p.) 13608 kg 53800 x 75.111 ms −1

Power Loading =

= 3.368 x 10-3 kg W-1 (3 d.p.) = 3.368 kg kW-1 Therefore, the power loading during landing is 3.368 kg kW-1.

3.10. Lift-to-drag Ratio The generation of lift produces induced drag, which decreases the efficiency of which an aircraft is running at. The ratio between lift and drag is an indicator of the efficiency of an aircraft, in which a higher value is more favorable as the cost of running that aircraft would be cheaper in terms of fuel, and aircraft with lower lift-to-drag ratios tend to have better climb performance.

The lift-to-drag ratio can be determined through a variety of ways such as flight testing, calculation and wind tunnel tests, in which aircraft designers try to minimize the lift-to-drag ratios so as to produce an aircraft with better fuel efficiency. The formula for the lift-to-drag ratio of an aircraft is :

Lift to drag ratio =

Lift (N) Drag (N)

As lift is equal to weight during level cruise, and thrust is equal to drag we have :

Lift to drag ratio =

9.8 x Weight (kg) Thrust(N)

At cruising altitude (11,885 m): Weight = 12,247 kg (mid-cruise weight) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N Lift to drag ratio = 9.8 x 12247 kg 53800 N =2.231 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the lift-to-drag ratio is 2.231.

3.11. Thrust-to-weight Ratio In addition to wing loading, the thrust-to-weight ratio of an aircraft also serves as a good indicator for aircraft maneuverability. The formula for the thrust-to-weight ratio of an aircraft is :

Thrust (N) Thrust to weight ratio = 9.8 x Weight (kg)

The thrust-to-weight ratio of an aircraft varies along different phases of flight upon combustion of fuel, resulting in a continual decrease in weight as flight progresses. Also, thrust varies at different points according to the throttle setting controlled by the pilot depending on factors such as airspeed, altitude and temperature. Due to such changes, the thrust-to-weight ratio quoted is usually the maximum flat thrust divided by the maximum take-off weight at sea level. At sea level: Weight = 16080 kg (MTOW) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N 53800 N 9.8 x 16080 kg

Thrust to weight ratio =

= 0.341 (3 d.p.)

Therefore, the thrust-to-weight ratio is 0.341.

Due to the fact that lift is equal to weight and thrust is equal to drag in straight and level flight, the thrust-to-weight ratio during cruise is equal to the inverse of the lift-to-drag ratio. Hence, ( Thrust 1 )Cruise = Lift Weight ( ) Drag Cruise

At cruising altitude (11,885 m): Weight = 12,247 kg (mid-cruise weight) Thrust = 2x 26.9 kN = 53800 N

Thrust to weight ratioCruise =

53800 N 9.8 x 12247 kg

= 0.448 (3 d.p.) Alternatively, ( 1 ( Lift ) Drag Cruise )= 1 2.231

∴ Thrust-to-weight ratioCruise= 0.448 (3 d.p.) 3.12. Maximum G-loading (Maximum load factor/ G-limit) and Maximum Banking Angle The G-loading of an aircraft is a measure of the stress subject to the aircraft’s structure. G-loading is denoted by n, and the formula for n is :
Lift (N)

n = 9.8 x Weight (kg) .
Despite being dimensionless, n is usually referred to in “g”s due to the correlation between G-loading and the acceleration of gravity felt on board the aircraft. During straight and level cruise, the G-loading of an aircraft is 1g, in which values of such not equal to one are due to aircraft maneuvers and/or wind gusts. Positive values for G-loading indicate the aircraft is flying “the right way up” whilst negative values suggest the opposite, hence the G-loading for an aircraft and straight and level cruise should be +1g. The relation between the banking angle and G-loading can be expressed as:

n=

1 cos θ

As the maximum G-loading for the Gulfstream 200 is +2.63 with gear and flaps up, maximum banking angle can be calculated as:

2.63 = θ = cos

1 cos θ 1 2.63

−1

= 67.652∘(3 d.p.) Therefore, the maximum banking angle is 67.652∘.

3.13. Tire pressure The tire pressure of an aircraft determines which type of runway it can land on, in which aircraft with higher tire pressures generally require harder runways capable of withstanding the pressure such that the aircraft can take-off and land safely without damaging the aircraft or the runway. The formula for average tire pressure is :

P=

9.8 x Weight (lbs) (number of tires)x (horizontal cross sectional area of tire )

Based on the tire size of 26x6.6R14 , the horizontal cross-sectional area of the tire can be calculated, where: Nominal diameter = 26 inches = 0.6604 m Nominal section width = 6.6 inches = 0.16764 m Weight = 16080 kg (MTOW) Number of tires on main landing gear = 4

Tire pressure =

9.8 x 16080 kg 4 x (0.6604 m x 0.16764 m)

= 355850.362 Pa = 51.612 lb/in2 Therefore, the average tire pressure is 51.612 lb/in2.

4. Wings
The Gulfstream G200 has low sweptback wings, which gave the aircraft a higher center of gravity and increased the wing dihedral, resulting in increased inherent stability and rolling stability during maneuvers. The sweptback wings also allowed for the center of gravity to be positioned towards the aircraft’s aft. The wings of the Gulfstream G200 are based on its predecessor’s wings, Astra SPX, with modifications such as having a leading edge sweep of 34° inboard and 25° outboard and integrated winglets (Figure 5.). The winglets serve to reduce wingtip vortices, hence, improving fuel efficiency.

Figure 5. Integrated winglet on G200

In addition to the integrated winglets and the inboard leading edge sweep, Krueger flaps were added as a new feature. Unlike conventional flaps, Krueger flaps (Figure 6., Figure 10.) are situated on the leading edge of the airfoil but are not considered as slats due to their different method of deployment, as they hinge forward from the underside of the airfoil so as to increase wing camber and lift. Other than the Krueger flaps on the inboard leading edge, the outboard section is also fitted with slats.

Figure 6. Position and operation of Krueger flap

Figure 7. Location and deployment schematic of Krueger flaps

On the trailing edge of the airfoil are Fowler flaps both situated on the inboard and outboard sections. Fowler flaps slide backwards before hinging downwards, which increases the chord length of the airfoil first before increasing camber. Such flaps do provide some slot effect, in which the airflow is redirected such that it sticks to the surface of the airfoil, increasing lift, but the effect is not the main feature of the Fowler flap design.

Figure 8. Schematics of a basic Fowler flap deployment mechanism

Other than the aforementioned slats and flaps, the upper surface of the airfoil also has foursegment airbrakes/lift dumpers (Figure 9.).

Figure 9. Starboard wing of Gulfstream G200 with winglet and retracted airbrakes visible.

Figure 10 .Comparison of different flaps

5. Empennage
The Gulfstream G200 has a cruciform tail in which the horizontal stabilizer intersects the vertical stabilizer above the top of the fuselage (Figure 11.) Such an arrangement allows the horizontal stabilizer to be kept out of the jet engine’s wake and aids in the avoidance of interference drag, so as to increase fuel efficiency. Located on the empennage are the elevators on the horizontal stabilizer and the rudder on the vertical stabilizer.
Figure 11. Front view of Gulfstream 200 showing cruciform tail arrangement

6. Flight Controls
Flight control surfaces allow a pilot to be able to adjust and control the altitude of an aircraft, in which the maneuvers can be separated into three axes of rotation, namely yaw, pitch and roll. Yaw is controlled by the rudder located on the vertical stabilizer on the empennage. The rudder is controlled by the rudder pedals in the cockpit and are operated manually. Regarding directional trim, a small trim tab is present on the rudder and is operated by two mechanically interconnected actuators. The rudder bias system is operated by bleed air. As for the maximum amount of deflection for the rudder, it is 20° to the left and right.1 Pitch control is achieved through the hydraulic elevators, located on the horizontal stabilizer on the empennage, with a maximum movement

range of 27° up and 20° down. Both the rudder and elevator have electronic trim. Roll control is achieved by the ailerons present on the outboard portion of the wing, in which the movement range for them is 10° up and 15° down. The mechanism behind how ailerons aid in roll is based on how the deployment of ailerons alter the amount of lift on each side of the aircraft by altering the camber of the airfoil.

Figure 12. How roll is achieved by ailerons

The side with the aileron down has increased camber whilst that with the aileron upwards has decreased camber, in which the side with the downward aileron generates more lift than that on the other side with the aileron up. This causes the aircraft to roll towards the side with the aileron up due to the lift difference generated (Figure 12.). The ailerons themselves also provide lateral trim. As for the flaps present in the Gulfstream G200, each wing has inboard leading-edge Krueger flaps (Figure 7., Figure 13.) with a maximum deployment of 110° and trailing-edge Fowler flaps located both on the outboard and the inboard with flap settings at 0, 12, 20 and 40°. The wings are also outfitted with outboard leading-edge slats capable of deployment up to 25°, and each wing is also equipped with four-segment upper surface

airbrakes, which when deployed have a maximum angle of 45°. The actuators for each control surface are all equipped with torque limiters, in which an electronic controller stops flap and slat operation when asymmetrical conditions are created on the wings.

Figure 13. Schematic of airfoil control surfaces and their respective actuators

All control surfaces, except for the rudder, are all-hydraulic operated, in which the hydraulic power required is engine driven at a constant pressure of 3000 psi. In the event of hydraulic failure, the ailerons and elevators can be manually operated.

7. Power plant
The Gulfstream G200 is equipped with 2 rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofans, each capable of delivering 26.9kN of thrust. The power plants are pylon-mounted on each side of the aft fuselage (Figure 14.) Due to the relatively small size of the G200, power plant placement was impossible under the wings without major structural re-design whilst

maintaining enough wing-engine nacelle and engine nacelle-ground clearances. Aft fuselage engine placement also brought the advantages of a greater CL Max as wing-pylon mount and engine exhaust-flap interference were eliminated, resulting in greater lift at lower speeds. Upon single engine failure, aft mounted power plants brought less asymmetric yaw to the aircraft due to a smaller moment of inertia as the engines were close to the fuselage. In terms of design, aft mounted power plants allowed for the utilization of shorter landing gear and airstairs as there was adequate clearance between the ground and the airfoil. There is a quoted factor regarding why the Gulfstream G200 has aft mounted engines which is aerodynamically unrelated, and that is the aft mounted power plants appeared to be aesthetically more appealing.

Figure 14. Rear mounted Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofan

Despite the advantages regarding efficiency and maneuverability, aft mounted power plants often incur problems regarding weight distribution. On an empty G200, the centre of gravity is moved aft to a point where it is well beyond the point where the centre of gravity for the payload is, resulting in the need for a larger centre of gravity range. This also leads to

the need for a larger tail so as to compensate for the increased weight. Also, on wet runways, the wheels may cause water to fly up and be ingested into the engines, resulting in possible flame-outs, in which special deflectors have to be installed to prevent such a scenario. Another problem exists where at very high angles of attack, the nacelle wake blankets the empennage, often resulting in a deep stall (Figure 15.). Traditionally, aft mounted engines required a T-tail, but for the G200 a cruciform tail is used instead. As a preventive measure, a large tail span is usually required, placing the tail well outboard of the nacelles.

Figure 15. How stall affects planes with T-tails

In terms of rolling inertia, asymmetric stall brought on by single engine failure can result in an excessive roll rate as aft fuselage mounted engines reduce the rolling moment of inertia when compared to wing mounted engines. Last but not least, vibration and noise isolation within the cabin requires more effort due to the fact that the engines are in close proximity to the fuselage. Other than the positioning of the power plants, the mounting of the power plants to the G200 itself has many factors governing it. The pylons

(Figure 14.) mounting the power plants to the fuselage should be as short as possible to reduce drag, but long enough in order to avoid any aerodynamic interference between the engine nacelles, pylons and fuselage of the aircraft. Regarding power plant performance itself, the Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofans were specifically designed for use on the G200.

Figure 16. Cross-section diagram of a Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofan

The FADEC-equipped turbofan features a 5-stage compressor with a single centrifugal 4-stage axial with electronically controlled variable Inlet Guide Vanes and bleed valves. It also has a TALONTM through flow combustor which allows the aircraft to have reduced nitrous oxide emissions. In terms of turbines, it consists of a two-stage high pressure turbine and a three-stage low pressure turbine, in which the combination of the two give the optimum fuel efficiency. With a by-pass ratio of 4.5, it is considered to be a high-bypass turbofan, in which the by-pass ratio is the ratio of air passing through the engines to air passing around the engines, where higher by-pass ratios imply a lesser fuel burn and increased fuel efficiency. The Full Authority Digital Engine Controls (FADEC) for the Pratt & Whitney Canada PW306A turbofan reduces piloting workload, simplifying operation and reducing the risk of human error, as FADEC adjusts engine settings in

response to throttle settings and ambient air conditions to provide optimum output. The total fuel carried in flight for power plant operation is typically 8532 liters, in which 8479 liters is the usable amount. As for thrust reversers, the system incorporates Nordam nacelles and hydraulically-actuated thrust reversers (Figure 17.).

Figure 17. Gulfstream G200 with thrust reversers and airbrakes deployed.

The reverse thrust buckets deployed in Figure 17. divert engine exhaust gases forward, providing a force to decelerate the plane.

Figure 18. Thrust reverser schematics

8. Structure
The entire fuselage is generally composed of titanium, steel and aluminium alloy, in which pressure bulkheads are mainly located in the fore and aft of the baggage compartment and the cabin/cockpit, in which the fuselage fuel tank is located in between. The aft baggage bulkhead also acts as a support for the forward engine support beam. For the wings, the main structure of the airfoil is composed of aluminium alloys and the winglets themselves are composed of glass-reinforced plastics. The leading edges of the empennage are also made of composites. As for the auxiliary power unit (APU), it is housed in the tailcone with a titanium bulkhead.

9. Landing Gear
The landing gear configuration for the Gulfstream G200 is the tricycle configuration (Figure 19.). Such a configuration has the advantage of being easier to land as opposed to “tail-dragger”, in which the aircraft has to be flared before the tailwheel is lowered down onto the runway. Aircraft with tricycle landing gear configuration are also less vulnerable in a crosswind landing during the phase where the aircraft is aligned back to the runway after the crabbing phase just before the nosewheel touches the runway.

Figure 19. Gulfstream G200 with landing gear in tricycle configuration deployed

The landing gear of the G200 is also retractable, so as to reduce form drag during cruise as this further streamlines the plane. The wheels on the main landing gear are mounted on to a trailing beam connected to the main strut on the gear in a pivotal manner, in which the shock-absorbers are pin-connected, absorbing beam energy and transmitting the ground loads to the upper structures of the gear. Upon gear retraction, it retracts inwards towards the fuselage wheel wells(Figure 20.), where the fuselage door covers the main landing gear completely so as to reduce drag. As for the nose landing gear, it deploys downwards an backwards with the strut sliding down telescopically from a rotating tube. The steering angle for the nose wheel has a maximum value of +60° , in which the steering movement is transmitted to the wheel axle via torque links. For towing, an adapter is present on the strut with an integral safety shear pin.
Figure 20. Schematic of retractable main landing gear Fuselage door Wing door

Figure 21. Schematic of retractable nose landing gear

As mentioned before in the calculations above, the average tire pressure of the Gulfstream G200 is 51.612 lb/in2. Runway Surface Concrete Tarmac Bad Tarmac Hard Grass Soft Grass Hard-dry Sand Wet Sand Pressure withstandable (lb/in2) 170-200 70-90 50-70 45-60 30-45 45-60 25-35

Table 1. Runway surfaces and their corresponding withstandable pressures From Table 1., the G200 can land on concrete, tarmac and bad tarmac runways without much problem. This make it versatile in landing and take-off from a wide array of runways, making it suitable for the role of a private jet as the versatility allows for flexibility to land in a wide range of airports around the world.

10. Systems
10.1. Environmental Control System (ECS) In order to provide a safe and comfortable environment within the cabin for passengers at high altitudes, the Gulfstream G200 utilizes an environmental control system. The environmental control system is composed of 5 components, namely: bleed air management, environmental control unit, temperature control, air distribution and pressurization. In terms of bleed air management, there are 3 sources of bleed air, which are the APU, engine low-pressure compressor stage and the engine high-pressure compressor stage. On the ECS selector in the cockpit, pilots

select what bleed air goes to where, in which normally low-pressure compressor stage bleed air is used during climb and cruise conditions, whilst high-pressure compressor stage bleed air is used during high-altitude cruise and idle descent. Bleed air is extracted from the APU and engines to be used for air conditioning purposes and pressurization of the cabin. The bleed air management system draws bleed air through a pre-cooler, pre-cooler by-pass valve and a thermostat, in which the air is cooled and used for cabin ventilation. When the low pressure source does not provide minimum cabin ventilation and cooling, the pre-cooler also provides additional bleed air by cooling the air from the high-pressure source. In the case of emergency depressurization, bleed air can be drawn directly from the right engine’s low-pressure compressor stage into the cabin to provide immediate pressurization. The environmental control unit acts as a regulator for cabin pressure, temperature and ventilation, in which air drawn from the bleed air sources into heat exchangers and circulated either into the cabin or into the turbine by-pass valve depending on conditions, in which the former occurs in the case where conditions inside the cabin are not desirable in a sense that they are different to the setting indicated in the cockpit, and the latter occurs when cabin conditions match the settings set by the pilot. Temperature control limits the temperature between 35°F and 160°F to prevent icing and protect furnishing materials and occupants from excessive heat respectively. The air distribution system routes air from the cold air plenum at the ECU outlet through the fairing in the baggage compartment, in which check valves are installed in the case of rapid cabin decompression. As for pressurization, the cabin is pressurized to 0.61 bar or 8.8 lb/sq in.

10.2. Electrical Systems The aircraft DC Electrical Power System (EPS) is a 28Vdc primary power system, where power is generated by a pair of 28Vdc, 400A generators each driven by an engine. As for the main batteries, they serve as back-up power and are rated at 24Vdc 43AH each, and are used to start engines. A third battery with a rating of 24Vdc 27AH is used as an emergency power source, and is connected to the other batteries in parallel. In addition to the pair of generators, a third 28Vdc 400A generator is driven by the APU, in which this generator operates in parallel with the other batteries and generators, in which the APU is only started by the right main battery. As for power distribution, non-essential heavy load energy consumers are connected to the main bus whilst those consuming less energy are connected to the distribution buses. The avionics system is connected to a separate system, the avionics bus, and is not linked to the main bus or distribution bus. 10.3. Ice and Rain Protection Systems

The ice and rain protection systems are a group of systems used to protect
Figure 21. Overall schematics of ice and rain protection systems

the aircraft when operating in rain and ice conditions, namely: airframe de-icing system, engine de-icing system, ice detection system, probes heat system, windshield heat system and the windshield wiper system (Figure 21.). For pitot probes, static ports, total air temperature probe and the angle of attack probe, anti-icing is provided by electrical heaters(Figure 21.). For engine de-icing systems, engine bleed air is distributed inside the leading edges of the engine nacelle and maybe be further heated with electronic heaters (Figure 22.).

Figure 21. Engine anti-/de-icing system schematic

Anti-icing of the airfoil and the leading edge of the horizontal stabilizer is achieved with pneumatically inflated boots. Regarding the windshield, electrical heating elements installed within the transparent layers of the windshield provide de-icing, in which constant windshield temperature is maintained automatically through varying the electrical power directed to the heating elements, so as to prevent icing of the windshield and potential cracks from stress brought on to the windshield through thermal expansion and contraction. As for ice detection, two detectors are incorporated within the forward fuselage, in which the presence of icing triggers the detectors, in which the detectors send signals to the Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) via the Stall Protection and Q Feel Computer (SPQC). In rainy conditions, two-speed windscreen wipers can be activated so as to remove the rain from the windshields to give clear visibility to the pilots (Figure 21.) 10.4. Fuel Systems Fuel is stored in two wing tanks (1,334 litres each), two feed tanks (102 liters each), a center tank (1,533 liters), a forward tank (1,009 liters) and a fuselage tank (3,115 liters). Fuel is distributed to each engine via an independent pressure system, where gravity is the main driving force distributing fuel between tanks and to the engines. Fuel transfer via electronic pumps may also occur so as to balance the weights in each portion of the aircraft so as to maintain a steady center of gravity. As for de-fueling, there is a single point de-fueling receptacle near the right main landing gear bay, which is connected to the right main tank.

10.5. Avionics Systems The avionics system is comprised of an Air Data System, Attitude/Heading Reference System, Electronic Flight Instrument System, Engine Indication and Crew Alert System, Flight Control System (Autopilot), Integrated Avionics Processor System, Maintenance Diagnostics System, Radar Altitude System, Radio System, Weather Radar System and FMS (Figure 22.).

Figure22. Avionics System Distribution Locations

For its core avionics system, the Gulfstream G200 uses Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4 Suite Standard.

Figure 23. Cockpit interior of Gulfstream G200

For communication purposes, the G200 has Dual VHF-422C radios, RTU-4220 radio tuners, TDR-94D transponders, Baker B1045-F512 audio systems, triple MagnaStar Flightphones, single Avtech Selcal, Artex ELT and Universal CVR-30B CVR. Optional add-ons include VHF airborne flight information systems, Bendix/King KHF 950 HF audio systems and 8-channel XM radio. In terms of flight, the G200 is equipped with the Dual Collins 6100 FMS with embedded GPS, dual Collins FCC-4005 autopilots, AHS-3000 AHRS, ADC-850C air data systems, VIR-432 VOR/ILS/GS/markers and DME-442; single ADF-462 (second optional), ALT-4000 radio altimeter, TCAS-4000 and EGPWS Mk V. Optional add-ons include the Honeywell Laseref V IRS, Universal Aero 1 three-channel satcom, L-3 StormScope and FDR. As for instrumentation, the G200 incorporates Rockwell Collins EFD-4077 EFIS displays all flight and EICAS information on five 18.4 cm

square screens, dual Davtron M850A digital clocks, Flight Line 8047-10 standby altimeter, 8059-2B standby ASI, Jet AI-804CE standby AI, Precision PAI-700-04 standby compass and Hobbs 15007 hour meter. The Gulfstream G200 is also armed with up-to-date safety equipment such as an Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS), Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II) and an Emergency Vision Assurance System (EVAS).

11. Cabin
As a business jet, the Gulfstream G200 boasts large and comfortable cabin interiors with a large baggage compartment and various amenities. The basic cabin arrangement seats 9 passengers, although the interior can be modified to seat 16 passengers in a corporate jet seating plan.

Figure 24. Default cabin seating arrangement

Cabin amenities include passenger service units comprising of reading and table lights, swivel air outlets, audio system speakers and individual headphone controls. In terms of multimedia, the cabin has a 38 cm LCD monitor in forward cabin bulkhead, a MagnaStar digital telephone system, three 110 V power outlets with adjacent data ports and an Airshow 410 passenger flight information system. The G200 also boasts a full aft

lavoratory equipped with a 110 V outlet pressurized water tank with a standard capacity of 19 liters. As for the baggage compartment in the aft fuselage, it boasts a capacity of 4.24 m3 and can be accessed via an external airstair door.

Figure 25. Cabin interior of Gulfstream G200 in default 9 passenger arrangement

12. References
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http://www2.janes.com.wwwproxy0.library.unsw.edu.au/janesdata/yb/jawa/jawa5514.h tm#toclink-j0010120142434

Jet Advisors: Private Jet Solutions (Year Unknown) Date Accessed: 14/4/2012
http://www.jetadvisors.com/aircrafts/gulfstream200galaxy.htm

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Flight Controls’ Date Accessed: 3/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0011/

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Landing Gear’ Date Accessed: 4/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0015/

Aircraft Spruce: Everything for Planes and Pilots Date Accessed: 4/5/2012
http://www.aircraftspruce.com/menus/lg/tirestubes_michelin.html

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Thrust Reverser System’ Date Accessed: 6/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0020/

Glenn Research Center: NASA (2010), “What is lift?” Date Accessed: 10/5/2012
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/lift1.html

Kroo, I. (Year Unknown), ‘High Lift Systems- Introduction’, Course Notes of Aircraft Design course in Stanford University Date Accessed: 10/5/2012
http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/highlift/highliftintro.html

Glenn Research Center: NASA (2010), “Flaps and Slats” Date Accessed: 10/5/2012
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/flap.html

Airframes.org (2011) Date Accessed: 10/5/2012
http://www.airframes.org/

Kroo, I. and Alonso, J. (Year Unknown) ‘Engine Placement’, Course Notes of Aircraft Design course in Stanford University Date Accessed: 12/5/2012
http://adg.stanford.edu/aa241/propulsion/engineplacement.html

Pratt & Whitney Canada: PW 306A Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.pwc.ca/en/engines/pw306a

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Avionic Systems Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0005/

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Electrical Power Systems’ Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0007/

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Environmental Control Systems’ Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0009/

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Fuel System’ Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0012/

Gulfstream G200: Smart Cockpit, ‘Ice & Rain Protection’ Date Accessed: 14/5/2012
http://www.smartcockpit.com/pdf/plane/gulfstream/G200/systems/0014/