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# Analisis de torque y arrastre

Se usa para:

Optimizar el BHA y la trayectoria del pozo Comparar diferentes alternativas Incluye BHA, tuberia y perfil del pozo Analisis de factibilidad Analisis de sensibilidad Requerimientos del taladro Analisis de corrida de casing

In general, the user will have either one of two objectives to model the Torque and Drag: 1) Optimization: To improve the drilling performance or well design by evaluation of different options (e.g different tools, wellpath or drilling parameters) 2) Feasibility: The outcome of the modeling should give an indication of difficulty or feasibility of the planned well or drillstring design and highlight critical aspects in the planning phase. Optimization To enable an engineer to optimize drilling performance the drilling system and process has to be understood in detail. The expectations on how the system will behave under different circumstances have to be quantified. These expectations can be formalized in a model (e.g. hydraulic or mechanical model (DrillSAFE)). The model does not necessarily resemble the actual situation. The accuracy depends on many factors (e.g. input parameters, mathematical models). There are however outputs of physical quantities that can be compared directly to measured ones, like surface torque and hookload. This should give an indication whether the model is acceptable or not. Finding the cause of any difference between the model and the measured value is often complicated.

En general, el usuario tendr ninguno uno o dos objetivos para el modelo de torque y drag: Optimizacin: Para mejorar el rendimiento de la perforacion o diseo del pozo por la evaluacin de diferentes opciones (ejemplo diferentes herramientas, parmetros de perforacin, etc.)

Optimization To enable an engineer to optimize drilling performance the drilling system and process has to be understood in detail. The expectations on how the system will behave under different circumstances have to be quantified. These expectations can be formalized in a model (e.g. hydraulic or mechanical model (DrillSAFE)). The model does not necessarily resemble the actual situation. The accuracy depends on many factors (e.g. input parameters, mathematical models). There are however outputs of physical quantities that can be compared directly to measured ones, like surface torque and hookload. This should give an indication whether the model is acceptable or not. Finding the cause of any difference between the model and the measured value is often complicated. Optimizacion Para permitir un ingeniero optimizar la perforacin el sistema de perforacin

Feasibility For feasibility analysis a single run/value is not enough to evaluate the potential problems. Sensitivity analysis is required to investigate the influence of a range of input parameters.

Modelar las fuerzas actuando sobre la sarta: Fuerzas axiales Fuerzas laterales Fuerzas de friccion Torsion

Torque and Drag Analysis Torque and Drag modeling requires the evaluation of the fundamental forces acting on the drillstring. The fundamental mechanical forces are shown in the slide. A major consideration in planning a directional / horizontal well profile is the effective transmission of the drillstrings weight and rotation to the bit. Mechanical friction forces hinder the energy, that is put into the system at surface, to be used at the bit. Friction is a function of both torque and drag. Torque is the rotational component of the contact (friction) force between the drillstring and the wellbore, drag is the axial component. Torque and Drag forces are important while drilling and during tripping operations. Surface Torque is a result of both Torque at the bit and Torsional friction forces along the BHA and the drillstring.

Fuerzas Fundamentales Fuerzas axiales (a lo largo de la sarta): Tension vs. Compresion Gravedad (Peso) Peso sobre la mecha Peso medido en el gancho Factor de boyancia Arrastre

Torque and Drag modeling requires the evaluation of the fundamental forces acting on the drillstring. Axial Forces To push the bit into the formation a resultant axial force is required at the bit. Along the drillstring and at surface forces are acting on the drillstring that have an axial component. The main ones are: Gravity: pulls each component of the drillstring downward. The axial component creates a tensile load. Weight On Bit and Hookload: These forces are at either end of the drillstring. The Hookload at surface is used to control the force that pushes the bit into the formation (WOB). Buoyancy : The gravity force on the mud fluid creates an upward lift in all the components of the drillstring that are submerged in the mud fluid. It diminishes the effect of the drillstring weight on the axial force. Friction : reactive forces that work in the opposite direction of the movement. Drag is a result of roughness of the surface areas of the drillstring and the borehole and the force pushing them together.

Fuerzas torsionales (Rotacion): Torque en superficie Friccion torsional Torque en la mecha Fuerzas laterales (perpendiculares a la sarta): Gravedad (Peso) Fueza de doblado (Rigidez) Fuerza lateral de la curvatura (tension)

Surface Torque is a combination of the torque that is created by the bit to drill and the (parasitic) torque that is a cause of friction when rotating the drillstring in the wellbore. Side Forces are the forces that push the drillstring to the borehole wall. The friction force between the drillstring and the borehole are proportional to the Side Force and is the root cause of friction losses (torque and drag). The main causes of the Side

Forces are gravity, bending strength of the drillstring, and tension in the drillstring. These three are calculated in DrillSAFE.

What causes side forces in a directional well? There are six principle forces. Weight, tension, stiffness, buckling, dynamic vibration, and hydraulics. The last 3 are not calculated in Drilling Office. The Weight component is shown in the graph. The Tensile component of side force can be imagined by pulling a rope around a pole. The tension in the rope wants to pull the rope straight, but it is forced around a bend. Hence there will be a reactive force. Stiffness in drillstring components resist the tendency of bending. There is a resultant side force acting on the borehole if the drillstring is forced through a curve. In addition it creates stress in the drillstring. DrillSAFE is s stiff string Torque & Drag finite element analysis. It determines the moment arms between elements in the string to determine the stiffness component of the Side Force for each element. When does the stiffness start to become a significant factor? This depends on the dogleg and the size of the drillpipe: 5 drill pipe: 16 deg/100ft 3 1/2 drill pipe: 22 deg/100ft

Buckling is a result of high compressional loads. DrillSAFE calculates buckling limits (the onset of buckling), not the sideforces due to buckling. This first order buckling limit is called sinusoidal buckling. The drillstring begins to form a sinusoidal or snake-like shape in the wellbore. If the compression continues to increase beyond sinusoidal limits, then at approx 1.4 X begins helical buckling resulting in spiraling of the drillstring around the borehole causing impeded movement. Coiled tubing drilling is more susceptible to buckling problems than drilling with drillpipe.

Friction

Factors

(Coefficients

of

Friction)

Friction factors represent the resistance against drillstring movement due to its contact with the borehole in rotation, translation (sliding), or both (reaming). The value is between 0 and 1. The Translation friction coefficient is a drag coefficient. It represents the drag resistance to axial movement of the drill string. The rotational friction factor represents the torque. For reaming we use both. The translation friction coefficient is then low (see blue bars in slide). There is a difference between dynamic and static friction factors (dynamic is lower than static). If the drillstring is rotating the axial movement will be easier, because it is

subject to the dynamic friction. This explains why rotary drilling is easier than slide drilling. It also explains the low translational friction factor for reaming. For reaming DrillSAFE can compute the Rotation and Translation friction factors using ROP and RPM. DrillSAFE does not differentiate between static and dynamic friction factors. Friction factors depend on mud type (air, foam, oil base, polymer, etc.) and the roughness associated with the surface of different borehole sections (casing, open hole). This determines the level of lubrication. Therefore a well drilled with Oil Based Mud will have lower friction factors than with Water Based Mud (see Slide). Friction factors can be back-calculated using measurements of DWOB/DTOR subs, because the difference in Torque and WOB at surface and downhole is due to transmission losses caused by friction. Tripping Loads The Tripping Loads plot shows the Hookload when tripping in and out of the hole for 5 different scenarios (friction factors). This is useful in a feasibility study. The actual tripping hookloads can be plotted in this graph as well. This way the actual friction factor can be estimated.

An extended reach well, with hole cleaning problems, is shown using oil-based mud. LWD gamma ray curves were added to the hookload chart to assist the interpretation of hole cleaning and wellbore stability problems. The increasing pickup hookloads are indicating problems in the well below 14,500 ft. The gamma ray curve is used by the PERForm engineers at the rigsite to monitor sand formations drilled and their affect on hole cleaning. The MWD annular pressure while drilling (APWD) sensor also indicated hole cleaning problems but not until below 15,000 ft. Because the equivalent circulating density (ECD) calculation is a function of true vertical depth (TVD), in high angle wells, the ECD measurement does not respond as quickly to cuttings buildup on the low-side of the wellbore as does the pick-up hookload measurements. This phenomenon has been seen in many high-angle wells and is one of the primary reasons for the increasing use of hookload charts to improve the detection of hole cleaning problems in high angle wells. In this well, hole cleaning could not be improved while continuing to drill. Controlling the penetration rates after the problems occurred did not improve pick-up hookloads or ECD issues. Corrective action required stopping drilling and circulating while rotating the drillstring until the cuttings beds were removed. Once the cuttings beds were removed, drilling continued with controlled penetration rates and optimizing circulating times between connections to prevent further problems.
En general, el usuario tendr que ya sea uno de los dos objetivos para modelar el torque y el arrastre:1) Optimizacin: Para mejorar el rendimiento de perforacin o el diseo del pozo mediante la evaluacin de diferentes opciones (por ejemplo, diferentes herramientas, wellpath o