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Page(s) 1 2-3 4-5 Table of contents Principles of designing a fender system Calculation of energy The berthing approach velocity Added mass factor Eccentricity factor Softness factor Berth configuration coefficient The modular TRELLEX FENDER SYSTEM MV-element selection Energy and reaction graphs MV-elements, dimensions Usual ship dimension Pitch of fenders Pile bent spacing Angular berthing consideration Effect of angular berthing Hull pressure Spacing of MV-elements V-fenders, description V-fenders, dimensions Steel panels
7 8-9 10-11 12 -13
14 -15 16 -17 18 -19 20 21 22 - 23 24 - 25 26 - 27 28
Low friction facing
Anchors Chains Special design considerations Typical fender specification Examples of applications Conversion tables
BSI Standards Linford Wood Milton Keynes MK14 6LE, United Kingdom EAU Recommendations of the Committee for Waterfront Structures Ernst & Sohn Verlag fur Architektur und technische Wissenschaften Hohenzollerndamm 170 D-1000 Berlin 31, Germany PlANe 1984 "Report of the International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender System" Copyright by PIANC General Secretariat WCT - Tour 3 - 26e etage, Boulevard Simon Bolivar 30
PRINCIPLES OF DESIGNING A FENDER SYSTEM
Fendering has been taken very seriously in port design for many years now and as a consequence there are many international standards, organisations and committees that have laid down guide linesfor energy evaluation and design considerations. Of these, the following tend to be the most prominently recognized; BS1, EAU, PIANC and JIS. Each method for calculating the kinetic energy formula varies very little in its methodology and it is recommended that the designer should obtain a copy of at least one of the above manuals and read in conjunction with the Trellex application manual. Before designing a complete fender system, it is important to obtain as many details as possible. The following criteria would normally be requested by the Trellex fender design engineers before recommending a system.
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DESIGNING A FENDER SYSTEM CRITERIA
~ ~ ~ Range of vessels berthing on the fenders, preferably displacement tonnages (D) should be specified. In absence of this, dead weight tonnages (DWT) should be given. Type of vessels and their principle dimensions i.e. container, ferry, tanker or general cargo etc. The important dimensions are length (L), beam (b), laden draft (d) and laden freeboard (fb). Berthing velocities (Vb) and angles (a) normal to the fender should be specified as well as permissible hull pressures.
B. STRUCTURE ~ Type of structure, open pile, sheet pile, gravity, caisson and continuous jetty or berthing dolphin. ~ Dimension for deck level, thickness of deck, preferred elevation of fender centre line and permissible stand off.
~ If it is continuous open piled structure, which is the typical pile bent (distance between each of the piles) and which is max. permissible reaction force.
~ The extreme tidal conditions should be given, the following are generally all that are required, but certainly other inter mediate levels are available from the port's local chart datums. They are Low astronomic tide (LAn, Mean low low water (MLLW) , Mean high high water (MHHW) and High astronomic tide CHAn. Navigation conditions such as sheltered or exposed berthing, tug assistance and so on, should be given. Other climatic criteria may also be of interest such as arctic, temperate or tropical locations or if the water and atmosphere have been found to be particularly corrosive, as there are many solutions to deal with all of these features.
This shows how to use this manual for calculating and designing a fender system. The following paragraphs and table define a typical application. Following the application description, the steps of the fender selection/design methodology are outlined. References are given to pages ofthe manual where particular subjects are discussed in more detail.
~ TYPes of vessels: General cargo and mixed cargo freighters
Case 1 Larger vessel C~ing capacity Disp acement D Velocity Vb Beamb Draft d Freeboard fb Length Lbp Flare Bow radius r Factor Cm Ce Cs Cc 15.000DWT 20.000T O.15m/si'&i)m. 21.5 m 9.5m 2mm! 155 m
Case 2 Smaller vessel 4.500DWT MOOT 0.3m/st~ 14.Sm 7m 1.5 m itaIII I 100m I 11° 22m
see page 12 5 12 12 12 14 13 5 6 6 6
note basic info basic info basic info
1.88 1.96 0.5* 0.5* 1.0 1.0 0.95 0.95 *Because of missing values of K and R for some types of future vessels Ce is assumed to 0.5.
B. STRUCTURE ~ The dock in Question is a continuous, open-piled structure, designed for a maximum fender reaction of 115 tonnes __ Bents are on 4.5 m ~ centers. Deck and mounting-surface top elevation is 2.05 m !liIII Mounting surface bottom elevation is 0.5 m Mounting surface width is 1.8 m _ Maximum permissible total stand off, due to crane outreach, is 1.2 m fig. next page. Navigation conditions can be classified DIFFICULT BERTHING, SHELTERED. Tidal range is: LAT (low astronomical tide) 0.00, HAT (high ast. tide) +1.5 m ... Page 5.
C. ENVIRONMENT ~
VESSELS FREE BOARO
FENDER STAND OFF
STRUCTURE CROSS SECTION
1. ENERGY CALCULATION
Since the dock in question is continuous, 1/4 point berthing can be assumed as the design condition. Use formula 1. Data for maximum and minimum design vessels gives: E (2000OT) = 20.5 tonne-m E (600on = 25.6 tonne-m Note the smaller vessel has the greater energy requirement, due to its greater berthing velocity and becomes then the design vessel.
4. EFFECT OF ANGULAR BERTHING
Fender elements are here placed vertically with a distance of 1.2 m (A = 1.2 H). Horisontal angle is dependent on the smallest bow radius - in this case 22 m. sin a = P/2r = 9/44 = 0.2045; a = 11.8 Reduction factor Rs = 94% Vertical angle is dependent on flare. a = 11 (see vessels criteria) L= 0.9 H (MY 1000 x 900 A) Reduction factor R1 = 88% Reduction factor R total: R total = Rs x Rl = 0.94 x 0.88 = 0.8272 Energy absorption (ER) at angular berthing = = 45 x 0.8272 = 37.2 tonne-m
14 15 14 2 15 15 15
2. ELEMENT SELECTION
For this application two elements behind a panel seem to be the simplest solution. Many element dimensions meet the requirement for E and R, but considering the lowest reaction force with reduction factor for angular berthing and with safety factor for abnormal berthing, we recommend the use of MVI000 x 900 A. This will give maximum stand-off H and minimum length L, plus result in the minimum panel size. 2 MY 1000 x 900 A gives: E = 2 x 22.5 = 45 tonne-m R = 2 x 49 = 98 tonnes
5. SAFElY FACTOR
8 14-15 24 Safety factor (Sf) for abnormal berthing will be ERIE (600on Sf = 37.2/25.6 = 1.45, which is satisfactory. 24
6. PANEL SIZING
Since no specific hull pressure requirement is given 40 tonne/rn' may be the design hull pressure for the D 20 000 T vessel. P = 40 tonne/ m' Rated reactionforce R = 98 tonnes
3. FENDER PITCH
Assuming MY 1000 x 900 A can be used behind a panel of thickness 0.2 m the fender stand-off will be 1.2 m. Minimum fender projection at rated deflection, h = 1000: (1 - 0.575) + 0.2 = 0.625 m l~~l~r.~Bowradius r = 22 m (D = 6000n cargo vessel Lbp = 100 m. Using the formula P = 2 (r - h + C)2, theoretical maximum pitch P for fenders, assuming the recommended 10%clearance, P = 9.37 m. This is more than the pitch created by mounting fenders on every second bent, 9.0 m. For this application, a pitch of 9.0 m will then be used.
Panel area A = R/P = 98/40 = 2.45m2 Panel height Ph 13 13 12 13
2.1 m (see fig. above)
Panel width Pw
The maximum hull pressure P for the smaller vessel at lowtide IAT will be P = R/ A = = 98/(1.17 x 1.55) = 54 tonnes/rn' _ which is permitted, Panel thickness 0.2 m IiI (closed box design) including UHMW low friction facing gives STAND-OFF = 1.2 m which is the maximum allowed.
This is one example, but it can be used as a guide for designing fenders for other types of berths and vessels as well.
Now when size of elements and pitch of fenders are assumed, it is possible to calculate reduction of energy due to angular berthing and after that, what safety factor willbe obtained.
CALCULATION OF ENERGY
According to PIANO the following data are required to calculate the Energy E of an approaching vessel. Similar methods are also found in BSF. E
Energy in Tonne-m or
Ship's displacement in Tonnes Velocity in m/s or~
Modifying factors and coefficients Cm
Ce Cs Cc
Added mass factor Eccentricity factor Softness factor Berth configuration factor Acceleration of gravity 9.81 m/s2 orlll.lDllll
6 6 6
ITonne = 1 Tonne-m
9.81 kN 9.81 kNm =
DIFFERENT TYPES OF BERTHING
1. 1/4 Point KINETIC ENERGYE OF A VESSEL AT THE POINT OF IMPACT: Formulas for type 1 E ~ D X Vb' x Cm x Ce x Cs x Cc Tonne-m 2g
(Vb is in m/s)
(Vb is in ft/sec)
See also page 6
Formulas for type 2 E
D X Vb' x Cm x Ce x Cs x Cc Tonne-m 2g
(Vb is in m/s)
(Vb is in ft/sec)
3. End berthing
Formulas for type 3 E
D X Vb' Tonne-m 2g
(Vb is in m/s)
PIANC 1984 RePorl of the International Commission for improving the Design of Fender Systems. British Standard 6348: Pari 4: 1985
(Vb is in
Safety factor see page 24
THE BERTHING OR APPROACH VELOCITY
(According to PIAN 0)
Since the kinetic energy is a function of the square of the berthing velocity, determining this velocity is one of the most important decisions for designs based on the kinetic approach. The magnitude of the berthing velocity is dependent on the degree of control that can be exerted on the ship. A number of factors, such as navigation condition, sheltered or exposed situation, use of tugs, wind, waves, currents and ship size and type effect this control.
Therefore, judgement of the design berthing velocity requires experience. Based on empirical data graphs have been published suggesting a relation between navigation conditions, size of ship and berthing velocity. Such a concept is given below. Relation between navigation conditions, size of ship and berthing velocity Vb
Navigation conditions difficult, exposed Good berthing, exposed Easy berthing, exposed Difficult berthing, sheltered
Vb is the velocity of the ship normal to the berthing face at the time of impact (in m/ s
Good berthing, sheltered
0 A B
0.2 vessel vessel vessel vessel vessel vessel vessel
0.4 of of of of of of of D D D D D D D
ADDED MASS FACTOR
(According to EAU2) The hydrodynamic mass coefficient allows the movement of water around the ship to be taken into account when calculating the total energy of the vessel by increasing the mass of the system. The hydrodynamic mass coefficient Cm may be calculated from the following equation.
For For C For D For E For F For G For
lOOOT SOOOT 10000T ZOOOOT 30000T 80000T 100000 T
em ~ 1 + 2 d
b where d is the draught of the ship b is the beam of the ship Use of this formula will generally lead to values Cm in the range 1.3 to 1.9. Highest values for fully loaded ships.
PlANC 1984 Report of the International Commission for Improving the Design of Fender Systems. EAU Recommendation of the committee/or Water Front Structures.
ECCENTRICITY FACTOR Ce
When a ship contacts the berth at an angle, the ship rotates around its centre of gravity C. This reduces the kinetic energy at the point of impact. Theoretically Ce .. where K is the radius of gyration of the ship, generally between 0.2 Land 0.25 L where L is the length of the ship between perpendiculars. For more detailed information see .... PIANC 19842.2.1 or .... EAU 1985 184.108.40.206 or .... BSI 6349: Part 4:1985 For dolphins the impact can be close to midship. Then Ce can be more than 0.5. In general a value of Ce = 0.7 is accepted for the majority of dolphin berthings.
R is the distance of the point of contact from centre of mass. In general a value of Ce = 0.5 is accepted for the majority quarter point berthings.
SOFTNESS FACTOR Cs
(According to BSP) This softness coefficient allows for the portion of the impact energy that is absorbed by the ship's hulL Little research into energy absorption by ship's hulls has taken place, but it has been generally accepted that the value of Cs lies between 0.9 and 1.0. In the absence of more reliable information a figure of 1.0 for Cs is recommended when a soft fendering system is used, and between 0.9 and 1.0 for a hard fendering system. A hard fendering system can be considered as one where the deflections of the fenders under impact from ships for which the fenders are designed are less than 0.15 m. A soft fendering system will have fender deflections greater than 0.15 m under the same impacts. Trellex MV fenders are classified as soft fenders which gives Cs = 1.0.
(According to BSp)
The berth configuration coefficient allows for the portion ofthe ship's energy which is absorbed by the cushioning effect of water trapped between the ship's hull and quay wall. The value of Cc is influenced by the type of quay construction, and its distance from the side of the vessel, the berthing angle, the shape of the ship's hull, and its underkeel clearance. A value of 0.9 - 1.0 for Cc should be used for open piled jetty structures and dolphins. A value of Cc between 0.8 and 0.9 is recommended for use with a solid quay wall.
Cc ""0.8 - 0.9
Cc = 0.9 -1.0
6349: Part 4:1985
THE MODULAR TRELLEX FENDER SYSTEM
..... MV FENDER ELEMENTS
Trellex MY Fender Elements are the building blocks of Trellex fender systems. These modular units are available in a complete range of sizes, and the geometry of each element generates an optimum energy absorption ratio per unit volume of rubber. MY elements are made of special Trellex fender compounds, a compression-moulded material that is totally homogeneous and highly elastic. Trellex fender compounds are made of superior synthetic rubber with excellent resistance against oil, polluted sea water, ozone, u.v. radiation, all atmosphere conditions and high and low temperatures. Steel mounting plates are bonded by vulcanization to the rubber and encapsulated to eliminate the risk of corrosion, and the mounting holes are positioned in the centre of the element. MY elements can be combined to form individual V-fenders as well as large multiple fenders that can absorb varying amounts of energy over an extensive surface.
A Trellex V-fender is a combination of two or more MY elements and a shield. Standard shields are made of UHMW-PE (Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene), but other materials can also be used.
..... MULTIPLE FENDERS
Multiple fenders are ideal for applications that demand low hull pressure and high energy absorption, such as berths for oil-tankers, ore carriers, Ro-Ro ships or cruise liners as well as container terminals. Trellex MY elements can be combined to form various types and sizes of multiple fenders. They can be configured to achieve optimum performance under perpendicular or angular impact at any level, and are normally fitted to a steel panel faced with UHMW-PE low friction pads. The size and numbers of elements as well as shape of the panel can be selected to obtain a specified energy absorption for precisely defined reaction force and hull pressure.