# τ

B
5.16 min
2
= τ
C
6 min =
Imaginary part: τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ τ
C
ω
u
⋅ + 0 = ω
u
τ
C
τ
A
:= T
u

ω
u
:= T
u
2.29 min =
Real part: τ
B
− ω
u
2
⋅ 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 = K
cu
1
K
τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ 1 −
|
\
|
.
:= K
cu
15.1
%CO
%TO
=
(a) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportional controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
= From Table 7-1.1: K
c
K
cu
2
:= K
c
7.5
%CO
%TO
=
(b) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a proportional-integral controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ =
From Table 7-1.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
6.9
%CO
%TO
=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition %TO % := %CO % := Kd K :=
Problem 7-1. Feedback control of a third-order process.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
U(s)
C(s)
+
+
+
-
G
1
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

=
K 2.5
%TO
%CO
:= τ
1
5min := τ
2
0.8min := τ
3
0.2min :=
Characteristic equation of the loop: 1 G
c
s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

⋅ + 0 =
Ultimate gain and period: G
c
s ( ) K
cu
= s ω
u
i ⋅ =
τ
A
− ω
u
3
⋅ i τ
B
ω
u
2
⋅ − τ
C
ω
u
⋅ i ⋅ + 1 + KK
cu
+ 0 0 i ⋅ + =
where τ
A
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
3
⋅ := τ
B
τ
1
τ
2
⋅ τ
1
τ
3
⋅ + τ
2
τ
3
⋅ + := τ
C
τ
1
τ
2
+ τ
3
+ := τ
A
0.8min
3
=
τ
I
1.9min =
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ τ
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
= From Table 7-1.1: K
c
K
cu
1.7
:= K
c
8.9
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
T
u
2
:= τ
D
T
u
8
:= τ
I
1.1min =
τ
D
0.29 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
T

2.0282min

:=
T 3.098 min =
Damping ratio:
ζ −
1 ζ
2

0.2808 −
2.0282
= 2.0282 ζ ⋅
( )
2
0.2808
2
1 ζ
2

( )
= ζ
0.2808
0.2808
2
2.0282
2
+
:=
Decay ratio: e
0.2808 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.419 = ζ 0.137 =
The decay ratio is higher than one fourth.
b) PI Controller G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ = K
c
6.9
%CO
%TO
:= τ
I
1.9min :=
Roots of: τ
A
s
4
⋅ τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
s
2
⋅ + 1 K K
c
⋅ +
( )
s ⋅ +
K K
c

τ
I
+ 0 =
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-2. Feedback control loop of Problem 7-1.
From the solution to Problem 7-1, the characteristic equation is:
τ
A
s
3
⋅ τ
B
s
2
⋅ + τ
C
s ⋅ + 1 + G
c
s ( ) K ⋅ + 0 =
with τ
A
0.8min
3
= τ
B
5.16 min
2
= τ
C
6 min = K 2.5
%TO
%CO
=
(a) Roots of the characteritic equation, dominant roots, damping ratio and decay
ratio.
a) Proportional controller G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
K
c
7.5
%CO
%TO
:=
Find the roots: Dominant roots are the
complex conjugate pair.
polyroots
1 K K
c
⋅ +
τ
C
min
1 −

τ
B
min
2 −

τ
A
min
3 −

|

\
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
.
5.8883 −
0.2808 − 2.0282i −
0.2808 − 2.0282i +
|

\
|
.
=
Period:
The linear loop is simulated with one Simulink transfer function block to simulate the process
and another block to simulate the controller. The controller block, G
c
(s), is obtained from
(b) Simulate tye loop and plot responses to a unit step change in set point.
This close to the desired decay ratio of one fourth (0.25).
e
0.483 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.278 =
Decay ratio:
0.483
0.483
2
2.372
2
+
0.2 =
Damping ratio:
T 2.649 min =
polyroots
K K
c

τ
I
min
1 K K
c
⋅ 1
τ
D
τ
I
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ +
τ
C
K K
c
⋅ τ
D
⋅ +
( )
min
1 −
τ
B
min
2 −

τ
A
min
3 −

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
4.531 −
0.952 −
0.483 − 2.372i −
0.483 − 2.372i +
|

\
|
|
|
.
=
T
2 π ⋅
2.372min
1 −
:=
Period:
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate roots.
τ
A
s
4
⋅ τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
K K
c
⋅ τ
D
⋅ +
( )
s
2
⋅ + 1 K K
c
⋅ 1
τ
D
τ
I
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ +

¸
(
(
(
¸
s ⋅ +
K K
c

τ
I
+ 0 =
Roots of:
τ
D
0.29 min = τ
I
1.1min :=
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ τ
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
c) Series PID controller:
K
c
8.9
%CO
%TO
:=
This is a very undamped response; extremely high decay ratio.
e
0.06 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.818 =
Decay ratio:
0.06
0.06
2
1.881
2
+
0.032 =
Damping ratio:
T 3.34 min =
polyroots
K K
c

τ
I
min ⋅
1 K K
c
⋅ +
τ
C
min
1 −

τ
B
min
2 −

τ
A
min
3 −

|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
5.776 −
0.555 −
0.06 − 1.881i +
0.06 − 1.881i −
|

\
|
|
|
.
=
T
2 π ⋅
1.8814min
1 −
:=
Period:
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate roots:
P controller: a simple proportional gain •
PI controller: from the Public Model Library, f0403PI (Fig. 13-4.3) •
Series PID controller: Public Model Library, f0405PIDs (Fig. 13-4.5) •
All the initial conditions in the controller models are zero. The set point input, R(s), is a step
input that changes from 0 to 1 at time = 1 min. The limits on the controller output must be
changed to -100%CO to 100%CO for this linear system, so that it can be negative.
The Simulink block diagram for the loop is:
The plots for the three controllers, using the tuning parameters determined in Problem 7-2, are:
The responses are for the proportional (gold), PI (purple), and series PID (green). Notice how the
periods of oscillation and decay ratios closely match the analytical results of part (a) of this
problem. The proportional controller shows a very small offset:
1%TO
1 K K
c
⋅ +
0.043 %TO =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
c
0.9
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
3.33 t
0e
⋅ := K
c
1.6
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
2 min =
(b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
From Table 7-2.2: K
c
0.984
K
P
u
0.986 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.608
P
u
0.707
:= K
c
1.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.2min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on set-point inputs.
From Table 7-2.3: K
c
0.758
K
P
u
0.861 −
:= τ
I
τ´
1.02 0.323 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.2
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
(d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a set-point chang
From Table 7-4.1: K
c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
τ´ := K
c
0.89
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-3. Feedback control of a second-order plus dead-time process.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
U(s)
C(s)
+
+
+
-
G
1
s ( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅

τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

= K 1.25
%TO
%CO
:= τ
1
1min := τ
2
0.6min := t
0
0.20min :=
τ
2
τ
1
0.6 = τ´ 1.32 τ
1
⋅ := τ´ 1.32 min =
First -order plus dead-time parameters from Fig. 7-2.8:

0
0.39 τ
1
⋅ := t´
0
0.39 min =
PI controller: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ = t
0e

0
t
0
+ := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.447 =
(a) PI controller tuned for quarter-decay ratio response
From Table 7-2.1:
τ
I
0.82 min =
For parallel PID.
τ
D
0.482 τ´ ⋅ P
u
1.137
:= τ
D
0.25 min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on set-point inputs.
From Table 7-2.3: K
c
1.086
K
P
u
0.869 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.740 0.130 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.9min =
For parallel PID.
τ
D
0.348 τ´ ⋅ P
u
0.914
:= τ
D
0.22 min =
(d) PID controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a set-point
change.
From Table 7-4.1,
series:

c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ´
I
τ´ := τ´
D
t
0e
2
:= K´
c
0.89
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
1.3min =
τ´
D
0.3min =
Parallel PID: K
c

c
1
τ´
D
τ´
I
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ := τ
I
τ´
I
τ´
D
+ := τ
D
τ´
I
τ´
D

τ´
I
τ´
D
+
:=
K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.6min =
τ
D
0.24 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-4. Process of Problem 7-3 with PID controller.
From the solution to Problem 7-3: τ´ 1.32min := t
0e
0.39 0.2 + ( )min := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.447 =
Series PID: G
c
s ( ) K´
c
1
1
τ´
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ τ´
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ = Parallel PID: G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+ τ
D
s ⋅ +
|

\
|
.
⋅ =
(a) PID controller tuned for quarter-decay ratio response
From Table 7-2.1, series: K´
c
1.2
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
0e
⋅ := K´
c
2.1
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
1.2min =
τ´
D
0.5 t
0e
⋅ := τ´
D
0.3min =
Parallel PID: K
c

c
1
τ´
D
τ´
I
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ := τ
I
τ´
I
τ´
D
+ := τ
D
τ´
I
τ´
D

τ´
I
τ´
D
+
:=
K
c
2.7
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
τ
D
0.24 min =
(b) PID controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
From Table 7-2.2: K
c
1.435
K
P
u
0.921 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.878
P
u
0.749
:= K
c
2.4
%CO
%TO
=
From Table 7-2.2: K
c
0.984
K
P
u
0.986 −
:= τ
I
τ´
0.608
P
u
0.707
:= K
c
1.6
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
(c) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on set-point inputs.
From Table 7-2.3: K
c
0.758
K
P
u
0.861 −
:= τ
I
τ´
1.02 0.323 P
u
⋅ −
:= K
c
1.1
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.5min =
(d) PI controller tuned by controller syntesis for 5% overshoot on a set-point chang
From Table 7-4.1: K
c
0.5
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
τ´ := K
c
0.82
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
1.3min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-5. Process of Problem 7-3 with sampled-data PI controller.
Sample time: T 0.1min := From the solution to Problem 7-3: τ´ 1.32min :=
Use Eq. 7-2.18: t
0e
0.39 0.2 + ( )min
T
2
+ := P
u
t
0e
τ´
:= P
u
0.485 =
PI controller:
G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ =
(a) PI controller tuned for quarter-decay ratio response
From Table 7-2.1: K
c
0.9
K
P
u
1 −
:= τ
I
3.33 t
0e
⋅ := K
c
1.5
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
2.1min =
(b) PI controller tuned for minimum IAE on disturbance inputs.
Substitute:
1 e
t
0
− s ⋅

1
t
0
2
s ⋅ + 1 −
t
0
2
s +
1
t
0
2
s +
=
t
0
s ⋅
1
t
0
2
s ⋅ +
= e
t
0
− s ⋅
1
t
0
2
s −
1
t
0
2
s +
=
This is a PID controller with dead-time compensation. To eliminate the dead-time compensation
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅

e
t
0
− s ⋅
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 + e
t
0
− s ⋅

= Substitute:
C s ( )
R s ( )
e
t
0
− s ⋅
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
C s ( )
R s ( )

=
Dahlin synthesis formula:
G s ( )
K e
t
0
− s ⋅

τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

=
τ´
D
τ
2
= τ´
I
τ
1
= K´
c
τ
1
K τ
c

=
G
c
s ( ) K´
c
1
1
τ´
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ τ´
D
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
= Compare with the series PID controller:
G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
1
τ
c
s ⋅
=
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K
1
τ
c
s ⋅
⋅ =
τ
1
K τ
c

1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
Dahlin syntheis formula:
G s ( )
K
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

=
Problem 7-6. Controller Synthesis for the process of Problem 7-3.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

K
1
t
0
2
s ⋅ +
τ
c
s ⋅ 1
t
0
2
s +
|

\
|
.
⋅ t
0
s ⋅ +
⋅ =
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

t
0
2
s 1 +
|

\
|
.

K s ⋅ τ
c
t
0
+
τ
c
t
0

2
s +
|

\
|
.

=
τ
e
τ
c
t
0

2 τ
c
t
0
+
( )

=
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
K τ
c
t
0
+
( )

1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

t
0
2
s ⋅ 1 +
|

\
|
.
τ
e
s ⋅ 1 +
⋅ =
This is a series PID controller with a lead-lag unit attached. The corresponding tuning parameetrs
are:

c
τ
1
K τ
c

= τ´
I
τ
1
= τ´
D
τ
2
= and a second derivative with τ´
D2
t
0
2
=
In practice astandard PID controller is used with the tuning parameters of Problem 7-4.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-7. Simulation of the control loop of Problem 7-3.
To simulate the loop use
a Simulink transfer function block •
a Simulnk time delay block •
a parallel PID controller from the Public Model Library, f406PIDp (Fig. 13-4.6). •
For this linear system all the initial conditions are zero, and the limits on the controller output are
set to -100 to 100%CO to allow the output to go negative.
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
0.6s
2
1.6s + 1 + =
Two additional blocks have been added to calculate the integral of the absolute value of the error.
Students are encouraged to adjust the controller parameters to minimize the IAE. However, they
should also observe the time response of the controller output and the controlled variable.
A sample plot to a unit step change in set point at 1 minute is:
The PID tuning parameters for
minimum IAE on set point
changes (Problem 7-4(c)) were
used:
K
c
1.8
%CO
%TO
:=
τ
I
1.9min :=
τ
D
0.22min :=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-8. Quarter decay tuning of PI controller for the blender of Problem
6-11.
From the solution to Problem 6-11: K
cu
250 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
3.01min :=
PI controller quarter-decay tuning from Table 7-1.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
114 −
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
2.5min =
The negative gain means the controller is direct acting.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
D
1.5min = τ
I
6 min = K
c
1.2
%CO
%TO
= τ
D
t
0
2
:= τ
I
2 t
0
⋅ := K
c
1.2
K
t
0
τ
|

\
|
.
1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1, the quarter-decay ratio tuning parameters for a series PID controller are:
t
0
3 min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 6 min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
:=
t
2
10 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 10.1 ⋅ %TO 6.383 %TO =
t
1
6 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 10.1 ⋅ %TO 2.858 %TO =
By fit 3 (two-point method):
K 2.02
%TO
%CO
=
K
10.1%TO
5%CO
:= Gain:
In Problem 6-12 we found that there is no ultimate gain for reactor temperature control loop when
the cooling water is the manipulated variable. By simulation of the linear loop, the open-loop
response to a 5%CO step change at 1 minute is:
Problem 7-9. Quarter decay tuning of PID controller for the reactor of
Problem 6-12.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
I
2 min = K
c
2.8 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33t
0
:= K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ
|

\
|
.
1 −
:= From Table 7-2.1:
t
0
0.6min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 4.2min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
:=
t
2
5.8 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 11.2 − %TO ( ) 7.078 − %TO =
t
1
3 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 11.2 − %TO ( ) 3.17 − %TO =
Fit 3 (two-point method):
K 2.24 −
%TO
%CO
=
K
11.2 − %TO
5%CO
:= Gain:
In Problem 6-14 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop. By
simulation of the linear approximation, the response to a step change of 5%CO at 1 min is:
Problem 7-10. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the three-tank
process of Problem 6-14.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
v
2.46
gal
min %CO ⋅
:= K
T
100
%TO gal ⋅
lb
:= τ
v
0.1min := τ 5min := where
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ 1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.

K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +

K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ +
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
3
⋅ + 0 =
From the solution to Problem 3-17, the characteristic equation is:
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
τ
I
9.2min = K
c
0.77
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
0
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ
|

\
|
.
1 −
:= From Table 7-2.1:
t
0
2.75 mi = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 11.25 m = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
⋅ :=
t
2
15 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 ∆c ⋅ 15.168 %TO =
t
1
7.5 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 ∆c ⋅ 6.792 %TO =
Two-point method:
K 4.8
%TO
%CO
= K
∆c
5%CO
:=
∆c 74 50 − ( )%TO :=
From this response we get:
In Problem 6-17 we found that there is no ultimate gain for the composition control loop. Because of
the complex combination of poles and zeros, the open-loop parameters cannot be easily
determined analytically. This problem is solved by simulation in Problem 13-23, where the following
open-loop response to a step increase of 5%CO at 1 minute is obtained:
Problem 7-11. Quarter decay tuning of a PI controller for the reactors of
Problem 6-17.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
There is essentially no oscillation in the response. The response is complete in less than one
complete oscillation. Students should verify this with the simulation of Problem 13-23 and
experiment with other tuning parameters. A higher controller gain is indicated by these results.
e
0.112 − min
1 −
T
0.014 = Decay ratio:
0.112
0.112
2
0.164
2
+
0.564 =
Damping ratio:
T 38.3 min = T

0.164min
1 −
:=
polyroots
K
L
τ
I
min ⋅
τ
E
τ
C
min
1 −
τ
B
min
2 −
τ
A
min
3 −
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ min
4 −
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
9.905 −
0.39 −
0.112 − 0.164i +
0.112 − 0.164i −
0.082 −
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
=
There is also a comlex conjugate root
with period:
1 −
0.082 − min
1 −
12.2 min =
The dominant root is a real root with time
constant:
Roots of the characteristic equaton:
τ
E
3.188 = τ
C
22.176 min = τ
B
88.293 min
2
= τ
A
132.5 min
3
= τ
v
τ
3
⋅ 12.5 min
4
=
K
L
1.415 = τ
E
1 K
L
+
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
B
⋅ τ ⋅
τ
I
+ := τ
C
τ
v
3τ + K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
B
⋅ τ ⋅ + :=
K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
A
⋅ := τ
B
3 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ 3τ
2
+ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
3
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + := τ
A
3 τ
v
⋅ τ
2
⋅ τ
3
+ := where
τ
v
τ
3
⋅ s
5
⋅ τ
A
s
4
⋅ + τ
B
s
3
⋅ + τ
C
s
2
⋅ + τ
E
s ⋅ +
K
L
τ
I
+ 0 =
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ τ
3
s
3
⋅ 3 τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ + 3 τ ⋅ s ⋅ + 1 +
( )
⋅ K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ s
1
τ
I
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ K
A
K
B
τ ⋅ s ⋅ + K
3
τ
2
⋅ s
2
⋅ +
|
\
|
.
⋅ + 0 =
K
3
0.0025
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:= K
B
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:= K
A
0.0075
lb min ⋅
gal
2
:=
T
u
8.91s :=
Quarter-decay ratio tuning parametes for a PI controller:
From Table 7-1.1: K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
7.2 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
7.4s =
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
From the solution to Problem 6-18: 1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.

K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
− 0 =
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ s
4
⋅ τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
P
⋅ +
( )
s
3
⋅ + τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
s
2
+ 1 K
L

( )
s +
K
L
τ
I
− 0 =
where K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
sc
⋅ K
p
⋅ := K
L
6.505 − =
Find roots:
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition kscf 1000ft
3
:=
Problem 7-12. Control of suction pressure for compressor of Problem 6-18.
Steam
Suction
Discharge
f
i
(t)
f
c
(t)
p
s
(t)
m(t)
PT
PC
SC
From the solution to Problem 6-18:
H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= K
T
5
%TO
psi
:=
τ
T
1.2s :=
G
sc
s ( )
K
sc
τ
sc
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
sc
2.5s :=
K
sc
0.36
kscf
min %CO ⋅
:=
G
p
s ( )
K
p
τ
p
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
p
7.5s :=
K
p
0.5
psi min ⋅
kscf
:=
Ultimate gain and period: K
cu
15.9 −
%CO
%TO
:=
The dominant roots are the
complex conjugate pair.
The period of the
oscillations is:
polyroots
K
L

τ
I
sec
1 K
L

τ
T
τ
sc
+ τ
p
+
( )
sec
1 −
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
T
τ
p
⋅ + τ
sc
τ
p
⋅ +
( )
sec
2 −
τ
T
τ
sc
⋅ τ
p
⋅ sec
3 −

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
1.16 −
0.135 −
0.036 − 0.498i −
0.036 − 0.498i +
|

\
|
|
|
.
= T

0.498sec
1 −
:=
T 12.62 s =
Damping ratio:
0.036
0.036
2
0.498
2
+
0.072 =
Decay ratio:
e
0.036 − sec
1 −
T ⋅
0.635 =
The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high. To reduce the oscillations a smaller
gain is required.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
4
0.525 :=
Ultimate gain and period: K
cu
86.7 −
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
8.32min :=
Quarter-decay ratio tuning of a PI controller.
K
c
K
cu
2.2
:= τ
I
T
u
1.2
:= K
c
39 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
6.9min =
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
From the solution to Problem 6-19:
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.

K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
K
2
K
3

τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
− 0 =
τ
A
s
5
⋅ τ
B
s
4
⋅ + τ
C
s
3
⋅ + τ
D
s
2
⋅ + τ
E
s +
K
L
τ
I
− 0 =
where τ
A
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ := τ
B
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ + :=
degC Kd :=
Smith & Corripio, 3r edition
Problem 7-13. Temperature control of stirred-tank cooler of Problem 6-19.
From the solution to Problem 6-19:
TC
TT
T
c
(t)
f(t)
f
c
(t)
T
ci
V
m(t)
T
set
(t)
T
i
(t)
T(t)
FT
FC
SP
G
FC
s ( )
K
FC
τ
FC
s ⋅ 1 +
=
τ
FC
0.1min :=
K
FC
0.008
m
3
min %CO ⋅
:=
H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
= τ
T
0.6min :=
K
T
2
%TO
degC
:=
G
1
s ( )
K
2
K
3

τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
2
K
4
⋅ −
=
τ
1
13.77min := τ
2
3.03min :=
K
2
0.725 := K
3
28.94
degC min ⋅
m
3
:=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
The damping ratio is too low and the decay ratio is too high. The controller gain should be
decresaed to reduced the very oscillatory behavior.
e
0.02 − min
1 −
T ⋅
0.782 = Decay ratio:
0.02
0.02
2
0.512
2
+
0.039 = Damping ratio: polyroots
K
L

τ
I
min
τ
E
τ
D
min
1 −

τ
C
min
2 −

τ
B
min
3 −

τ
A
min
4 −

|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
9.993 −
1.882 −
0.154 −
0.02 − 0.512i −
0.02 − 0.512i +
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
=
T
u
8.32 min = T

0.512min
1 −
:=
The dominant roots are the complex conjugate
pair. The period of oscillation is:
Find the roots:
τ
D
17.234 min = K
L
13.23 − = τ
E
13.849 = τ
E
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ − K
L
− :=
τ
C
53.52 min
2
=
K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
FC
⋅ K
2
⋅ K
3
⋅ := τ
D
τ
T
τ
FC
+
( )
1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ :=
τ
B
30.214 min
3
=
τ
C
τ
T
τ
FC
⋅ 1 K
2
K
4
⋅ −
( )
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ + τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
1
⋅ + τ
FC
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ + :=
τ
A
2.503 min
4
=
In the solution to Problem 6-22 we determined that there is no ultimate gain for the analyzer control
loop. By simulation, the open-loop response to a 5% increase in the controller output is:
Quarter-decay tuning parameters for a PI controller.
K
5
0.286 := K
4
0.00127
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
:=
K
1
0.006123
lbmole min ⋅
gal
2
:=
τ
2
1.429min := τ
1
2.222min :=
G
1
s ( )
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

=
K
T
222
%TO gal ⋅
lbmole
:=
τ
T
0.5min := H s ( )
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
=
K
v
1.42
gal
min %CO ⋅
:=
From the solution to
Problem 6-22:
LT
LC
AT
AC
f
i
(t)
c
Ai
(t)
c
A1
(t)
c
A2
set
(t)
V
V
c
A2
(t)
A
f
A
(t)
Problem 7-14. Composition control of reactors in series of Problem 6-22.
lbmole 433.59mole := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Find the roots:
K
L
2.736 = τ
A
2.555 min = K
L
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
4
K
5
K
1
⋅ +
( )
⋅ := τ
A
K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
4
⋅ τ
1
⋅ := where
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ s
4
⋅ τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
s
3
+ τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ τ
A
+
( )
s
2
+ 1 K
L
+
( )
s +
K
L
τ
I
+ 0 =
1
K
T
τ
T
s ⋅ 1 +
K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+
|

\
|
.
⋅ K
v
K
4
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
5
K
1
⋅ +
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

⋅ + 0 = From the solution to Problem 2-22:
Roots of the characteristic equation, damping ratio, and decay ratio.
τ
I
2.5min = τ
I
3.33 t
0
⋅ :=
K
c
2.9
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.9
K
t
0
τ
|

\
|
.
1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1:
t
0
0.8min = t
0
t
2
τ − :=
τ 2.3min = τ 1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
⋅ :=
t
2
4 1 − ( )min :=
0.632 4.7 ⋅ %TO ⋅ 2.97 %TO =
t
1
2.5 1 − ( )min :=
0.283 4.7 ⋅ %TO 1.33 %TO =
Two-point method:
K 0.94
%TO
%CO
= K
4.7
5
:= Gain:
The dominant roots are the
second pair of complex
conjugate roots. The period
of ocillation is:
polyroots
K
L
τ
I
min
1 K
L
+
τ
T
τ
1
+ τ
2
+ τ
A
+
( )
min
1 −
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
T
τ
2
⋅ + τ
1
τ
2
⋅ +
( )
min
2 −
τ
T
τ
1
⋅ τ
2
⋅ min
3 −

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸

¸
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
1.204 − 0.813i −
1.204 − 0.813i +
0.371 − 0.435i −
0.371 − 0.435i +
|

\
|
|
|
.
= T

0.435min
1 −
:=
T 14.44 min =
Damping ratio:
0.371
0.371
2
0.435
2
+
0.649 =
Decay ratio:
e
0.371 − min
1 −
T
0.00471 =
The damping ratio is high and the decay ratio is small, with practically no oscillations. The
controller gain should be higher. The reason is that the quarter-decay ratio formulas are based on fit
1, not fit 3 (the two-point method), to determine the open-loop time constant and dead time.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
K
T
2.5
%TO
%
= K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min

:=
x
max
95% := x
min
55% :=
Transmitter (AT):
x
o
75% := x
in
95% :=
tx
i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
19
21
25
29
33
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.1
75.3
75.4
75.6
75.7
75.9
76.1
76.2
76.3
76.4
76.6
76.7
76.8
76.9
77.0
77.0

:= Problem data:
tx
m
0
1
1.5
2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.5
9.5
10.5
11.5
13.5
15.5
17.5
19.5
21.5
25.5
29.5
33.5
75.0
75.0
75.0
75.0
74.9
74.6
74.3
73.6
73.0
72.3
71.6
70.9
70.3
69.3
6.6
68.0
67.6
67.4
67.1
67.0
67.0

:=
First column is time in •
minutes
Second column is outlet % •
moisture in the solids
∆x
in
0.5% := ∆m 12.5%CO :=
Response to a step change of:
AT
AC
M
Sludge
Ferric
Chloride
To
incinerator
Filtrate
Problem 7-15. Solid moisture control of a vacuum filter.
%CO % := %TO % := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
1.6 − e
5.71 − s
6.5 s ⋅ 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
∆x
i
tx
i
21 1 ,
tx
i
0 1 ,

% := ∆x
i
2 % = K
2
∆x
i
∆x
in
:= K
T
K
2
⋅ 10
%TO
%
=
tx
i
0 1 ,
% 0.283 ∆x
i
⋅ + 75.566 % = t
1
tx
i
9 0 ,
tx
i
10 0 ,
tx
i
9 0 ,

75.566 tx
i
9 1 ,

tx
i
10 1 ,
tx
i
9 1 ,

⋅ + :=
tx
i
0 1 ,
% 0.632 ∆x
i
⋅ + 76.264 % = t
2
tx
i
14 0 ,
tx
i
15 0 ,
tx
i
14 0 ,

76.264 tx
i
14 1 ,

tx
i
15 1 ,
tx
i
14 1 ,

⋅ + :=
t
1
8.66 = t
2
13.64 = τ
2
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
min := t
02
t
2
min ⋅ τ
2
− := τ
2
7.47 min = t
02
6.17 min =
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
10e
6.17 − s
7.47 s ⋅ 1 +
%TO
%
=
 
(a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+
-
X
o
(s)
X
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
in
(s)
(b) Transfer functions by fit 3, two-point method.
∆x
m
tx
m
20 1 ,
tx
m
0 1 ,

% := ∆x
m
8 − % = K
1
∆x
m
∆m
:= K
T
K
1
⋅ 1.6 −
%TO
%CO
=
tx
m
0 1 ,
% 0.283 ∆x
m
⋅ + 72.736 % = t
1
tx
m
8 0 ,
tx
m
9 0 ,
tx
m
8 0 ,

72.736 tx
m
8 1 ,

tx
m
9 1 ,
tx
m
8 1 ,

⋅ + :=
tx
m
0 1 ,
% 0.632 ∆x
m
⋅ + 69.944 % = t
2
tx
m
12 0 ,
tx
m
13 0 ,
tx
m
12 0 ,

69.944 tx
m
12 1 ,

tx
m
13 1 ,
tx
m
12 1 ,

⋅ + :=
t
1
7.877 = t
2
12.212 = τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
min := t
01
t
2
min ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
6.5min = t
01
5.71 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( ) 0.64 −
%CO
%TO
1
1
19 s ⋅
+

=
τ
I
19 min = K
c
0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1:
(e) Quarter-decay response tuning of a PI controller.
Offset
K
T
0.789 − % =
Offset 2 − %TO = Offset
0 K
2
1 ⋅ % −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:= Offset
K
T
∆x
o
set
⋅ K
2
∆x
in
⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
=
G
c
s ( ) 0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.64 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
0.902
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.2:
(d) Gain of a proportional controller for minimum IAE response and offset to a 1%
increase in inlet moisture.
The controller must direct acting: an increase in moisture increases the controller output; this
increases the speed of the pump and the rate of ferric chloride addition; filtration becomes more
efficient and the moisture content of the product decreases.
t
01
τ
1
0.878 =
The loop is difficult to control by feedback control because its ratio of dead time to time constant is
high:
(c) Discuss the controllability of the loop and the controller action.
The control valve fails closed (air-to-open) to prevent overflowing the absorber on instrument power
failure.
Control valve:
K
v
5
gal
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
f
max
100%CO
:=
Transmitter (AT):
K
T
0.5
%TO
ppm
= K
T
100%TO
y
max
y
min

:=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s)
E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+
-
Y
o
(s)
Y
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
Y
in
(s)
K
v
F(s)
(b) Block diagram of the loop and transfer function of each block. Use fit-3 on
response data (two-point method).
Negligible lag.
f
max
500
gal
min
:=
Control valve, assumed linear.
Negligible lag.
y
max
200ppm := y
min
0ppm :=
Transmitter (AT):
AT
AC
Air In
Air Out
NH
3
solution
Water In
SP
(a) Design a control loop to control the air outlet composition.
Problem 7-16. Composition control of an absorber.
ppm 10
6 −
:= Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The controller is direct acting (negative gain): increasing outlet gas composition increases the
controller output; this opens the valve increasing the flow of water to he absorber and absorbing
more ammonia. The ammonia composition in the outlet gas decreases.
G
c
s ( ) 23 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
23 −
%CO
%TO
= K
c
1
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:= From Table 7-2.1:
60 50 − ( )ppm 10 ppm =
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning for proportional controller and offset to a set-point
change of
G
1
s ( )
0.035 − e
0.46s
0.95 s ⋅ 1 +
ppm min ⋅
gal
=
t
01
0.46 min = τ
1
0.95 min = t
01
t
2
sec ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
sec := Fit 3
t
2
84.58 = t
2
ty
7 0 ,
ty
8 0 ,
ty
7 0 ,

( )
y
o2
ppm
1 −
⋅ ty
7 1 ,

ty
8 1 ,
ty
7 1 ,

⋅ + :=
y
o2
51.12 ppm = y
o2
ty
0 1 ,
ppm 0.632 ∆y
o
⋅ + :=
t
1
46.7 = t
1
ty
3 0 ,
ty
4 0 ,
ty
3 0 ,

( )
y
o1
ppm
1 −
⋅ ty
3 1 ,

ty
4 1 ,
ty
3 1 ,

⋅ + :=
y
o1
50.5 ppm = y
o1
ty
0 1 ,
ppm 0.283 ∆y
o
⋅ + :=
K
1
0.035 −
ppm min ⋅
gal
= K
1
∆y
o
∆f
:=
∆y
o
1.77 ppm = ∆y
o
ty
16 1 ,
ty
0 1 ,

( )
ppm :=
ty
0
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
160
180
250
50.00
50.00
50.12
50.30
50.60
50.77
50.90
51.05
51.20
51.26
51.35
51.48
51.55
51.63
51.76
51.77
51.77

:=
First column is time in seconds •
Second column is outlet ammonia ppm •
∆f 50 −
gal
min
:=
Response to a step change in inlet water flow of
Offset
K
T
10 ⋅ ppm
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:= Offset 1.641 %TO =
Offset
K
T
3.3ppm =
(d) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller and offset.
From Table 7-2.1: K´
c
1.2
K
T
K
v
⋅ K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
01
⋅ := τ´
D
t
01
2
:=

c
28 −
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
0.93 min = τ´
D
0.23 min = G
c
s ( ) 28 −
%CO
%TO
1
1
0.93s
+

0.23s 1 + ( ) =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ -
+
-
T
o
(s)
T
o
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
scfh
F
F
%TO
TC
Furnace
TC
Block diagram of the loop:
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing
temperature decreases the controller output; this closes the valve reducing
the fuel flow and the outlet coil temperature.
The control valve must fail closed (air-to-open) to prevent overheating the
furnace on instrument power failure.
tt
0
0.5
1.0
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
6.0
7.0
8.0
9.0
10.0
11.0
12.0
14.0
20.0
425.0
425.0
425.0
425.0
426.4
428.5
430.6
432.4
434.0
435.3
436.6
437.6
439.4
440.7
441.7
442.5
443.0
443.5
444.1
445.0

:=
(a) Block diagram of the loop, fail-safe position of the valve,
and controller action.
First column is •
time in minutes
Second column •
is temperature
in ºF
∆m 5%CO := Response to step change of:
T
max
500degF :=
TT
TC
Process
air
Fuel
Air
SP
T
min
300degF := Transmitter (TT):
Problem 7-17. Temperature control of a furnace.
degF R := Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(c) Quarter decay ratio tuning of series PID controller.
From Table 7-2.1: K´
c
1.2
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:= τ´
I
2 t
01
⋅ := τ´
D
t
01
2
:=

c
1
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
4.5min = τ´
D
1.1min = G
c
s ( ) 1
%CO
%TO
1
1
4.5s
+

1.1s 1 + ( ) =
(d) Synthesis tuning of series PID controller for 5% overshoot.
From Table 7-4.1: K´
c
0.5
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:= τ´
I
τ
1
:= τ´
D
t
01
2
:=

c
0.42
%CO
%TO
= τ´
I
3.8min = τ´
D
1.1min = G
c
s ( ) 0.42
%CO
%TO
⋅ 1
1
3.8s
+

1.1s 1 + ( ) =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purpose
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
(b) Transfer functions using fit 3 (two-point method).
Transmitter (TT): K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min

:= K
T
0.5
%TO
degF
=
∆T tt
19 1 ,
tt
0 1 ,

( )
degF := K
1
∆T
∆m
:= K
T
K
1
⋅ 2
%TO
%CO
=
T
1
tt
0 1 ,
degF 0.283∆T + := T
1
430.66 degF =
t
1
tt
6 0 ,
tt
7 0 ,
tt
6 0 ,

( )
T
1
degF
1 −
⋅ tt
6 1 ,

tt
7 1 ,
tt
6 1 ,

⋅ + := t
1
3.517 =
T
2
tt
0 1 ,
degF 0.632∆T + := T
2
437.64 degF =
t
2
tt
11 0 ,
tt
12 0 ,
tt
11 0 ,

( )
T
2
degF
1 −
⋅ tt
11 1 ,

tt
12 1 ,
tt
11 1 ,

⋅ + := t
2
6.022 =
Process by fit 3: τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
min ⋅ := t
01
t
2
min ⋅ τ
1
− := τ
1
3.76 min = t
01
2.26 min =
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
2e
2.26 − s
3.76s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( ) 23
%CO
%TO
1
1
0.56s
+

0.14s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
0.14 min = τ´
I
0.56 min = K´
c
23
%CO
%TO
=
τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:=

c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 7-1.1:
T
u
1.116min :=
K
cu
38.9
%CO
%TO
:= From the solution to Problem 6-24, the ultimate gain and period are:
Quarter decay ratio tuning parameters of series PID temperature controller TC.
LT
LC
vp
2
(t)
T
3
set
(t)
f
s
(t)
T
1
(t)
T
3
(t)
h
set
(t)
Steam
Condensate
3 ft
h(t)
TT
TC
p
1
(t)
p
2
= 40 psia
5 ft
N
2

AO AO
T
p
3
(t)
Problem 7-18. Temperature control of oil heater of Problem 6-24.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
The valve must fail closed (air-to-open) to prevent by-passing too much hot oil on instrument power
failure that would overheat the reactor.
C
vmax
195
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
From Fig. C-10.1, p. 532,
a 4-in valve is required.
C
vmax
119
gal
min psi ⋅
= C
vmax
200% f
d

G
f
∆p
v
⋅ :=
(a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity. Valve fail-safe position and controlle
action.
T
u
24min := K
cu
16
%CO
%TO
:= Closed-loop test on temperature loop:
∆T 4.4degF := ∆vp 5% := Open-loop test on temperature loop:
T 275degF := (constant) f
pump
400
gal
min
:=
Design conditions:
G
f
0.881 = G
f
ρ ft
3

62.4lb
:= ρ 55
lb
ft
3
:= Oil density:
T
max
350degF := T
min
150degF := Temperature transmitter (TT):
f
d
200
gal
min
:= ∆p
v
10psi := α 50 := Control valve, equal percentage: Problem data:
TT
TC
LT
LC
SP
SP
Reactants
Products
Water
Steam
Problem 7-19. Temperature control of exothermic catalytic reactor.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
(d) Calculate the process gain atb design conditions, including the control valve an
K
v
7.824
gal
min %CO ⋅
= K
v
ln α
( )
f
d

100%CO
:=
Valve fails closed. Controller is direct acting.
(See part (a).)
K
T
0.5
%TO
degF
= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min

:=
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+
-
T
o
(s)
T
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
lb/hr
F
F
%TO
TC
Furnace
TC
(c) Block diagram of the loop.
f
v
306.6
gal
min
= k
v
3.284 = f
v
k
v
1 k
v
+
f
pump
:=
k
v
C
vmax
∆p
v
G
f

1
f
pump
f
d

⋅ :=
∆p
v
G
f
f
pump
f
vmax

f
pump
f
d

f
vmax
C
vmax
= Flow when fully opened:
Let
vp 69.6 % = C
v
59.4
gal
min psi ⋅
= vp 1
ln
C
v
C
vmax

ln α
( )
+ := C
v
f
d
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := At design conditions:
C
v
C
vmax
α
vp 1 −
⋅ = ∆p
va
∆p
v
f
pump
f
v

f
pump
f
d

2
⋅ = G
f
f
v
C
v

2
⋅ = f
v
C
v
∆p
va
G
f
⋅ =
Assume
the pressure drop through the boler tubes varies with the square of oil flow through the tubes •
the pump flow is constant as the valve position changes •
the pressure drop across the valve is the same as the pressure drop across the boiler tubes. •
(b) Valve position at design conditions and maximum flow through the valve when
fully opened.
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): an increase in reactor temperature
decreases the controller output closing the by-pass valve; this reduces the by-pass flow of hot oil
decreasing the oil temperature and the reactor temperature.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Offset
K
T
2.21 − degF = Offset 1.11 − %TO = Offset
K
T
10 − degF ( ) ⋅
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:=
G
c
s ( ) 8
%CO
%TO
= K
c
8
%CO
%TO
= K
c
K
cu
2
:=
From Table 7-1.1:
(f) Quarter-decay ratio tuning of proportional temperature controller and offset for a
set point change of -10ºF.
G
c
s ( ) 9.4
%CO
%TO
1
0.083
s
+

3s 1 + ( = τ´
D
3 min =
1
τ´
I
0.083
repeats
min
= K´
c
9.4
%CO
%TO
=
repeats 1 := τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:= K´
c
K
cu
1.7
:=
From Table 7-1.1:
(e) Quarter decay tuning parameters for series PID temperature controller.
K
T
K
1
⋅ 0.44
%TO
%CO
= K
1
88 degF = K
1
∆T
∆vp
:=
The gain of the valve is
included in K1, because the
step change is in valve
position.
( ) p g g g
the temperature transmitter.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition weight% % :=
Problem 7-20. Composition control of a double-effect evaporator
SP
SP
LC
AC
LT
AT
SP
LC
LT
Vapors
SP
FC
FT
Vapors
Product
Feed
Steam
Cond.
12
13
12
13
Problem data: Feed 50000
lb
hr
:= x
F
5weight% := x
min
10weight% := x
max
35weight% :=
Open loop step response in feed composition: ∆x
F
0.75weight% :=
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
,

w
t
%
Open-loop step response to change in controller output: ∆m 2.5%CO :=
21
21.5
22
22.5
23
23.5
24
24.5
25
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

c
o
m
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n
,

w
t
%
t
01
2.91 min =
K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
5.12e
2.91 − s
4.08s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
Change in feed composition:
K
2
24.7 21.5 − ( )weight%
∆x
F
:= K
1
1.28 = K
T
K
2
⋅ 17.07
%TO
weight%
=
21.5weight% 0.283 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 22.41 weight% = t
1
143sec :=
21.5weight% 0.632 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 23.52 weight% = t
2
237sec :=
τ
2
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
min
60sec
:= t
02
t
2
τ
2

( )
min
60sec
:= τ
2
2.35 min = t
02
1.6min =
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
17.07e
1.6 − s
2.35s 1 +
%TO
weight%
=
Note: Students should be encouraged to try also fits 1 and 2 and compare the answers.
The control valve must fail closed (air-to-open) to prevent overheating the evaporator on instrument
power failure.
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product composition decreases
(a) Block diagram of the composition control loop, transfer functions, cntrol valve fa
safe position, and controller action.
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+
-
X(s)
X
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
F
(s)
%CO
AT
%TO
wt%
%TO
AC AC
wt%
wt%
Analyzer transmitter:
K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min

:= K
T
4
%TO
weight%
=
Determine process transfer functions by fit 3:
Change in controller output:
K
1
24.7 21.5 − ( )weight%
∆m
:= K
1
1.28
weight%
%CO
= K
T
K
1
⋅ 5.12
%TO
%CO
=
21.5weight% 0.283 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 22.41 weight% = t
1
256sec :=
21.5weight% 0.632 24.7 21.5 − ( ) ⋅ weight% + 23.52 weight% = t
2
419sec :=
τ
1
1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
min
60sec
:= t
01
t
2
τ
1

( )
min
60sec
:= τ
1
4.08 min =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ
I
7.5min = K
c
0.34
%CO
%TO
=
τ
I
τ
1
:= K
c
0.5
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:=
From Table 7-4.1:
(c) Controller synthesis tuning for 5% overshoot of PI composition controller.
This is over twice the gain and 25% faster reset than with fit 3 parameters.
τ
I
7.2min = K
c
0.61
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1:
τ
1
7.5min =
τ
1
580sec t
01

( )
min
60sec
:= t
01
130sec :=
Quarter decay ratio tuning is based on fit 1 parameters. From the figure above:
τ
I
9.7min = K
c
0.25
%CO
%TO
= τ
I
3.33 t
01
⋅ := K
c
0.9
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1:
(b) Quarter-decay ratio tuning of PI composition controller.
the controller output closing the steam control valve; this decreases the rate of evaporation reducing
the product composition.
K
cu
8.0
%CO
%TO
:= T
u
14min :=
(a) Size control valve for 100% overcapacity, valve gain at design flow, valve
fail-safe position.
∆p
v
p
1
p
2
− ∆p
L
− := G
f
1 := k
L
∆p
L
G
f
f
cw
2

:= ∆p
v
5 psi =
k
L
8.163 10
5 −
× psi
min
gal

2
⋅ =
C
vmax
200% f
cw

G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := C
vmax
313.05
gal
min psi ⋅
= C
v
f
cw
G
f
∆p
v
⋅ := C
v
156.5
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C-10.1, page 532, a 6-in valve is required: C
vmax
400
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve gain, Eq. 5-2.27, page 171: K
v
ln α
( )

100%CO
f
cw
1 k
L
C
v
2
⋅ +
:= K
v
4.564 −
gal
min %CO ⋅
=
The valve must fail open (air-to-close) to prevent overheating the reactor on loss of instrument
power. This is why the gain is negative.
(b) Block diagram of the control loop ad total process gain.
psia psi :=
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-21. Temperature control of stirred-tank reactor.
Design conditions: p
1
30psia := p
2
15psia :=
TT
TC
11
Coolant
Feed
Product P
1
P
2
T
R
210degF := f
cw
350
gal
min
:=
Coil pressure drop: ∆p
L
10psi :=
Temperature transmitter: T
min
190degF :=
T
max
230degF :=
Equal-percenage valve: α 50 :=
Open-loop test: ∆f
cw
10
gal
min
:=
∆T
R
5.2 − degF :=
Closed-loop test:
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
G
c
s ( )
100%CO
21%TO
1
0.14
s
+

1.75s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.75 min =
1
τ´
I
0.14
repeat
min
=
100%CO

c
21 %TO = τ´
D
T
u
8
:= τ´
I
T
u
2
:= K´
c
K
cu
1.7
:= From Table 7-1.1:
(c) Quarter-decay ratio tuning of PID temperature controller and controller action.
repeat 1 :=
K
T
K
1
⋅ K
v
⋅ 5.933
%TO
%CO
= Total process gain:
K
1
0.52 −
degF min ⋅
gal
= K
T
2.5
%TO
degF
= K
1
∆T
R
∆f
cw
:= K
T
100%TO
T
max
T
min

:=
G
c
(s)
G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
+
+
-
T
R
(s)
T
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
F
in
(s)
%CO
TT
%TO
lb/hr
F
F
%TO
TC
TC
G
v
(s)
F
cw
(s)
gpm
∆m 8%CO := Open-loop step response to change in controller output:
(b) Process transfer functions from open-loop step responses by fit 2.
K
T
25
%TO
weight%
= K
T
100%TO
x
max
x
min

:= Transmitter AT:
G
c
(s) G
1
(s)
G
2
(s)
R(s) E(s) M(s)
C(s)
+ +
+
-
X(s)
X
set
(s)
K
T
K
T
X
F
(s)
%CO
AT
%TO
wt%
%TO
AC AC
wt%
wt%
(a) Block diagram of the moisture control loop.
x
max
5weight% :=
x
min
1weight% := Transmitter AT: x 3weight% := x
F
15weight% := Design conditions:
AT
AC
Feed
Fuel
Air
Stack
Dry
phospahates
Problem 7-22. Solids moisture control of a phosphates pebbles drier
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e
,
w
t

%
∆x 4.5 3 − ( )weight% := K
1
∆x
∆m
:= K
1
0.188
weight%
%CO
= K
T
K
1
⋅ 4.688
%TO
%CO
=
From the graph: t
01
70sec
min
60sec
⋅ := 3.0weight% 0.632∆x + 3.95 weight% = t
2
190sec :=
τ
1
t
2
min
60sec
⋅ t
01
− := t
01
1.17 min = τ
1
2 min = K
T
G
1
s ( ) ⋅
4.688e
1.17 − s
2.0s 1 +
%CO
%TO
=
Open-loop step response to change in inlet moisture: ∆x
F
3weight% :=
The controller is reverse acting (positive gain): increasing product moisture content decreases the
controller output; this decreases the table feeder speed and the feed rate reducing the moisture
input to the drier and the moisture content of the product.
G
c
s ( )
100%CO
199%TO
1
1
1.5s
+ 0.52s +

= τ
D
0.52 min = τ
I
1.5min =
100%CO
K
c
199 %TO =
τ
D
0.482 τ
1

t
01
τ
1

1.137
⋅ := τ
I
τ
1
0.878
t
01
τ
1

0.749
:= K
c
1.435
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

0.921 −
:= From Table 7-2.2:
(c) Minimum IAE tuning of parallel PID moisture controller on disturbance inputs a
controller action.
K
T
G
2
s ( ) ⋅
16.67e
1.08 − s
1.75s 1 +
%CO
weight%
= τ
2
1.75 min = t
02
1.08 min = τ
2
t
2
min
60sec
⋅ t
02
− :=
t
2
170sec := 3.0weight% 0.632∆x + 4.26 weight% = t
02
65sec
min
60sec
⋅ :=
From the graph:
K
T
K
2
⋅ 16.67
%TO
weight%
= K
2
0.667
weight%
weight%
= K
2
∆x
∆x
F
:= ∆x 5.0 3.0 − ( )weight% :=
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
5.5
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Time, sec
P
r
o
d
u
c
t

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e
,

w
t
%
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
50%CO ∆m + 57.11 %CO = If the initial controller output is 50%CO, the final steady state is:
∆m 7.11 %CO = ∆m
K
2

K
1
2 − weight% ( ) :=
∆m K
1
⋅ K
2
2 − weight% ( ) ⋅ + 0 = For the change in outlet moisture to be zero:
(e) Controller output required to avoid offset for the disturbance of part (d).
3weight%
Offset
K
T
− 2.51 weight% = Final steady state moisture control of the product:
Offset
K
T
0.49 weight% = Offset 12.28 %TO = Offset
K
T
0 ⋅ K
T
K
2
⋅ 2 − weight% ( ) ⋅ −
1 K
T
K
c
⋅ K
1
⋅ +
:=
K
c
0.37
%CO
%TO
= K
c
1
K
T
K
1

t
01
τ
1

1 −
:= From Table 7-2.1:
(d) New moisture content of the product when the feed moisture content decrease
by 2 weight%. Controller is proportional only tuned for quarter decay ratio respons
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Problem 7-23. Level control by manipulatiion of inlet flow.
f (t)
h(t)
f (t)
LC
LT
SP
i
o
Control valve fails closed.
Block diagram of the level control loop and required controller action.
G
c
(s)
1/As
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+ -
+
-
H(s)
K
T
F
o
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
ft
3
/min
ft
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
F
i
(s)
ft
3
/min
1/As
The only difference between this diagram and the one of Fig. 7-3.1 is that
the controller manipulates the inlet flow instead of the outlet flow. G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
The controller must be reverse acting (positive gain): increasing level decreases the controller
output; this closes the control valve decreasing the inlet flow and the level drops.
Closed-loop transfer function.
C s ( )
K G
c
s ( ) ⋅
s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K G
c
s ( ) ⋅ +
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K G
c
s ( ) ⋅ +
F
o
s ( ) − =
where
K
K
v
K
T

A
%TO
%CO min ⋅
= K
u
K
T
A
%TO
ft
3
=
The formulas of Section 7-3 apply to this case also. Only the action of the controller is different.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
C
vmax
200% f
1d

1Pa
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
m
3
1000kg g ⋅ h
d

264.2gal
m
3

60sec
min
⋅ := Size the valve:
f
d
0.013
m
3
s
=
g 9.807
m
s
2
= G
f
ρ m
3

1000kg
=
3 eqns. 3 unks. ∆p
v
t ( ) ρ g ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
Pa
=
Assume valve exit is at the level of the bottom of the tank and at the same pressure.
2 eqns. 3 unks. (∆p
v
) f
1
t ( ) C
vmax
vp t ( ) ⋅
∆p
v
t ( )
G
f

m
3
264.2gal
min
60sec
=
Valve equation:
1 eqn. 2 unks. (h, f
1
)
π D
2

4
ρ ⋅
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ ρ f
i
t ( ) ⋅ ρ f
o
t ( ) ⋅ − ρ f
1
t ( ) ⋅ − = Mass balance:
The model of Section 4-1.1 must be modified to account for the variable valve position.
(a) Model as in Section 4-1.1, draw the block diagram, determine the transfer
functions and the maximum gain of a proportional controller for non-oscillatory
response. Determine the effective time constants of the closed-loop at that gain,
and the offset caused by a 0.001 m
3
/s.
G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Proportional controller:
τ
v
5s :=
f
1d
0.003
m
3
s
:=
Control valve sized for
twice the design flow of
h
max
3m := h
min
1m :=
Level transmitter:
h
d
2m := D 3m :=
Problem data:
f
i
(t)
h(t)
f
o
(t)
LC
LT
SP
f
1
(t)
Problem 7-24. Comparison of tank level dynamic models of Section 4-1.1
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Block diagram of the loop:
G
2
s ( )
K
2
τ s ⋅ 1 +
= G
1
s ( )
K
1
τ s ⋅ 1 +
=
where
H s ( ) G
1
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ G
2
s ( ) VP s ( ) − =
Laplace transform and rearrange:
K
2
0.156
m
%CO
=
τ min ⋅
60s
157.08 min =
K
1
1.3 10
3
×
s
m
2
= τ 9425 s = K
2
2 h
d

vp
d
:= K
1
2 h
d

k
v
vp
d

:= τ
π D
2

4
2 h
d

k
v
vp
d

⋅ :=
where
τ
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ H t ( ) + K
1
F
i
t ( ) ⋅ K
1
F
o
t ( ) ⋅ − K
2
VP t ( ) ⋅ − =
C
vmax
56.4
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C-10.1, p. 532, a 3-in valve is required.
C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Let
f
1
t ( ) k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ =
where
k
v
C
vmax
1000kg
m
3
g ⋅
1.45 10
4 −
⋅ psi
Pa
⋅ ⋅
m
3
264.2gal

min
60s
:= k
v
8.275 10
3 −
×
m
3
s m ⋅
=
Valve position at design conditions:
vp
d
f
1d
k
v
h
d

:= vp
d
25.6 % =
Substitute and simplify:
π D
2

4
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − k
v
vp t ( ) ⋅ h t ( ) ⋅ − =
Linearize and express in terms of deviation variables:
π D
2

4
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
i
t ( ) F
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP t ( ) −
k
v
vp
d

2 h
d

H t ( ) − = H 0 ( ) 0 =
Rearrange into standard firts-order form:
As the (negative) controller gain is increased, this term decreases. When the term is negative the
roots are complex and the response is oscillatory. The maximum gain at which the response is not
oscillatory is when the term is zero:
τ
v
2
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ + τ
2
+ 4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ − 4τ
v
τ ⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ + τ
v
τ −
( )
2
4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ + =
r
1
τ
v
τ +
( )
− τ
v
τ +
( )
2
4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ 1 K
p
K
c
⋅ −
( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
= Roots of the caracteristic equation:
τ
v
τ ⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
τ +
( )
s + 1 + K
p
K
c
⋅ − 0 = Characteristic equation of the loop:
C s ( )
K
p
− K
c

τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ + =
Closed-loop transfer function:
The control valve must fail closed (air-to-open) to prevent emptying the tank on instrument power
failure.
The controller is direct acting (negative gain): increasing level increases the controller output
opening the valve and increasing the flow out of the tank; this decreases the level.
K
u
6.667 10
4
×
%TO s ⋅
m
3
= K
p
7.801
%TO
%CO
= K
u
K
T
K
1
⋅ := K
p
K
T
K
2
⋅ := Let
K
T
50
%CO
m
= K
T
100%TO
h
max
h
min

:= Level transmitter LT:
G
v
s ( )
1
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
=
Valve positioner: G
c
s ( ) K
c
= Proportional controller:
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
-
+
-
H(s)
K
T
F
i
(s) - F
o
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
m
3
/sec
m
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
VP(s)
%VP
G
2
(s)
G
1
(s)
K
u
0.071
%TO
%CO m
3

=
K
p
8.278 10
4 −
×
%TO
%CO sec ⋅
= K
u
4
πD
2
K
T
:= K
p
4
πD
2
k
v
h
d
⋅ K
T
⋅ :=
Let
The block diagram is the same as in part (a) with these transfer functions.
G
2
s ( )
4
π D
2

k
v
h
d

s
⋅ = G
1
s ( )
4
πD
2
1
s
=
where
G
1
s ( ) F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
⋅ G
2
s ( ) VP s ( ) − =
H s ( )
4
πD
2
1
s
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP s ( ) −
( )
=
Laplace transform:
H 0 ( ) 0 =
π D
2

4
d H t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ F
i
t ( ) F
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ VP t ( ) − =
Express this linear equation in terms of deviation variables:
π D
2

4
d h t ( ) ⋅
dt
⋅ f
i
t ( ) f
o
t ( ) − k
v
h
d
⋅ vp t ( ) ⋅ − =
Substitute into mass balance:
f
1
t ( ) C
vmax
vp t ( ) ⋅
∆p
v
G
f

m
3
264.2gal
min
60sec
= k
v
h
d
⋅ vp t ( ) ⋅ =
The model now neglects the effect of the level on the flow out of the tank:
(b) Repeat part (a) modeling the tank as in section 7-3.1 (integrating process).
Offset
K
T
2.826 10
3 −
× m =
Offset 0.141 %TO = Offset
K
u
1 K
p
K
cmax
⋅ −
0.001
m
3
s
:=
Offset for change in inlet flow:
τ
e
9.995 s = τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅
τ
v
τ +
:=
The equivalent time constants of the closed loop at this gain are two identical roots at:
K
cmax
60.3 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cmax
τ
v
τ −
( )
2

4 τ
v
⋅ τ ⋅ K
p

:=
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These results are identical to those of part (a),showing that for the purposes of the level controller,
the effect of the level on the outlet flow is negligible. Notice that the results are the same although
the models look quite different.
Offset
K
T
2.829 10
3 −
× m =
Offset 0.141 %TO = Offset
K
u
K
p
− K
cmax

0.001
m
3
s
:=
The offset for the change in inlet flow is:
τ
e
10 s = τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ :=
The equivalent time constants of the closed loop are identical for this gain (the radical is zero):
K
cmax
60.4 −
%CO
%TO
= K
cmax
1 −
4 τ
v
⋅ K
p

:=
The controller is, like before, direct acting (negative gain). As the negative controller gain
increases in magnitude, the term inside the radical decreases and, when it becomes negative, the
roots are complex and the response is oscillatory. At the maximum gain for non-oscillatory
response, the term in the radical is zero:
1 4 τ
v
⋅ K
p
⋅ K
c
⋅ +
r
1
1 − 1 4 τ
v
⋅ K
p
− K
c

( )
⋅ − +
2 τ
v

=
Roots of the characteristic equation:
τ
v
s
2
⋅ s + K
p
K
c
⋅ − 0 =
Characteristic equation of the loop:
C s ( )
K
p
− K
c

s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
K
u
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

s τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
p
K
c
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) F
o
s ( ) −
( )
+ =
Closed-loop transfer function:
A τ
I
⋅ τ
v
⋅ s
3
⋅ A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ − K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − 0 = Characteristic equation of the loop:
This means there is no offset for either set-point changes or disturbances.
Offset ∆c
set
∆c − = 0 = ∆c
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T

0 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
∆c
set 0
0 K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
∆f
i
+ = ∆c
set
=
To obtain the steady-state transfer functions, set s = 0:
K
T
τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) ⋅ +
C s ( )
K
c
− τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T

A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ −
C
set
⋅ s ( ) ⋅ =
Substitute and rearrange:
C s ( )
G
c
s ( ) − G
2
s ( ) ⋅
1 G
c
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) ⋅ −
C
set
s ( )
G
1
s ( )
1 G
c
s ( ) G
2
s ( ) ⋅ −
F
i
s ( ) + = Closed-loop transfer function:
(a) Closed-loop transfer function, characteristic equation, and offset.
G
1
s ( )
K
T
A s ⋅
= G
2
s ( )
K
v
K
T

A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

= G
c
s ( ) K
c
1
1
τ
I
s ⋅
+

⋅ = PI controller:
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
-
+
-
F
i
(s)
%CO
%TO
%TO
LC
G
2
(s)
G
1
(s)
Problem 7-25. Proportional-integral level control.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
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is unlawful.
C s ( ) C
set
s ( )
1
K
c
− K
v

τ
I
s ⋅
τ
I
s ⋅ 1 +
F
i
s ( ) + =
So the dominant time constant is equal to the integral time of the controller. This pole however
cancels the zero in the numerator for set point changes:
For very high controller gains:
A τ
I

K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T

s
2
τ
I
s ⋅ + 1 + τ
I
s ⋅ 1 + =
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T

A
4
τ
I
<
As the controller gain is negative (direct acting controller), the roots are complex as long as the
term in parenthesis is positive, that is, at low controller gains. The response will be oscillatory for:
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I

( )
2
4 K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ A ⋅ τ
I
⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ 4A +
( )
⋅ =
The response i oscillatory when the term inside the radical is negative (complex conjugate roots).
r
1
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I

( )
2
4A τ
I
⋅ K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c

( )
⋅ − +
2Aτ
I
=
Roots:
A τ
I
⋅ s
2
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ τ
I
⋅ s ⋅ − K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ − 0 =
Characteristic equation:
(c) For negligible valve time constant, determine the limits of the controller gain for
which the loop is oscillatory. Dominant time constant at high controller gain.
ω
K
c
− K
v
⋅ K
T

A τ
v

=
where
C t ( ) A sin ω t ⋅ φ +
( )
⋅ =
Root r
1
is cancelled by the zero in the numerator of the transfer function. The response of the level
is oscillatory with no damping, as the controller gain is negative (direct acting controller). The loop
gain does not affect the nature of the response, only the frequency of the oscillations that increases
as the square root of the loop gain. The response is:
r
3
i −
K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c

A τ
v

⋅ = r
2
i
K
v
− K
T
⋅ K
c

A τ
v

⋅ = r
1
1 −
τ
v
=
A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ − τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ K
v
K
T
⋅ K
c
⋅ −

= 0 = τ
I
τ
v
=
For
(b) Roots of the characteristic equation when the integral time is set equal to the
valve time constant. Level response under these conditions.
The control valve fails closed (air-to-open) to prevent overflowing the evaporator on instrument ait
failure.
The controller is reverse acting (positive gain): increasing level decreases controller output to
close the valve and reduce the feed flow to the evaporator; this decreases the level.
G
c
(s)
C
set
(s) E(s)
M(s)
C(s)
+
-
+
-
H(s)
K
T
F
p
(s)
%CO
LT
%TO
ft
3
/min
ft
%TO
LC
G
v
(s)
G
1
(s)
G
1
(s)
W
s
(s)
ft
3
/min
G
2
(s)
-
F
i
(s)
lb/min
Block diagram of the level control loop:
Solution:
∆p
v
5psi := Assume
∆f 80
lb
min
= ∆f 10% f
d
⋅ :=
Disturbance, feed flow:
τ
v
2sec :=
Valve sized for 100%
overcapacity, linear.
∆h
T
4ft := A 10ft
2
:=
ρ 98
lb
ft
3
:= f
d
800
lb
min
:=
SP
LC
LT
AT
Vapors
Product
Feed
Steam
Condensate
Problem data:
Problem 7-26. Level control of an evaporator.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
Characteristic equation of the loop: A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ + A τ
v
⋅ s
2
⋅ A s ⋅ + K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ + = 0 =
Roots of the characteristic equation: r
1
A − A
2
4 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − +
2 A ⋅ τ
v

=
r
2
A − A
2
4 A ⋅ τ
v
⋅ K
c
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ − −
2 A ⋅ τ
v

=
The roots are non-oscillatory as long as the term in the radical is positive (real roots). The
maximum controller gain for which this is so is:
K
cmax
A
4 τ
v
⋅ K
v
⋅ K
T

:= K
cmax
11.4
%CO
%TO
=
At this gain the term in the radical is zero and the effective time constants are identical to each
other and equal to:
τ
e
2 τ
v
⋅ := τ
e
4 s =
Offset for a 10% change in the product and vapor flow: Offset 0
K
T

K
cmax
K
v
⋅ K
T

∆f
ρ
− :=
Offset
K
T
0.011 ft =
Offset 0.272 %TO =
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
Level transmitter LT: K
T
100%TO
∆h
T
:= K
T
25
%CO
ft
= G
c
s ( ) K
c
=
Size the control valve: C
vmax
200%
f
d
ρ

7.48gal
ft
3
ρ ft
3

62.4lb ∆p
v

⋅ := C
vmax
68.4
gal
min psi ⋅
=
From Fig. C-10.1, page 532, a 3-in valve is required. C
vmax
110
gal
min psi ⋅
:=
Valve gain: K
v
C
vmax
100%CO
∆p
v
62.4 ⋅ lb ⋅
ρ ft
3

ft
3
7.48gal
:= K
v
0.262
ft
3
min %CO ⋅
=
G
v
s ( )
K
v
τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
= G
1
s ( )
1
A s ⋅
= G
2
s ( )
E
ρ
1
A s ⋅
= E = evaporator economy, lb
vapors/lb steam.
Closed-loop transfer function:
C s ( )
K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T

A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ +
C
set
s ( )
K
T
A s ⋅ τ
v
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
⋅ K
c
K
v
⋅ K
T
⋅ +
F
p
s ( )
E
ρ
W
s
s ( ) +

− =
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only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.
τ´
D
τ
2
= τ´
I
τ
1
= K´
c
τ
1
K τ
c
τ
3
+
( )

=
This is a series PID controller with the following tuning formulas:
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
K τ
c
τ
3
+
( )

1
1
τ
1
s ⋅
+

τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
=
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )

1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 + 1 − τ
3
s ⋅ +
=
Substitue and reaarrange:
C s ( )
R s ( )
1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= To avoid a postive pole in the controller, define:
This contains a positive pole which results in an unstable response when it doesn't exactly match
the time constant of the transfer function.
G
c
s ( )
τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )

1
τ
c
s ⋅
⋅ =
The controller transfer function is:
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
τ
c
s ⋅ 1 +
= For teh standard closed-loop response:
G
c
s ( )
1
G s ( )
C s ( )
R s ( )
1
C s ( )
R s ( )

= Synthesis formula, Eq. 7-4.2, page 258: Solution:
G s ( )
K 1 τ
3
s ⋅ −
( )

τ
1
s ⋅ 1 +
( )
τ
2
s ⋅ 1 +
( )

=
Problem 7-27. Sythesize controller for process with inverse response.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
G s ( )
2.05e
2.75 − s
8.25s 1 +
%TO
%CO
=
t
0
2.75 min = τ 8.25 min = t
0
t
2
τ − := τ 1.5 t
2
t
1

( )
⋅ :=
t
2
12 1 − ( )min := 64.8%TO 0.632∆c + 67.391 %TO =
t
1
6.5 1 − ( )min := 64.8%TO 0.283∆c + 65.96 %TO = Fit 3 model:
K
p
2.05
%TO
%CO
=
K
p
∆c
2%CO
:=
∆c 4.1%TO =
∆c 68.9 64.8 − ( )%TO :=
Open-loop response to a 2%CO step change in the signal to the valve at 1 minute:
This reactor is simulated in Problem 13-5 and the temperature control loop is simulated in Problem
13-21. For the development of the simulation and the Simulink block diagrams, see the solutions to
those problems.
Problem 7-28. Simulation of temperature control loop for the non-isothermal
reactor of Section 4-2.3.
Smith & Corripio, 3rd edition
By comparison, the gain is slightly smaller and the integral is 60% slower than for quarter-decay
ratio response.
G
c
s ( ) 1.5
%CO
%TO
1
1
8.3s
+

1.4s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.4min = τ´
I
8.3min =

c
1.5
%CO
%TO
= τ´
D
t
0
2
:= τ´
I
τ := K´
c
τ
K
p
t
0

:=
From Table 7-4.1:
(b) Synthesis tuning with τ
c
= 0 of series PID temperature controller.
Notice the inverse
response of the
reactor temperature
to the change in
reactants flow.
The controller output
increases to close
the coolant valve
which is air-to-close
(fails opened).
Response to a -0.2 ft
3
/min change in rectants flow at 1 min:
G
c
s ( ) 1.8
%CO
%TO
1
1
5.5s
+

1.4s 1 + ( ) = τ´
D
1.4min = τ´
I
5.5min =

c
1.8
%CO
%TO
= τ´
D
t
0
2
:= τ´
I
2 t
0
⋅ := K´
c
1.2
K
p
t
0
τ

1 −
:=
From Table 7-2.1:
(a) Quater-decay ratio tuning of series PID temperature controller.
The responses to a -0.2 ft
3
/min change in reactants flow at 1 min are:
Notice that the return
to the set point is
much slower than
with quarter-decay
ratio tuning.
Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes
only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work
beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner
is unlawful.