Reader enquiry number 1

EVENTS 66 PTF 2011 – Louder voices from the Pacific 68 INFOFISH members at Hong Kong and Dubai seafood show 69 Indian fisheries managers visit Malaysia MARKETS/ MARKETING 8 Impact of PNA measures on the global tuna industry - shape up or ship out! by Transform Aqorau 13 Industry Notes (Market) 18 Market Barometer 22 Commodity Update – Whitefish AQUACULTURE 24 Rehabilitating the Indus Mahseer of Pakistan by Iftikhar Ahmad 27 Tilapia aquaculture in Africa by Erik Hempel and Blessing Mapfumo 31 Aquaculture News 35 Ornamental Fish HANDLING / PROCESSING 36 An easy way to hold live fish by John Kowarsky 40 Value-added seafood products: a challenge or a necessity? by Alex Augusto Gonçalves and Colin Kaiser 44 Industry Notes (Processing) 48 Product Update HARVESTING 50 Towards the development of eco-friendly purse seines by P Pravin and B Meenakumari 56 Industry Notes (Harvesting)

NUMBER 6/2011 Impact of PNA measures on tuna industry
The PNA countries have imposed strong management measures on their tuna fishing industries designed to enhance the sustainability of the fishery and to maximise its profitability. 8


Rehabilitating the Indus Mahseer
The Indus Mahseer, which was once dominant in semi-cold water rivers of Pakistan, is in a sorry state. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the species. 24

Tilapia aquaculture in Africa
Although it is indigenous to the continent, aquaculture of tilapia in Africa has been lagging behind other regions. Lately, however, it has shown significant growth. 27

An easy way to hold live fish
An innovative new design for holding live fish can play a central role in streamlining live fish handling operations. The highly adaptable system can be used for both flow-through and recirculating systems. 36

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Editorial Abstracts Technical Q & A Innovations Equipment and Supplies Index to Advertisers Fishinfonetwork News Publications in Brief Diary

Value-added seafood products
As demand for seafood protein rises, seafood enters a new era. Companies are driving sustainable sourcing to meet the demand, by offering ready to eat products of high quality and safety, and sourced from sustainable fisheries. 40
Caption: Fresh fish on display at a retail outlet. Cover Credit: Fatima Ferdouse

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INFOFISH International 6/2011


Reader enquiry number 2

Editor-in-Chief Muhammad Ayub Editorial Board Lahsen H Ababouch, Mohamed El Malagui, Roland Wiefels, Li Mingqi, Abdellatif Belkouch, Aina Afanasjeva, S Subasinghe, Muhammad Ayub Editor Tarlochan Singh Associate Editor Anil Kumar Editorial Consultants Audun Lem, Helga Josupeit, Carlos Lima dos Santos Contributing Editors Fatima Ferdouse, Sudari Pawiro, Shirlene Maria Anthonysamy, V K Dey Designer/Illustrator Rosman Mustaffa Editorial Assistants Cheam Kwai Tock, Muhaini Ab Ghani Advertisement, Promotion and Circulation Manager Azizul Yahaya Editorial Office: INFOFISH Level 2 Menara Olympia, 8 Jalan Raja Chulan, 50200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. PO Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: (603)20783466 • Fax: (603) 20786804. E-mail: Website: Regional Offices: Latin America, Caribbean INFOPESCA, Casilla de Correo 7086, Julio Herrea y Obes 1296, 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay Tel: (598) 2 9028701/29028702 • Fax: (598) 2 9030501 E-mail: Africa INFOPECHE, Tour C - 19 étage, Cité administrative, 01 bp 1747 Abidjan 01, Cote d’Ivoire Tel: (225) 20228980 / 20213198 • Fax: (225) 20218054 E-mail: Website: Arab Countries INFOSAMAK, 71, Boulevard Rahal, El Meskini 16243, Casablanca, Morocco. Tel: (212)522540856 • Fax: (212)522540855. E-mail: / Website: Eastern Europe EUROFISH, H.C. Andersens Boulevard 44-46, 1553 Copenhagen V , Denmark Tel: (+45) 33377755 • Fax: (+45) 33377756 E-mail: Website: China INFOYU, Room 514, Nongfeng Building, No 96 DongsanhuanNan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100122, P R China Tel: (86) 01059199614 • Fax: (86) 01059199614 E-mail:

Competition for tuna stocks intensifies
The recently concluded Pacific Tuna Forum in Koror, Palau, enjoyed even wider participation than the two previous fora. The Pacific countries and the Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) are striving for eco-labelling for their fisheries while asserting their claim to their rightful share of the exploitation of the tuna resources in the region. In pursuit of their objectives, the Pacific island countries are increasingly taking measures to manage their tuna and skipjack resources on their own, through nationalisation of foreign fishing vessels, enhancing their indigenous capability, and encouraging foreign investment in tuna processing within the region. It is encouraging to note that foreign investment in processing plants in the Pacific island countries has been growing in response to their efforts. Tuna stocks are on the decline with catches having been stagnant over the years resulting in short supply in the global market; at the same time with processing countries and the industry continually seeking more raw material. Sustainability and scientific stock management are becoming ever-important issues and just two of the many challenges facing the world tuna industry. In this scenario, the INFOFISH Global Tuna Trade Conference and Exhibition, TUNA 2012, scheduled for 23-25 May, in Bangkok comes at an opportune time. The threeday conference will focus on the latest developments in the global and regional tuna industries and will address issues such as resources, fisheries management, markets and marketing, products and quality developments, new technology, trade and food safety, as well as sustainability, eco-labelling and environment. With all the pressing issues facing the industry, TUNA 2012 is expected to be bigger than ever before with major players in the industry expected to gather in Bangkok next May to hear what the experts have to say - and also to have their own say - on various issues. As the conference organiser, INFOFISH is expecting even more than the six hundred delegates who showed up at the last global tuna event in 2010. With such high expectations, we are confident that the series of INFOFISH Tuna Trade Conferences and Exhibitions will continue to play a vital role in the promotion and support of the world tuna trade and industry. Editor-in-Chief

INFOFISH International__your key to world markets: high technology applications by prime specifiers and purchasers in global fisheries__from catching and farming through processing and preservation to packaging, storage, transport and marketing. Advertising rates are available on request from the Advertisement Manager, INFOFISH International, P O Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tel: (603)20783466, 20784614. Fax: (603)20786804. E-mail: or Web: http:// INFOFISH International is published bimonthly by INFOFISH, INFOPESCA, INFOPECHE, INFOSAMAK, EUROFISH and INFOYU, the Regional Marketing Information and Advisory Services for Fish Products. Subscription rate for six issues: US$45 airmail; concessionary rates available for individual subscribers in member countries of the Regional Services. Discounts available for three year subscriptions. The opinions expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the publishers and any mention of companies and their products does not imply endorsement. The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the publishers concerning the legal status of any country, territory city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delineation of its frontiers and boundaries. Copyright © 1997 by INFOFISH. Contents cannot be reproduced without permission.

INCORPORATED IN MALAYSIA, Audit Bureau of Circulations

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INFOFISH International 6/2011


por Transform Aqorau

Resúmenes de los principales artículos
Santiago Caro

Impacto de las medidas del Acuerdo de Naurú sobre la industria atunera
La cuota de barrilete que capturan los cerqueros de las PAN (Partes del Acuerdo de Naurú) en el Océano Pacífico Occidental y Central (OPOC) continúa aumentando, pasando de ser el 57% en 2004, al 67% en 2010. Para poder mejorar la sostenibilidad de la pesca del atún y aprovechar al máximo sus beneficios económicos, las PAN han adoptado fuertes medidas de ordenamiento. Entre estas se incluyen el cierre por 3 meses del uso de DAP (dispositivos para la agregación de peces) con opción de extenderlo por otros tres meses en 2012; la retención del 100% de la captura; la presencia a bordo de observadores en todos los buques cerqueros; la prohibición de atacar tiburones ballena; la introducción de medidas mínimas de malla y el cierre de espacios en mar abierto. Todas ellas están teniendo su impacto sobre la industria. Ese último tema se aborda en este artículo, particularmente referido a la pesca de barrilete de superficie. 8

Reestablecimiento del Indus Mahseer de Pakistán
por Iftikhar Ahmad Antiguamente era un pez dominante y prolífico que habitaba las aguas frías de los ríos, pero actualmente, el Indus Mahseer se encuentra en un estado crítico en Pakistán, como resutlado de la degradación de los hábitats. Se han hecho esfuerzos para reestablecer a esta especie mediante cría artificial y resiembra. Se lanzó un proyecto piloto de cría en cautiverio. Se estableció un vivero plenamente acondicioando en el distrito de Attock de la provincia de Punjab, sobre las orillas del río Harro, donde antes estaban los sitios de cría natural. Los alevinos obtenidos luego de 90 días de cría en el vivero, fueron sembrados en las aguas naturales. En los últimos dos años, se produjeron y sembraron, unas 700 mil semillas de Mahseer. El proyecto permite un buen presagio en cuanto a la repoblación de este pez en el país. 24

Cultivo de tilapia en África
por Erik Hempel y Blessing Mapfumo Pese a que la tilapia es nativa de África, este continente siempre estuvo rezagado con respecto a su producción por cultivo. En los últimos años, sin embargo, la acuicultura de tilapia creció significativamente en África. En 2009, la producción alcanzó las 450 mil toneladas, y la obtenida por capturas, unas 487 mil. De la producción por cultivo, unas 390 mil toneladas (86%) fueron obtenidas por Egipto. Otros países productores fueron Nigeria, Uganda y Zambia. Mientras que Egipto produce solamente tilapia del Nilo, los otros países tienen una gama más diversificada de especies. Aun así, y exceptuando a Egipto, la tilapia del Nilo representa el 46% de toda la producción, mientras que la tilapia de tres manchas apenas aporta un 7%. La tecnología de cultivo más común es la cría en estanques, aunque las jaulas flotantes también se están empezando a implementar. Pese a un buen número de problemas, la cría de la tilapia africana ha sido motivo de varios proyectos en los últimos años. 27

Una manera fácil de conservar peces vivos
por John Kowarsky Un sencillo e innovador diseño para el mantenimiento de los peces vivos, el “K-box Cone”, puede resultar fundamental para este tipo de operativas. Se trata de un recipiente de plástico para alimentos, estable a rayos UV, obtenido mediante moldeo por inyección. Tiene forma cónica, un reborde alrededor de su base, y está unido a una serie de tubos de plástico. El sistema tiene un suministro de agua superior que llena al tubo de más arriba. El agua cae en cascada al próximo tubo a través del cono. El K Box Cone también se puede conectar a tubos plásticos que se incrusten entre sí. Este sistema portátil utiliza una bomba sumergible en el colector; el agua se bombea al tubo superior del conjunto. El sistema de recirculación se puede instalar en apenas minutos, y resulta ideal en casos en que se necesita contar con una instalación para almacenar el producto durante un lapso limitado. El K Box Cones tiene aplicaciones potentiales en acuicultura, en la industria de los alimentos vivos, de los peces ornamentales, para el mantenimiento de carnada viva, estudio de aguas marinas y dulces, así como para la depuración de las mismas. 36

Productos con valor agregado: ¿desafío o necesidad?
por Alex Augusto Gonçalves y Colin Kaiser A medida que aumenta la demanda a nivel mundial, el pescado ingresa en una nueva era de consumo y de alimentos preparados. Las empresas buscan fuentes confiables para satisfacer esa demanda, ofreciendo productos que no sean solamente de alta calidad e inocuidad, sino que también provengan de pesquerías sostenibles. Una de las categorías que ha tenido un mayor crecimiento es el de la sustitución de la comida casera. El generar un nicho de mercado interno para dichos productos, también brinda protección contra cualquier fluctuación y dependencia de los mercados de exportación. Se prevé que una parte de las capturas destinadas al fresco, será utilizada para elaborar productos procesados en varias formas para satisfacer la demanda interna. Al ir creciendo este mercado a nivel mundial, los estándares de calidad y las empresas que elaboran estos productos también lo harán, lo que tendrá un efecto positivo sobre la seguridad y la inocuidad. La tecnología seguirá jugando un papel importante a nivel de envasados en atmósfera modificada, de nuevos métodos de preparación, del desarrollo de envases amistosos con el medio ambiente, etc. 40

Hacia el desarrollo de redes de cerco ecológicas
por P. Pravin y B. Meenakumari La ciencia ha introducido innovaciones en el diseño de redes de cerco y en las operaciones pesqueras, lo que ha resultado en una mejor eficiencia, en mayor rentabilidad y en menor costo de mano de obra en Kerala, India. Como resultado, los operadores de esta forma de pesca han podido alejarse a altamar. La modificación del diámetro de malla, de 18 a 45 mm, ha permitido a los pescadores desembarcar piezas de mayor talla y valor, y evitar la captura de juveniles, además de prevenir conflictos con los pescadores artesanales en las zonas costeras. También permite aliviar la presión sobre la ya intensiva pesquería costera, ayudando además a revitalizar la pequeña pesquería tradicional de cerco mecanizada. Todos los cerqueros de la bahía de Cochín han adoptado la nueva red y operan en caladeros de altura, sobre barrilete, carángidos, pámpanos, jurel, barracuda, pez sierra y caballa. La introducción de una maquinaria para el tiraje de la red, contribuirá a mejorar la eficiencia pesquera, aumentar el número de lances por día y alivianar el trabajo de la tripulación. Sin embargo, la cantidad y capacidad de los buques cerqueros deberán ser reglamentadas, a efectos de asegurar la sostenibilidad. 50 Para obteneer mayor información sobre este material, puede ponerse en contacto con la sede de INFOPESCA: Casilla de Correo 7086, Correo Central, Montevideo, Uruguay. • Tel: (598)-2-9028701. Fax: (598)-2-930501. • E-mail:

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Résumés des articles de fond
Mohamed El Malagui Impact des mesures de PNA sur l’industrie mondiale de thons - se conformer ou quitter


par Transform Aqorau La production de listao dans le cadre des PNA (Parties à l’Accord de Nauru) par la pêche à filets coulissants dans le Pacifique Centre Ouest (PCO/WCPO) continue de grimper, passant de 57 % en 2004 à 67 % en 2010. Pour améliorer sa politique d’exploitation durable des ressources thonières et pour maximiser les profits, les PNA ont adopté des mesures audacieuses de gestion. Parmi ces mesures, l’on note la fermeture de trois mois des zones de pêche pour repos biologique avec option d’une extension de trois mois en 2012, la rétention de la capture à 100 %, la présence d’observateur à 100 % sur tous les bateaux de pêche à filets coulissants, l’interdiction de cibler les requins, l’introduction de la mesure de la taille minimum des mailles, et l’interdiction de transaction en haute mer, ont un impact sur l’industrie. L’impact de ces mesures fait l’objet de débat sur l’industrie thonière mondiale dans cet article qui se penche particulièrement sur la pêche de surface de listao. D’une manière générale, ces impacts ont pour objectif d’améliorer le taux de capture et limiter les efforts accrus. 8

Réhabilitation de l’Indus Mahseer au Pakistan
par IftikharAhmad Autrefois, abondance en stock dans les fleuves à température tempérée, l’Indus Mahseer est actuellement dans un état critique au Pakistan à cause de la dégradation de son milieu naturel et bien d’autres facteurs. Des efforts sont entrepris pour reconstituer cette espèce à travers sa reproduction artificielle et son repeuplement. Un projet pilot sur l’élevage de cette espèce en captivité a été lancé. Une écloserie de cette espèce a été construite à Attock dans le district de la province de Punjab sur les rives du fleuve Harro, où la plus grande aire de reproduction naturelle de cette espèce était présente dans le passé. Les alevins (fingerlings) obtenus après 90 jours d’élevage dans l’écloserie sont stockés dans les eaux naturelles. Après deux années écoulées, environ 0,70 million de progénitures de cette espèce ont été produites et stockées dans leur milieu naturel. Le projet offre les possibilités d’assister à la réhabilitation de l’indus Mahseer dans le pays. 24

L’aquaculture du tilapia en Afrique
par Erik Hempel et Blessing Mapfumo Bien que le tilapia soit une espèce d’Afrique, sa production aquacole n’a pas été développée contrairement aux autres pays du monde. Cependant, dans les années plus récentes, l’aquaculture du tilapia a enregistré un développement remarquable en Afrique. En 2009, la production du tilapia d’élevage en Afrique, a atteint 454 000 TM et celle de capture sauvage avoisinait 487 000 TM. Du total de la production du secteur aquacole, 390 000 TM ou 86 % ont été produits par l’Egypte y compris d’autres importants pays producteurs tels que le Nigeria, l’Ouganda et la Zambie. Tandis que l’Egypte produit uniquement le tilapia du Nil, les autres pays du continent en produisent aussi et d’autres espèces de tilapia. A l’exception de l’Egypte, le tilapia du Nil représente 46 % de la production de tilapia dans les autres pays alors que les trois espèces précitées représentent juste 7 %. La technologie d’élevage la plus répandue est la culture dans les étangs mais l’élevage en cage flottante est également pratiqué. En dépit de nombreux défis à relever dans ce secteur, plusieurs projets sur l’élevage de tilapia en Afrique sont réalisés ces récentes années. 27

Une méthode facile pour maintenir le poisson vivant
par John Kowarsky Une innovation simple pour maintenir le poisson vivant, la glacière K-box Cone, joue un rôle majeur dans la manutention du poisson vivant. Le K Box Cone est conçu pour sécuriser les aliments, en plastique stabilisé de type UV, moulage par injection. La glacière a une forme conique avec une bride autour de sa base et une variété de bacs en plastique. Elle est dotée d’un système de distribution d’eau dans le tube supérieur. L’arrivée de l’eau en cascade vers le second tube via la glacière. Le K Box cones est aussi conçu en tube plastique d’autorégulateur. Le portatif autorégulateur est doté d’une pompe à injection d’eau dans le tube au niveau supérieur. Ce système de recyclage est actif chaque minute et est adapté au besoin pour conserver des produits vivants hors de leur milieu pour une période déterminée. K Box Cones est bien adapté dans le secteur aquacole, dans l’industrie des fruits de la mer vivants, dans l’industrie des poissons d’ornément, dans la conservation des appâts vivants, dans la recherche en eaux douce et en eau marine et pour la purge et la depuration des eaux. 36

Les produits de la pêche à valeur ajoutée : un défi ou une nécessité ?
par Alex Augusto Gonçalves et Colin Kaiser La consommation des produits de la pêche prêts à emporter a enregistré une forte demande au niveau mondial, l’inscrivant ainsi dans une nouvelle ère de consommation. Les établissements de transformations des produits de la pêche se sont orientés vers cette logique pour satisfaire cette forte demande, en offrant, non seulement, des produits sains et de bonne qualité mais aussi des produits issus des pêcheries durables. L’une des catégories des produits à valeur ajoutée la plus populaire est celle qui remplace les repas des ménages. Cette tendance de consommation a crée une niche de marché domestique pour de tels produits et offre une protection contre les fluctuations et contre la forte dépendance des marchés d’exportations. Les prévisions montrent que la part de la production des produits de la pêche sous forme fraîche serait utilisée pour la transformation sous diverses formes pour satisfaire la demande domestique. Au regard de la croissance mondiale de ce marché, les normes de contrôle de qualité en vigueur et les établissements de transformation de tels produits, ayant un effet positif sur la sécurité alimentaire et de qualité. La technologie continuera de jouer un rôle essentiel à travers l’emballage à température modifiée, de nouvelles méthodes de préparation, des emballages respectant les normes écologiques etc. 40

Vers le développement des filets coulissants sans danger pour l’environnement
par P Pravin et B Meenakumari Les scientifiques ont introduit des innovations dans la conception des filets coulissants et dans les activités de la pêche. Cette situation a amélioré le rendement de la pêche, l’augmentation de profits et a favorisé la réduction de volume de travail à Kerala, Inde. En conséquence, les pêcheurs à filets coulissants opèrent en haute mer. Le changement de la taille des mailles des filets coulissants de 18 à 45 mm a permis aux pêcheurs de débarquer de grands volumes de poisson à haute valeur marchande et d’éviter la capture des poissons juvéniles, tout en évitant de conflits avec les pêcheurs traditionnels opérant dans la zone côtière. Cette innovation a réduit la pression exercée par l’exploitation des zones côtières et elle a contribué à réviser la mécanisation de la pêche artisanale à filets coulissants ; tous les filets à senneurs coulissant du port de pêche de Cochin ont adopté cette innovation et opèrent en eau profonde, ciblant le listao, la thonine, le carangidé, la castagnole, le chinchard, le bécune, le thazard et les gros maquereaux. L’introduction d’un système énergétique pour le transport de la senne coulissante va améliorer davantage la production, augmenter le volume par jour et alléger le travail de l’équipage. Toutefois, il serait impérieux de règlementer le nombre et la capacité des filets à senneurs coulissants pour assurer une exploitation durable des ressources. 50 Pour plus amples informations et pour la traduction des articles contenus dans cette revue, veuillez vous addresses à INFOPECHE, BP 1747, Abidjan 01, Cote d’Ivoire. Tel: (225) 21-31-98. Telex: 22989 INFOPECI, Télécopieur: (225) 21-80-54.

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Aziza E Amghari

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Lei Jianwei

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INFOFISH International 6/2011



by Transform Aqorau


he total Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) catch of main tuna species declined by 3%, the total purse seine catch declined by 4% and the total Transform Aqorau skipjack catch declined by 6% last year. The Parties to Nauru Agreement (PNA) see these declines as an early sign of the effectiveness of the application of the limits in Conservation and Management Measure (CMM) 2008-01 including the PNA Vessel Day Scheme (VDS) and the Fish Aggregating Device (FAD) Closure.

Impact of PNA measures on the global tuna industry - shape up or ship out!
036 mt, out of a total WCPO purse seine skipjack catch of 1 500 790 mt while the total skipjack catch in the WCPO was 1 690 111 mt. While a substantial proportion of this catch is being taken outside the region for processing, PNA domestic tuna industries continue to grow, and ventures vertically integrated with domestic processing plants in the region are being pursued. It is in the Parties’ interest to have fish caught in their

PNA tuna industry
The impact of PNA measures in the global tuna industry is apparent when viewed against the surface skipjack fishery. The PNA share of the purse seine skipjack catch in this region continues to grow from 57% in 2004 to 67% in 2010. To put this into perspective, in 2004, the total purse seine skipjack catch in PNA waters was 687 742 mt out of a total WCPO purse seine skipjack catch of 1 180 851 mt. The total WCPO skipjack catch in 2004 was 1 401 135 mt. In 2010, the purse seine skipjack catch in PNA waters was 1 018

The PNA have adopted strong management measures on its tuna fishing industry which are designed to enhance the sustainability of the fishery and maximise its profitability. PNA’s message to those involved in the fishery: change your approach and work with us or ship out!

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Impact of PNA measures on the global tuna industry shape up or ship out!
waters, processed in plants in the region or outside in which they have equity. Taking the fish outside to the competitors only leads to depressed fish prices, and reduces the competitiveness and profitably of PNA’s investments, whether in plants, joint ventures, or charters. It is in PNA’s interest to maintain high fish prices. This year, skipjack prices have been high (between US$ 1 700-US$ 1 950 per mt CIF). Keeping prices high ensures their industries are competitive, and the returns from access fees are also high relative to the fish prices as a proportion of the value of the rate of return. To this end, Parties have an interest in where the fish caught in their waters end up. The message Parties have been getting from industry and from other stakeholders in the fisheries is that PNA can and should do this, by regulating supply. That means landing and processing fish caught in PNA waters in the region or in plants in which they have equity.


PNA measures
The Parties to the Nauru Agreement are Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. The group itself is not new. The Agreement was signed in 1982 and, since then, the group has been one of, if not the single most influential, grouping of countries that have shaped international fisheries. Up until 1 January 2010 the PNA group was supported by the Forum Fisheries Agency (FFA). The decision by PNA to establish the PNA Office was meant to strengthen the region. It was an expression of selfdetermination and self-reliance, to unravel the stranglehold that aid donors have over regional fisheries management agencies Together with other Pacific Island countries, the PNA put together the Regional Register for Foreign Fishing Vessels, instituted Harmonized Minimum Terms and Conditions (MTCs) of Access for Foreign Fishing Vessels, concluded the FSM Arrangement for Regional Access, and the Palau Arrangement for the Management of the Western and Central Pacific Tuna Fishery. The PNA also worked together with other Pacific Island countries to shape the UN Fish Stocks

Agreement, and the Convention for the Management and Conservation of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific. In 2008, following the failure of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) in 2007 to agree to conservation and The PNA would like to see fish caught in their waters also management processed in plants in the region. measures to reduce fishing mortality in this responsibility, it is not true that groupings bigeye tuna, the PNA adopted the Third of countries cannot collectively decide to enact Implementation Arrangement (3IA) under the measures for their EEZs. Nauru Agreement. The 3-month FAD closure with options for up to an additional 3 months The impacts of PNA closure in 2012, 100% catch retention, 100% observer placements on all purse seine measures vessels, prohibition of setting on whale sharks, introduction of minimum mesh size, PNA measures per se may have limited and closure of the high seas pockets have an impact on the global tuna fishery. However, impact on the industry. The information when viewed in the context of the fishery itself, it provided to the recent WCPFC Scientific might be fair to say that PNA measures have Committee meeting shows how well these an impact on a significant proportion of the measures are working. fishery in this region, which in itself, is a The provisions on compatibility in the UN significant component of the overall global tuna Fish Stocks Agreement are an example of an fishery. PNA’s simple message to those outcome influenced by this region. Unlike, involved is, “Shape up or ship out!!” Either other regions, the Pacific already had well you work with the Parties by changing your established measures and arrangements in approach or ship out because only those who place, and they were not going to let this new work with the Parties will remain in this fishery. international law framework ignore preOverall, the impact of these measures are existing rules and arrangements. Thus, the showing in improved catch rates with UN Fish Stocks Agreement refers to “existing enhanced effort limits through the application of organisations and arrangements”. These hard limits in 2011. While some people have existing arrangements are the Nauru been quick to point fingers at the PNA about the Agreement, the MTCs, and even the Treaty increased effort in their Exclusive Economic on Fisheries which had already established Zones (EEZs), they fail to take account of the high standards for data collection, compliance fact that it was inevitable that there would be and flag State responsibility. some effort shift from the high seas to the EEZ, Some people, however, do not but the one positive effect is that all this effort is understand this. They think the only body that now under the VDS, and can be controlled can make conservation and management and, dare I say, removed! But it is also easy to measures are the Regional Fisheries point fingers the other way, and ask, what have Management Organisations (RFMOs). While, industry and flag States done to remove effort it is true to say that RFMOs are entrusted with from this fishery? The answer is: nothing.

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The recent evaluation of CMM 2008-01 by the Scientific Committee also indicates that the 3month FAD closure is also having an impact on bigeye mortality. In general terms, the measures proposed by PNA are working. The application of hard limits under the VDS in 2011

Impact of PNA measures on the global tuna industry shape up or ship out!
is also now starting to have an impact in ways that were never anticipated. As with the conservation measures, for the first time, we are seeing that effort limits under the VDS are creating opportunities for trading. With the closure by Solomon Islands of its EEZ in June, following the lead by Nauru in 2010, there has been increased trading of days. There has been about US$10 million worth of traded days since July. The projected Total Allowable Effort (TAE) is expected to be reached in November this year. The TAE for the FSM Arrangement (FSMA) vessels was reached last month with 25% allowance being made for non-fishing days apportioned to the respective FSMA vessels. Most of this effort is expected to be reached by early October. The upshot of all this is that Parties have been able to demonstrate that they can apply hard limits. Importantly, they are now seeing the benefits that flow through the imposition of hard limits with allowances made for trading between those Parties which need days, and those that have days to trade. There are still teething problems to be learned about the Vessel Day Scheme (VDS). We are in the middle of building systems that will enable Parties to better monitor and administer the VDS. Parties will be able to receive real time information on the days utilised in their EEZs, with intellectual property rights over the raw data generated by the systems. In the past industry ignored the PNA and even worked against the VDS. Several meetings were held with the industry in 2005 and 2006 about the VDS. Some in the industry openly opposed the VDS. They said it would not work. But the PNA have done it, in spite of everything that was done and said about it. The VDS is not there to kill the industry. It is there to maximise the sustainability of the fishery, and to maximise the industry’s profitability. The sooner the industry realises this and gets on board, the better it, PNA and this region will be. There is an underlying message in this. As I said earlier on, you need to work with PNA. Things are slowly falling into place. As we have seen, Parties are continually improving the VDS. In short, the VDS is working and it is going to get a whole lot harder to fish unless you have days. This calls for innovative, nontraditional approaches to fisheries development. Parties are looking at equity arrangements and participation because they want a sense of ownership; not just being idle bystanders while others benefit, but taking a key role, and the VDS has put the Parties on a higher pedestal.

Reader enquiry number 3

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Reader enquiry number 4


Impact of PNA measures on the global tuna industry shape up or ship out!
WCPFC meeting, the Commission called on CCMs to adopt measures voluntarily. The PNA have done that. The PNA have agreed to apply an additional FAD closure; they require vessels licensed by Parties not to fish in additional high seas area, and have applied a minimum mesh size limit in their waters. It is now time for other major players to do the same. The PNA have been able to demonstrate that effort controls can work, and are working. The PNA have also been able to demonstrate their commitment to protect their heritage. It is a shared heritage, and one that benefits consumers in countries that have alternative opportunities for employment and economic revenue. It is now up to the industry to make the play and provide alternative approaches if they are to continue to be part of this fishery.

only a small share of the benefits from the bigeye resources. It is time for those who consume bigeye tuna and do most of the catching of bigeye tuna to take up a larger share of the conservation action. There is no scope for the application of additional measures Tuna processing in PNA countries. for bigeye conservation to the purse seine fishery Conclusion in PNA waters. The Commission and those who benefit must establish arrangements to The PNA has played its part for compensate Pacific Island countries who conservation and management. Parties have suffer a disproportionate burden from said that they will not continue to accept the conservation measures. The industry and Cooperating Members, transfer of a disproportionate burden of Cooperating Non-members and Participating conservation action on bigeye given that Territories of the WCPFC (CCMs) current measures for bigeye conservation are represented here can take conservation and unfair and are not consistent with Article 30 of management measures without waiting to be the Convention. They transfer a large told by the Commission, especially those who proportion of the burden of bigeye benefit most from the resources. At the last conservation action to the Parties who get

Dr Transform Aqorau is Executive Director of the Parties to the Nauru Agreement (PNA) office based in Majuro, Marshall Islands.

Reader enquiry number 5

The Ornamental Fish Trade
Globefish Research Programme (GRP) Vol. 102 (134 p) November 2010
The ornamental fish sector is a small but vital part of international fish trade. It contributes positively to rural development in many developing producing countries, and in the major markets for ornamental fish the retail value is many times that of its trade value, with a positive impact throughout the value-chain. The sector presents numerous challenges to operators, ranging from issues related to animal walfare and health to the protection of endangered species. Demand is linked to the health of the overall economy, adding to the cyclical nature of the industry. The report presents an overview of production, trade and markets for ornamental fish species. It provides extensive information on import regulations and requirements in major world markets.

For more information, please contact INFOFISH (

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Greater export diversification
Thailand — Thai exporters have become less dependent on the economies of the United States and the European Union since 2000, a senior economist of Tisco Securities reported. Exports to the US accounted for only 10.3% of Thailand’s exports in 2010, compared with 21.3% in 2000, while the portion of exports to the EU had shrunk from 16.3% to 11.2%. Meanwhile, five markets in ASEAN accounted for 22.7%, China 11%, and the Middle East 4.9% of total exports in 2010, a substantial increase from 19.3, 4.1 and 3%, respectively, a decade ago. Manufacturing has become a more complex process and is highly dependent on international supply chains. The tsunami and the earthquake in Japan in March illustrated how disruptions in the international supply chain can adversely impact global and regional trade. Therefore, Tisco Securities has examined indirect trade linkages to gauge how sluggish growth in the G-2 (the US and China) would affect Thai exports. Exposure to G-2 economies is sizeable but falling. The analysis found that in 2009, when indirect linkages were factored in, total exposure to the G-2 was 28.6%, a dramatic drop from 43.6% in 2000. A positive trend from the analysis is that even with indirect exposure factored in, Thai exports have become more diversified. This is because of a sharp increase in trade linkages between Thailand and new markets in ASEAN, China and the Middle East. Compared with Indonesia and the Philippines, Thailand is less dependent on G-2 markets. The total trade exposure to G-2 markets for Indonesia was 33.7%, compared with Thailand’s 28.6%. Moreover, of the five major ASEAN countries, the Philippines has the largest exposure to the US and EU markets (about 40% of its total exports). Selected Thai products, however, would be the most affected by sluggish growth in the G-2. With more than 50% of their exports going to G-2 markets, apparel, clothing accessories and frozen shrimp would be the most affected. A moderate impact is anticipated for lenses, canned and processed seafood, electrical equipment, radio and television receivers, rubber products, computers and parts.

Tohoku earthquake alters seafood import trends
Japan — Since the earthquake in March, Japanese households are cooking less at home and buying more processed and semi-processed seafood, which has had a negative impact on overall seafood imports during the first half of this year. Imports of the main category of seafood, such as fresh and frozen tuna, horse mackerel, hair-tail, cuttlefish and octopus, have all fallen behind last year’s levels. However, there were higher imports of fish fillet, processed shrimp, processed squid/ cuttlefish and other convenience products, in response to demand from households as well as from the catering trade. As a result, total import volume during this period declined marginally (<1%) but import value increased by 5%. On the other hand, imports of processed seafood were 5.76% higher in quantity and 7.70 % in value compared to January-June last year.

Rising prices fail to curb fish consumption
Germany — According to the German Fish Information Centre, per capita consumption was 15.7 kg (based on catch weight) in 2010, compared to 11 kg in the 1980s, and is expected to exceed 16 kg next year. Like consumption, fish prices in Europe are also on the rise, up 3.6% in 2010 compared to the year before. A spokesperson from the German Fish Information Centre said that there is a general upward trend in prices due to more countries developing middle-class families that prefer fish and are willing to pay for it. It is becoming more difficult to meet the growing demand and this is driving prices upward. While some countries are boosting production of domestically raised fish to sidestep fluctuations in sea-caught fish, Germany has relatively strict environmental laws that hinder the expansion of fish farms. Germans, in general, are eating more fish because they like the taste of it and believe it is healthier than most meats. In 2010, they consumed nearly 1.3 million mt (catch weight), and around 88% is imported. Norway is Germany’s biggest source of fish, supplying nearly 15% of the

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Canned tuna exports post growth
Thailand — Despite drops in shipments to the US and Middle East markets, Thai canned tuna exports posted positive growth during the first half of 2011. Up to June, canned tuna exports totalled 270 103 mt valued at THB 29.3 billion (US$ 981 million), marginally up by 1.3% in volume but significantly higher by 12.2% in value against the same period of last year. Exports to the main market USA dropped by 10.9% in volume. Due to the current political unrest in some Middle East countries, exports to Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Algeria dropped significantly. Interestingly, exports to Syria grew marginally by 1.2% and to the UAE by 14.8%. Nevertheless, sharp increases in exports to other major markets, namely Canada (+17.4%), Australia (+14.1%), Japan (+26.8%) and the UK (+156.5%) have offset the lower exports to the USA and Middle East markets. Meanwhile, the largest canned tuna producer, Thai Union Frozen Products Pcl (TUF), reported a 42% rise in the 2nd quarter (April-June) net profit to THB 1.24 billion (US$ 41 million) from THB 873 million (US$ 29 million) last year. The increase was partly as a result of the consolidation of MW Brands which boosted sales and lifted profitability. TUF said it is on track to achieve its sales target of US$ 3 billion this year and that the debt crisis in Europe would have no significant impact on its business since tuna is a relatively affordable product for consumers.

market. The top five favourites among German consumers are Alaska pollock, herring, salmon, tuna and pangasius. Germans also prefer frozen fish over fresh fish - and purchase them from discount stores. Every second fish product is sold in a discount supermarket, like Aldi or Lidl, according to the consumer market researcher GfK.

easier to cook and eat. Almost a ton of the delicacy is processed every month but demand has increased recently and the entrepreneur has to buy extra fish from other breeders. Fresh tilapia is sold from MYR 8 (US$ 2.62) per kilogram but it can go for between MYR 20 (US$ 6.56) and MYR 25 (US$ 8.20) once it is pickled.

landings plus imports, round weight equivalent, minus exports) was 12.3 billion pounds in 2010, an increase 476.0 million pounds compared with 2009. Consumption of fishery products was 15.8 pounds of edible meat per person in 2010, down 0.2 pounds from the 2009 per capita consumption of 16.0 pounds.

Pickled tilapia - a popular local appetiser
Malaysia — The red tilapia is commonly bred in freshwater ponds for sale at local fish markets. But an entrepreneur from Serting near Jempol in Negri Sembilan state has been breeding them to be sold as pickled fish since early this year. The roasted rice-andsalt-coated delicacy is a popular appetiser for rural folk and has now made an appearance at farmers’ markets and city supermarkets nationwide. Some 20 000 red tilapia is bred in five ponds at a disused mining area in Sungai Lui. Pickled tilapia fish is different from the traditional types like catfish, perch and others as the red tilapia has thick flesh, orderly bone structure and no tiny bones, which makes it

US fishery landings, trade increase
USA — Commercial fishery landings (edible and industrial) by US fishermen at ports in the 50 states were 3.7 million mt valued at US$ 4.5 billion in 2010, an increase of 2.5% in quantity and of US$ 628.5 million (up 16%) compared with 2009. Finfish accounted for 84% of the total landings, but only 48% of the value. Imports of edible fishery products (product weight) were 5.5 billion pounds valued at US$ 14.8 billion in 2010, an increase of 294.8 million pounds and US$ 1.7 billion compared with 2009. US firms exported 2.7 pounds of edible products valued at US$ 4.4 billion, an increase of 185.4 million pounds and an increase of US$ 399.5 million compared with 2009. The US supply of edible fishery products (domestic

Live freshwater fish gets more popular
China — Prices for live freshwater fish in China’s Jiangxi province have increased as much as 7.5% on a weekly basis due to the rising cost of pork, according to the provincial commerce department report. Prices for crucian carp increased 4.5% in the same period. Demand for freshwater fishes, generally half the price of pork, rose significantly in recent weeks, resulting in insufficient supply. Traditionally carps are popular among the Chinese. Bighead carp, called hua lian in Mandarin, has been a Chinese delicacy for so much of China’s centuries-old history. Local supermarkets, small grocers and street-side sellers offer live fish in tanks or in low plastic trays and then butcher them onsite. Freshwater fish must be eaten within

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hours of being killed. Most customers also buy the treasured head of the carp, which commands twice the price of the fish’s lower half. At about US$ 4.30 for 1.8 kg of fish head, a pricey dinner by Chinese standards, bighead carp also is twice as expensive as other comparable fish. In China, people eat carp in three main ways: fried, then stewed in sweet-and-salty soy sauce with ginger and green onions; in a soup, sometimes kept boiling and used to cook other raw meats at spicy Sichuan hot-pot restaurants; and steamed in garlicky broth, topped with freshcooked red peppers.

Domestic fish prices, consumption rise
India — Fish prices across India are on the rise as the domestic market is growing at a rate of 30%. The demand, which was largely metro-centric only a few years ago, is now spreading to smaller and inland cities. This sudden spurt in demand is pushing up prices. Consumption of fish in India is increasing significantly due to lifestyle changes and higher meat prices. In addition, the perception of fish as a healthy food is also a major factor for increased fish consumption. The phenomenon is gradually spreading beyond hypermarkets and supermarkets. The price of fresh pomfret, for example, which was hovering around IRS* 180/kg, has now gone up to IRS 250-300/ kg depending on the size of the fish. Farmed shrimp, which was IRS 200/kg a year ago, has appreciated to IRS 300/kg.
*US$1 = IRS 45 approx.

Ningbo Customs facilitates seafood exports
PR China — The latest statistics released by Ningbo Customs show that in the first eight months of 2011 the total exports of fishery products from the province amounted to US$ 220 million, an increase of 51.5% over the same period last year. Live eel is the main product exported and total export value increased to US$ 41.92 million, up 22.7% over the same period last year. Taking into consideration the fact that exports of fishery products need speedy Customs clearance, Ningbo Customs makes innovations to optimise its supervision mode and to facilitate the clearance. The Customs adopts the “pre-declaring” mode for the bulk of live and fresh seafood, and opens the “green passage” for exporters so that the live and fresh fish can be dealt with as quickly as possible. For the first eight months this year, Ningbo’s exports of fishery products to the main market, Japan, reached US$ 89.8 million, up 61.1% over the same period of last year.

Measures to control trade in live lobsters
Brazil — Lobster producers in the Ceara region have proposed a regulation to the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture (MPA) to tighten control over the trade of live lobsters in order to reduce illegal fishing. This initiative would be a complementary measure to the annual fishing ban imposed by the Government to ensure the sustainability of this crustacean in Brazilian waters. The government imposes an annual ban on lobster fishing for six months, from 1 December to 30 May. Fishing vessel owners, however, argue that the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Natural Renewable Resources (IBAMA) does not have enough resources to fully enforce the ban. There are about 2 500 fishing boats catching lobster, but only 1 900 of them have valid licenses.

MSC-certified Aussie shrimp enters European market
Australia — The first MSC certified shrimp from the South Australian Prawn Co-operative has successfully penetrated the European

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markets. The shrimp, under the Aussea Seafood brand, is sold to high-end food service buyers who are willing to pay premium prices for the wild-caught, frozen at sea shrimp. The premium price paid somewhat compensates the 12% import duty imposed by the EU for shrimp imported from Australia. Last year, the country’s tuna landings totalled 387 101 mt, which was nine percent less than in 2008. Of the total, commercial fish catch accounted for 70 percent or 271 625 mt, 14 percent less than in 2008. Meanwhile, total tuna exports in 2010 were valued at US$ 359.4 million. About 70% was canned tuna (76 800 mt), and the rest was fresh, chilled or frozen. Canned tuna exports in 2010 dropped by 8% compared to 2009 figures. new law will help conserve some of the 53 shark species found in Chilean waters, an area that stretches more than 4 000 miles from the country’s northern border with Peru to the Southern Ocean. Chile’s new law comes as the latest of several shark finning bans this year. The United States, the US territories of Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands and the Marshall Islands have passed shark finning bans in the past seven months. The Bahamas and Honduras meanwhile have created shark sanctuaries, where shark fishing is prohibited. These countries joined Palau and the Maldives, which have passed laws based on their realisation that live sharks for tourism can generate more money than dead ones.

Tuna export fee cut
The Philippines — The government has reduced the current three percent export fee on tuna products following a proposal by the fishing federation in Mindanao in a bid to shore up the ailing industry. A Department of Agriculture (DA) official said that the fee is now reduced to a mere 0.2 percent.

Ban on shark finning
Chile — The Pew Environment Group reports that Chile’s president has signed a law that bans shark finning in Chilean waters. The

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Reader enquiry number 7


Global trend
The World Trade Organization (WTO) has revised its overall trade forecast for 2011 to 5.8% growth, down from its earlier estimate of 6.5%, due to slower than expected growth in global trade in the last few months and the uncertain outlook of the global economy for the rest of the year. To some extent, the international fish market is being influenced by the growing economic uncertainty among consumers. Importers, processors and retailers, particularly in the developed import markets, are scaling back on purchases with less willingness to commit or to enter into any long-term contracts. Prices of tropical shrimp, salmon etc are under pressure after hitting the highest levels ever during the first quarter of 2011. Nonetheless, fishery import values were higher in many traditional and emerging markets during the first 6-7 months of the year. The 2digit growth rates also persisted in most of the Asia-Pacific import markets, supported by their strong national currencies against the US dollar.
Growth Rates of Fishery Imports

Japan Extra-EU PR China Rep Korea Hong Kong Singapore Australia

: : : : : : :

+ 5.78%; +20%; +11.65%; +28.5%; +18%; +20%; +15.6%.

International market prices for tuna, shrimp, pangasius, tilapia and many more tropical marine fishes stayed higher than the previous years, in response to rather steady demand from domestic and emerging export markets.

Skipjack raw material price reached the highest level at US$ 2 100/mt, CFR Bangkok, during end-September, above the record level in mid2008. Packers are concerned about consumers’ resistance under the current economic situation in Europe and the USA. Catches are below average in the major fishing grounds. The implementation of the PNA (Parties to the Nauru Agreement) regulations in the Western and Central Pacific also limits fishing operations in certain EEZ. Skipjack price in Manta increased from US$ 1 850 to US$ 1 950/mt. Catches in the ETP have recovered, especially skipjack, up by 76% compared with 2010. Yellowfin raw material for canning has crossed US$ 3 000/mt for canners in the Asia-Pacific. The canned tuna market has also been under attack from environmentalists who aggressively advocate consumers and retailers buy and sell only pole and line as well as FAD-free sourced tuna. Beginning in the UK, they are now targeting the US market, the largest market for canned tuna. After the austerity measures during the Spring festival, sashimi tuna consumption in Japan improved during the summer holiday season and rose at the Obon festival in mid-August. But demand for expensive bluefin tuna was restricted to high-end sashimi and sushi restaurants. Japanese retail trade increasingly offers purse-seine caught yellowfin for sashimi use. In the US, the Tuna WonderFish campaign to revive demand has shown some positive results in the canned tuna market. But, the industry is now facing another confrontation with environmentalists. A dispute has recently started between three major canned tuna producers Bumble Bee, Chicken of the Sea (CoS) and Starkist and Greenpeace. The US non-canned tuna market remains price sensitive amidst over 9% unemployment rate.

The continued fall in prices in the European market is a major issue for Norway, the main supplier, and also for Irish and Scottish farmers. Chilean companies, which have been targeting Brazil and the USA for their recovering output, have on their part been hit by the fall in the Brazilian currency and a weak US market.

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Norwegian export statistics for the first nine months showed a 3% increase in export volumes from the same period in 2010 at 670 000 mt (round weight). However, as a result of the sharply lower prices from the second quarter onwards, the value of exports declined, albeit only marginally, to NOK 21.7 billion (US$ 3.84 billion). Fresh fillet exports to the EU were stable but those to the USA fell 66%. The EU remains Norway’s principal destination and saw imports grow 3.4% during 2011; traditional processing destinations, such as Poland, were down, however. Norway’s problems with China saw salmon exports fall 48%. The major growth was experienced in relatively new markets such as Israel and Vietnam, and within Europe in Portugal and Greece, somewhat surprisingly. Generous catches of wild Pacific salmon, especially of pinks, have added supplies to both the US and Russian markets, lessening the need for imports of farmed salmon. Coho, however, remains in short supply. Russia’s imported volumes from Norway were still up 4% during the first nine months, whereas USA’s purchases from Norway fell back almost 50%. The main reason for the latter, however, is Chile’s comeback.

The global shrimp market remained positive during the first half of this year, despite the lower supply situation and strong price trend world wide. The major markets - Japan, the EU and the US - and emerging markets imported more than last year, although shrimp prices worldwide remained firm, balancing lower than expected seasonal supplies from Asia. Demand for processed shrimp has also been higher in the post-tsunami Japanese market, but lower for raw frozen shrimp. Producers able to meet such demand gained more from this trends. Processed shrimp imports were also higher in the US and EU markets which affirm the positive market trend for value added shrimp. During the first half of the year, Thailand exported less than last year due to the raw material shortage, but there were higher shrimp exports from India, China, Indonesia and Vietnam. Local demand for shrimp in many producing countries also remained good supported by the strong national currencies and rising consumer income. Indian vannamei has already found a niche in the domestic fresh fish market; demand ranges from about 50-60 mt per day.

Tropical finfish: tilapia
Demand for tilapia continues at a steady pace worldwide, in spite of supply hiccups in the largest producing country - China. Higher imports took place in the major and non-traditional markets. Prices have strengthened alongside rising demand, higher production/ processing costs and leveled supply. Exports from China, the global leader in tilapia production, were 2.11% higher at almost 140 000 mt during January-June 2011 compared with the same period in 2010. Frozen fillets had a 45% share in total tilapia exports, although supply fell by 22%. However, whole frozen tilapia exports increased by 59% with higher supplies to African markets (Cameroon, Ghana, Congo and Namibia). Exports of breaded fillet also went up by 7%. Prices on the whole have strengthened amidst the tight supply situation and harsh weather conditions. Average export price of whole frozen tilapia, frozen fillet and breaded tilapia inched up by 21%, 26% and 37.4% to reach US$ 1.88/kg, US$ 4.37/kg and US$ 3.60/kg respectively. FAO forecasted global tilapia production to reach 3.7 million mt in 2010, where production in China remained steady between 1.1 and 1.2 million mt but increased in other countries.

The top fish meal buyer China, imported less during the first half of this year. Compared with last year, imports declined by 21.4% at 224 000 mt which seems to be significant. Demand was lower during this period associated with prolonged winter and subsequent late start of the farming season. The market also held stocks from last year. The average import price increased marginally during this period to US$ 1 570/mt in 2011 against US$ 1 500/mt in 2010, which could be related to higher catch quota of anchovies in Peru this year.
Market trends are based on INFOFISH Trade News and FAO-GLOBEFISH Newsletters.

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Frozen shrimp, cfr Japan
20 Vietnam: Cooked-sushi, butterfly-cut, b/tiger 21/25

Frozen shrimp, wholesale Tokyo, Japan

Yen 1000/kg

Vietnam: B/tiger, HL, 16/20 1.50


Indonesia: B/tiger, HL, 16/20 10


India: B/tiger, HL,16/20

1.00 India: B/tiger, HL,16/20

Thailand: Vannamei, HL, 31/40

Indonesia: Vannamei, HL, 31/40

5 2008




0.50 2008




Frozen shrimp, cfr USA
6 India: B/tiger, H/L, 21/25 5 Bangladesh: B/tiger, HL, 21/25

Frozen shrimp, ex-warehouse NY, USA

5 Vietnam: B/tiger, HL, 21/25




Latin America: Vannamei, HL, 41/50


Indonesia: Vannamei, HL, 21/25

3 Thailand: Vannamei, HL, 36/40

2 2008




2 2008




Frozen shrimp, cfr Europe

Frozen tuna
5 Albacore, 10 kg/up Wholesale, Japan S.W. Pacific: Yellowfin, rd, 10 kg/up, Auction Shimizu, Japan

Bangladesh: B/tiger, HL, 16/20 15 India: Freshwater shrimp HL, 16/20 10






B/tiger, head-on 31/40, 20% glaze, origin: South Asia

India: Pud, 300/500 0 2008 2009 2010 2011

Skipjack, rd, 4lb/up, cfr Thailand 2009 2010 2011

0 2008

Based on the INFOFISH Trade News

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Frozen whitefish
4.0 Vietnam: Pangasius fillet, 20% glaze, 170 gm/pc up, IQF,cfr, Europe (US$/kg) Uruguay/Peru: Hake fillet, cfr, East Coast USA, (US$/lb)

2500 Fish oil, semi-refined FOB Peru 2000 Peruvian fishmeal 64%, cfr Hamburg



Taiwan/China: Tilapia Fillet, 5-7 oz, Wholesale USA (US$/lb) China: Alaska pollack, fillet, cfr, East Coast USA, (US$/lb)






Peruvian fishmeal, Peru 67%, FOB

1.0 2008




500 2008




Cold storage holdings: Japan
100000 Tuna Total 80000

Tuna cold storage holdings: Japan
40000 35000 Skipjack 30000 25000




Shrimp 40000 Cuttlefish/Squid 20000 Surimi

20000 15000 10000 5000 Bigeye


Octopus 0 2009 2010 2011

Albacore 2010

Other Tuna 2011

0 2009

Japan: Fishery import trends
40000 Salmon and trout 35000 Tuna fresh/frozen 30000 25000

USA: Shrimp import trends
Total shrimp (incl. canned)

60000 50000 40000

Shrimp, fresh/frozen

20000 15000

30000 20000

Peeled raw Shell-on

10000 Surimi 5000 0 2009

10000 Prepared shrimp 0 2009





Based on the INFOFISH Trade News

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EU Imports Of Whitefish 2010 With Reference To Tropical Freshwater Finfish


he European finfish and value added seafood processing industry relies on a consistent and sustainable supply of raw material to satisfy consumer demand for seafood products, both for domestic and out-ofhome markets. The EU Fish Processors and Traders Association (AIPCE-CEP) and its members use the Finfish Study at EU and member state level to exemplify the need for imported seafood, particularly whitefish, to produce value added seafood within Europe. This has been the lifeblood of the industry for many years and fulfills an essential role. Sources from which EU processors have acquired their raw materials have changed significantly, reflecting events occurring on the global stage as well as responding to local supply alterations within the EU. Major new species that have emerged and become key components of the seafood trade in Europe include Alaska pollock from wild capture and Atlantic salmon and pangasius catfish from aquaculture. Without these introductions the ability of the sector to grow and respond to consumer needs and expectations would have been considerably more difficult. The evolution of fish raw material supplies in the EU has been quite dramatic over the last 20 years. Traditional species still have a key role in the market and provide the backbone on which consumer confidence is built (Atlantic cod is still the No 1 species) but limits to supplies of some of these species have opened up the scope for alternatives. Whitefish such as Alaska pollock, pangasius catfish and tilapia have become mainstream species. The total contribution of EU catches is down

Volume of unprocessed and processed important whitefish species imported into EU from third countries for 2010 (in mt live weight)

but the contribution of the aquaculture sector encouragingly continues to increase. Imports have returned to the higher levels of 2007/08. The overall reliance on imports has increased marginally to 62% for 2010. This diversification has created many new challenges that processors have had to respond to but which also concern all stakeholders including consumers. Issues surrounding legality of supply and other matters of international trade have been addressed both voluntarily by the industry and through regulation and control. Sustainability, ethical trading and other such matters are still largely addressed by private initiatives but there is increasing awareness and interest from consumers, government and society as a whole in these subjects.

Key findings of study
- Total market supply has grown 1% to 15.1 million mt - Imported share has grown to 9.394 million mt and equals 62 % - Dependence on whitefish imports has stayed level at 89% for wild capture and > 91% for aquaculture products - EU catches have reduced by 2.3% to 5.224 million mt (incl for non-food uses) - EU aquaculture has increased by 5% to 1.514 million mt - Exports have moved up by 8.8% to 2.118 million mt - Cod is the No 1 whitefish species followed by Alaska pollock - Global quota trends are positive

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Import Supply Trends
fish imports, distantly followed by African countries supplying Nile The EU has changed significantly over its history. Expansion to 27 countries has made it perch (70 000 mt) and China for tilapia (37 000 collectively the largest region globally for mt). seafood consumption. The numbers can be Historically, freshwater dramatic. For example, farmed salmon has species were not risen in some retailers to being the No 1 subdivided in Eurostat species accounting for more than 50% of fish data, but following sales in the chilled category and in overall volume is comparable to the three key whitefish AIPCE-CEP requests, this was corrected from species. Similarly, pangasius has established January 2010. Adding itself as a major whitefish species. The EU value addition processing sector salmon, trout, carp, has developed rapidly in response to new tilapia, Nile perch and opportunities and consumer preference for pangasius together, we seafood products. In turn, its reliance on can see a slight increase fishery product imports for its base raw in the import of materials has adapted in meeting these needs. freshwater fish to a cumulative 925 000 mt (WFE) compared to 908 000 mt in 2009. Within Importance of Semi-Prepared this, pangasius fillet import has reduced slightly Fish Imports and Supply of to 222 000 mt (fillet weight) last year from Freshwater Fish in the EU 224 000 mt in 2009 although in the new statistical separation there may be some confusion with codes on one or two items that The EU value addition processing sector relies on imported semi-processed fillet and future analysis will correct. In last year’s study, portion supplies of wild captured whitefish the exponential growth of pangasius seen up species, both fresh and frozen. to 2008 was coming to an end and these For freshwater fish species, comparing the figures seem to have confirmed this change. 2010 figures against those for 2009, fresh and In the global market share, the EU has frozen categories together have grown 2-3%. dropped to 33.7% from 36% in 2009 and Vietnam accounts for 80% of all freshwater 40% in earlier years. Pangasius has been

able to expand into other markets reaching a new high globally of 659 000 mt of fillets but the rate of this expansion may now be slowing. The decline apparent in Nile perch during 2009 has stabilised from African countries but is still some way off the peaks prior to the global economic turmoil. Tilapia appears to have had strong growth in 2010 with China being by far the major supply nation. This has mostly come as frozen fillets, reaching a level of 42 000 mt (WFE), about 40% up year on year. Difficulties in tilapia farming regions, especially China, over the last couple of years may have inhibited the opportunity for the species to enter new markets but growth conditions have been improving and availability and price may now make tilapia a competitor in this sector. Against global volume this EU element represents a ‘drop in the ocean’ with global estimates approaching 3 million mt. There is a number of small scale tilapia farming operations in the EU that are satisfying local market needs. Note : This review is an excerpt of FINFISH STUDY 2011, prepared by the EU Fish Processors and Traders Association (AIPCE-CE). The report uses Eurostat 2010 data and refers to the entire EU-27 group of member states. All figures are calculated in WFE (Whole Fish Equivalent). Previous years’ figures have been corrected for non-food uses.

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by Iftikhar Ahmad

The Indus Mahseer - a splendid treasure of the Indus river system.


akistan is blessed with vast natural water resources. Its topography ranges from the Arabian Sea in the south to the snow-capped Himalayan mountains in the Iftikhar Ahmad north, mediated by fertile and lush green plains with moderate climate and sandy deserts with intense heat in summer. The mighty Indus River traverses this diverse land in a zigzag fashion. Cold, semi-cold and warm water streams and riverine tributaries not only thrill the imagination but also provide habitats to more than 180 freshwater fish species, among which the stunningly beautiful cyprinid, Tor macrolepis, commonly known as the Indus Mahseer, occupies the most prominent and

Once a dominant and prolific fish of semi-cold water rivers, the Indus Mahseer is currently in a critical state as a result of habitat degradation and other factors. Efforts are being made to rehabilitate the species through artificial breeding and restocking.
significant position. The Mahseer has long been a great favourite of anglers due to its excellent taste, nutritional value and the great fight it puts up as a sport fish. An excellent source of recreation and thrilling sport, it is called “the pride of anglers”. This mighty omnivorous fish, growing up to more than 100 pounds, was once considered the most prolific and dominant species of semi-cold water rivers of Pakistan and Kashmir. It inhabited the rapid streams, riverine pools and lakes with sandy and rocky bottoms between 500 and 2 000 metres above sea level, excluding the western parts of Balochistan province, feeding mainly on small fish, zooplankton, dipteran larvae and plant matter.

The decline of the Mahseer
The population of this king of semi-cold waters suffered a serious decline the last four decades due to shortage of water, alteration of natural waterways by construction of dams

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Rehabilitating the Indus Mahseer of Pakistan
and barrages, discharge of sewage and untreated industrial effluents in natural waters, indiscriminate killing and other unjustified anthropogenic activities. Introduction of exotic fish species like tilapia and common carp and their access to natural waters resulted in mounting stress on this species. Being omnivorous and having a prolific breeding potential, both these alien species not only competed for food and space with this species but also became a predator on its larvae. Unfortunately, the Mahseer has some natural handicaps in terms of its multiplication. These include the long hatching period of 70120 hours and a still longer duration of yolk sac absorption by newly hatched larvae before they become free swimming fry. In addition, the long one week period to pass through the semi-quiescent stage, when the hatchlings remain clustered in corners and crevices and away from light, makes them more vulnerable. All these physical and biological factors together caused a sharp decline in the population of this species, causing it to be critically threatened.


(Clockwise from top left) Stages in egg development. (a) Fertilised eggs. (b) Developing eggs. (c) Embryo. (d) Newly hatched larvae.

Conservation efforts through breeding
Persistent efforts were needed to conserve and assist this prestigious fish species. A pilot project for artificial breeding of this species under captive conditions was thus launched. Brood stock was collected and reared in

cemented raceway tanks of 50' x 20' x 6' and 100' x 50' x 6' dimensions. They were fed on supplementary feed containing 33% crude protein at the rate of 3% of the body weight. Successful experiments on its artificial breeding were carried out and a good number of fingerlings were obtained for restocking and rearing as parent stock. Following the pilot studies, a full-fledged Mahseer fish hatchery has been established in Attock district of Punjab province on the banks of the River Harro, where the largest

natural breeding grounds of this species were present in the past. A series of experiments on induced breeding was conducted by injecting Human Chorionic Gonadotropic hormone (HCG) and Ovaprim (LH–LRH analogue) in various doses, singly as well as in combination. Successful results were obtained by injecting Ovaprim @ 0.6 ml/kg body weight and HCG @ 500 IU/kg body weight in combination with Ovaprim @ 0.4 ml/kg body weight. Later, a natural approach was adapted by providing running water conditions in the brood stock pond at a water discharge rate of 10-15 lit/min for eight hours on a daily basis, which proved very successful. The males were found chasing the females to breed with them. When netted, the females were found to be ready to spawn and were stripped and the eggs fertilised by gently mixing in milt with a soft feather. The fertilised eggs were put in hatching trays in fibreglass troughs, keeping the water level at 6 cm and maintaining a flow rate of 5-6 lit/min. The average size of the eggs was found to be 3 mm and hatching took place within 96 hours at an average water
Stages in fry and fingerling development (clockwise from top left). (a) Fry after yolk absorption. (b) Early fry. (c) Two weeks old larvae. (d) Fingerlings.

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temperature of 24ºC. The mean size of newly hatched larvae was 7 mm. Absorption of the yolk sac took place within 80 hours and free swimming larvae had an average size of 9 mm. The semi-quiescent stage prevailed for about a week. Early fry were fed on rotifers and plankton produced in a separate well manured tank and harvested with plankton nets. Subsequently, the fry were switched to feed on fine fish meal and rice polish up till 45 days after which pelleted feed containing 20% crude protein was fed to the advanced fry. Fingerlings were obtained after a total of 90 days and these were stocked in natural

Rehabilitating the Indus Mahseer of Pakistan
waters and successfully propagated. Over the last two years, about 0.70 million fish seed of this species have been produced and stocked in its natural habitat. vanish unnoticed, they take away with them the hard-won lessons of life encoded in their gene pool. Therefore, we must take care of the whole biodiversity to ensure food security for our future generations.

While the success in producing the fry of these species is to be lauded, it is pertinent to mention here that a highly valued species such as the Indus Mahseer immediately grabs public attention when it is threatened. On the other hand, most people hardly worry about the threats to low profile fish species which are equally important in the ecosystem. As they

Iftikhar Ahmad is Deputy Director of Fisheries, Department of Fisheries, Punjab, Pakistan based at the Fish Hatchery Rawalpindi, Rawal Town, Islamabad.

Reader enquiry number 8

Reader enquiry number 9

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by Erik Hempel and Blessing Mapfumo

frica is an enormous continent the second largest in the world. It consists of 54 nation states with an estimated population of about 800 million. There is a very Erik Hempel long coastline and large inland water bodies that are suitable for aquaculture. Yet, African aquaculture production is less than impressive, to say the least. Now, however, the continent may be Blessing Mapfumo opening up for development, and tilapia is the prime producer.

A Tilapia aquaculture
in Africa
Although the tilapia is indigenous to Africa, the continent has been lagging behind other countries in aquaculture production of the fish. In the past few years, however, tilapia aquaculture has grown significantly in Africa and more projects are in the pipeline.

Hand feeding tilapia in a cage at Lake Harvest, Zimbabwe.

The coastline is about 37 500 km, and there are rich fishing grounds along these shores. In addition, the continent has over 200 000 km2 of lakes, reservoirs and rivers, which are home to an abundance of fish resources. These inland water bodies actually account for about 98% of Africa’s total aquaculture production. Lake Victoria, which is the second largest lake in the world, alone accounts for some 68 000 km2 and produces about 800 000 – 1 000 000 mt per year. In spite of its great potential, African production of seafood is relatively small. In 2009, only 8.3 million mt was produced, which is very small when compared to the rest of the world. The largest fishing nation in Africa is Morocco, followed by Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda. Together, these five countries account for almost half of the continent’s total fish production. Africa’s aquaculture production is even less impressive. In 2009, total farmed production was 1.1 million mt, of which Egypt alone accounted for 64%. By far the largest part of this production was freshwater fish. Since the early 1990s, Africa’s aquaculture production has shown remarkable growth. Practically all of this growth can be attributed to tilapia farming.

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Africa’s aquaculture production

Tilapia aquaculture in Africa
African tilapia production - capture vs culture

Tilapia production
Tilapia is a native African fish, and this is indeed reflected in capture statistics. If we look at the global catches and landings of wildcaught tilapia, Africa dominates. In 2009, African landings of tilapia amounted to over 487 000 mt, or 68% of all wild-caught tilapia landed. Within Africa the main producing region is East Africa, in other words the countries bordering the great lakes – Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Albert and Lake Kariba. The other major producing regions are northern Africa, where the Nile plays an important part, and West Africa, where there are large river systems and a number of man-made reservoirs.

Most of the African tilapia production has come from capture fisheries. But in the course of the past ten years, aquaculture production of tilapia in Africa has grown significantly, and in 2009 farmed production amounted to 454 000 mt, while capture production was about 487 000 mt. Of the farmed production, 390 000 mt, or 86%, was produced by Egypt. Other important tilapia producers in Africa include Nigeria, Uganda, and Zambia. Tilapia production in Uganda has recently increased rapidly, and there has been some increase in production in other countries, too. In Nigeria production dropped dramatically in 2008 but bounced back in 2009. However, these are only the countries with registered tilapia production. We know that there is tilapia production in other countries also, but the

production is registered as “Other Freshwater Fish”. The biggest tilapia producer, Egypt, produces only Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nile tilapia is also a very important species in other countries, but a variety of tilapia species are being farmed in these other countries. If we exclude Egypt from the total, Nile tilapia accounts for some 46%, while the three-spotted tilapia (Oreochromis andersonii) accounts for just over 7%. However, most tilapia production is just registered as “tilapia” without specification of the species.

Farming technologies
A number of tilapia farming technologies

African farmed tilapia production by major producers (Volume in mt)
Country Egypt Uganda Nigeria Zambia Ghana Kenya Congo Zimbabwe Sudan Malawi Others Total 2001 152 1 2 4 4 515 550 626 370 400 412 2 738 2 165 1 000 532 2 851 2002 167 1 4 4 4 735 957 496 530 400 421 2 959 2 213 1 000 620 3 663 2003 199 2 3 4 557 200 948 455 285 600 2 959 2 600 1 000 630 3 612 2004 199 1 4 5 038 660 176 080 760 614 2 959 2 950 1 000 697 3 008 2005 217 4 6 5 019 239 144 080 954 622 2 959 2 450 1 000 767 3 630 2006 258 11 9 5 2 925 388 216 173 000 609 2 960 2 450 1 000 1 445 3 717 2007 265 16 9 5 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 862 891 272 839 500 965 960 500 350 445 758 2008 386 186 17 130 3 233 5 604 5 100 3 113 2 960 2 600 1 400 1 565 4 439 433 330 2009 390 21 10 8 6 3 2 2 2 1 4 300 573 218 437 676 424 960 650 000 500 578

175 159

193 994

221 846

221 942

244 864

298 883

316 342

454 316

Source: FAO FishStat

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Tilapia aquaculture in Africa


commercial farmers production; use protein limiting • Corruption is a common phenomenon in diets. The use of most African bureaucracies; farm-made feeds is • There is a tendency, especially by foreign increasing slowly, donor agencies, to focus on small-scale while manufactured projects; feeds are generally • There appears to be much of low quality. High misunderstanding about what the quality extruded government’s role in aquaculture feeds are only development should be. manufactured in South Africa. All Disease shrimp feed is imported. Tilapia used to be known as a hardy and • Financial disease-resistant fish. This is no longer the institutions are case. Tilapia is being affected by both viral poorly informed Dried tilapia is sold in large quantities on the market in Mpondwe on and parasitic diseases, just like any other about aquaculture the Uganda-Congo border. farmed species. We know that African tilapia and access to credit farms have also been affected by this. by emerging commercial farmers is are used in Africa. The most common is In the battle against disease, knowledge severely limited in all countries. Lead perhaps pond farming. This is also the about the disease is the first step to agencies must promote aquaculture to method used in most small-scale operations. improvement. Aquatic animal health is a further lending institutions and assist farmers to In the south of Africa, where temperatures are step, and a very important one. Eventually, develop bankable business plans. low in the winter, and many places are quite vaccines will be important, and perhaps the • In most countries, the legislative and arid, re-circulation systems are commonly most important strategy to combat disease in regulatory environment is weak and does used. the future, but we fear that this will take time in not encourage the development of the As mentioned, there are a number of large Africa, since so many of the farms are smallsector. The problem is recognised and is lakes and water reservoirs in the region. This scale and traditional. Only the large-scale, being addressed by several countries in has opened the possibility of using floating commercial farms will have the expertise and the region. As part of this process, a core cage technology, although pond culture is the the money to follow such a strategy. of countries has now adopted strategic most common. sector development Challenges plans, while others are In 2006, the FAO published a report following suit. entitled “Regional Review on Aquaculture Development” (FAO Fisheries Circular No Some further 1017/4). This report summarises some of the challenges are main reasons why African aquaculture has being faced: not been a success. Some of the most • Many areas important conclusions were: where water • There has been no or very little availability is development in production technology in adequate have most African countries. poorly • Fingerling availability, quality and developed distribution remain serious constraints to infrastructure non-commercial and commercial such as good aquaculture development in all countries. electricity supply • Feed availability, quality, distribution and or transport; acceptable feed conversion ratios remain • Disease is now also affecting major constraints to both non-commercial African tilapia Fresh tilapia fillets ready to be shipped from Zimbabwe to Europe. and commercial producers. Most non-

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Increasing investments
There is increasing investor interest in tilapia farming in Africa. Information has been received about several projects in southern Africa, as follows: Namibia: a 250 mt government farm at Leonardville and lots of interest by investors. Botswana: The Zambezi Integrated Agrocommercial project has done a feasibility study of producing up to 40 000 mt!!! They say they will begin production in 2014. It is a partnership between Israelis and the Botswana government. There is another 1 000 mt project in the northeast expected to start production soon. South Africa: There are 12 tilapia farms producing less that 500 mt to date. A farm producing over 10 000 mt is coming up in Eastern Cape. A R*45 million hatchery project is coming up in 2011. Mozambique: Four upcoming commercial farms. Angola: Large scale Brazilian farm with production less than 1 000 mt coming up. Zimbabwe: Lake Harvest to expand production to 20 000 mt by 2020.
*US$1 = R 8.3 approx

Tilapia aquaculture in Africa
Zambia: Many small to medium sized farms coming up. Malawi: Expansion by Maldeco to reach 3 000 mt. Two more farms in the pipeline in Lake Malawi. Uganda: Many small to middle size farms coming up. Production of Nile Aquaculture will expand to 2 000 mt per year. Other projects to be announced. Ghana: Tropo to expand to 5 000 mt. Volta Lake Tilapia and many small to middle sized farms coming up. Nigeria: small to middle sized farms coming up. Kenya: Dominion Fish Farm to expand to 2 000 mt. A large number of small scale farms coming up. 2030 could reach about 150 000 mt. In addition, Egypt would probably produce some 400 000 – 500 000 mt a year, giving a total for Africa of 550 000 to 650 000 mt per year. But Africa has the potential to produce a great deal more than that.

Erik Hempel is a native of Norway with a long career in international fisheries and aquaculture development. He has served as Director of INFOFISH and INFOPECHE, and Team Leader of INFOSA, and is presently running his own consulting company in Norway. Blessing Mapfumo, a native of Zimbabwe, has worked in various capacities at Lake Harvest, Kariba, Zimbabwe for many years. Since 2006 he has been Aquaculture Advisor at INFOSA, in Windhoek, Namibia. He is also serving on aquaculture committees in FAO and NEPAD. The above article is an abridged and updated version of the authors’ presentation at Tilapia 2010 Kuala Lumpur, 27-29 October 2010, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Reader enquiry number 10

Africa’s potential
If the foregoing projections are just partly correct, they alone would represent an annual production volume of approximately 84 000 mt of tilapia by 2015. But let us assume that it takes a little longer time, because in Africa, Things Take Time. If we estimate that production in 2010 amounts to about 30 000 mt (Egypt excluded), and that the rest will reach 85 000 mt, not in 2015 but in 2020, and that growth continues but at a slightly slower rate until 2030, production in

Interested in going organic?
INFOFISH brings to you two essential guides on organic seafood
Feasibility study on organic aquaculture
Published by INFOFISH (2011). 52p. The book presents an investment/ economic analysis of four types of organic aquaculture systems for shrimp (modified traditional and semiintensive), freshwater prawn and freshwater fish (both extensive). This is a useful guide for potential investors in organic aquaculture.

Handbook on organic aquaculture
Published by INFOFISH (2011). 35p The book is a compact guide on organic aquaculture, certification and post harvest handling and marketing of organic aquaculture products. It is a handy tool for farms planning to covert to organic aquaculture.

For more information, please contact INFOFISH (

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Aquaculture consultation
P R China — The ICEIDA-funded project on, ‘Strategies for development of Asian reservoir and lake fisheries management’ concluded with a final consultation on lake and reservoir fisheries and aquaculture development in Asia. The consultation was held at the Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Science, Wuhan from 20-24 September. The consultation was organised by the Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA) and brought together over 40 key researchers from nine Asian countries and the FAO. The scientific proceedings were divided into five sessions, with the following themes: country perspectives, management aspects, ecosystems/ stock enhancement/ water quality, and translocations/ introductions/ climate change. Each session was followed by a discussion on the common issues relevant to improving fish production in lakes and reservoirs in the region and related environmental aspects. The consultation also discussed in detail a concept proposal for a “Regional Programme on Stock Enhancement” developed by the MRC in consultation with NACA and the FAO, at a consultation held in Vientiane, Lao PDR in August 2010. The participants had the opportunity to visit Liangzhi Lake where major management changes have been made, resulting in significant improvements in economic gains and improvements in water quality. The lake fishery now essentially concentrates on the production of Chinese mitten crab and mandarin fish, both high valued species. Over the years the improved management has been successful in eliminating eutrophication problems in the lake. social and economic sustainability. The project initially conducted public consultations amongst all players in the supply chain to gather views on existing certification systems, their practicality, credibility, implementation status and constraints. Consultations were also held with selected groups of small scale farmers to ensure that their opportunities and constraints were given priority consideration. The feedback was used to develop recommendations on improving certification systems for aquaculture in Thailand. The project also convened training in group certification for small scale farmers, for farmers, government officers and NGOs involved in this activity. The development of a group-based aquaculture certification scheme was piloted with shrimp farmers in Chantaburi and Trang provinces and tilapia in Chonburi and Petchaburi provinces. The project assisted farmers to register their group with the government, to establish governance and record keeping systems, and to establish an internal control system in order to facilitate compliance with required production standards and traceability. A Standard Farming Manual was prepared by each group and groups held crop planning meetings before commencement of the crop cycle, and held monthly meetings during grow out to discuss production issues and provide mutual technical support. Groups typically entered into group contracts for purchase of inputs such as seed and feed in order to benefit from bulk order discounts. There has been a marked improvement in farming practices as a result of the group approach, standardisation and training. A regional seminar was held in Bangkok from 15-16 September to share the experiences of Thailand more widely with countries within ASEAN and with other organisations that are working on certification and related trade issues for small-scale aquaculture. Project personnel gave presentations on the experiences gained in the establishment and certification of farmer groups; development of traceability and GIS systems to support certification and analysis of the Thai national certification system. As the

Certification for small scale aquaculture
Thailand — FAO and the Thai Department of Fisheries have conducted a joint project on certification for small scale aquaculture in Thailand. The project aims to help small scale farmers implement certification through a group approach, to enhance their market access and improve their environmental,

Fast growing prawn developed
Vietnam/Australia — Queensland University of Technology (QUT) scientists have helped develop a prawn that grows 25 per cent faster than other cultured strains. Researchers from QUT’s Faculty of Science and Technology have been working with scientists from national aquaculture research agencies to support development in the Mekong River Basin, which crosses six countries in Southeast Asia. Professor Peter Mather, the Biogeosciences discipline leader at QUT, said that freshwater prawn aquaculture is a huge industry in Southeast Asia worth more than $1 billion per year. QUT PhD researcher Dinh Hung conducted the Vietnam-government funded research into improving growth rates of the giant freshwater prawn with the Research Institute for Aquaculture No 2 (RIA2) in South Vietnam. They developed an improved culture strain of the giant freshwater prawn that grows 25 per cent faster after a three-year selective breeding programme. To develop the new prawn, three giant freshwater prawn strains from Vietnam and Thailand were combined into a single breeding stock. The researchers then took the synthetic line and picked the best families for growth rate and the best individuals within those high-performing families. After three years, researchers developed a prawn that grew 25 per cent faster than the strain they started with. These genes can be used as markers to identify fast-growing individuals while they are still of small size. If similar genetic markers also exist in other crustaceans, we may be able to use them to produce fast growing culture strains for other species as well, said Professor Peter Mather.

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Beans as replacement for soya and fish meal
UK — A simple low-cost bean, the faba bean, could replace imported soya and fishmeal used as feed for salmon, pigs and poultry. A consortium of scientists and industry partners has been awarded funding of almost *GBP2.6 million by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK’s national innovation agency for the project to investigate a range of benefits from faba beans. Faba beans, Vicia faba, have been cultivated for thousands of years and are now grown in temperate areas of the world. A simple, low cost process will separate faba beans into a protein concentrate suitable for use in salmon feeds, and a starch concentrate for use in pig and poultry feeds, and thus reduce reliance on imported soy protein, soybean meal and fishmeal in aquafeeds. In addition, the increased culture of beans will result in major reductions in the use of artificial fertilisers, and instead rely on the nitrogen-fixing properties of beans as a natural fertiliser and soil improver. The project will also investigate the development of new bean strains specifically targeted to salmon production that require higher protein levels and lower anti-nutritional compounds than products used for non-ruminant animal production. The four-year project is led by EWOS Ltd and involves five other industrial partners - BioMar Ltd, WN Lindsay, Limagrain, Marine Harvest (Scotland) Ltd and Harbro Ltd - and five academic partners (the Universities of Stirling, Aberdeen and St Andrews, the James Hutton Institute and the Scottish Agricultural College).
*US$1 = GBP 0.62 approx

current proliferation of certification standards has caused fragmentation and confusion in the industry, participants also discussed about establishing equivalence between different certification standards by developing a system for benchmarking against the FAO Guidelines on Aquaculture Certification. The project was funded by FAO through a Technical Cooperation Programme facility. A website is in development based on the outcomes of the project, and an online traceability database will be available in due course.

ages and a dry lab for associated research. VIU has been involved in sturgeon research since the 1980s. It is the only academic institution in western Canada to have captive white sturgeon brood stock—fish old enough to spawn. In 1991, researchers successfully conducted the first-ever captive spawning of Fraser River white sturgeon. VIU and the City of Nanaimo will host the

seventh International Symposium on Sturgeon in 2013. The five-day international symposium, which occurs once every four years, will be held at the ICSS and the Vancouver Island Conference Centre in downtown Nanaimo.
*US$1 = CAD 1 approx

International sturgeon centre opens
Canada — Following a federal grant of CAD*717 700, Vancouver Island University (VIU) has opened the International Centre for Sturgeon Studies (ICSS). The state-of-the-art facility for sturgeon research is being completed in stages with tanks expected to be ready later this autumn for brood stock. Rigorous testing has been undertaken to ensure healthy conditions for all the fish ranging from the under two gram sturgeon that hatched in early summer to the largest of the white sturgeon – up to two metres long and weighing in at 80 kg. The two-storey, 1 208-square-metre facility houses five wet labs for sturgeon of various

Feed for hatcheries launched
UK — Meriden Animal Health is launching a unique breakthrough product for the early days of larval rearing which mirrors an optimal wild larval diet. Phyconomix is a ready-to-use range of products, available in a liquid and powder form, designed to fulfill the nutritional requirements of growing shrimp and fish larvae. The importance of optimal nutrition during the early periods of life is paramount in any living species. In aquaculture, as with other animals, the young are vulnerable and adequate nutritional provision for fry and postlarvae reduces risk of mortality and poor development. Specific nutrients involved in optimal growth, survival and immunity can be missing in standard dietary regimes or, at best, present at levels capable of negatively impacting larval quality and quantity. It is generally accepted that essential fatty acids, phospholipids, vitamins, trace elements and carotenoids figure prominently in this scenario, and delivery methods for such nutrients must also be optimal to ensure maximum delivery to target organs. Both shrimp or fish larvae have a requirement for optimum nutrition and it has been shown that Phyconomix can meet these requirements, without the need, cost, labour or disease risk of having to produce algae within the hatchery.

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First harvest of shrimp farmed in floating cages
Mexico — The president of the Union of Free Fishermen in the State of Sonora (UPLES), Raúl Sánchez Fourcade, anticipated that by the end of October the first harvest of shrimp farmed in floating cages that comprise the Aquaculture Corridor project will take place. About 8 mt will be obtained in the first shrimp harvest. This mariculture project promoted by the National Institute for Fisheries (Inapesca), is a pioneer in Mexico and also includes fish farming, with the transfer of yellow croaker juvenile specimens in floating cages similar to those for shrimp. The four floating cages located in the Bay of Guaymas are stocked with more than 600 000 shrimp, and only 50 per cent will be harvested by late October. The initiative is expected to provide an alternative to the traditional fishing activity, especially shrimp capture.

Seafood co-op links farmers, processors
Vietnam — Over-production and scarcity of raw pangasius creates hardships for fish farmers due to unstable price. For security in fish farming, farmers need to sign fish purchasing contracts with local processors to ensure an outlet for their fish, says the Vietnamese Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers. VASEP suggests something like The Thoi An Seafood Cooperative (VASEP) in Thoi An commune, O Mon district, Can Tho city, which works to link pangasius farmers with processors effectively. To start with the cooperative had only 10 members but now has around 40. Its registered capital was VND* 500 million but has risen to VND 5.6 billion. Its initial revenue reached VND 15 billion per year but current revenue is up to VND 300 billion per year. The cooperative signed the contract to provide raw pangasius for Hung Vuong Corp in Tien Giang province. In 2011, the cooperative will provide 20 000 mt of raw fish for Hung Vuong Corp, Mr Nguyen Ngoc Hai, the Thoi An cooperative’s Chairman, said. The cooperative has worked with pangasius processors and exporters, signed purchasing contracts with them. Through its policy, processors must supply fry, feed and medicines, technical guides and purchase raw fish for farmers. The cooperative is in charge of fish farming and supplying high quality fish for the processors. In the past three years, though many single fish farmers

suffered losses due to unstable raw fish price, members of the cooperative still earn VND 1 500 - 2 000 from one kg of commercial pangasius.
*1US$= VND 21 000 approx

Short course on feeds
USA — A one week Practical Short Course on Feeds & Pet Food Extrusion will be presented 29 January – 03 February, 2012 at Texas A&M University by staff, industry representatives, and consultants. The programme will cover information on designing new feed mills and selecting conveying, drying, grinding, conditioning and feed mixing equipment. Current practices for production of pet foods, preparing full-fat soy meal; recycling fisheries by-products, raw animal products, and secondary resources; extrusion of floating, sinking, and high fat feeds; spraying and coating fats, digests and preservatives; use of encapsulated ingredients and preparation of premixes, and least cost formulation are reviewed. Practical demonstration of pet food, vacuum coating, and several others are demonstrated on four major types of extruders (dry, interrupted flights, single and twin screw), using various shaping dies.

world’s most lethal fish diseases that wipes out entire stocks. Dr Joebert D Toledo, who heads the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC) Aquaculture Department, said that Viral Nervous Necrosis or VNN is considered one of the most devastating diseases in cultured marine fish and results in massive economic losses if left unmanaged. While a vaccine is also being developed in Japan and Taiwan, the SEAFDEC vaccine is being tested in broodstock, in an attempt to produce offspring that are free from VNN, explained Dr Rolando V Pakingking Jr, a virologist at SEAFDEC’s Fish Health Section. This is important because it is suspected that VNN outbreaks in the Philippines are caused by the transmission of the virus from VNNpositive broodstocks to their offspring. The suspicion is based on the fact that the virus is already widespread in the marine environment as indicated by trash fish used as feed to breeders that test positive for the virus. Research demonstrates that a single injection with a formalin-inactivated vaccine induces potent immune responses and substantial protective immunity among experimental sea bass, grouper and pompano exposed to the VNN virus.

Upgrading traditional aquafarming
Singapore — The world’s largest abalone farmer, Oceanus Group, is partnering with an aquaculture water-treatment firm, SIF Agrotechnology, to use innovative

Vaccine for virus
Philippines — A vaccine is being field tested against a virus that causes one of the

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Marine Harvest, SSF team up for wrasse farming
UK — Scotland’s two largest salmon producers, Marine Harvest Scotland and Scottish Sea Farms, have agreed to each invest US$728 280 over the next three years to develop and grow wrasse. Another US$1.5 million will be provided toward the project by the Technology Strategy Board, a UK government initiative that supports projects involved in the sustainable production of proteins. Wrasse eat parasites off other fish and have been shown to help control sea lice in farmed salmon. The project’s aim is to develop the technology to breed and grow commercially viable numbers of wrasse and deploy these in Atlantic salmon farms in Scotland, the companies said in a joint release. Research into breeding the best species of wrasse will take place at the Machrihanish Marine Farm in Argyll in partnership with Stirling University. Sea lice present a major challenge to the Scottish salmon industry, costing an estimated GBP 30 million each year. They can hamper growth and leave farmed salmon vulnerable to diseases. This project will address a series of key research priorities that currently limit wrasse production including broodstock origin and conditioning, gender control, spawning, larvae and juvenile performances, disease control and deployment strategies. The 4-year project is led by Marine Harvest Scotland Ltd in collaboration with Scottish Sea Farms Ltd. The Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation (SSPO) has agreed to disseminate the practical findings of the project as it progresses to the wider Scottish salmon farming industry. The project also has clear environmental benefits as using wrasse to combat sea lice will reduce the amount of medicines discharged from salmon farms. Salmon is Scotland’s I GBP= US$ 0.62 approx largest food export with a value of US$ 461.2 million per year.

aquaculture water treatment technology of the latter to reduce its footprint in the abalone sector. The companies said that the proposed partnership will be a major breakthrough in upgrading traditional aquaculture farming to ecologically sustainable, hi-tech land-based aquaculture farming that will improve productivity through faster growth and lower mortality. SIF’s technology uses a process that allows for chemical-free disinfection and high quality oxygenation through its recirculating aquaculture systems. The technology will give the biggest boost to live-shipped seafood, increasing quality and lowering costs, the companies said. Oceanus Group Ltd is the largest landbased producer of abalone, and operates along a full value chain that includes farming, processing and even restaurants. Oceanus’ farms are located along the coastal lines of the Fujian and Guangdong provinces in China. The company’s offerings include canned abalones which are sold in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore. As of

31 March 2011, Oceanus Group Limited had 30 212 abalone breeding tanks. SIF Technologies is a subsidiary of SIF Agrotechnology Asia, a Spring Seeds Capital company.

Feed premix plant
PR China — DSM Nutritional Products has announced the completion of its fifth feed premix plant in China. Located in the city of Chengdu, the capital of the province of Sichuan, the new plant has the biggest capacity of all DSM’s feed premix plants in China. The Chengdu plant marks the start of DSM’s development plan in West China and further strengthens the company’s overall strategy for the animal premix and feed market in China. DSM already operates four feed premix plants in Shanghai, Shandong Province, Hunan Province and Jilin Province. In November 2010, DSM Nutritional

Products signed an investment contract with Chengdu Modern Industrial Port to set up the new plant and established DSM Vitamins (Sichuan) Limited. The Chengdu plant, which was built in less than 10 months, has three complete production lines for all product types: macro premixes and vitamin concentrates marketed under the Rovimix® brand. It is carefully built to prevent crosscontamination between active ingredients and non-active ingredients and can provide fully traceable production of poultry, swine, aquaculture, ruminant and petfood premixes. The company implements a “whole food chain” concept which guarantees safety and traceability “from farm to fork”. DSM has extensive experience in managing product traceability along the entire food chain. This will ensure full compliance with heightened requirements regarding food safety, animal nutrition and feed quality in this industry.

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ryptoheros originates from Central America and Southeast Mexico. Being territorial, it needs a fairly large tank and ideal water chemistry of pH 6.5-7.5, hardness 5-15 dH and temperature 24-26oC. They can be bred in captivity. Eggs are laid on stones, earthen pots, or in depressions dug in the substrate. Both parents care for and protect the eggs and fry. Once a pair is formed, the duo will dig the gravel to build a nest. Eggs will hatch in 3 days and the parents will shift the fry to a safer spot in the cave. Fry become free swimming after 5-6 days. They take a wide variety of foods, including flakes and live and frozen foods. There are nine species in the genus, viz Cryptoheros altoflavus, C chetumalensis, C cutteri, C myrnae, C nanoluteus, C panamensis, C sajica, C septemfasciatus and C spilurus. C altoflavus, found in Atlantic Panama, is distinguished by a yellowish breast, fins and throat. It has two rows of inter-radial scales on the anal fin, an opercle with spots and part of a rather indistinct longitudinal stripe. Twopored scales continue the lateral line on the caudal fin, with subsidiary scales present. The genital papilla are tongue-shaped or rounded, notched, wider and pigmented at the base. There is no vertical bar on the head, but the lower half of the opercle is darker; a usually distinct opercular spot forms part of the longitudinal stripe from the opercle to the origin of the pectoral fin. The eyes are greenish, greyish, or bluish. Diffused bars on the side do not extend to the dorsal fin. C chetumalensis, from Belize to the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, differs from C spilurus and C cutteri by having the secondary pored scales on caudal fin not forming rows with the convex rostral end of maxilla. C cutteri, found on the Atlantic side of Honduras to Guatemala, is characterised by a wine-coloured abdomen. It has bars on the sides of the body with alternating intensity, the second being much lighter than the first and third. C myrnae, from the Atlantic side of Panama to Costa Rica, is most abundant in slow flowing rivers and creeks. It is found at 40 - 150 m elevation. C nanoluteus or yellow convict cichlid, is

reach a maximum size of 12 cm. Mature ready to spawn females have a beautiful golden yellow colour on their dorsal and V K Dey anal fins. They exhibit a version of cave spawning behaviour. They pair off with a dance in which the male swims parallel to the female. The female will find a The rift-lake cichlid, C panamensis. secluded shelter to lay many eggs. The male found in streams, pools and ponds of the will fertilise the eggs and protect them. The Garumo River basin, Central America. They young resemble tiny versions of the parents. are sometimes confused with C altoflavus. The female and male occasionally move the Males are larger with more pointed fins while fry in their mouth to the nest if they stray too females have a dark spot far away; however the on the dorsal fin. They are male might eat a few of not a community fish; hence them. are kept only with large fish C septemfasciatus is a which can hold their own in relatively peaceful fish that a fight. The fish is best kept can be kept together with in a species-specific tank or other peaceful cichlids. with similar or larger sized They are omnivorous and Central American cichlids. will take a great variety of C panamensis, the riftlive, frozen and dry food. lake cichlid, inhabits Breeding is rather easy and, at somewhat higher moderately flowing water in temperature, the eggs are Panama. Males grow up to laid and fertilised on a flat 10-12 cm while females are stone. After that, the eggs small and reach sexual are hidden in a cave and maturity at a little over 3 cm. both parents care for the They are easy to keep and fry. are extremely aggressive C spilurus, or blue with members of their own eyed cichlid, is from Lake genus. Aggression between Izabal drainage in individuals, especially Guatemala and is also males, is extreme and they found in Belize, Honduras will eventually whittle down and Mexico. Although not to a pair. They are easy to big, it is aggressive. Males breed and are great are larger; females attain parents. Like many Central trailers to the anal and American fish, the female Top to bottom: C sajica; dorsal fin. They are easy stays and fans the spawn, C chetumdensis; C cutteri; to keep and can dominate while the male defends the C nanoluteus. a tank, but can also be kept territory. with other fish. They may be rough on each C sajica, the T-Bar cichlid or sajica cichlid, other, but when a pair bond is formed, it is is found in streams and lakes on the Pacific usually strong. They will reach breeding slope of Costa Rica. The fish is tan-coloured condition faster if given appropriate food with seven indistinct bars. The third bar is especially blood worms. usually prominent and, coupled with a dark lateral stripe running from the gill cover, forms V K Dey is currently Consultant (Tech), with a horizontal T-shaped mark (hence its name). Bay Harvest International, Kochi, India and Sr They are relatively peaceful and can be kept Consultant of Abt Consulting, Dubai in a community aquarium. Male sajica will

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by John Kowarsky
to meet current live fish needs, supplies and sales. All that is needed to establish such a system is an overhead water supply and a base water collection John Kowarsky capability. The key element to this modular system is a new innovative product, the K Box Cone. The K Box Cone is a simple overflow device that can be fitted to a variety of tubs and tanks. It works on the tried and trusted principle of a standpipe. Water flows into a container, reaches the level of the standpipe and overflows to be collected beneath the container. Systems using standpipes are common in hatcheries, holding facilities and experimental laboratories.

Freshwater crayfish being held in a portable tub and collector system.

The K Box Cone
We will firstly describe the K Box Cone and then outline how it can be used. The K Box Cone is a simple, food-grade, UVstabilised plastic fitting made by injection moulding. As its name suggests, The K Box Cone is conical and it has a flange around its base. A number of features have been included in its manufacture including: • holes in the flange for attaching the Cone to the tub base • score marks around the Cone to allow it to be neatly cut to whatever height required • indent marks around each level of the Cone to allow for easy drilling of intermediate overflow holes if required.
The K Box Cone is 20 cm high with a flange around its base for easy attachment to the container to use.

An easy way to hold live fish
A simple, new innovative design for holding of live fish makes for more effective management and can play a central role in streamlining live fish handling operations. The highly adaptable system can be used for both flow-through and recirculating systems.


eeping live fish in good conditions is a major challenge to fish farmers and others in related industries. Measures must be taken to ensure that fish are not too crowded, that they have good water quality, that there are no stagnant pockets of water with low oxygen levels, that fish are easily accessed and, in the case of bottom-living fish, that they have sufficient floor area. At the same time the fish farmer must minimise water, energy, space and labour use in order to maximise profitability. Often, holding facilities use large tanks.

Large tanks mean large volumes of water, and water is heavy. Once a system is built, it is virtually fixed and there is no flexibility in terms of changing the floor plan. In many situations there is a potential alternative approach. Instead of relying on large tanks, the operator can establish batteries of smaller units that will enable the system to be flexible and adaptable. The size and number of units can be adjusted

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An easy way to hold live fish
The K Box Cone can be adapted and fitted to a wide variety of plastic tubs which can be readily purchased. Such containers are readily available. To modify a plastic tub, all that is required is to drill a hole in its base and attach a cone using stainless steel screws or bolts.


How the system works
The system works by having an overhead water supply directing water into the uppermost tub. Water cascades to the next tub via the K Box Cone. This continues down the stack until the water overflows into the base collector. Depending upon the particular circumstances, water may be allowed to flow to waste or alternatively, it may be recirculated with or without a filtration and purification process. By having tubs one above another, the use of available floor space is maximised. A significant feature of the system as described is that K Box Cones can be fitted to plastic tubs that are self-stacking. This means that racks or shelves, generally used with conventional standpipe systems, are not needed. The system is self-supporting and can be built to any safe height. A stack can be progressively built as more live product becomes available, and the stack can be progressively dismantled as product is used or moved on. In all cases as long as there is the same overhead water supply and the same collector container, the system is functional irrespective of the number of levels. If the tubs used are nesting as well as stacking, they can then be efficiently stored because the shape of the K Box Cone allows nesting to still take place. A simple self-contained system that is completely portable uses a submersible pump in the collector with the water being pumped to the top tub of the stack. This re-circulating system can be set up in minutes and is ideal where there is a need to have a suitable live storage facility offsite for the short-term holding of product. In some cases it may be preferable to have the water draining through one or more holes in the side of the K Box Cone rather than over the top. This is simply accomplished by drilling holes centred on the pre-formed indents moulded into the K Box Cone wall. And by adjusting the flow rate of water through the system, it is possible to

Clockwise from left: (1) Basic setup for tubs. (2) K Box Cones fitted to a wide variety of plastic tubs. (3) Attaching a cone to a tub that has had a 92 mm diameter hole cut in its base.

have an arrangment where the overflow operates over the top of the K Box Cone under normal conditions, but when the pumping slows down or stops, the water drains to a lower level to keep the product moist in shallower water. The cascading water from one level of the stack to the one below raises oxygen levels and reduces the risk of stagnant water pockets. Clearly, this can be adjusted by altering the flow rate through the stack. The relatively small volume and the more uniform distribution of fish through the water in this sort of system (as opposed to a large tank where fish may tend to congregate in one area) will also reduce the chances of dead water pockets by keeping the water moving. By internittently putting higher-flow pulses of water through a stack any waste solids will tend to be re-suspended and carried down and out of the stack.

• • • • • • • •

Simple plumbing – all that is needed is an overhead water supply and a collector tank Self-supporting if stacking tubs are used – shelving is thus unecessary Space efficient – multiple layers best utilise available floor space Water efficient – reduces layer of underutilised water column so that crowding need not occur Water quality – cascading water reduces the chances of stagnation Adaptable – can be used with flowthrough and re-circulation systems Product separation – the modular system allows for easy identification of batches Easy storage if nesting tubs are used.

Frequently asked questions
A number of questions have been asked about the tub system using K Box Cones: Why can’t I just make a system similar to this myself using commonly available plumbing fittings? Of course you can, but the cost of such fittings to achieve a good seal with the tub

The benefits
There are a number of benefits of this system using K Box Cones • Simple assembly – can be quickly put up and taken down by one person

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base would not be significantly less expensive and the features already mentioned that allow the Cones to be modified for a wide variety of tubs and uses are not present in conventional plumbing equipment. Why have a cone shape rather than a cylindrical shape for the stand pipe? The conical design is stronger and the broad base together with the flange allow firm attachment to the tub base. The conical shape allows the tubs to nest for efficient storage. It is also easier to manufacture by injection moulding. Can I inspect the fish in an operating system? This depends upon the type of tub used. If transparent or translucent plastic is used (such as the tubs shown in the photograph of the five-stack), it is possible to see the product through the sides of the tubs. In other cases using opaque tubs this is not possible. However the simplicity of the setup and plumbing means that a large stack

An easy way to hold live fish
can be dismantled and re-assembled easily if a detailed inspection is required. If I can’t see the product and a fish dies, will this lead to a mass mortality due to poor water quality? The likelihood of this outcome will depend upon factors such as the rate of flow of water through the stack A stack of five tubs using inexpensive containers that both stack (left) and the efficiency of and nest (right) for storage. the filtration and purification system used if the water is re-circulated. Exactly the undetected. Our experience using a trial of same consideration applies to a single large yabbies was that there was minimal mortality tank where fish deaths can and do occur in a simple system that operated for several

Your key to the global ornamental fish industry

Ornamental Fish Directory
The INFOFISH ornamental fish directory contains details of more than 1500 ornamental fish industry players. All major segments like exporters/importers/traders, equipment suppliers, feed suppliers, health care products, consultants, publications, trade associations, aquarium shows/exhibitions, public aquariums etc.

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Reader enquiry number 11

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An easy way to hold live fish

weeks. The main application for the K Box Cone tub system is for relatively short-term (days to weeks) convenient storage of live product. It is not suggested that a system be established and left unattended for months. What sort of operations might benefit from using K Box Cones? We see that K Box Cones have potential applications in aquaculture, the live seafood industry, the ornamental fish industry, live bait holding, freshwater and marine research, and for purging and depurating shellfish and finfish. John Kowarsky has a PhD in fish biology and research experience in aquaculture. He runs an environmental science consultancy in Melbourne, Australia.
Reader enquiry number 12

The uppermost tub of a stack of prototype tubs holding freshwater crayfish. Drainage in this case is through holes in the side of the Cone and mesh has been placed over the top of the Cone to prevent crayfish from escaping!

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by Alex Augusto Gonçalves and Colin Kaiser
standard expectations and provide something “more” while adding little or nothing to its cost. Value-added features give competitive edges Alex Augusto to companies with Gonçalves otherwise more expensive products. A value-added seafood product can be an innovative product (eg potato shrimp or vacuum cooked shrimp), a new package, eco-labelling, a new cut, a ready-to-eat product, a gourmet quality product, a formed seafood product (with multiple formats, shapes, dimensions and flavour profiles - like seafood medallions), among others. These products should be marketed at a lower cost to compete with or replace similar higher cost conventional products. Heat and eat type of value added products have considerable demand at the retail level from consumers who resist fresh seafood because of its smell

Value-added seafood products: a challenge or a necessity?
As demand for seafood protein rises worldwide, seafood enters a new era of consumption and ready foods. Companies are driving sustainable sourcing to meet this demand by offering products which are not only of high quality and safe to eat but also from sustainable fisheries.


eafood products are among the most important internationally traded food commodities. Although the theoretical background of international trade is well known, the research conducted so far has offered limited insights into how seafood value (or price) is actually distributed over the chain of production, processing and marketing of seafood products. The major focus of the industry is on frozen products which have a share of around of 7.5% of the total catch. This is mainly because of the export demand for frozen products and consequent need for value addition. The basic tenet on which the seafood industry is presently working is that there is no demand for value added products in the domestic market as consumers are not capable of ensuring appreciation of the products in terms of price and quality. The emergence of value added products is accelerated by the current demand pattern of the major

seafood markets in exporting countries. People have become more selective in their food choices and they are ready to spend more for food. Value-added refers to “extra” feature(s) of an item of interest (product, service, person etc) that go beyond the

A variety of value added shrimp products.

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Value-added seafood products: a challenge or a necessity?
and cumbersome need for cleaning and cooking. One of the largest growing value-added categories at this time is the Home Meal Replacement. Much of the world is catching on to what Europe has had to offer for close to 20 years now, with England, France and Germany being the leaders in this area. and knowledge and independently of any apparent characteristics of the end product. There are considerable changes in consumer preference within the country (around the world) during the last 40 years. There is an increasing demand for value added products in the domestic market commensurate with the growth of the upwardly mobile middle income group especially in the metro cities. It is, therefore, incumbent on the industry to deal with the changed scenario in the domestic market and deal with it accordingly. Moreover, creating a domestic niche market for such products would provide risk coverage against any fluctuation and over-dependence on the export market. It is expected that in days to come, a share of the seafood catch disposed fresh, would be utilised for processed products in various forms taking into account the domestic demand. With the world continually adapting to western style work ethics and policies, as well as cultural influences, the average person has less time to prepare food in the traditional way. Brazil is a great example of this. South Americans have traditionally had a close relationship with food and meals, choosing to enjoy the social and family aspects meals have to offer. North Americans, notably people in the USA, have a different approach to food and meals, typically regarding them as fuel, more than a ritual. As the value added and home meal replacement market grows, so grows quality control standards associated with the raw materials being used and the companies producing these products. It is generally felt that the increase in demand for these products globally will
Shrimp platter.


Consumer preference
Seafood consumers, particularly in the world’s richer economies, are increasingly demanding that retailers guarantee that the product they offer is not only of high quality and safe to eat but also that it is derived from fisheries that are sustainable. For retailers to provide such guarantees, they must receive, together with the seafood, certificates that guarantee the wholesomeness of the product, that the product label correctly identifies the species, that the seafood originates from sustainable fisheries and that the chain of custody is unbroken. As a consequence, several large-scale retailers are demanding certification to their own private standards schemes in the areas of both food safety and quality and sustainability. In the near future, aquaculture must increasingly meet the consumers’ demands and generate products of consistently high quality. The consumers’ perceptions depend on attitudes and beliefs about the products and their production. These attitudes are dynamic and can change depending on information

Some more value added shrimp products.

also have a positive effect on food safety and quality. This is due to strong standards required by large distributors and retailers, where extensive third party audits are a requirement. This is currently taking place in many countries in South America where products are being produced for companies such as Costco, Whole Foods and Walmart. Plants were forced to conform to rigid standards and ensured that quality control departments were taking a much larger role. We believe we will see an increasing number of companies implementing full DNA traceability as it is becoming an asset in terms of liability and responsibility from a legal and ethical standpoint. So as the public becomes more aware of value added and processed products, they demand these standards from their service providers and stores. Another challenge for the aquaculture industry is the consumer attitude toward farmed seafood. Several studies have found that consumers hold overall negative perceptions on farmed seafood, eg farmed seafood is associated with the possible presence of diseases in seafood farms, loss of flavour, mass production, and concerns on animal welfare. The main reason is that the consumers perceive farmed seafood as something “wrong” and “unnatural”. No studies have so far addressed the possible discrepancy between attitude and behaviour in the consumers’ choice of farmed seafood. Despite negative attitudes toward farmed seafood, large amounts of farmed

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Value-added seafood products: a challenge or a necessity?

Formed products from shrimp.

seafood are consumed every day. A number of factors may influence the attitude-behaviour relationship: attitude strength, ambivalence, etc, but considerations like convenience, the value added, price, and availability might influence consumers in an actual purchase situation. Another concern is that technical feasibility and market acceptability alone do not drive the investment required in new product introduction. There could be a discrepancy between what consumers think (bad attitudes toward farmed seafood) and what they actually do (buying it despite the negative feelings they expressed). Taste, distaste (negative effect), nutritional value, and freshness (quality) are suggested to be the most important factors in forming consumers’ attitudes and preferences toward buying and consuming seafood. Price/ cost, convenience, value added products, knowledge, and availability of fresh products are suggested to be important factors in seafood consumption in certain sectors and age groups of consumers.

Final considerations
Value addition and product diversification are two sides of the same coin and we must diversify our exports by addition of newer species through aquaculture. There is an increasing need for safe and healthy seafood products with high sensory quality. This demand needs to be met by increased seafood production from farming. Several (controllable) factors in seafood farming may affect some important technical quality attributes (eg, taste, texture) as judged by the consumer. Moreover, the attitudes, beliefs,

and behaviour of consumers toward seafood farming as a process, alternative food source, and farmed products with convenience and value added may have a significant impact on the perception of quality of seafood. Integrated research embracing both elements offers the option to fulfill consumers’ demand for high quality seafood products. Companies such as WalMart are going to drive sustainable sourcing to new highs, with their implementation of a global Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) buying platform, committing globally to only selling MSCcertified product by 2012. If they follow through with this policy, they will drive most of the competition to do so as well. This will be a huge game changer and have a large impact on the harvesting and processing industries across the planet. As the global demand for seafood continues, we will be forced to start to look outside of the box and take advantage of residual products normally ignored and add value to them. There will always be customers who want a premium type product at a lower cost. No longer will you see only formed products such as surimi being offered. This market is expanding and is no longer being viewed as a lower quality branded segment, ie fish sticks and breaded minced products. This technology and process has been hugely successful in the meat protein markets, particularly the USA where perceived waste products are turned into premium products with great value and quality. Another interesting note is the increase in primary harvesters and processors in the value added industry. Harvesters such as

Phillips, Clearwater and Highliner, who in the past primarily concentrated on fishing, are now realising they are missing out on a huge expanding market. These companies can have a clear advantage as they are sourcing their own material and can reduce losses by utilising product that in the past may pose a loss or a breakeven situation. The writing is on the wall: we are entering a new era of consumption and ready food formats. As seafood protein demand increases and wild stocks decline, aquaculture is becoming the future of seafood and value addition. With this would come even more innovative uses for the whole animal, not just the traditional widely accepted uses. Technology will continue to play a large part in the value added business, with modified atmosphere packaging, new methods of preparation as well as environmentally friendly packs such as sugar cane derived heatable trays. High pressure processing is increasingly popular as a way to increase yields and extend freshness, quality and shelf life. New freezing technology is already having a marked impact on offering high quality products to different continents throughout the whole year. Then the question remains... value-added products: are they a challenge or a necessity? Think carefully about it!!! Alex Augusto Gonçalves is Seafood Technology Professor at UFERSA, Brazil and Colin Kaiser is from Value Added Innovative Seafoods, Halifax, NS, Canada
Reader enquiry number 13

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Reader enquiry number 14

Marel to set up fully automated line
PR China — Marel has won a contract with Pacific Andes to move toward full automation of China’s whitefish plants. Pacific Andes is building the country’s largest whitefish plant in Qingdao. The state of the art line includes defrosting, cooling, grading and trimming and would be delivered by the end of this year. Providing quality control assurance and full product traceability throughout processing, it will give Pacific Andes the flexibility to compete with the best in the markets of Europe and the US. The project is led by Marel, which has teamed up with equipment manufacturers 3X Technology and Skaginn. The potential benefits for Pacific Andes include increased output, reduced production costs, faster throughput, and improved temperature control, which reduces the risk of bacterial contamination, as well as better conditions for the company’s workers. A traditionally labourintensive activity, with plants typically employing 4 000 to 12 000 workers, the Chinese fisheries sector faces increasing competition for labour. The Qingdao installation represents the first stage in a drive for full automation in China’s largest whitefish production plant, and Pacific Andes has already announced plans to upgrade other plants, should the line prove a success.

Ready-to-cook seafood meal
UK — Lyons Seafoods, one of the UK’s leading seafood suppliers, is introducing a new range of chilled, ready-to-cook seafood meals. Central to this launch is the core consumer insight that, despite years of celebrity chefs and recipe ideas, most consumers still lack confidence in preparing and cooking seafood. The range is inspired by seafood recipes from all over the world. It includes Malaysian King Prawn Laksa, Kerala Seafood Curry, Sweet Thai Chilli Prawns, and Catalan Fish Stew. The combination of authentic, fresh ingredients can be made in less than seven minutes. Each meal kit contains three separate compartments: succulent seafood, freshly cut vegetables, and a perfectly matched sauce, all visible through clear panels and prepared daily by Lyons Seafoods in Warminster. To coincide with this latest product launch, Lyons Seafoods also opened a brand new speciality preparation facility at its Warminster site which will house a team of qualified chefs to prepare an array of authentic, fresh vegetables and succulent seafood on a daily basis.

build industrial-scale factories for processing seafood, buy storage and preservation facilities for ships, and set up a research centre.
*US$ 1 = VND 20 800 approx

even temperatures. The controlled thawing method optimises tuna quality by ensuring that the natural red pigmentation of tuna is maintained much longer and that there is minimal drip-loss.

Blast freezing could shift air freight to sea freight
USA — The way is now open to move expensive fish shipments from air freight to sea freight by blast freezing cargo from -20 to -60oC. Blast freezing high-value fish to an ultra-low temperature of -60oC substantially reduces transportation costs as the fish can be transported by containership rather than by air, said a statement from Klinge Corporation. According to the company, tests show that tuna shelf life is increased when frozen to 60oC and thawed, at a time of the customer’s choosing, in a controlled environment. Klinge’s Model CBU-30 is used to deepfreeze yellowfin tuna, as well as other types of high-value fish. The CBU-30 is designed for transport and functions equally well as storage for frozen cargo. The blast freezer ensures full airflow through the load, ensuring

Tuna, sardine canner ups production
Brazil — One of the country’s largest canned seafood producers, Coqueiro, which is owned by the PepsiCo group, increased its production capacity by 30 percent in 2011 to tap into the country’s fast-growing canned fish market. Brazil’s canned fish market grew by 7.5 percent and generated US$ 624 million in 2010. Sardines are a popular fish in Brazil, while tuna is growing in popularity as people’s purchasing power increases. Coqueiro also plans to use its investment for environmental projects, development of local markets, sales promotions and modernising its facilities, while promoting health campaigns and health information about fish. Coqueiro dominates Brazilian canned seafood and the company’s two factories produce more than 30 000 mt of finished tuna and sardine products annually. Although Coqueiro exports to some South American countries - such as Bolivia, Argentina,

National master plan for seafood industry
Vietnam — The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has approved a national master plan for developing the seafood industry from now until 2020. Under the plan, the processed seafood output is expected to hit about 2.1 million mt per year by 2020 with an annual growth rate of 3.5 per cent and export earnings of US$ 10 billion. To achieve this target, the ministry said the industry will need about VND 2.55* trillion in the next ten years from all economic sectors, both domestic and foreign loans and government bonds. The master plan for developing seafood emphasises the need to implement a number of projects to upgrade or

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Uruguay and Paraguay - the “vast majority” of its production is sold in Brazil. Coqueiro’s staple products include tuna - solid, in pieces or grated - in oil, tuna salads with mayonnaise or beans and vegetables, tuna in sauces such as tomato sauce, stroganoff and with herbs, tuna pates and sardines with soybean oil, tomato sauce and fine herbs.

Special menu to promote Scottish mussels
UK — A special menu dish, the Mini Seafood Platter, highlighting the quality of Scottish mussels and other seafood found around Scotland’s shores, has been specially created by Matt Johansson of the Mussel Inn restaurant in Glasgow and Edinburgh to celebrate Scottish Food and Drink (F&D) Fortnight. Using rope-grown mussels supplied by farms belonging to the Scottish Shellfish Marketing Group (SSMG), the Mini Seafood Platter also features coley (pollock), seabass, prawns and scallops, which are cooked in an intricate recipe that includes crème fraiche, white wine and tarragon. Stephen Cameron, the managing director of SSMG, says that the mussels are fantastic quality at this time of year and there is a boom in sales because consumers are increasingly recognising the versatility of mussels in the kitchen. They are easy to cook and are also healthy to eat being low in calories and fat. The Mini Seafood Platter costs GBP 9.95 including a glass of wine. The recipe can be viewed on the SSMG website, However, the Japanese inspectors did offer some advice for a farm they visited. The inspectors advised that the temperature between the frozen area and the cooked area must be suitable to avoid humidity and mould, gloves must be sterilised after using and equipment in the lab must be maintained. In terms of maximum level of Trifluralin and Enrofloxacin residue in seafood products, Japanese regulations are stricter than EU regulations. If possible, in the current situation, NAFIQAD requested Japan to apply the EU level. NAFIQAD and the Japanese Food Safety Department will combine to push up information exchange and update and amended supplementary regulations between the two sides.

Japanese appreciate Vietnam’s seafood safety & hygiene
Vietnam — After inspecting some fish farms and processing facilities in Vietnam, Japanese inspectors had favourable comments on food safety and hygiene conditions in the facilities. The announcement was made at the National Agro Forestry Fisheries Quality Assurance Department (NAFIQAD) meeting, 12-15 September 2011. The Japanese mission appreciated the management and control of food safety and hygiene in processing and aquaculture facilities. Staff and workers in the processing facilities were found to be welleducated and experienced in food safety and hygiene as they could answer fast and accurately when asked questions about the field. Fish farms were seen to be clean and farmers did not use chemicals in aquaculture.

New easy-cook seafood range launched
UK — Young’s Seafood Limited, the leading supplier of fish and seafood, is launching a new ‘Easy Cook’ range throughout three major UK supermarkets. The ‘Easy Cook’ range will provide consumers with ready prepared pre-cut pieces of natural fish fillet, to make it quick and easy to cook at home. Consumers will be able to buy single species chunks of ready to cook frozen fish and then mix and match these as they like in their recipes. The product range includes white fish fillet chunks, pink salmon fillet chunks and smoked fish fillet chunks, enabling consumers to try different kinds of fish as part of a mixed fish dish. The skinless and boneless fish is ready to cook from frozen, and each 250 g pack serves two people. The ‘Easy Cook’ range is packed in partially transparent bags, which makes it convenient for the freezer and gives the consumer flexibility over portion size. Inspiring consumers with recipe ideas on the pack, it is priced at GBP 2.99 each or at GBP 5 for two. Consumers can use the ‘Easy Cook’ fish in a range of dishes, including fish pies, curry, stir fries and pasta dishes, to create a quick and healthy meal using responsibly sourced fish.

New regulatory requirements for aquatic animals
Canada — From 10 December 2011, there will be new requirements for all aquatic animals (finfish, molluscs, and crustaceans) imported into Canada. All aquatic animals must be declared at the border, and those listed in Schedule III of the Health of Animals Regulations may also require an aquatic animal health import permit. The process for the administration and application for an aquatic animal health import permit can be found at: anima/imp/perme.shtml. Aquatic animal health import permits will be required for live aquatic animals listed in Schedule III and for their carcasses or offal,

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New ad campaign for Saucy Fish range
UK — Grimsby-based seafood group Seachill launched a new advertising campaign designed to augment brand awareness among consumers and to promote key Saucy Fish information related to the product’s availability in a wider variety of supermarkets. It will be aired during ITV’s entertainment programme schedule, including features during The X Factor and Downton Abbey. It will appear on television nationwide in the New Year. Digital campaign activity includes search and display advertising. The campaign is integrated with the TV advert and aims to lure visitors to The Saucy Fish Co website; it also entails the creation of an online “Fish Dock” meant to inspire consumers to include fish in their homemade meals. and must be obtained before these aquatic animals can be imported or introduced into Canada. Aquatic animal health import permits will not be required for pet aquatic animals that meet specific requirements, aquatic animals on Schedule III that meet the requirements for personal use, aquatic animals that are eviscerated (gutted), products derived from aquatic animals already processed, packaged products derived from aquatic animals, and ready-to-eat products derived from aquatic animals. The Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) will indicate which aquatic animal commodities will require an aquatic animal health import permit and zoosanitary certification by an exporting country. the foremost provider of algal biotoxin analysis for regulatory bodies in the UK, plans to extend its existing commercial shellfish testing services to cover algal biotoxins analysis for commercial customers and other interested groups. CEFAS will launch an Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) testing service through its commercial arm, Cefas Technology Limited (CTL). It will add further testing services - for Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Lipophilic Toxins (LT), including those responsible for Diarrhoetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) - in the coming year. There will be two service levels: Standard - reporting outcomes within five working days, and Premium - for rapid turnaround within one to three days, dependent on the analysis requested. Discounts will also be available for large orders and for repeat customers. As with existing CEFAS shellfish testing services, all samples will be processed anonymously and reported directly to the customer. Biotoxins are occasionally produced in naturally occurring algal blooms and they can accumulate in the flesh of bivalve molluscs and some other marine species. Eating shellfish contaminated with marine biotoxins may pose risks to health of individuals as well as for the seafood industry. Seafood businesses can limit this risk by undertaking testing of their products for algal biotoxins.

Algal biotoxins testing services in the pipeline
UK – The Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS),

Catfish processing down 22 percent
US — Total catfish processing in the US during August was down 22% from last year, according to the latest figures from the US Department of Agriculture report. The average price paid to producers was US$ 1.28 per pound for August 2011, up 2.5 cents from the previous month and 48.7 cents above a year ago. Sales of fresh fish were down 36% from August 2010 and represented 31% of total sales. Frozen fish sales were down 27% from a year ago and accounted for the remaining 69% of total fish sales. Sales of whole fish represented 16% of the total fish sold, fillets accounted for 61%, and the remaining 23% were mostly steaks, nuggets, and value added products. Imports for consumption of Ictalurus, Pangasius, and other catfish of the Order Siluriformes for July 2011 totalled 18.0 million pounds, up 76 per cent from the amount imported in July 2010. Imports were from Cambodia, China, Mexico, and Vietnam. Fresh catfish fillet exports totaled 150 000 pounds, with 54 300 pounds going to Canada and the rest going to Germany, Nigeria, and Vietnam.

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Survey on environmental toxins in crabs
Norway — For the first time, the level of environmental toxins and heavy metals in crabs from all along the Norwegian coast is to be analysed. The analysis will be done by the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES). Sampling in 2009 and 2010 revealed high concentrations of cadmium in crabs from Salten in the county of Nordland. Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that accumulates in the bodies of crustaceans, fish, other animals and humans. On the basis of these 2010 results, the Food Inspectorate has issued a dietary advisory for the area between Saltfjorden and Folda, to the effect that everyone should avoid eating brown meat from edible crabs. The Food Inspectorate also advises limiting consumption of claw meat from crabs caught in this area. Both claw meat and brown meat will be analysed for their content of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, as well as of organic environmental toxins such as PCBs, dioxins, brominated flame retardants and perfluorates. Since 2001, NIFES has been analysing crustaceans from a number of areas as part of a major monitoring programme on behalf of the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, the National Shellfish Production Inspection Programme.

• Global supply, market trends and prospects for the principal fishery commodities - shrimp, tuna, cephalopods and other fishery products... • Buyer-seller matching... • Handling, processing and quality assurance... • Product development, value addition and packaging... • Plant design and equipment choice... • Aquaculture.. • Environment assessment...
Reader enquiry number 15

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Salmon bacon
Bacon is normally made of pork. Salmon bacon is the healthiest alternative to eating pork bacon as it has plenty of antioxidants and is rich in omega fatty acids. Available in 5oz and 10-oz packs and launched in 2011, it is the first healthy alternative to bacon made of pork.

Gourmet tuna steaks
Gourmet tuna steaks from Anova Food are produced from tuna sourced in a sustainable manner by long-lining under the Fishing & Living project carried out in Indonesia in collaboration with the World Wildlife Fund. The quality is supervised from catch onwards. Five pieces come per 900-gram polybag. The firm rich red meat can be served spiced or with a sauce. For raw use, it can be used in sushi or as sashimi. (Anova Food BV, The Netherlands)
Reader enquiry number 18

(The Macknight Smoke House, Inc, USA)
Reader enquiry number 16

The Macknight Smoke House

Prawn antipasti
Winner of the SEAFOOD PRIX d’ELITE award in the ‘Convenience’ category in the 2011 European Seafood Exposition, the Prawn Antipasti range of ready-to-eat marinated shrimp is a delicious snack or appetiser. The prawn antipasti consist of 80 gm of prawns and 20 gm of marinade. The product is packed in a pre-formed transparent tray

New way for children to eat seafood
Dino Power Snacks are a totally new way for children to eat seafood. Each surimi-based sausage contains premium seafood blended with mild cheddar cheese. The tuck-away box contains three individually wrapped sausages and is an alternative to high sodium and high sugar snacking products currently dominating the market. Each box contains 14 single portions. The product can be stored chilled or ambient for 90 days and is thus ideal for lunch boxes or camping trips. (Vici World of Tastes, Belgium)

under modified atmosphere, with a lid and label. The prawns are GlobalGAP certified and the antipasti are free of preservatives. The product is available in three varieties: garlic/ parsley, apple/curry and tomato/chili. (Heiploeg BV, The Netherlands)
Reader enquiry number 19

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Reader enquiry number 17

Vici World of Tastes

Anova Food

Reader enquiry number 20

Reader enquiry number 21


by P Pravin and B Meenakumari
seining operations started at Mangalore (Karnataka state) and were subsequently adopted in Kerala in 1976. Purse seining, confined to the south-west coast of India, has recently also extended to some parts of the south-east coast with the emergence of a sardine fishery in the region. The number of purse seiners has increased in the state and their operation in the traditional fishing grounds was vehemently opposed by the traditional fishermen. The resulting conflicts led to the enactment of the Kerala Marine Fisheries Regulations Act, (KMFRA) 1980. The provisions contained in the Act demarcated the area of operation of each type of vessel. The purse seine boats are permitted to operate only beyond 22 fathoms. Due to the ban imposed on operation of purse seines in inshore areas and the decline of catch, the number of purse seiners operating


he state of Kerala located in the southern part of India has a coastline of 590 km and is blessed with rich marine fishery resources. The state has more than 9 000 mechanised fishing boats comprising 4 000 trawlers and the rest gill netters, purse seiners and liners. There are about 15 000 motorised fishing craft and the majority of them operate ring seines, gill nets, long lines, purse seines and shore seines. On an average, 600 000 mt of marine fish is harvested annually from the shores of Kerala, which is about 25% of the total marine fish harvest of the country. Pelagic finfish, constituting about 56% of the total marine landings of the state, is harvested by motorised ring seines, mechanised purse seines, trawls, drift gill nets and hooks and lines. Purse seining has been commercially operated in the state since the last three decades.

P Pravin

B Meenakumari

from Cochin fisheries harbour fell to 17 in 2004.

Fishing craft
The vessel size ranges from 12.19 to 18 m and the horse power of engine ranges from

History of purse seining
In India, purse seining was first tried by the Norwegians in 1956 and commercial purse

Scientists from the Central Institute of Fishing Technology, India have successfully introduced innovations on conventional purse seine net design and fishing operations, resulting in enhanced fishing efficiency, better profits and a reduction in crew.

Larger carangids were among the fish caught by the modified purse seiners.

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Towards the development of eco-friendly purse seines


usually as long and year after year. Appropriate mesh size is, deep as the length therefore, a rational approach in exploitation of the boat. of these fisheries. Nylon has been The CIFT intervened in 2004 and the most preferred suggested large mesh sizes ranging from 45 material for purse mm in the body of the purse seine for seine in India. targeting pelagic resources in deeper and Twisted knotless farther waters. This would ease pressure on nylon netting coastal resources like anchovy and sardines Deck layout of modified purse seiner with power block (Rachel netting) is and the vessels could operate in deeper using 45 mm mesh net. lighter and was waters targeting other valuable resources like 67 to 225 hp. Technological advancements widely used for purse seines. However, tunas and other large pelagics. Moreover the have also taken place over the years and nowadays, only knotted polyamide (PA) purse seiners can avoid competition with the many electronic gadgets are installed on nettings are used as fishermen feel that existing large traditional fishing crafts known board for ease and efficiency of operation. knotless netting is difficult to repair when as vallams, operating ring seines. Further, the Presently all the purse seine fishermen use damaged. Polypropylene (PP) ropes of 12 net with large mesh could reduce the catch of echo sounders, Global Positioning Systems mm and 10 mm diameter in double are used juveniles of mackerel and completely avoid (GPS), Very High Frequency Sets (VHF), for the head rope and foot rope respectively. anchovies and sardines as these could mobile phones etc. Sonar was introduced PP ropes of 24 mm diameter are used for the escape from the large meshes of the purse only recently in a small mechanised boat by ring rope. The mesh sizes of the main body seine net and could catch good quality large the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology ranged from 16-18 mm whereas 12 mm was pelagics and fetch better prices. The CIFT (CIFT). The GPS is used for marking the used for the bunt region. Large mesh sizes also suggested modification in the fish hold of most productive fishing grounds and regular were used for the selvedges, ranging from the purse seiner for carrying out multi-day fish shoaling areas. Deck equipment like the 20, 60 to 70 mm for the upper selvedges, fishing and also recommended the use of mechanical or hydraulic purse seine winch, lower selvedges and guarding meshes modern fish detecting equipment like sonar for purse seine drum and purse seine gallows respectively. The mesh size of the purse detecting shoals which move below the are used for fishing operations. Hauling seine must be appropriate and such that the surface of the water and that cannot be devices like the power block and hydraulic target fish do not get gilled in the net or else it detected by the fishermen with the naked eye. winch were recently introduced for small becomes a nightmare for the fishermen to haul CIFT also introduced a hydraulic power block mechanised purse seiners by the CIFT. the net and clear the gilled fishes. Presently, onboard small mechanised purse seine purse seine nets of 1 000 m length and 72vessels for ease of hauling and reducing the 100 m depth weighing approximately 3-4 mt drudgery of the crew. The whole concept was Fishing gear are being used. The purse seiners were executed in a participatory mode with the operating purse seines with small mesh sizes cooperation of a Fishers Cooperative Society, Purse seining is one of the most ranging from 12-15 mm for both small and Manassery Matsya Thozhilali Kshema aggressive, efficient and advanced large pelagic species. As a result, an Sahakarana Sangam at Cochin. commercial fishing method. It is the most increased number of juveniles of important During 2004-05, all the 17 purse-seine important gear for catching pelagic shoaling boats working off Cochin Fisheries Harbour fish and includes all the elements of searching, pelagic resources like oil sardine, mackerel, horse mackerel and scad are being caught successfully changed over to 45 mm mesh hunting and capture. The success of purse seine operations depends on the availability of shoals, manoeuvrability of the vessel and quick encirclement of the shoal. A purse seine is made of a long wall of netting framed with float line in the head rope and lead line in the foot rope, having purse rings hanging from the lower edge of the gear, through which runs a purse line which facilitates the pursing of the net. The overall length of the purse seine net is expressed as the length of the float line. The depth of the net as a thumb rule is about 10% of the length of the float line. The lead line is usually longer than the float line by 5-12 %. The bunt is Design details of 1000 m purse seine with 45 mm mesh size.

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size. The initial results were encouraging and the fishermen continued to operate purse seines with large mesh throughout the fishing season. The results of the fishing operations have encouraged all the purse seiners at Cochin Fisheries Harbour. The purse seiners generally scout beyond 80 m depth, and their main targets are yellowfin tuna, bullet tuna, skipjack tuna, trevally, black pomfret, horse mackerel, barracuda seerfish and large size mackerel.

Towards the development of eco-friendly purse seines
Fishing operations
Earlier the nets were operated from both the starboard and port sides; presently only port side operations are carried out. The CIFT-improved large mesh purse seine net was operated onboard the vessel Bharat Darshan, an 18-m LOA (length overall) purse seiner, having 193 hp main engine, belonging to the fishermen cooperative society. The wheelhouse is located in the mid-deck and the aft of the boat was used for storing the net. The purse line gallows are positioned in the port side mid-ship. The purse seine drum is located in the forward starboard side. As the purse seine net is very large and heavy, 20-25 crew members are required for the fishing operations. Shooting of the purse seine net is done from the stern side of the vessel which has a smooth gunwale to avoid any fouling of the net. The hauling of the net is done from the port side of the vessel. The fish shoals in the inshore areas are easily detected by visual observation from an elevated point in the boat. The fishermen are also able to operate the nets during the night with the help of sonar. After the location of the shoal, the end of the net where bridle and buoys are provided, along with one end of the purse seine is given to the skiff and the vessel moves forward at maximum speed, releasing the net and encircling the shoal at the quickest possible time. During this process, the purse line, which is coiled on the winch drum, is also released. After the fish shoal is completely encircled, the purse line end which was with the skiff is taken back to the main vessel. The two ends of the pursed line are then pulled fast with the help of the purse line winch. After pursing the bottom, the gallow is reversed on the deck, the purse rings are arranged, the engine stopped and the net hauled up by the fishermen manually, by pulling the lead line, float line and netting, at the same time. As soon as the ropes and major portion of the netting are hauled inside, the catch concentrated in the bunt end, are brailed in using a scoop net. The fish is stored on the deck for single day fishing and in the fish hold with ice, for multiday fishing. The hauling operation is labour intensive and takes a long time and requires about 2-3 hrs. With the installation of power block on the boat, the net is hauled up easily, in about 45 minutes. The fishing season for sardines and mackerel commences by the middle of October and lasts up to the end of December. However, with the improved large mesh purse seine net, the fishermen can operate in deeper waters targeting tunas and other large pelagics. Other commercially important fishes such as tunas, seerfish, pomfrets, carangids etc are also often caught by the net.

Reader enquiry number 22

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during the just concluded season (2010-11). The price fluctuation in the market is sometimes very alarming in the case of purse seine catch. However, due to demand of large size mackerel in the export market, the factory owners are ready to pay good price at all times and are able to take all the catch from the purse seiners at a better price.

The better economic returns have lead to an increased number of purse seiners operating large mesh purse seines in Cochin. This has immensely benefitted the fishers. As there are still untapped pelagic resources in the deep sea, like tunas and other large pelagics, there is very good scope for carrying out purse seining in the deeper waters of the EEZ of the country. With the introduction of large mesh purse seines along with modification of the vessels and use of equipment like sonar and power block, the fishers can venture into deep sea purse seining targeting the underexploited tuna resources in the Indian EEZ. However, a thorough study has to be undertaken to suggest the optimum fleet size of purse seiners as the purse seine is also known for its destruction of the resources. For example, the catfish Tachysurus tenuispinis exploited by purse seine reached its peak catch during the 1980s and thereafter declined because of the large scale exploitation of male brooders.

The project was implemented in participation with commercial fishers and the purse seine boat ‘M V Bharat Darshan’ was used during the project.

However, the main catch is mackerel and, on average, each vessel lands about 2 mt of fish per day. Mackerel were caught in a wide range of depths and tunas (yellowfin tunas, skipjack, little tunnies etc) were caught in depths beyond 50 m.

Catch composition
The purse seine landings at Cochin during 1981–82 constituted the Indian oil sardine (88.81% of the total catch), followed by Indian mackerel (10.77%) and carangids (2.3%). Experimental fishing operations were carried out onboard the vessel Bharat Darshan during the period 2008-09 in the depth range of 50-220 m at Cochin. The catch mainly comprised large sized mackerels (62%), followed by tunas (16%), carangids (14%) seerfish (3%) pomfrets (2%) and miscellaneous fishes (3%). The catch composition has changed considerably and the absence of sardine is conspicuous due to the use of large mesh in the net. The landings of tuna and other quality fishes were mainly from depths beyond 50 m. The landing of quality fishes gave an impetus to the purse seine fishermen as they fetched better value for their catch, compared to the conventional purse seine landings. In addition, there was a demand for large sized pelagics for export,

which further added value to their catch. The landing of quality fishes gave the purse seine fishermen better value for their catch, compared to the conventional purse seine landings. The introductions of 45 mm mesh size facilitated catch of large size mackerel as sardines and small pelagics escape from the net. It is estimated that a purse seine boat should fetch a net of IRS 4 000 000 worth of catch in a year for breakeven. The average catch was about IRS 10 000 000 per boat

Catch composition of large mesh purse seine landings varied considerably and smaller fish like sardines, anchovies and juveniles were conspicuous by their absence.

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Towards the development of eco-friendly purse seines
mackerel, barracudas, seer fishes and large sized mackerel. Introduction of power block for hauling the purse seine would further enhance the fishing efficiency, increase the number of sets per day and reduce the drudgery of the crew for hauling the purse seine net. The number of purse seiners operating in Cochin Fisheries Harbour during this year is expected to increase and a total of about 80 vessels are ready for operation. However, a precautionary approach is required in regulating the number of purse seiners and capacities of individual seiners, to ensure sustainability of the resources. P Pravin is a senior scientist at the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, Kerala, India while B Meenakumari is Deputy Director General (Fisheries), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, India. Acknowledgements The authors dedicate this article to the late P R Sebastian, an innovative fisher and boat owner, who wholeheartedly cooperated with the project and also thank the owners and crew of MV Bharat Darshan for their support.
Reader enquiry number 23

Higher value tunas were also among the fish caught, bringing better returns to the fishers.

The changeover of mesh sizes in the purse seine from the conventional 18 mm to 45 mm has shown good results and fishers have been able to land larger size class fishes of high value. Adoption of the large mesh purse seine and shifting operations to deeper waters targeting tunas and other large pelagic fishes would ease the fishing pressure in the intensively fished coastal waters.

Further, the large meshes will facilitate escape of juveniles. Introduction of the large mesh purse seines has led to the revival of the small mechanised purse seine fishery and all purse seiners based at Cochin Fisheries Harbour have changed over to 45 mm mesh size purse seines and started operations in deeper waters targeting skipjack tuna, little tuna, carangids, black pomfret, horse

3rd Regional Tuna Industry and Trade Conference - Presentations on CD
The two-day PACIFIC TUNA FORUM 2011, held in Koror, Republic of Palau in early September, 2011 featured 30 presentations from leading industry players, international and regional organizations and representatives from the NGOs. Focusing on the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna industry, the conference covered a wide range of topics such as tuna resources, stock status, regional tuna industry situation, review of major markets, sustainability and ecolabelling and technical aspects. The presentations and a full address list of delegates are a now available on CD at US$50


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Joint fish resource monitoring project launched
China/ Russia — A joint fish resource monitoring project featuring the participation of Chinese and Russian scientists has been launched on a Sino-Russian cross-border lake, according to authorities from the Xingkai Lake Nature Reserve in northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province. Six new species of fish have been discovered living in Xingkai Lake, according to Shang Erzeng, the deputy head of the reserve. Located on the northeast Sino-Russian border, Xingkai Lake is well-known for its abundant biodiversity and complex ecosystem. It is a major habitat for migratory birds in the Asia-Pacific region. also prohibited during the period. The programme aims to protect hilsa juveniles (jatka) less than 23 cm in length. Jatka conservation project director Jahid Habib said that 7 000 km2 in seven coastal districts have been marked as the key breeding grounds of hilsa. Earlier, in line with the fisheries law of 1985, the ban was imposed from 14-24 October every year. However, according to the lunar calendar, the new moon did not occur during this period. The ministry moved to amend the clause in the law recently and has formulated a new draft law; the ban was implemented this year in line with the draft law. A production target of 0.36 million mt has been set for this fishing season. In the last fiscal year, hilsa production reached 0.34 million mt. develop and integrate Versa Power’s SOFC technology into Wärtsilä products. A key target of the agreement is to develop commercial Wärtsilä fuel cell products that generate power and heat for various applications. The agreement allows Wärtsilä to integrate VPS fuel cell stack modules, especially for larger power range products. Advancing and commercialising fuel cell products is part of Wärtsilä’s long-term development strategy. Wärtsilä has already launched successful pilot projects using fuel cell technology supplied by Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S headquartered in Denmark, and this co-operation will continue as planned. Fuel cells are considered to be one of the most exciting energy technologies for the future. They are electro-chemical devices that combine a fuel source gas with oxygen to produce electricity, heat and water. The absence of combustion processes significantly reduces harmful emissions of nitrogen and sulphur oxides and particulate emissions are essentially zero. As electricity is generated directly and involves no intermediate mechanical or thermal processes, fuel cells can also be more efficient than conventional combustion-based technologies.

Hilsa fishing ban observed
Bangladesh - An 11-day ban on catching hilsa fish was observed across Bangladesh from 6-16 October. This period is noted as the main hilsa breeding season by the fisheries ministry. Transport, sale and stock of hilsa are

Joint development of fuel cell technology
Finland/ USA — Wärtsilä, a leading provider of power solutions to the marine markets, and Versa Power Systems (VPS), a leading developer of environmentally-friendly, high-power solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), announced a co-operative agreement to

Study: Implementing pole & line tuna fishing not easy
USA — As processors, retailers and consumers continue to evaluate the sustainability of fishing methods, the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation (ISSF) has published a new technical resource paper on pole and line caught tuna. Some of the study’s findings are given below. The major pole-and-line producers are Japan (about 125 000 mt of skipjack and yellowfin annually), Indonesia (100 000 mt) and the Maldives (100 000 mt). The world’s production is about 400 000 mt annually, some of which is for domestic consumption. There are between 100 000 and 150 000 mt of pole-and-line caught skipjack and yellowfin on the international market. In the Pacific Islands, the availability of bait, rather than tuna, has often been the resource factor limiting expansion of a pole-and-line tuna fishery. The large islands in the west of the Pacific Island region have the best potential for bait-fisheries for pole-and-line fishing and small islands in the east and atolls have the least potential. Information from a company in the Solomon Islands shows high production costs and low productivity of pole-and-line fishing relative to that of purse seining. Historical information from pole-and-line fishing in PNG shows that the real price of tuna today is less than half the price of what it was during the height of the fishery 30 years ago. The main lesson appears to be that the pole-and-line development or revitalisation in the region is a very difficult task.

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Certified lobster exports to rise
Mexico — After early September lobster producers Baja California and Baja California Sur were certified by “Scientific Certification Systems’ (SCS). It is estimated that during this open season, which began this month and ends in February 2012, international sales of this product could reach MXN* 65 million. General Coordinator for Trade Promotion and Export Development, Gabriel Padilla Maya praised the work of more than 200 000 cooperatives comprising the Regional Federation of Fisheries Cooperative Production for the prestigious international recognition. He noted that certification is a guarantee that the capture of lobsters in Mexico is done with respect to the ecological environment and proper management of the factors for its capture, which facilitates the marketing of this product to many foreign markets, especially Asia. Worldwide, only 128 fish shops have this certification and it is hoped that other Mexican species will also be able to obtain the SCS certification.
*US$ 1 = MXN 13.4 approx

SSB radios for fishing vessels
Vietnam — A total 7 000 Single Side Band (SSB) radios were provided to fishers in 27 coastal provinces and cities of Vietnam before the cyclone season this year, announced the Directorate of Fisheries (DFish). SSB radios, also called standby receivers, allow fishers to get weather forecasts, fishing ground information, etc while they are at sea. The receivers can be automatically activated with “wake-up” signals transmitted from shore stations in case of storm or accident warnings. Granting SSB radios to fishers is a government assistance programme to help improve fishers’ safety during fishing operations at sea and reduce the impact of natural disasters. It is expected that most of the fishing boats in Vietnam will be equipped with SSB by the end of the programme.

Zhangzidao scallop fishery enters MSC assessment
PR China — The Zhangzidao scallop fishery has become the first Chinese fishery to enter full assessment for Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification. Independent certification body, Moody Marine Ltd, will evaluate the fishery against the MSC environmental standard for well-managed and sustainable fisheries. This standard examines the sustainability of the target fish stock, the environmental impact of fishing operations and the management and governance systems that are in place. Found in the North Yellow Sea, the fishery is managed by Dalian Zhangzidao Fishery Group. It uses diving and dredging methods

to produce 60 000 mt of yesso scallops each year, with fresh products sold predominantly on the domestic market and also in Korea, and frozen products sold in North America and Australia. The assessment will cover the fishery’s year-round dive and dredge harvesting operations, as well as their wild spat collection and reared spat operations. It is expected to be completed by the end of 2012.

Five-country project on tuna longlining
Sri Lanka — A regional fisheries project of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of Rome will commence in Sri Lanka shortly. The two-year, five-country project, entitled “On board handling and sustainable market

development of longline-caught tuna”, includes India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Pakistan and Iran. Co-organized by INFOFISH, the project will support the development of longline fishery in the country by providing training and technical know-how on improved onboard and onshore handling of tuna and other longline-caught fish. The project will also provide training in product and market diversification and quality and safety assurance of longline-caught fish. Tuna account for the bulk of seafood exports from Sri Lanka valued at US$ 190 million and the country is the main supplier of fresh tuna to the European market. With issues related to tuna resource sustainability coming to the forefront, the fisheries ministry also plans to deter any illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU)

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fishing. This will be achieved through the planned implementation of a Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), introduction of a log book system for all 3 400 or so multi-day boats, and employment of other port state measures to strengthen Monitoring Control and Surveillance (MCS) activities.

Sysco commits to sustainable seafood
USA — Sysco Corporation has committed to improve the sustainability of its seafood buying practices and standards. The commitment, which was announced on 19 September, pledges to assess the company’s current seafood supply and improve standards by 2015. A major factor for the company’s commitment to improving the sustainability of its seafood-buying practices and standards was the request by its customers, says Sysco. Sysco is partnering with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to obtain the top 10 wild-caught seafood species, which together represent more than 50 percent of the company’s own-label seafood line, from fisheries approved by either the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) or WWF. For Sysco, a major portion of the commitment is to encourage its tuna suppliers to move toward long-term procurement from MSC-certified tuna sources. Sysco, a company which had more than US$ 39 billion in sales during the past fiscal year, sells, markets and distributes food products to restaurants, healthcare facilities and lodging establishments.

Study: MSC products secure price premium
UK — New research shows that UK retailers are achieving higher sales and a price premium of over 14% for products bearing the MSC eco-label, compared with their non-labelled equivalents. The study, published in the Journal of Agricultural Economics is statistically rigorous evidence that consumers value the positive environmental attributes of MSC-labelled products enough to pay a premium for them. Previous studies have analysed the factors which made it more likely that consumers might buy eco-labelled seafood products; but this is the first study to use price data to present objective verification of market benefits for suppliers using the MSC eco-label.

The study, carried out by Professor Cathy Roheim and Ph D candidate Julie Santos of the University of Rhode Island and Professor Frank Asche of the University of Stavanger examined scanner data for sales of 24 frozen

pollock products in a selection of London metropolitan area supermarkets over a period of 65 weeks from 2007 to 2008. Twelve of those products displayed the MSC ecolabel. After adjusting for differences arising from

The tsunami – counting the cost
Japan — The fisheries industry in Japan was severely affected by the earthquake and massive tsunami in March. The earthquake of magnitude 9.0 occurred at 14:46 JST Friday, 11 March 2011 with epicentre located at 24 km depth 130 km off the Pacific coast of Tohoku region, from Iwate to Ibaraki Prefectures (130 km east-southeast of Oshika Peninsula). The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has revealed the details of the damage to the fisheries and aquaculture sector in their website ( Fisheries and aquaculture in 14 prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima Ibaraki, Chiba, Tokyo, Niigata, Kanagawa, Shizuoka, Aichi, Mie, Wakayama, Tokushima, Kochi, Oita, Miyazaki, Kagoshima and Okinawa) were affected by the tsunami. Vessels registered in Toyama, Ishikawa and Tottori were also damaged while moored in the disaster area. 25 008 fishing vessels in 319 fishing harbours and 1 625 common facilities were damaged. Total damage to fisheries and aquaculture is estimated at JPY* 1 245 billion.
*US$ 1 = JPY 76.7 approx

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other product attributes such as branding, product form and size, the study identified a price difference of 14.2 per cent between MSC-labelled and non-labelled pollock products. Sales of MSC-labelled products were also higher, at 3.3 million units, during the period than non-labelled products, at 3.03 million units. catch in order to sustain the fishery for future generations. Your decisions affect your company’s bottom line and the health of fish stocks and ocean ecosystems. Can you earn a profitable living without decimating the fish stocks, forcing everyone into bankruptcy and destroying the communities that rely on fishing for their livelihood? Teachers and students everywhere can now explore such scenarios through Fishbanks, an interactive, management flight simulator available online at no cost through the MIT Sloan Teaching Innovation Resources (MSTIR) website. Designed by MIT Sloan School of Management Professor John Sterman to teach about the challenges of sustainably managing common pool resources, this web-based simulation of the game can be used to explore such scenarios. In this newest management flight simulator, Sterman notes that some participants recognise the fishing industry’s sustainability challenges early in the game and attempt to negotiate fishing limits or quotas. However, teams often defect from those agreements to maximise their financial gain, thereby wiping out the fish. Defection generates strong emotions among the players, often leading to confrontations between the cooperators and defectors and creating important teaching moments around critical issues in real fisheries. “In the post-game debriefing, we explore examples of successful resource management and the economic, political and social policies needed to implement and sustain them,” Sterman says.

Survey: no Arctic fishery until more is known
Canada — A survey suggests that most Canadians back a ban on commercial fishing in the Arctic, where experts warn melting sea ice and warming water could draw fishing fleets to the North within the next few years. Some 54% of those asked said the government should work to prevent all countries from fishing in international Arctic waters until research has determined the extent of stocks and regulations that must be in place to control how they’re exploited. The telephone survey of 1 205 Canadians was taken in late May by Nanos Research. The margin of error is plus or minus 2.8 percentage points, 19 times out of 20. Northern fisheries are covered by international agreements in waters within the 200-mile limits of coastal nations. But High Arctic waters beyond those limits - such as those of the Canada Basin west of the Arctic islands - remain unregulated. No commercial fisheries now exist there. But as stocks decline elsewhere in the oceans and climate change opens the Arctic, pressure will inevitably build. Some research suggests a High Arctic fishery is at least possible as species such as cod, crab and pollock migrate North as sea ice melts and water warms. A recent University of British Columbia study suggested that even fisheries in regulated Arctic waters have already caught 75 times more fish than have been reported to monitoring agencies.

Thai vessels for deep sea tuna fishing
Sri Lanka — The Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development Ministry will import over 50 vessels from Thailand for deep sea tuna fishing. The vessels will arrive by the end of this year. Minister Dr Rajitha Senaratne said that the number of fishing vessels in the country is not sufficient to fulfil the international demand for Sri Lankan fish products. Research conducted by Sri Lankan universities has revealed that the Fisheries Ministry is the third most efficient ministry in the country, second to the Defence Ministry and the Economic Development Ministry, Senaratne said. The fishery industry has shown a significant rise in the last six months of 2011, the minister said.

Fishbanks management flight simulator
USA — Imagine you are a leader in the fishing industry. You have to balance the need to compete against others and make a living in a tough industry with the need to limit the total

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12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

Photo credit: Tri Marine International Pte. Ltd.

Sharing the Challenges and Bridging the Gaps for a Common Goal



gathering, the INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference and Exhibition. TUNA 2012 will be held from 23-25 May at the Shangri-La Hotel. Undoubtedly, Bangkok is among the most suitable venues to accommodate this large biennial tuna industry event where around 600 delegates, perhaps even more this time, will gather from all over the world.

angkok, dubbed the “global tuna industry capital”, has been chosen again to host the largest tuna industry

Bangkok 2012
12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

Much has happened in the tuna sector over the past few years. The struggling US economy, debt crisis in the Eurozone and the impact of the tsunami in Japan last March have dented consumers’ confidence, thus significantly affecting the tuna industry and the global market. Acquisition and consolidation among the major tuna companies continue in response to the increasingly competitive and ever changing business environment. Controversy surrounding the MSC certification for free schooling skipjack in the PNA waters, aggressive and provocative campaigns by certain environmentalists, commitment by supermarkets and packers in the UK to sell only tuna from pole and line and FAD-free sources, new management measures enforced by RFMOs etc are among the issues that have shaped and shaken the global tuna industry. In short, the industry is currently facing unprecedented challenges that need to be addressed effectively towards a stronger, bullish industry. TUNA 2012 is certainly the best platform for all the industry players to openly discuss these issues. The three-day conference will focus on the latest developments in the global and regional tuna industries. Issues on resources, fisheries management, markets and marketing, products and quality developments, new technology, trade and food safety as well as sustainability, eco-labelling and environment will be adequately covered.

In conjunction with TUNA 2012, an exhibition will also be held at the same venue. Booths will be available for rental by companies and organizations to showcase their products, equipment, machinery and services related to the industry. Bookings are on a first come, first served basis as the number of booths is limited to 25 only.

TUNA 2012 is organized by INFOFISH and supported by international, regional and national fisheries organizations.


Bangkok 2012
12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

Early Bird registration fee of US$ 1,050 per delegate for registrations received before 6 April 2012 and US$ 1,150 if received after this date. The fee covers coffee breaks, lunches, reception, conference kit and documentation. An additional US$ 250 will entitle accompanying spouse to lunches and reception only. The registration fee does not include hotel accommodation. Registrations should be made using the Conference Registration form provided. Photocopies of the form are acceptable. Please return the form with full payment to INFOFISH: On-line E-mail Post Fax : : : : or; INFOFISH-TUNA 2012, P O Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. (603) 2078 6804

A special concessionary fee is applicable for delegates from INFOFISH member countries – US$ 850 for registrations received before 6 April 2012 and US$ 950 thereafter. Member countries are Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Iran, DPR Korea, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

Payments should be in US Dollar Draft drawn on a US bank payable to INFOFISH; Credit Card or Telegraphic Transfer (please see the Conference Registration form for details). The registration fee will be refunded, less 25 percent, for cancellations received before 30 April, 2012. No refund can be made for cancellation after 30 April 2012. However, a substitute delegate may attend. Refunds will be issued only after the conference.

TUNA 2012 is at the Shangri-La Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand, the same venue of TUNA 2004-2006. Ideally located on the bank of the Chao Phraya River, this 5-star luxury hotel offers convenient access to Bangkok’s leading shopping, sightseeing and business districts. The large foyer area will be used as the exhibition venue that provides space for a limited number of companies to exhibit their products and services during the conference.

Rooms at reduced rates have been booked at the Shangri-La Hotel and other nearby hotels. Shangri-La Hotel, Bangkok (the Venue) Tel : 662-2367777 ext.6834 Fax : 662-2368570 E-mail : Web : For hotel reservation, participants are requested to submit the hotel registration form provided, direct to Shangri-La Bangkok. World Travel Service Ltd is the official agent for the satellite hotels, local tours and airport transfers.

Wednesday, 23 May 2012
• Opening ceremony • Keynote address by Chairperson Session I: Global Trends and Sustainability 1. Overview of global tuna resources, stock status, new management measures, challenges, sustainability issues and future outlook 2. Review from RFMOs on the effectiveness of their management measures (IOTC, WCPFC, ICCAT, IATTC) 3. Industry initiatives towards a sustainable tuna Session II: Sectoral and Regional Reviews 1. 2. 4. 5. 6. Can PNA dictate the skipjack market? Consolidation and acquisition in canned tuna industry and their impacts Pole and line and non-FAD tuna sourcing - are these the best options for a sustainable industry? The EU tuna industry - challenges and prospects. Is PNG a threat to the EU tuna industry?

Bangkok 2012
12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

Thursday, 24 May 2012
Session III: Global and Regional Tuna Trade and Markets 1. North American Markets a. Tuna the Wonderfish campaign-its impacts on the US canned tuna market b. US non-canned tuna market c. The Canadian tuna market 2. The European Markets a. Impacts of Eurozone crisis on the tuna market b. Eco-labelled tuna products and consumers’ affordability c. The EU regulatory measures and market access 3. Asia/ Pacific and Other Markets a. Post tsunami tuna trade/market in Japan b. Tuna Trade in Asia, including China c. Unrest in the Arab world and its impacts on the Middle East canned tuna markets d. The African tuna industry e. Latest development in South and Latin American markets

Friday, 25 May 2012
Session IV: Sustainability, Environment and Eco-labelling in the Tuna Industry a. Overview of existing eco-labelling schemes b. Review of the eco-labels and impacts to tuna trade Session V: Technical Session a. Carbon footprint in the canned tuna industry b. Processing, value added and quality development c. Technological developments on packaging & transportation Closing


Bangkok 2012
12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

PERSONAL INFORMATION (PLEASE TYPE IN BLOCK CAPITALS) Delegate: (Surname) ____________________________________ Spouse: (Surname) _____________________________________


Please type or print as required to appear on name badge and participants list. Form may be photocopied if needed. Please return this form to INFOFISH duly filled.

£ Mr. £ Mrs. £ Ms. £ Dr. £ Other:_________________________________________________________________________________________________
(First Name) __________________________________ (Middle Name) _______________________

Designation: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
(First Name) __________________________________ (Middle Name) _______________________

Company: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ City: _________________________________________________________ State/Province: ____________________________________________________ Post Code: ____________________________________________________ Country: __________________________________________________________ Telephone:____________________________________________________ Fax:______________________________________________________________ E-mail: _______________________________________________________ Website: __________________________________________________________ BUSINESS CATEGORIES (PLEASE TICK ACCORDINGLY) £ Importer £ Exporter £ Processor £ Canner £ Distributor REGISTRATION FEE INFOFISH Member Countries* ....................................... £ US$ 850 (Before 6 April 2012) Other Countries .............................................................. £ US$ 1,050 (Before 6 April 2012) Accompanying Spouse.................................................... £ US$ 250 (Before 6 April 2012) Total US$:
*Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Iran, DPR Korea, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka and Thailand.

£ Wholesaler £ Broker/Supplier £ Retailer £ Caterer

£ Equipment Supplier £ Fishing Operator £ Academic £ Consultant

£ Press £ NGO £ Government £ International Organisation

£ Others (please specify) ____________________________________________________________________________

£ US$ 950 (After 6 April 2012) £ US$ 1,150 (After 6 April 2012) £ US$ 300 (After 6 April 2012)

MODE OF PAYMENT £ Bank draft (drawn on US bank) payable to INFOFISH. £ Telegraphic Transfer to INFOFISH Account (Details on request) Important: If your banker is remitting payment on your behalf, please give specific instructions to indicate name and address of remitter £ or Charge: American Express £ Visa £ Mastercard £

Cardholder’s Name: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Account No.: _________________________________________ Expiry Date: _______________Signature: _______________________________________


Please fax or mail this form to:

Bangkok 2012
12th INFOFISH World Tuna Trade Conference & Exhibition
Shangri-La Hotel  23-25 May 2012

INFOFISH-TUNA 2012 BANGKOK Postal address: P. O Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Telephone: (603) 20783466 • Fax: (603) 20786804 • E-mail:

Visit or for on-line registration



Size of insert ................................................................within 8 pages Cost .......................................................................................US$ 550 Last date for receipt of material................................... 15 May, 2012


• Four (4) complimentary delegates to the conference. • Display your company banner (poster panel: 3’ width x 8’ height) and brochures at the conference site. • On-screen advertisement at exhibition venue. • Free banner advertisement on INFOFISH website up to 3 months. • Company logo on conference kit and programme booklet. • A full page advertisement in the programme booklet. • A full page advertisement in the “INFOFISH International” - conference issue (May/June) • INFOFISH Associate Membership for one year. • Choose to make a presentation at the conference.

Full Page, colour ....................................................................US$ 750 Dimension ................................................. 180mm (W) x 250mm (H) Half Page, colour ...................................................................US$ 450 Dimension ................................................. 180mm (W) x 120mm (H) Last date for receipt of AD copy ................................... 10 May, 2012


• Two (2) complimentary delegates to the conference. • Display your company banner (poster panel: 3’ width x 8’ height) and brochures at the conference site. • On-screen advertisement at exhibition venue. • Free banner advertisement on INFOFISH website up to 3 months. • Company logo on conference kit and programme booklet. • A full page advertisement in the programme booklet. • A full page advertisement in the “INFOFISH International” - conference issue (May/June)

As the sponsoring magazine, “INFOFISH International” will be distributed to all conference delegates, exhibitors and visitors. This is in addition to the normal worldwide distribution Full Page, colour .................................................................US$ 1,600 Dimension ................................................. 180mm (W) x 250mm (H) Half Page, colour ................................................................US$ 1,200 Dimension ................................................. 180mm (W) x 120mm (H) Last date for receipt of AD copy .................................. 20 April, 2012


SPECIAL OFFER! Advertise Full/Half Page in INFOFISH International and receive PRO 1 and PRO 2 FREE!
c Please reserve PRO 1 for my company. c Please reserve PRO 2 for my company. Ad size: c Full Page c Half Page c Please reserve PRO 3 for my company. I understand that PRO 1 and PRO 2 are provided to us FREE. Ad size: c Full Page c Half Page Advertisement for Conference Programme Booklet and “INFOFISH International” should be sent via e-mail as an attachment saved as a JPEG, TIFF, EPS or PDF files. (Resolution at least 300 dpi or higher). Name: ................................................................................................. Company: ........................................................................................... Address:.............................................................................................. ............................................................................................................ Fax: ............................................E-mail: ............................................. Date: ..........................................Signature: ........................................

• One (1) complimentary delegate to the conference. • Company logo on conference kit and programme booklet. • Display your company banner (poster panel: 3’ width x 8’ height) and brochures at the conference site. • On-screen advertisement at exhibition venue. • Free banner advertisement on INFOFISH website up to 3 months. • A half page advertisement in the programme booklet. • A half page advertisement in the “INFOFISH International” - conference issue (May/June)

For further information, please contact: Advertising & Promotion Manager INFOFISH-TUNA 2012 BANGKOK Tel: (603) 20783466 • Fax: (603) 20786804 E-mail:



Honourable Kerai Mariur (inset), Vice President of Palau, gives the opening address at PTF 2011 (above)


omestication, PNA, IEPA and eco-labelling were among the hot topics discussed during the 3rd Pacific Tuna Forum (PTF) held in Koror, Palau from 6-7 September. Officiated by the Honourable Kerai Mariur, Vice President of Palau, the Forum was attended by close to 200 delegates from 31 countries including first-time delegates from Indonesia, Iran, Finland and Norway. Thirty one speakers presented a wide range of topics from tuna resources and management issues in the Western Pacific Ocean (WCPO), to trade and market, as well as eco-labeling and technical issues. The third in this biennial event, the PTF has become an important platform to promote tuna products and investment opportunities of the Pacific Island Countries’ (PICs) tuna industry.

not derived an equitable level of benefits from the harvesting of these resources. He said, on average, the catch of 2.7 million mt of tuna caught within the Pacific is worth over US$ 2.5 billion. PICs collectively earned around US$ 100 million as resource rent or access fees from fishing fleets that operated within their respective zones, which is only five percent of the value of the catch. Meanwhile, the Parties to Nauru Agreement (PNA) grouping of eight countries (Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu) have taken bold measures in recent years to protect their own tuna (particularly skipjack) resources, creating strong waves in the global tuna industry. In his compelling words, the President of the PNA office, Dr Transform Aqorau, said that foreign fishing vessels operating in PNA waters need to “shape up or ship out”. The PNA is also in the process of getting the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certification for its free school skipjack which is now still pending review by an independent adjudicator based on the objections received from some industry players.

The domestication issue was hotly discussed, reflecting the strong aspiration of PICs to play a bigger role in harvesting their rich tuna resources through their own (domestic) fishing vessels, through nationalisation of foreign fishing vessels or increasing the capacity of domestic boats. It also implies the PICs’ ambition to develop downstream activities to enable them to gain more economic benefits from tuna harvested in the WCPO. As stressed during the opening speech by the Honourable Vice President of Palau, PICs have, unfortunately,

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The Interim Economic Partnership Agreement (IEPA) signed between the EU and PNG was also extensively discussed in various presentations. Tuna companies from Asia which build processing facilities in PNG indicated that without the IEPA they will not be able to compete with products from Asian countries as the production cost in PNG is higher than in Thailand or the Philippines. Even with the IEPA, if the EU reduced the import tariff for Asian canned tuna product from the current 24% to 12% in the future, under the current scenario, it would not be feasible to invest in PNG. There are currently five tuna processing plants with capacity of 530 mt/day in PNG VIPs at the opening ceremony. Inset: Mr Sylvester and six plants are in the pipeline, according Pokajam Managing Director, of National Fisheries to Pete Celco, the Chairman of the PNG Authority, PNG. Fishing Industry Association and also the industry leading to Managing Director of RD Tuna Canners Ltd. Other countries in the PICs, like Solomon Islands, are also attracting investors for downhigher production costs. stream activity, hoping the tuna harvested from WCPO will create This is something that the more jobs and more economic benefits for them. The main constraint PICs have to work hard to faced by the PICs is the lack of infrastructure to support efficiency of overcome it if they want to attract more investment into the region. As outlined by Maurice Brownjohn, Commercial Manager of PNA, in his keynote address, “Instead of foreign fleets just paying access fees to fish, I hope one day to see a more collaborative arrangement, whereby boats fish for our industry, processors process our catch, and we jointly market it. At that point, I feel the PNA will have come of age and, in maximising its share of a multibillion dollar industry, provides optimal associated employment and economic benefits, and benefits for our partners”.

A small exhibition was also held in conjunction with the Forum.

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INFOFISH members at Hong Kong & Dubai seafood shows


NFOFISH facilitated the participation of the Fisheries Develop ment Authority of Malaysia (FDAM) at the recently concluded Asia Seafood Exposition, Hong Kong (6-8 September 2011) and 5th Seafood Expo - Dubai 2011 (26-29 September 2011). Malaysia had six upgraded booths featuring six companies from industry at each of the shows. Although the shows were relatively small in terms of number of booths, FDAM and the companies received good response and positive feedback for their seafood products, particularly the ‘halal’ value-added products. Other INFOFISH member countries seen having their dedicated pavilions at one or both of the events were India, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia.

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Indian fisheries managers visit Malaysia
he Fisheries Management for Sustainable Livelihoods (FIMSUL) project, implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) jointly with the Departments of Fisheries of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India, is conducting a series of consultations and studies to develop a framework for future fisheries management in the two states. A team of ten fisheries officers from the two Indian states visited Malaysia to study the country’s experience in fisheries management. The team learned about some of the approaches to fisheries policy and management being practised in Malaysia, in particular, the policy framework for fisheries and its linkages with legal provisions; the overall functioning and structure of fisheries institutions in Malaysia in relation to fisheries management; the Malaysian experience in fisheries management particularly in relation to zoning and registration of fishing craft and relevant experiences in community-based management; the Malaysian experience in integrating the interests of small-scale and artisanal fishers with those of larger/ commercial/ industrial operations; and the Malaysian experience in developing a comprehensive framework for fisheries policy and management under a federal system. The team met with senior fisheries policy makers at the federal and state levels and visited fishermen’s associations involved in implementation of fisheries management and other related organisations to discuss their experiences. The visit was coordinated by INFOFISH (pictures show the delegation at a briefing and discussion at INFOFISH office).


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INFOFISH International receives more than 200 technical enquiries each month pertaining to handling, processing, quality control as well as aquaculture. Questions range from simple requests for basic information to the design of a complete processing line, and are responded to by the Technical Advisory division. A selection of such enquiries forms the basis to Technical Q&A. Readers are welcome to send in their questions to INFOFISH.

We have started cage culture of cobia recently and are in the process of formulating a health management strategy. Could you tell us about the diseases which can affect cobia and management measures to be taken to control them? The culture of cobia began in 1993 in Taiwan and today cobia production initiatives are spread globally. Countries with ongoing production include Australia, Brazil, China, Dominican Republic, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Panama, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and United States. Cobia is also produced in Reunion and Myotte in the southern Indian Ocean. Characteristics such as fast growth, favourable flesh qualities and versatility in product preparation is helping cobia production spread rapidly around the world. Cobia is distributed worldwide in warm marine waters, except for the central and eastern Pacific, resulting in a very large potential area suitable for the production of native species.

Farming practices
Cobia is commonly produced in pens and cages in Asia, primarily in China, Taiwan and Vietnam. Settings range from traditional, family-operated farms using hand-made cages to modern industrial-scale facilities

Cages used for cobia culture in Taiwan.

using cages originally designed for salmon. Production may take place in openocean conditions, particularly in Taiwan, but nearshore floating pens are more common. Some producers continue raising the Map showing distribution of cobia. juvenile fish from 30 water marine species. Managing disease gm up to 0.6-1.0 kg in outdoor ponds, while and parasite issues has been identified, others use smaller (20-200 m3) near-shore cages. Successful grow-out of cobia has been particularly by the Taiwanese, to be one of the major challenges with regard to cobia reported in near-shore and offshore cages, culture so far. Fish lice (Benedenia sp), utilising both surface and submerged systems. Amyloodinium ocellatum (a parasitic Taiwanese producers use 1 000-2 000 m3 dinoflagellate) and Pasteurellosis (caused by cages, while some operations in the the bacteria Photobacterium damselae) are Caribbean have used 3 000 m³ submersible the major disease problems that have systems successfully. The grow-out period for caused significant loss among cultured pellet-fed cobia is generally about 1-1.5 stocks. Other bacterial diseases like vibriosis years, with fish reaching a final weight of 6-10 and streptococosis affect the grow-out kg at harvest densities of 10-15 kg/m3. Trash phase. fish is still widely used as feed and has high Aside from disease, environmental feed conversion ratio and causes pollution, problems are also encountered, especially leading to production problems. when temperature drops. In farming areas with low winter temperatures, cobia stops Health management eating below 20oC and mortality occurs at 10-12oC. Mortalities of up to 50-60% have Infectious organisms are constant, been reported during some winters in the ubiquitous components of every cage culture northern farming areas of Taiwan. Slow environment, and healthy caged fish will growth and high mortalities are usually normally harbour some of the potentially encountered at low temperatures. pathogenic organisms. However, clinical The transfer of fingerlings and broodstock signs of disease may not occur as long as between farms is a common practice across the fish remain unstressed. Health Asia. It increases the likelihood of introducing management is about risk control, to pinpoint and spreading disease and parasites the risk areas of dispersal of diseases, to reduce these risks and, in case of outbreaks, between populations. Cobia is an active swimmer and requires high levels of to prevent other fish from getting infected. dissolved oxygen. Mortality during transport Extruded pellets, moist pellets and trash from nursery to grow-out cages is common fish are used by different farmers under the when sufficient oxygen level is not concerns of cost and quality of fishes. Cobia maintained. is susceptible to many viruses, bacteria, and The crowding of cages in protected nearparasites that commonly afflict other warm

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shore waters, combined with the use of trash fish, often results in the accumulation of organic waste and leads to disease outbreak. Theoretically, the global distribution of cobia limits the likelihood that novel diseases and parasites will be introduced because broodstock can be obtained locally. The susceptibility of farmed cobia to disease and parasitic infection may be influenced by environmental conditions at growout sites. Proper siting and maintenance of growout facilities are critical.


Measures for disease prevention
Some of the health management measures for preventing disease outbreak are: • Select a high quality, relatively stable environment for culture. • Use nets of sufficient mesh size allowing water exchange to maintain water quality inside cages within tolerance ranges of fish • The number of cages (and the biomass) in a given area should not exceed the carrying capacity of the water body. Hence, proper site evaluation must be carried out before setting up the farm. • Cages should be linked in a linear style and the distance between lines of cages should be at least 10 metres; they should not have a chessboard style layout. This will help in preventing transmission of diseases and pests. • Stock healthy, high quality fish and use proper transportation and handling techniques to reduce stress on fingerlings. • The use of trash fish in feed persists because it is less expensive and more easily available than pellet feed, as well as the perception that it produces better results. However, pellet feeds return better feed conversion ratios and, in fact, it costs less to produce the same amount of fish. Formulated feed and proper feed management procedures should be used. Extruded feeds provide better growth and lower feed cost.
Reader enquiry number 24 Reader enquiry number 25

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New products, recent discoveries and novel technologies...
thousands of eggs each spawning season, but almost zero eggs reach maturity. Enormous costs are needed to keep the tunas that become parents in captivity. If mackerel raised in captivity for about 12 months can be manipulated to lay tuna eggs, tuna fry could be acquired cheaply and abundantly. The technology could be used in aquaculture and, more importantly, if these fry were released back into the ocean, depleted wild tuna stocks could recover. The stem cells inside the gonads differentiate into eggs and sperms. When a part of the tuna gonad cells is transplanted in the abdominal cavity of a juvenile mackerel whose immunity is not yet developed, that part enters into the juvenile’s gonad and produces tuna eggs and sperms in large volumes. The cells are transplanted after sterility measures are taken, to ascertain that the mackerel does not produce mackerel eggs or sperm and can only produce tuna eggs or sperm henceforth. When the male and female mackerel find each other and spawn, they will generate tuna fry. Tuna are born in aquaria in which mackerels are kept. The advantage of this technology is that, it would become possible to have mackerel produce juvenile tuna on a 100% basis.

Technology for mackerel to spawn tuna
Mackerel spawns tuna. It is a curious phenomenon that cannot happen in the natural environment, but researchers at Tokyo University Tuna seed. of Marine Science and Technology have succeeded in using mackerel to breed Atlantic bluefin tuna. In the wild, female tuna release hundreds of

Electrolysed saline for disinfection
Gia Nguyen High-Tech of Vietnam has manufactured equipment to produce disinfecting solution from Javel water which has great potential in aquafarming and processing. Javel water or “eau de Javel” is an aqueous solution containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium chloride. Electrolysis with a special ceramic diaphragm between two electrodes will result in two different kinds of solution: catholyte and anolyte. The former is biologically active and the later strongly antiseptic. Both have a low level of toxicity and do not leave residues. Anolyte, 20-40 times more potent than Javel, can be used to sterilise water supplies, waste water, fresh bait for shrimp and fish, equipment, etc. According to Dr Nguyen Van Khai of Gia Nguyen High-Tech, anolyte solution is an effective disinfectant and deodoriser and is called “dead water” while catholyte solution is called “living water” because it is rich in nourishment. Diseased shrimp and fish should first be disinfected by anolyte and then washed in catholyte solution so that diseased cells can recover and internal, beneficial bacteria become active enough to fight against harmful, external ones and help these shrimps and fishes grow faster. Octopuses washed just once with anolyte solution looked brighter and fresher. It helps save water and reduces the cost of waste water treatment. This technology has so far been applied in four seafood processing companies in Vietnam: Hai Nam Ltd, Nam Hai Ltd, Thaimex (in Binh Thuan) and Nam Vinh Ltd (in Kien Giang).

Shrimp and green seaweed co-culture
Aonori Aquafarms, Inc (AAI), Mexico, has developed a shrimp farming technology using a mat of green seaweed aonori (Ulva clathrata), a highprotein macroalga frequently used to wrap sushi on the surface of traditional shrimp. Shrimp live in an ecological system based on a highly productive aonori culture. As a result, flavour, colouration and texture are superior to conventionally farmed shrimp, equivalent to wild-caught shrimp. The pond Seaweed shrimp farming. water remains clean the same way a natural wetland does, so pollution and other environmental impacts are eliminated. The algal mat and the web of small, invertebrate “prey” organisms that it harbours purify the water and provide food and oxygen for the shrimp. The system requires no aeration and only supplemental low-cost, low-protein, non-marine feeds to fertilise the food chain, rather than feed the shrimp. Shrimp feed costs are reduced by 45%. Labour costs are also cut because less time is spent feeding shrimp. The algae and the natural food chain in the pond provide most of the feed for the shrimp. Based on growout trials, AAI envisions stocking densities of 30 animals per square metre and production of 15-20 mt per hectare per year. A recent study in the journal Aquaculture showed that shrimp fed combinations of Ulva clathrata and traditional feeds had growth rates 60% greater than controls. The study suggests that carotenoids in Ulva clathrata were efficiently assimilated and metabolised by the shrimp and may have played a role in the exceptional growth rates. The shrimp consume only 60 percent of the seaweed in the surface mat; the remaining 40 percent can be harvested and sold as a nutritional supplement or to wrap sushi. The aonori system has other advantages over traditional semi-intensive shrimp production systems, including no water exchange - not even during harvesting. Harvesting takes place at night. Shrimp are concentrated into a harvest basin with lights and pumped out of the pond. Water only needs to be pumped to compensate for evaporation loss and to adjust salinity. AAL plans to culture the Mexican brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus californiensis, as it tolerates cooler temperatures better than P vannamei, and in trials, it performed as well as P vannamei in the aonori system. For the first two years of production, AAL will get its seed stock F californiensis postlarvae from Mexico’s CIBNOR, where the technology to produce F californiensis was developed.

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Natural biocatalyst
BiOWiSH™-AquaFarm is a powerful blend of biocatalysts that breaks down complex organic molecules to help eliminate waste, reduce odours, improve soil fertility and enhance water quality, among other uses. It improves and maintains water quality by accelerating the removal of nitrogenous wastes and enhancing water biology and is ideal for all aquaculture systems. BiOWiSH™AquaFarm supports optimal animal performance and health. The result is better survival, higher yields and cleaner, healthier and odour-free culture animals. (Neptune Supply Group, Inc, USA)
Reader enquiry number 26

Water quality instruments
The Troll 9500 water quality instrument measures pH, ORP, optical dissolved oxygen, conductivity, turbidity, pressure, and an ISE parameter. All instruments are shipped with a temperature sensor and barometric sensor. The instrument can be used in a variety of fields, including environmental monitoring and aquaculture for monitoring of water quality. It is approved for use by the US Environment Protection Agency (USEPA). improve water quality by removing ammonia and nitrites, decomposing harmful wastes and preventing algal growth. The net result of improved water quality is better growth of culture organisms, improved immunity, and reduction of pathogens. (Biozym Microbial Technology Inc, USA)
Reader enquiry number 28

(In-Situ Inc, USA)
Reader enquiry number 29

Easy-clean tunnel freezer
The Arcticflow easy-clean tunnel freezer is specially designed for freezing small or fragile products, such as shrimp, fish fillets, hamburgers and products placed on trays. The freezer arrives onsite fully factoryassembled and comes supplied with electric hoist motors to lift the fully welded stainlesssteel insulated top cover for easy cleaning and maintenance. Arcticflow easy-clean does not require a concrete or any other foundation. The freezer is based on the energy-saving, high-speed horizontal airflow known as Arcticflow, which, together with the ultra-low temperature, ensures rapid homogenous freezing in a minimum time period.

Biozym is a mixture of bacteria including nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus, aquatic yeasts, photosynthetic bacteria and other beneficial microorganisms screened from nature. These organisms help to

Water treatment technology

Aquarium supplies
Gentle Castle Corp of Taiwan supplies a wide range of equipment and other needs of the aquarium fish industry. This includes more than forty types of feeds for different ornamental fishes, complete series of minerals, vitamins and salts, carbon dioxide system, aquarium lighting, artificial corals, water treatments and conditioners, disease treatments, accessories and tools, 3-dimensional decorations, etc.
Gentle Castle


(Gentle Castle Corp, Taiwan)
Reader enquiry number 27

(Marel, UK)
Reader enquiry number 30

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Live fish air-freight system
The FishPac live fish air-freight system is designed for air, rail and road freight shipping. The system can keep up to 800 pounds of fish alive in one tote for up to 25 hours, with an average 1 percent mortality rate. The FishPac™ system operates by sustaining the fish/fingerlings with oxygen. The oxygen flows from an approved air/oxygen cylinder through the FishPac™ regulator (which has a worldwide patent) and is dispersed in the bin/tote via a ceramic diffuser. (FishPac, Australia)
Reader enquiry number 31

which transmits it to a land receiving station. From here the data is sent to the fisheries monitoring centre. VLINK is an electronic transceiver which is installed on the exterior of the fishing vessels and is integrated to an onboard monitoring system, commonly known as the “electronic logbook”.

Blast freezer
The Model CBU-30 blast freezer is designed for freezing cargo to -60°C for the quick freezing of yellowfin tuna and other highvalue seafood. It is mounted on 20 or 40 ft ISO containers. This is because blast freezing means substantially reduced transportation costs as the fish can be transported by container ship rather than air freighted. CBU30 is also unique in that its evaporator fan draws air through the load to ensure even temperatures throughout the load. Unlike other designs, Klinge Corp’s ultra-low temperature storage solution contains defrost heat in the evaporator section so that heat does not enter the flue. More standard designs allow heat from defrost to enter the container thereby heating up the container.

Packaging for unprocessed shrimps
Especially for unprocessed shrimps, Sealpac has invented an innovative packaging system, Gamba Packaging. Normally, the hollow antennas of the shrimps form a huge risk of leaking packages. Gamba Packaging ensures that antennas and other body parts, which lie over the sealing edge, are cut off while being sealed. As such, they do not influence the sealing quality.

(Kannad, France)
Reader enquiry number 34

Hand-held radio telephone
The SafeSea V100 survival craft handportable radiotelephone meets all the requirements of the IMO. Designed to be ultra-rugged and easy to use, the novel battery protection tab means the primary battery can be permanently attached to the radio without fear of losing its charge. The radio will always be available for use in times of emergency without the need to remove protective labels. Simply break off the red protective tab and the radio will be immediately ready to turn on. For everyday use, Ocean Signal offers a

(Sealpac International bv, The Netherlands)
Reader enquiry number 33

Vessel monitoring system

(Klinge Corp, USA)
Reader enquiry number 32

VLINK enables fishers to send daily updates on catch reports and the position of their vessel at regular intervals throughout the day. VLINK is fully compliant with European regulations. VLINK automatically sends the mandatory data to the Iridium satellite system


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Ocean Signal

lithium polymer rechargeable battery option. The quick-release rapid charger provides the ideal solution for keeping the batteries fully charged. (Ocean Signal, UK)
Reader enquiry number 35

Fish selector
The Fish Selector helps separate the fish while still in the trawl. The equipment is preprogrammed to select fish by specific size and species. The unwanted fish, which are either too small or not of the right species, are automatically sorted out and released through

a door into the open ocean. Other data collected are depth, temperature and inclination. The video cameras and computer equipment of the Fish Selector mounted in front of the cod end scan the fish, measure the length and determine the species. The desired fish approved by the equipment goes straight into the cod-end of the trawl. The system is powered by a rechargeable battery pack that typically lasts 4 hours, depending on the activity of the bypass gate. (Star Oddi, Iceland)
Reader enquiry number 36
Star Oddi

LCD radar
The JMA-3300 series is JRC’s newest radar, featuring a 10.4-inch ultra-bright LCD, and incorporates the latest digital signal processing for excellent target identification

and detection in a compact design. The tough glass bonded LCD is backlit by white LED’s giving 1000 cd/m2 of brightness, making the radar image sharp. Custom designed small System-on-Chip (SoC) weighing less than a sugar cube, inside the JMA-3300 series is an extremely powerful tool. The radar has the ability to display 50 AIS symbols, and 10 MARPA+TM tracking targets as standard. The high quality of the display provides outstanding target definition and discrimination. (JRC, Japan)
Reader enquiry number 37

Australasian Aquaculture 2012 .............................................................................. 17 Best Century ......................................................................................................... 47 Cretel NV .............................................................................................................. 49 Dalian Bingshan Group Import & Export Co Ltd ...................................... Back Cover Dalian Huixin Titanium Equipment Development Co Ltd ................ Inside Back Cover Eliona Industrial NV ...............................................................................................49 GeoEye/SeaStar ................................................................................................... 52 Gregor Jonsson, Inc ..............................................................................................71 John Kowarsky & Associates ................................................................................. 38 Malaysia International Seafood Exposition 2011 ..................................................... 2 Marel ..................................................................................................................... 43 Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) ........... Inside Front Cover Oxyguard International A/S ...................................................................................16 Scanz Technology ................................................................................................. 75 THAIFEX – Food Asia 2012 .................................................................................. 11 The Biro Manufacturing Company ......................................................................... 10 VICTAM Asia 2012 ................................................................................................ 26
Advertising rates are available on request from: INFOFISH, PO Box 10899, 50728 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: (603)20783466, 20784614 • Fax: (603)20786804 • E-mail: Website: Reader enquiry number 38

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Market evaluation including tasting sessions of Chilean corvina in Madrid

The FISH INFONetwork (FIN) consists of seven independent partners who cover all aspects of postharvest fisheries and aquaculture. Fifty national governments have signed international agreements with the different FIN services and are using the expertise of these services to develop the fishery sector worldwide. The FIN pages are a regular feature in the four network magazines - INFOFISH International, - INFOPESCA Internacional, - EUROFISH Magazine - INFOSAMAK Magazine They present the FIN-wide spectrum of activities, showing actions and results. The FIN has more than 70 full-time staff and works with more than one hundred international experts in all fields of fisheries. Through its link from FAO GLOBEFISH to the FAO Fisheries Department, it also has access to the latest information and knowledge on fisheries policy and management issues worldwide. The execution of multilateral and bilateral projects is one of the main activities of the network. It is also widely known for its range of publications and periodicals as well as for the organisation of international conferences, workshops and training seminars. All eight services offer different possibilities for cooperation with the private sector, institutes, government offices and donors. For more information on the FISH INFONetwork visit the website Spain, Turkey

Fish wholesalers discussing the quality of the Chilean corvina at a tasting session organised by INFOPESCA.

In the framework of the of the Chilean Corvina Project funded by Fundación Chile, Santiago Caro from INFOPESCA travelled to Madrid, Spain, to organize and coordinate the market evaluation of this product. Samples of freshly gutted croaker were dispatched from the production site in Tongoy, Chile and arrived at Barajas airport in Madrid very fresh and in perfect condition. The fish was received by

different wholesalers who had expressed their interest in participating in these commercial trials. A certain amount was reserved for a tasting session, for which a professional chef had been hired. This activity was coordinated with ANMPE (the association of seafood wholesalers of Mercamadrid). Some 15 people participated at the tasting session including fishmongers, importers and wholesalers. by 36 people, the majority from Norway, with some from Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and UK as well. Most of them were representatives of research institutes. The workshop was conducted with the help of a professional facilitator who ensured the active participation of all the participants in the discussions. There will be four workshops in total, with the third to be held in Madrid, Spain, in November.

EUROFISH workshop on future of cold water aquaculture
The Aquainnova project aims to provide the support and the methodologies required to facilitate the development of vision documents and strategic research priorities for European aquaculture. One of the ways of achieving this is to improve the dialogue between national and European policymakers, researchers and other stakeholders in the aquaculture sector. To facilitate this dialogue EUROFISH has coorganised two workshops, one on freshwater aquaculture in June and one on the future of coldwater aquaculture in Oslo in September. The latter lasted 1.5 days and was attended

World Seafood Congress, Washington DC, USA
The International Association of Fish Inspectors (IAFI) in cooperation with the US National Fisheries Institute (NFI) presented the World

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September. The Dubai Expo is one of the most important seafood fairs in the Middle East and INFOSAMAK was present with a booth to promote the fishing and aquaculture sector in the Arab region. INFOSAMAK assisted organising B2B meetings between businessmen from its member countries and other countries. The Dubai Seafood Expo was also a platform to present the very important CFC-FAOINFOSAMAK project, “Technical assistance for the upgrading of small-scale fisheries and their integration in international fish trade.” Representatives from the three beneficiary countries, Djibouti, Morocco and Yemen, were brought together to present their value added products and to seek trade opportunities and promote artisanal fishing activities in their respective countries. The seafood products attracted a lot of interest from exhibitors and visitors.

John Ryder, FAO making his presentation at the World Seafood Congress.

Seafood Congress (WSC) 2011. The event took place 1-6 October 2011 in Washington, DC and was attended by over 200 participants from 30 countries including five from Latin America. The World Seafood Congress is a biannual event organised since 1996 by IAFI and co-sponsored by FAO and UNIDO. The programme addressed several issues, including, international fish trade; food safety and inspection; illegal, unregulated and unreported fishing; sustainability; and economics and marketing. Presentations included round ups on South America, Africa, and Asia; and on the impact and lessons learned from major disasters; capability and capacity building; as well as science regulation and standards. As in previous sessions, workshops, training sessions and meetings of Latin America, AsiaPacific, and Africa networks were organised prior to the Congress. Latin America has the highest per capita production of fish, but the lowest per capita consumption of all regions in the world. At the Latin America network meeting it was agreed to increase focus on regional and domestic markets for fish products as a good alternative to export markets. There is an interest to promote fish consumption locally, and divert some of the focus on meeting expensive certification demands from fish importing countries. The participants also expressed their interest in strengthening their links to WTO to assure fair trade of fisheries products. Graciela Pereira from INFOPESCA, who was in charge of the Latin American Workshop, was

invited to make presentations on “The Role of Women in Capability & Capacity Building in the Seafood Industry” and “Enhancing Market Access of Amazonian Aquaculture and Fisheries Products.” The next WSC will be held in St John’s Newfoundland, Canada in September/October 2013.

Aquaculture farmer organisations and cluster management: concepts and experiences
Aquaculture makes a valuble contribution to local, regional, and national economies through goods and services provided to

INFOSAMAK: B2B meetings at Dubai Seafood Expo
INFOSAMAK took part in the 5th edition of the Seafood Expo & Seafood Processing Expo in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from 27 to 29

Visitors to the INFOSAMAK booth at the Seafood Expo 2011 surround the display cabinet containing value-added products from Djibouti, Morocco, and Yemen.

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domestic and export markets. Aquaculture activities involve a wide range of people from subsistence farmers to larger commercial enterprises to multinational companies. Small scale farming contributes to household subsistence and to food and nutritional security, while on a larger scale the aquaculture industry employs people in production, processing and marketing. A substantial number of people are involved in the aquaculture sector and most are from developing countries. The FAO and the WorldFish Centre have recently released a report that provides an overview of an important approach to assist small-scale farmers to overcome some of the challenges presented by developments, such as market liberalisation in countries, and to help them exploit opportunities that may also present themselves as markets for farmed fish and shellfish continue to expand. This approach is to facilitate the successful establishment and operation of farmers’ organizations to support collective action among small-scale producers using “cluster management.” This concept has been successfully implemented in many developing countries and refers to a group of aquaculture farmers that collectively implements, for example, certain production standards. Using cluster management to implement better management practices can improve aquaculture governance and enable farmers to work together to develop economies of scale, improve their knowledge, participate in market chains, increase their ability to join certification schemes, and reduce risks such as disease. The book, No 563 in the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper series, brings together current knowledge on the formation, operation, and impact of aquaculture farmers’ organizations using the concept of cluster management. The report was written by Laila Kassam, FAO Consultant; Rohana Subasinghe, FAO; and Michael Phillips, WorldFish Centre; and can be downloaded from the FAO Corporate Document Repository at i2275e/i2275e.pdf.

The FISHINFO Network
GLOBEFISH Fishery Industries Division FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome, Italy Tel.: (+39) 06 57052692 Fax: (+39) 06 57053020 Website: INFOPESCA Casilla de Correo 7086 Julio Herrea y Obes 1296 11200 Montevideo, Uruguay Tel.: (+598) 29028701/2 Fax: (+598) 29030501 E-mail: Website: INFOFISH Level 2, Menara Olympia 8, Jalan Raja Chulan 50200 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia P O Box: 10899, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Tel: (+603)2078 3466/ 4614/ 7794 Fax: (+603)20786804 E-mail: Website: INFOPECHE Tour C -19 étage, Cité administrative, 01 bp 1747 Abidjan 01 Cote d’Ivoire Tel.: (+225) 20228980 / 20213198 / 20215775 Fax: (+225) 202`18054 E-mail: / Website: INFOSA 89, John Meinert Street West Windhoek, Namibia Tel: (+264) 61 279430 Fax: (+264) 61 279434 E-mail: Website: EUROFISH H.C. Andersens Boulevard 44-46 1553 Copenhagen V, Denmark Tel: (+45) 33377755 Fax: (+45) 33377756 E-mail:, Website: INFOYU Room 514, Nongfeng Building, No 96, DongsanhuanNan Road, Chaoyang District Beijing 100122, P.R. China Tel.: (+86) 010 59199614 Fax: (+86) 010 59199614 E-mail: INFOSAMAK 71, Boulevard Rahal, El Meskini 16243, Casablanca, Morocco Tel.: (+212) 522540856 Fax: (+212) 22 540855 E-mail: / Website: PARTNERS Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Denmark; European Commission (DG FISH), Belgium; Agrimer, France; Norwegian Seafood Export Council; Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Spain; National Marine Fisheries Service, USA; Alaska Seafood Marketing Institute, USA; Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Canada; Seafood Services Australia MEMBER COUNTRIES Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Columbia, Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Venezuela

MEMBER COUNTRIES Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Iran, DPR Korea, Malaysia, Maldives, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand

MEMBER COUNTRIES Angola, Cameroon, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo

MEMBER COUNTRIES Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe (INFOSA is a sub-regional office of INFOPECHE)

MEMBER COUNTRIES Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Romania, Spain, Turkey


MEMBER COUNTRIES Algeria, Bahrain, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen

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Guidelines for Green Certification of Freshwater Ornamental Fishes
ISBN 978-81-910104-0-4 Published by Director, The Marine Products Export Development Authority Govt of India, 2011, 106 pages. Every year, over 2 billion ornamental fishes from more than 120 countries belonging to about 1 800 species are traded globally. As the trade expands, issues such as quality, environmental concerns and sustainability of the resource come to the fore. Ninety per cent of the freshwater ornamental fishes exported from India are wild-caught indigenous species while exotic species dominate the domestic aquarium trade. In 2008, the Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) organised an international workshop on Green Certification of Ornamental Fish. A major recommendation of the workshop, which was attended by delegates from India and abroad, was that under the auspices of MPEDA a task force be constituted to develop the guidelines and code of practices for green certification of freshwater ornamental fishes and their geographical indications (GI). A measure of the success of any product in the market is its consumer acceptance. Assurance of certain standards of the product by a certification system adds value to the product and enhances its consumer preference. In this context, the concept of green certification for ornamental fish assumes importance. The book contains the guidelines prepared by the task force, which incorporate activities of all the stakeholders in the supply chain starting from the fish collector and fish farm to the exporters. The guidelines cover aspects such as collection from the wild, handling, transport, holding, breeding and culture facilities, conditioning for export, infrastructure and maintenance of records, to conform to a value chain system for delivering healthy ornamental fishes to the trade and the hobbyists. Of the 16 chapters in the book, the first five cover protocols and procedures for collection from natural water bodies; for primary, secondary and exporting facilities; and farm. Chapters 6-10 discuss environmental integrity, especially the responsible use of energy, feed, chemicals etc, best management practices, green seal labelling, documentation, and agencies for accreditation and verification. Short term and long term plans for implementation of certification, standards for assessment used in green certification, guidelines for importing ornamental fish to India, geographical indication, and conclusions of the task force are discussed in chapters 11-15. Chapter 16 gives annexures of model designs, format for various documents, protocols prescribed for different activities during production etc. Enquiries may be directed to: Director, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Govt of India, Panampilly Nagar, Kochi-682 036, Kerala, India (Fax: +91-484-2313361; Email: industry. This industry is becoming subject to increased scrutiny by policy makers and the general public and is becoming increasingly influenced by social attitudes that have an impact on regulations, marketing and product ranges and acceptability. Diversification in aquaculture is growing different species to produce a variety of established and new seafood products. From a business perspective, diversification is a strategy with respect to markets in order to maximise expected gains and to minimise the exposure to risk. A more diversified aquaculture would lead to a greater variety of products available to consumers, possibly reducing pressure on wild stocks of species having similar qualities. A diversified aquaculture sector can be an important motor for regional and national development and can have significant positive network impacts on the economy. Essential information on the biology, domestication and aquaculture characteristics of a wide selection of novel and established species is provided in the form of technical sheets, species descriptions and rearing practices, making this a must-have reference in the field of aquaculture science. The book also offers a basic framework in order to support investment strategies for research and development efforts aimed at the emergence of a profitable finfish aquaculture industry. It also presents a rationale for species diversification, different approaches to species selection and the basic economical and market considerations governing the launch of strategic development and commercialisation efforts. Priced at US$ 255.00, the book may be purchased from CABI Head Office, Nosworthy Way, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8DE, UK (Fax: +44 (0) 1491 833508; Email:

Finfish Aquaculture Diversification
Editors: Nathalie R Le François, Malcolm Jobling, Chris Carter, Pierre U Blier and Arianne Savoie. ISBN: 978-1-84593-494-1 CAB International, UK (2010), 688 pages HB 224x172 mm, 150 figures/illustrations There has been a rapid increase in aquaculture production over the course of the past few decades and many predict that this expansion will continue for several years to come. As a result, there is considerable global interest in the culture of fish species both for cold and warm water aquaculture development. There is a growing perception that intensive aquaculture is a modern

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INFOFISH International 6/2011


NOVEMBER __________________
China Fisheries & Seafood Expo - 1-3 November, Qingdao, China. Information: Sea Fare Exposition Inc. Tel: 86-10-58672610 / 20 / 60 / 80. Fax: 86-10-58672600. E-mail: Website: World Food India - 9-11 November, New Delhi, India. Information: Tony Higginson, Event Director, ITE Group Plc, London, UK. E-mail: Website: Expo Pesca & AcuiPeru 2011 - 10-12 November, Lima, Peru. Information: Thais Corporation, SAC, Lima, Peru. Tel & Fax: 511-2017820. E-mail: Website: Chennai Aquaculture Technology Meet 2011 - 16-17 November, Chennai, India. Information: Dr S Felix, Convener, CATEET’11. E-mail: Website: Malaysia International Seafood Exposition 2011 - 16-20 November, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Informat ion: Fax: +603-88891195. Website: (See Ad on Pg 2) Busan International Seafood & Fisheries Expo 2011 - 17-19 November, Busan, Korea. Information: Ms Seonjeong Lee. Tel: 82-51-7407518. Fax: 82-51-7407320. SIAL Middle East 2011 - 21-23 November, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Information: Mr Omar Hassan / Mr Elly Habt. Tel: 33-176-772016. Fax: 971-2-4011760. E-mail: Website: Iran’s 8th International Fisheries, Aquaculture & Seafood Exhibition - 22-25 November, Kish Island, Iran. Information: Ms Shirin Mobayen, Expo Pars, Tehran, Iran. Tel: 98-21-88548845-9. E-mail: Website: AgriPro Asia Expo (APA) - 30 November-3 December, Hong Kong. Information: Ms Wing-Yin Ho, Vertical Expo Services Co Ltd. Tel: 852-39043830. Fax: 852-25280072. E-mail: Website:

APRIL ________________________
Seoul Seafood Show 2012 - 19-21 April, Seoul, Korea. Information: Mr K H Lee, Secretariat B2Expo Co Ltd, Seoul, Korea. Tel: +82-2-6000-800. Fax: +82-2-60002805. E-mail: Website: European Seafood Exposition & Seafood Processing Europe 2012 - 24-26 April, Brussels, Belgium. Information: Diversified Business Communications, 121, Free Street, P O Box 7437, Portland, ME 04112-7437, USA. Tel: 1-207-8425504. Fax: 1-207-8425505. E-mail: Website:

DECEMBER ___________________
6th Shanghai International Fisheries & Seafood Exposition - 8-10 December, Shanghai, China. Information: Mr Yong Li, Shanghai, Gehua Exhibition Service Co Ltd, Shanghai, China. Tel: 86-21-37821405. Fax: 86-21-37821409. E-mail: Website:

FEBRUARY ___________________
11th Annual Salmon Showhow - 1 February, Norresundby, Denmark. Information: Mr Michael Hjortshoj, Marketing Manager, Marel Salmon. Tel: +45-98-921511. Fax: +45-98-921101. E-mail: Website: Salon Halieutis - 1-5 February, Agadir, Morocco. Information: FIAAP Asia 2012 / VICTAM Asia 2012 - 15-17 February, Bangkok, Thailand. Information: / (See Ad on Pg 26) Aquaculture America 2012 - 28 February-2 March, Las Vegas, USA. Information: Mr John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, USA. Tel: 1-760-7515005. Fax: 1-760-7515003. E-mail: Website: India International Seafood Show 2012 (IISS 2012) - 29 February - 2 March, Chennai, India. Information: MPEDA, Cochin, 682036 Kerala, India. Tel: 91-484-2311979. Fax: 91-484-2313361. E-mail:

MAY _________________________
Skretting Australasian Aquaculture 2012 - 1-4 May, Melbourne, Australia. Information: Sarah-Jane Day, Conference Coordinator, P O Box 370, Nelson Bay, NSW 2315, Australia. Tel: (M)+61-437152234. Fax: +61-249841142. E-mail: (See Ad on Pg 17) TUNA 2012 Bangkok - 12th INFOFISH World Trade Tuna Conference & Exhibition - 23-25 May, Bangkok, Thailand. Information: INFOFISH - TUNA 2012 Bangkok. Tel: 603-20783466. Fax: 603-20786804. E-mail: Website: (See Ad on Pg 60 - 65) THAIFEX-World of Food Asia 2012 - 23-27 May, Bangkok, Thailand. Information: Ms Sharon Teo, Koelnmesse Pte Ltd, Singapore. Tel: +65-65006732. E-mail: Website: (See Ad on Pg 11)

JUNE ________________________
Seaexpo Turkey 2012 - 14-17 June, Istanbul, Turkey. Information: Ms Hande Biber Exhibition Manager, HKF Trade Fairs, Istanbul, Turkey. Tel: 90-212-2164010. Fax: 90-212-2163360. E-mail: Website:

MARCH ______________________
International Boston Seafood Show 2012 - 11-13 March, Boston, USA. Information: Diversified Business Communications, 121, Free Street, P O Box 7437, Portland, ME 04112-7437, USA. Tel: 1-207-8425504. Fax: 1-207-8425505. E-mail: Website:

SEPTEMBER __________________
AQUA 2012 - 1-5 September, Praque, Czech Republic. Information: Mr John Cooksey, World Aquaculture Conference Management, USA. Tel: 1-760-7515005. Fax: 1-760-7515003. E-mail: Website:

80 INFOFISH International 6/2011

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