# WKS - January 2010

CV2302 – Geotechnical Engineering

Lateral Earth Pressure  At-rest Lateral earth pressure  Rankine’s lateral earth pressure theory  Coulomb’s lateral earth pressure theory  Log spiral method of lateral earth pressure

Reference: Craig (2004), pp 161-181

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Lateral Earth Pressure

s'z and sz s'x and sx

In-Situ

Retaining Walls
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

At-Rest Earth Pressure
Coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest, Ko

Ko = s'x / s'z Ko = (1 – sin f') OCR sin f‘ Ko = (1 – sin f') OCR 0.5
s'z and sz s'x and sx Applicable to all sand and clay. Horizontal Stress Effective: Total:

or

s'x = Ko s'z sx = s'x + u
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Ko is applicable to any soil deposit.

At-Rest Earth Pressure
Ko is also applicable to soil acting on a non-yielding wall.

s'x = Ko s'z
H H/3
Ko g H

Po = ½ Ko g H

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Soil Type Loose sand Dense sand NC clay OC clay

Ko 0.6 0.35 0.6 1 to 2
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Lateral Earth Pressure Theories
• Rankine • Coulomb • Log-Spiral

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Rankine’s Earth Pressure Theory

H H/3

Assumptions 1. The soil is homogeneous and isotropic. 2. Failure surface is a plane. 3. Ground surface is a plane. 4. Wall is infinitely long i.e. plane strain condition. 5. Sufficient wall movements to develop active or passive state. 6. Wall is vertical. 7. Wall is perfectly smooth. 8. The resultant force is parallel to ground surface. 9. The resultant force is acting at H/3 above the wall bottom.
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active Earth Pressure in Sand (Rankine)
t

f'

s'x = Ko s'z

No wall movement

s'A

s'x

s'z

s

s'A = KA s'z
Here we are dealing with effective stress only.

Wall moved away from soil

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Active Earth Pressure in Sand (Rankine)
t
45 + f'/2

f'

s'A = KA s'z
B s'A s'z

O Active earth pressure

A

s

AB ½ (s'z – s'A) Sin f' = ------- = ---------------OA ½ (s'z + s'A)

45 + f'/2 Failure plane at active state

(1 – sin f') KA = ----------------(1 + sin f')
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Passive Earth Pressure in Sand (Rankine)
t

f'

s'x = Ko s'z

No wall movement

s'x

s'z

s'P

s

s'P = KP s'z
Here we are dealing with effective stress only.

Wall moved towards soil

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Passive Earth Pressure in Sand (Rankine)
t

f'

s'P = KP s'z
s'z Passive earth pressure
½ (s'P - s'z) Sin f' = ----------------½ (s'P + s'z)

s'P

s

45 - f'/2 Failure plane at passive state

(1 + sin f') KP = ----------------(1 - sin f')
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active Earth Pressure in Clay (Rankine) (under short term undrained condition)
t

sx = s'x + u = Kos'z + u

cu sA sx sz

fu=0

s

No wall movement

(-)

cu = ½

(sz - sA)

sA = sz – 2 cu
(+) Wall moved away from soil

sA = sz - 2cu
Here we are dealing with total stress.
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Passive Earth Pressure in Clay (Rankine) (under short term undrained condition)
t

sx = s'x + u = Kos'z + u

cu sx sz sP

fu=0

s

No wall movement

sP = sz+ 2cu

cu = ½

(sP - sz)

sP = sz + 2cu
Wall moved towards soil Here we are dealing with total stress.
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active & Passive Earth Pressure in Clay (Rankine) (under long term drained condition  c' and f' )
(-) s'A = KAs'z – 2 c'√KA (+) c' Active earth pressure s'A s'z s t f'

s'P = KPs'z + 2 c'√KP

(1 – sin f') KA = ----------------(1 + sin f')

(1 + sin f') KP = ----------------(1 - sin f')

Here we are dealing with effective stress only. Passive earth pressure
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Lateral Earth Pressure for c- f soil (Rankine)

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active Earth Pressure for c- f soil (Rankine)

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Passive Earth Pressure for c'- f' soil (Rankine)

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Rankine’s Earth Pressure for c'- f' soil

s'A = KAs'z – 2 c'√KA

s'P = KPs'z + 2 c'√KP
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Lateral Earth Pressure with Inclined Backfill (Rankine)

b

sand
PAV b PA PAH

cos b

Active
PA = ½ KA g H2 PAH = ½ KA g H2 cos b PAV = ½ KA g H2 sin b
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Rankine’s Earth Pressure at Any Point
b

(1 – sin f') KA = ----------------(1 + sin f')

(1 + sin f') KP = ----------------(1 - sin f')

s'AV
b

s'A s'AH

cos b

Active Sand (drained) Clay (undrained) Clay (drained)
s'A = KA s'z sA = sz – 2 cu s'A = KAs'z – 2 c'√KA

Passive
s'P = KP s'z sP = sz + 2 cu s'P = KPs'z + 2 c'√KP
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Coulomb’s Earth Pressure Theory
b l H
H/3

d a

PA

Assumptions 1. The soil is homogeneous and isotropic. 2. Failure surface is a plane. 3. Ground surface is a plane. 4. Wall is infinitely long i.e. plane strain condition. 5. Sufficient wall movements to develop active or passive state.

6. Wall can be inclined (a  0).
7. Wall can be rough (d  0). 8. The resultant force is acting at an angle d with the normal to 20 wall.

CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Coulomb’s Active Earth

Each wedge will yield one P value. Try different wedges to find the highest P. Alternatively, ∂P/∂q = 0 and solve for P.
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Coulomb’s Active Earth Pressure
l = a – 90o
l b

PA= ½ KA g H2 PAH = PA cos (d+ l) PAV = PA sin (d+ l)

PA
H H/3 a d

PAV

PA PAH

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Coulomb’s Passive Earth Pressure
b l

PP= ½ KA g H2
PPH PP

PPH = PP cos (d - l) PPV = PP sin (d - l)

H d H/3 a

PPV PP

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Log Spiral Method on Lateral Earth Pressure

Active Case PA= ½ KA g H2 PAH = PA cos d PAV = PA sin d

Passive Case PP= ½ KP g H2 PPH = PP cos d PPV = PP sin d
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Log-Spiral Method – KA & KAH

KAH

d/f’=0 d/f’=0.66 d/f’=1.0
Design Value of f' KA = KAH / cos d KAV = KAH tan d
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Horizontal surface b=0 d PPH PPV PP

Log-Spiral Method KPH
d / f' =1.0 d / f' = 0.66

KPH

d / f' = 0

Design Value of f'

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active and Passive Pressure with Wall Adhesion cw

∂P/∂q = 0

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Active and Passive Pressure with Wall Adhesion cw Active Pressure Passive Pressure

sa

sp

Drained case: Undrained case:

c’>0 and f’>0 cu>0 and fu=0

 c = c’  c = cu Ka = Kp = 1
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Active and Passive Pressure with Wall Adhesion cw Active Pressure Passive Pressure

sa

sp

Undrained case: If cw/cu = 0

cu>0 and fu=0

s a = s z – 2 cu sa = sz – 2.45 cu

s p = s z + 2 cu sp = sz + 2.45 cu
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If cw/cu = 0.5 

Summary
Theory Rankine Coulomb Log-Spiral Roughness smooth any any Inclination vertical any any Application KA KA KA & K P

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

PAV 5m
d

PA PAH

g = 20 kN/m3

Comparisons of Method of Analysis
Theory f' d KA PA PAH Loose Sand

Rankine
Coulomb Log-Spiral Rankine Coulomb Log-Spiral

30
30 30 40 40 40

0
20 20 0 30 30

0.33
0.30 0.32 0.22 0.20 0.22

83.3
75 80 55 50 55

83.3
70.5 75.2 55 43 48
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Dense Sand

g = 20 kN/m3 5m
d

PPH PP

PPV

Comparisons of Method of Analysis
Theory Rankine Coulomb Log-Spiral Rankine Coulomb Log-Spiral f' 30 30 30 40 40 40 d 0 20 20 0 30 30 KP 3 6.1 5.2 4.6 24.9 13.1 PP 750 1525 1300 1150 6225 3275 PPH 750 1433 1222 1150 5391 2836
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Loose Sand

Dense Sand

CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Total active earth pressure on wall in sand
q

s'A= KAq

Sand, g H

s'A= KAs'z

s'A= KA (q + gH)

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Total active earth pressure on wall in sand
q

s'A= KAs'z
Sand

u

+

Earth pressure + surcharge

Water pressure

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Total active earth pressure on wall in clay
q

z Clay cu

sA= sz – 2cu where sz = g z + q

Earth pressure

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Total active earth pressure on wall in clay
q

sA= sz – 2cu
Clay cu

where sz = g z + q

Earth pressure

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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Total active earth pressure on wall in clay
Dry condition Ignore negative pressure

z Clay cu

zc

Tension crack

sA= g z – 2cu +

Earth pressure

How do you determine zc?
sA= g zc – 2cu = 0
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Total active earth pressure on wall in clay
After heavy downpour
Initial crack depth Final crack depth

zw

Clay cu

sA= sz – 2cu

Earth pressure

How do you determine zw? sA= g zw – 2cu = zw gw

CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Total active earth pressure on wall in layered soil
q s'A= KAs'z +
Clay

Sand

u
Water pressure

sA= sz – 2cu
Earth pressure + Surcharge

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Effect of soil movement on lateral earth pressure in Sand

passive
K

KP
KO at-rest

active
KA

Lateral movement
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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WKS - January 2010

Movements required to mobilise active pressure Soil Type Dense sand Loose sand Stiff clay D 0.001H 0.004H 0.010H H=3m 3 mm 12 mm 30 mm H=5m 6 mm 24 mm 50 mm

Soft clay

0.020H

60 mm

100 mm

Movements required to mobilise passive pressure Soil Type Dense sand Loose sand Stiff clay Soft clay D 0.020H 0.060H 0.020H 0.040H H=3m 60 mm 180 mm 60 mm 120 mm H=5m 100 mm 300 mm 100 mm 200 mm
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CV2302 - Lateral Earth Pressure

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