Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

AG 9131 Hydrogeology

L. Elango
Professor Department of Geology Anna University, Chennai

elango@annauniv.edu www.elango.5u.com

Hydrogeology
Reference text: Groundwater - Freeze, R.A and Cherry, J.A, Groundwater Hydrology – David Keith Todd Groundwater -- H.M. Raghunath

Weightage for Grading Attendance : Tests (best 2 from 3) : Final Exam :

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5% 45% 50%

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Syllabus
Introduction Hydrologic cycle – groundwater in various geological formations – role of geological structures - groundwater and geologic processes Groundwater flow Darcy’s law – hydraulic conductivity – estimation in lab and by tracer techniques Estimation of aquifer parameters Groundwater resources evaluation – groundwater models Groundwater abstraction techniques Construction of wells – shallow and deep wells Groundwater quality

Hydrology and Hydrogeology
Hydrology
Hydrology is the science of f occurrence, movement and transport of water

Hydrogeology H drogeolog
Hydrogeology deals with the occurrence, distribution, movement of water and its constituents (quality of water) beneath the Earth's surface - that is groundwater

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Hydrogeology is an interdisciplinary subject
► Involving
Geology Hydrology Chemistry Mathematics Physics Computing Engineering Agriculture

► To

answer questions posed by
Engineers Planners Ecologists Managers Etc.

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Importance
►Virtually

Life on earth is possible primarily because of the availability of water on it. The first form of life originated in water.

every activity in the earth sciences requires some knowledge of i i k l d f groundwater ►Until the 1900 – focus on groundwater as a resource – (Still it is the important resource) ) ►In the past century – Engineering and Environmental aspects – also become important

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Scope of Hydrogeology

Important resource

Agriculture

Domestic Industry

Impor rtant resource

Water Balance of the Earth
Distribution of Water Volume

UNESCO, 2000

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

rtant resource Impor

Groundwater – An important resource
Global Distribution of Water
Oceans Fresh Water

Ocean water: 97.2% Fresh water: 2 8% 2.8%

Distribution of Fresh Water
Ice/Glaciers Groundwater Surface Water Soil Moisture Atmosphere

Ice: 2.14% Groundwater: 0.61% Surface water: 0.009% Surface Moisture: 0.005% Atmosphere: 0.001%

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Impor rtant resource

Need for water

USEPA 1987

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

-GW is significantly less costly to develop than surface water. -GW is less susceptible to contamination than surface water - quite often requires little or no treatment to be used as drinking water.

Impor rtant resource

Geotechnical
W E

Flow Direction September 2006

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Groundwater flow velocity (m/d) at FRFCF site

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Landsides (Land subsidence)

Management strategy

Fig.1. Location of area considered for groundwater modeling. Fig. 8. Simulated of groundwater head in the beach well g g pumping at the rate of 7800m3/d.

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Fig. 4. Simulated of groundwater head in the beach well pumping at the rate of 5000m3/d. Fig.12. Simulated of groundwater head in the beach well pumping at the rate of 15600m3/d.

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Mining
► Neiveli Lignite Corporation ► Groundwater occurs below

the entire lignite bed, exerting an upward pressure of 6 to 8 kg/cm2. ► Pumping to depressurise the water pressure to the safe mining condition.

Colorado School of Mines

Contaminant migration
OBSERVED - SIMULATED NITROGEN (N(NNO3) CONCENTRATION IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE
N (m g /k g ) 6 4 2 0

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MODEL RESULTS

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Observed Simulated

N (m g /K g )

10 5 0
20 10 0

2017

N ( m g /k g )

N (m g /K g )
N (m g /K g )

10 5

0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
16 22

Days after Transplantation

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Contaminant migration

...contd

► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Love canal in Niagra Falls Dug in 1890 for shipping/hydropower but not completed Hooker chemical co dumped wastes (organic co. chemicals, pesticides etc.,) from 1942 to 1953 Covered with soil and sold High rainfall in 1975-76 eroded soil cover 1975Liquid wastes contaminated groundwater As wastes denser than water it could not penetrate soft clay

Contaminant migration

Health risks and source of contamination known in 1978 ► Declared as federal emergency ► School and homes evacuated ► Cleaning up – perimeter drain and groundwater intercepted, onsite treatment plant installed ► Thi improved the environmental condition This i d h i l di i ► A clear hydrogeological problem!

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...contd

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Contaminant migration

...contd

Leaking Gas Tanks LNAPL

Geological work of groundwater

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Water/Earth Interactions
Interactions go both ways • Groundwater controls geologic processes • Geology controls flow y and availability of groundwater

Water/Earth Interactions
Geology controls groundwater flow
Permeable pathways are controlled by distributions of geological materials

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Water/Earth Interactions
Geology controls groundwater flow
Permeable pathways are controlled by distributions of geological materials Where groundwater is available as a resource is controlled by geology

Water/Earth Interactions
Geology controls groundwater flow
Permeable pathways are controlled by distributions of geological materials Where groundwater is available as a resource is controlled by geology Contaminant transport in the subsurface is controlled by geology

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Water/Earth Interactions
Groundwater controls geologic processes ► Volcanic Processes: Processes:
Igneous Rocks: Rocks: Groundwater controls water content of magmas Metamorphic Rocks: Rocks: Groundwater injected by j y magmas can metamorphose country rocks Volcanism: Volcanism: Geysers are an example of volcanic activity interacting with groundwater

Water/Earth Interactions
Groundwater controls geologic processes
Earthquakes: Earthquakes: fluids control fracturing and fault movement, lubrication and pressures Landslides: Landslides: groundwater controls slope failure Landforms: Landforms: Valley development and karst topography

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Hydrogeologists in ……
► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Geotechnical Engineering Geology - Landslides Mining Landfills Waste disposal Oil Industry Insurance and Money lending ……………….
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► ► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Hydrogeologists’ Exam - UPSC Consultancy Oil Exploration Mining Engineering Entrepreneur ………… …….

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Your Career

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Hydrologic Cycle

The cyclic movement of water through atmosphere, Hydrosphere,Bio Hydrosphere Bio sphere and Lithosphere

Components of the Water Cycle
Ins Solar Energy Input Precipitation Condensation Well Injection Irrigation Outs Evaporation Transpiration Infiltration Percolation Runoff Groundwater Flow Surfacewater Flow Well Pumping

Powered by the Sun- Solar Power

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Precipitation
Types of Precipitation Natural Rain Snow Ice Hail Condensation/ Dew Man-Made Irrigation Wastewater Applications

Interception Infiltration / Percolation
Infiltration

Canopy Interception

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Percolation

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Infiltration- Movement Water Into Soil Percolation - Water Movement Through the Soil

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Evaporation / Transpiration Evapotranspiration

Evaporation- Driven by Thermal Gradient and Moisture Difference

Stomata

Runoff / Overland Flow

Uncontrolled Runoff Causes Erosion

When Rainfall Rate Exceeds Infiltration Runoff is Generated

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Low Infiltration Causes - Overland Flow- Loss Organic Material

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

The Water Budget: Law of Mass Conservation

P – ET – R = ΔS
Precipitation Evapotranspiration

Runoff

Infiltration

Throughfall

Snowpack
Soil Moisture Storage

Recharge

Input – Output = Change in Storage Importance of spatial and temporal variability

Groundwater & Hydrologic Cycle

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Surface Water & Groundwater are Related and Connected !

Local Water Divide

Sources of Groundwater
► Meteoric

water derived from rainfall water► Connate water- fossil interstitial water ► Magmatic water or Juvenile water- from hot molten magma ► Plutonic water- very deeper condition (>5km) ( 5k ) ► Volcanic water- shallow depths (<5km) ► Metamorphic water- during metamorphism

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Vertical distribution of Water
Surface Water

Soil Moisture

Groundwater

Pores Full of Combination of Air and Water Unsaturated Zone – Zone of Aeration

Pores Full Completely with Water

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Zone of Saturation

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Soil and Groundwater Zones
Unsaturated Zone:
Water in pendular saturation

Caplillary Fringe:
Water is pulled above the water table by capilary suction Water Table: where fluid pressure is equal to atmospheric pressure

Saturated Zone:
Where all pores are completely filled with water. Phreatic Zone: Saturated zone below the water table

But How Do We Define the Water Table?

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The Water Table
Lies Roughly at the g y Interface Between the Unsaturated Zone and the Saturated Zone

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Capillary Fringe

Surface tension – sediments retain water Depends on Surface area: smaller grains – higher surface area – higher surface tension

Capillarity Due to Adhesion of Water to a Surface Capillary Rise Related to Size of Pores Smaller the Pore, The Larger the Capillary Rise

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Capillary Fringe
Water Held by Tension Zone above water table that is effectively saturated

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Soil water
Depth up to which the root zone extends Depth up to which the atmospheric conditions has an influence Intermediate/Gravitational water – zone between soil water and capillary fringe

AQUIFERS
► Aquifer

is derived from the Latin term meaning water bearer. ► Lithologic unit or collection of units capable of yielding water to wells
► An

aquifer is not: A geological formation, A permeable geologic unit, unit A porous medium, or A petroleum reservoir

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

AQUIFERS
Consolidated or unconsolidated geologic unit (material, stratum, or formation) or set of connected units that yields a significant (economic) quantity of water of suitable quality to wells in usable amounts. amounts

AQUIFER Types
► unconfined (or

water-table) - the upper surface of the aquifer is the water table. Water-table if l i by t t d aquifers are di tl overlain b an unsaturated directly zone or a surface water body.
table separates saturated and unsaturated zones

► Water

high hi h permeability layers bilit l near the surface

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

AQUIFER Types
► confined (or

artesian) - an aquifer that is immediately overlain by a low-permeability it (confining layer). A confined aquifer d ) fi d if does unit ( fi i l not have a water table.

overlain by confining layer

Confined Aquifer
► Artesian

condition

► Permeable

material overlain by relatively impermeable material or potentiometric

► Piezometric

surface

► Water

level in the piezometer is a measure of water pressure in the aquifer

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

AQUIFER Types
► perched -

a local, unconfined aquifer at a higher elevation than the regional unconfined aquifer An unsaturated zone is present aquifer. between the two unconfined aquifers.

AQUIFER Types
► Leaky or

semi confined- an aquifer that receives recharge via cross-formational flow through confining layers. layers ► Leaky confining unit (K is too low to be an aquifer, but great enough to permit significant flow through the layer)

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Other geological formations!
►Aquitard (flow through the layer is signifcant on a regional scale or over very long (e.g., geologic) time scales) sandy clay ►Aquifuge (no K and no n)

massive

rock ►Aquiclude (no/very less K) clay

How water occurs in beneath ground surface?
► ► ► ► ►

Spaces b S between solid grains – Pores lid i Fractures Measure of pore volume - Porosity Measure of water yield – Specific Yield Measure of water retention – Specific Retention

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Porosity

n% = %

VV x100% 100% VT

n% = porosity (expressed as a percentage) VV = volume of the void space VT = total volume of the material (void + rock)

Primary and secondary porosity

Primary Porosity
Sediments Sedimentary Rocks

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Secondary Porosity
Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Igneous / Metamorphic Rocks
Low Primary Porosity Can Have High Secondary Porosity

Porosity Ranges for Sediments Well Sorted Gravel: Sand and Gravel Mix: Glacial Till: Silt: Clay: 25 – 50% 20 – 35% 10 – 20% 35 – 50% 33 – 60%

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FCC 26% BCC 32% Sand Simple cubic 47.6% Silt & Clay Gravel Siltstone karstic Basalt Pumice

Non-uniform grain sizes

Shale

Sandstone

Limestone & Dolostone Fractured crystalline rocks

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Porosity, %

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Factors controlling porosity
► ► ► ► ► ► ►

Grain size G i shape Grain h Mode of arrangement Sorting Cementing Compaction Solution activity

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Sorting

Glacial

Better Sorting = Higher Porosity

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Specific Yield

Sy= Vy/V

Drainable Porosity! (under gravity)
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Domenico & Schwartz (1990)

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Specific Yields Clay Silt Sand S d 2% 18% 26%

Smaller the Grain Size – Lower the Specific Yield

What about the water that is retained?

Specific Retention (Sr) = Vr/V n = Sy + Sr

Material coarse gravel medium gravel fine gravel gravelly sand coarse sand medium sand fine sand silt sandy clay clay

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Specific Yield (%) Maximum 26 26 35 35 35 32 28 19 12 5 Minimum 12 13 21 20 20 15 10 3 3 0 Average 22 23 25 25 27 26 21 18 7 2

(Johnson (1967) as quoted by C.W. Fetter(2000)

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Sediment Properties

Storage Coefficient or Storativity (S) Volume of water that a permeable unit will absorb or expel from storage per unit surface area per unit change in head.

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Storage Coefficient
The storage coefficient (S) consists of two components: pore fluid draining of the aquifer water released from compressibility of aquifer For confined aquifers, there is no draining of the pores, so all storage comes from the compressibility component Ss = specific storage (1/L) b = saturated thickness (L) S < 0.005 For unconfined aquifers, most of the water is from draining, contribution from compressibility is very small S = Ssb S = Sy + Ssb usually, Sy >> Ssb S ~ Sy
b = saturated thickness (L) Sy = specific yield Ss = specific storage (1/L)

S: 0.02 to 0.30

Specific Storage (Ss)
Elastic storage coefficient Amount of water per unit volume of a saturated formation that is stored or expelled from storage owing to compressibility of the mineral skeleton and pore water per unit head change (unit=1/L)

Ss = ρwg(α + nβ)
ρw = density of water g = acceleration of gravity α = compressibility of aquifer skeleton n = porosity β = compressibility of water

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S = Ssb

What contributes more to storage, compressibility of water or compressibility of matrix?

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Aquifer Compressibility:
1. Compressibility of Water 2. Compressibility of Porous Medium In the saturated zone the head create pressure which affect the arrangement of mineral grains as well as density of water in the voids The expansion of mineral skeleton and pressure are directly proportional (elasticity). The contraction of water in aquifer and the pressure created by head is inversely proportional.

Think of a tyre System is elastic

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Filled with air under pressure When we release it it is still filled with air Skeleton Water

If pressure increases, increases Mineral skeleton will expand Water will contract

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P

Expansion of mineral skeleton and pressure -> directly proportional (elasticity). Contraction of water in aquifer and pressure created by head -> inversely proportional.

If pressure drops, p p , Mineral skeleton will contract Water will expand

P
Expansion of Water Compaction of the Aquifer Skeleton

When Pumping
Reduce the Pressure

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Compressibility of Geologic Materials (m2 N-1)
Clay Sand Gravel Shale Sandstone Limestone Igneous/Metamorphic Water 10-6 to 10-8 10-7 to 10-9 10-8 to 10-10 10-9 to 10-10 10-10 to 10-11 10-10 to 10-11 10-11 4.4 x 10-10

Springs
Discharge of groundwater from a spring in California. Springs generally emerge at th base of a hill l f hillslope. the b Some springs produce water that has traveled for many kilometers; while others emit water that has traveled only a few meters. Springs represent places where the saturated zone (below the water table) comes in contact with the land surface.
S. Hughes, 2003

(from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.8)

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Decrea asing

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Groundwater Table and Occurrence

In Humid Areas: Water Table Subdued Replica of Topography In Arid Areas: Water table flatter

Water Table Mimics the Topography Subdued replica of topography

If water table flat – no flow occurring Sloping Water Table – Flowing Water Flow from high to low areas Discharge occurs in topographically low sites

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Need gradient for flow

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Discharge and Recharge Areas

Discharge Upward Vertical Gradient

Recharge Downward Vertical Gradient

Recharge Topographically High Areas Deeper Unsaturated Zone Flow Lines Diverge

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Discharge Topographically Low Areas Shallow Unsaturated Zone Flow Lines Converge

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Unconsolidated formations
Glaciated terrains

(Munich) Project area Moraines of former Inn-glacier = Northern edge of Alps = Würm moraines with (1994).

River alluvium

► Heterogeneous ► Flood

plain deposits

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Particle Size Distribution Graph

Tectonic valleys — Intermontane basins

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Water in Rock Material
Most f th i M t of the igneous and metamorphic rocks d t hi k are very dense with interlocked texture. The rocks therefore have extremely low permeability and porosity. Some clastic sedimentary rocks, typically sandstones, can b porous and permeable. d t be d bl Weathered rocks can also be porous and permeable.

Consolidated Sedimentary Aquifers
Conglomerate

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

► conglomerate ► High

porosity, high permeability

► Limestone ► high

porosity and low permeability

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Groundwater as a Geologic Agent

Groundwater as a Geologic Agent

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Groundwater as a Geologic Agent

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Limestone

Igneous rocks
Groundwater percolates downward through the regolith which is a layer of weathered rock, alluvium, colluvium and soil to fractures in underlying bedrock.

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http://capp.water.usgs.gov/aquiferBasics/volcan.html

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Bedrock Hydrogeology
► Hydraulic

Conductivity of bedrock is controlled by

Size of fracture openings Spacing of fractures Interconnectedness of fractures

► unfractured

granite ► Low porosity, low permeability

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Volcanic rocks

Geologic origin of aquifers

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Todd (1996)

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Hydrograph
is a graph showing changes in the discharge of a river over a period of time.

Unit Hydrograph Theory
► The

unit hydrograph is the response of the watershed to 1 unit of excess runoff distributed uniformly over the entire watershed
1 inch (English units) 1 mm (Metric units)

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http://www.tcnj.edu/~horst/classes.htm

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Unit Hydrograph Theory
Unit Hydrograph vs Storm Hydrographs
400 350 300 250 Flow 200 150 100 50 0 0 5 10 15 Time 20 25 30

Significance of Unit Hydrograph
► Watersheds

response to a given amount of excess precipitation is just a multiplier of the unit hydrograph ► Use unit hydrograph as a basis to determine the storm hydrograph from any given rainfall distribution

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Example
► Given

the following rainfall distribution
Time 1 2 3 4
Precipitation 0.5 3 1.5 0.2

► The

watershed will respond as follows
http://www.tcnj.edu/~horst/classes.htm

Time 1 2 3 4

Precipitation 0.5

1.5 0.2

F lo w

3

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Example
Incremental Storm Hydrographs
500

400

300

200

100

0 0 5 10 15 Time 20 25 30 35

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Example
Incremental + Final Storm Hydrograph
00 500

400

300 Flow 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 Time 20 25 30 35

Unit Hydrograph Derivation

A unit hydrograph is derived from historical rainfall and runoff data The volume of water produced by the storm (area under the hydrograph curve) divided by the area of the watershed equals depth of excess precipitation The ordinates of the storm hydrograph are divided by this depth to obtain the unit hydrograph Timing must be taken into consideration (S-curve (Stechnique to adjust timing)

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Role of Geological Structures on Groundwater Occurrence & Flow

Attitude of formations Joints and Faults Folds Igneous intrusions

Attitude of formations

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Artesian Aquifers

“artesian” GW under pressure due to dipping layers Non-flowing Free-flowing

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A. Although the contaminated water has traveled more than 100 m before reaching Well 1, the water moves too rapidly through the limestone to be purified. As the discharge from the septic tank percolates through the sandstone, it is purified i a relatively short ifi d in l ti l h t distance. B.

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Folds Axis weak zone Oasis

desert spring

Joints and Faults Weak zones Increase porosity and K Increase rate of weathering

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Igneous Intrusives

±

Legend
Dykes

Igneous Intrusives

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Impact of dykes

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Impact of dykes

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Land subsidence

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

http://tigger.uic.edu/~pdoran

KARST

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Karst Topography A. GW percolates through limestone along joints and bedding planes. Dissolution creates and enlarges caverns at and below the water table. Si kh l f h Sinkholes form when th the roof of a cavern collapses. Surface streams may disappear down sinkholes and reappear as springs. As time passes, caverns grow larger and the number and size of sinkholes increase. Collapse of caverns and coalescence of sinkholes form larger, flat-floored depressions (solution valleys). Eventually dissolution may remove most of the limestone from the area, leaving only isolated remnants (towers). B B. C.

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

KARST

Guilin CHINA

http://tigger.uic.edu/~pdoran

GW Erosion

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Caverns form as a result of dissolution of carbonate rocks below the water table
http://tigger.uic.edu/~pdoran

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Near Las Vegas

Earth Fissures

http://www.mscd.edu/~eas/Janke/ENV_4010/readings/Keller_Ch06.pdf

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Subsidence

Subsidence of the ground surface occurs when GW is pumped out faster than it is replenished in some areas (compaction). S i Valley San J Joaquin V ll New Orleans, LA Mexico City

http://www.mscd.edu/~eas/Janke/ENV_40 10/readings/Keller_Ch06.pdf

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Now we can use i f i interferometric processing of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data.

Identifying land subsidence
Suspected Land Subsidence in Kolkata from 1992-1998

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Geological Map of India
► GangesGanges-

Brahmaputra and Himalayan regions ► six provinces distinguished in g peninsular India.

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Hydrogeology of Tamil Nadu

Source: TWAD

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Elango, L
Seripalli

Hydrogeology

Dyke

Fracture
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No. of Dykes 60 40 50

Geology

Rose diagram

10

20

30

0

100-500 501-1000 1001-1500 1501-2000 2001-2500 2501-3000 3001-3500 3501-4000 4001-4500 4501-5000 5001-5500 5501-6000 6001-6500 7000-7500 10000-10500

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Dykes Statistical graph

Length of Dykes in m

Geology Dept, Anna University

Well no. 43

Well no. 2

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Hydrogeology

Geology Dept, Anna University

Ephemeral Stream (influent)
(from Keller, 2000, Figure 10.5b)

• Semiarid or arid climate • Flows only during wet periods (flashy runoff) • Recharges groundwater
S. Hughes, 2003

Contours Reflect Gradient and Direction of Flow

Gaining Stream

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Losing Stream

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