Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 14/2012

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
30 June 2012
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Table of Contents:

BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Social Protection and Cash Transfers: To Strengthen Families Affected by HIV and AIDS .. 4 Twenty Mechanisms for Addressing Torture in Health Care .................................................. 4 Telehealth in the Developing World ........................................................................................ 4 An Introduction to Systematic Reviews................................................................................... 5 Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease ..................................................................................................... 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 5
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 5
The Global Fund Governance Handbook ............................................................................... 5 Occupy Science: Time for more activist tools to bridge the gap between science and decision making?..................................................................................................................... 6

HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 6
Southern African guidelines for the safe use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men who are at risk for HIV infection ........................................................................ 6 Use of Efavirenz during pregnancy: a public health perspective ............................................ 6 Patient Attrition Between Diagnosis With HIV in Pregnancy-Related Services and LongTerm HIV Care and Treatment Services in Kenya: A Retrospective Study............................ 7 Three Postpartum Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Intrapartum HIV Infection .................. 7 Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial........................................................... 7 Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis...................................................................................... 8 The Rates of HIV Superinfection and Primary HIV Incidence in a General Population in Rakai, Uganda......................................................................................................................... 8 Update on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-2 Infection ................................................ 8 Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Communication Materials Adaptation Guide ............. 9 Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge Is a Poor Predictor of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Genital Tract Inflammation in High-Risk Women in South Africa............................................ 9

Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................... 9
Adding It Up: Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services Estimates for 2012................... 9 Every Woman’s Right: How Family Planning Saves Children’s Lives .................................. 10 Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems ......................................... 10

Maternal & Child Health............................................................................................ 10
UNICEF Annual Report 2011 ................................................................................................ 10 Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in Uganda...................................................... 11 Do cervical cancer data justify HPV vaccination in India? Epidemiological data sources and comprehensiveness .............................................................................................................. 11 Developmental Difficulties in Early Childhood....................................................................... 11 Zinc as adjunct treatment in infants aged between 7 and 120 days with probable serious bacterial infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial .............................. 12

Malaria ..................................................................................................................... 12 HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 1

Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in northeastern Tanzania................................................................................................................... 12 Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf®, in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic.................................................... 12 Essential Malaria Action Guide for Kenyan Families ............................................................ 13 Factors associated with non-adherence to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to malaria in a rural population from holoendemic region of western Kenya ............................ 13 Implications for health education and intervention strategies arising from children’s caregivers concerns following successful malaria control .................................................... 13 Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance: Applying lessons learned from the past in a fastmoving present...................................................................................................................... 14

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 14
Implementing Collaborative TB-HIV Activities: A Programmatic Guide ................................ 14 Rifampicin for Continuation Phase Tuberculosis Treatment in Uganda: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis ................................................................................................................................. 14 Tuberculosis Control in India: Time to get dangerously ambitious? ..................................... 15 Implementing the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2011-2015 – Optimizing Allocations and the Global Fund’s Contribution: A Scenario Projections Study................................................... 15 Language in tuberculosis services: can we change to patient-centred terminology and stop the paradigm of blaming the patients? .................................................................................. 15

Other Infectious Diseases......................................................................................... 16
Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis in Routine Practice in View of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization Recommendations.......... 16 Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) ......................... 16

Non-communicable Diseases ................................................................................... 16
Chronic Diseases, Primary Care and Health Systems Performance.................................... 16 Manufacturing Epidemics: The Role of Global Producers in Increased Consumption of Unhealthy Commodities Including Processed Foods, Alcohol, and Tobacco....................... 17 Developmental origins of non-communicable disease: Implications for research and public health..................................................................................................................................... 17

Essential Medicines .................................................................................................. 17
Downloadable National Formulary of India ........................................................................... 17

Social Protection....................................................................................................... 18
Emerging practices in mobile microinsurance....................................................................... 18 Health Insurance Coverage and Impact: A Survey in Three Cities in China ........................ 18 Resilience, Equity, and Opportunity: The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012-2022 ............................................................................................................................. 18

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 19
The Human Right to Safe Drinking Water & Sanitation in Law & Policy - A Sourcebook..... 19 WASH 2.0: How mobile technology can improve sanitation and reduce the prevalence of disease in Africa & South Asia .............................................................................................. 19 Public-Private Partnerships for Rural Water Services .......................................................... 19

Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 20
The price of health: Exploring cost-effectiveness analysis in public health .......................... 20 A Guide to Evaluation in Health Research............................................................................ 20 Why should we translate Cochrane Reviews into French? A view from Cameroon............. 20 Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications ........................... 21 10 best resources for … evidence-informed health policy making ....................................... 21 Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and MiddleIncome Countries: A Systematic Review .............................................................................. 21 Health research in Africa: getting priorities right ................................................................... 22 The case-cohort design in outbreak investigations ............................................................... 22 Measuring and Analyzing Health Care Disparities................................................................ 22 Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) Annual Report 2011.................. 23

Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 23
IT Sector Promotion in Developing and Emerging Countries ............................................... 23 High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a crosssectional survey study............... 23 Heterogeneous Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage Patterns in Kenya ............................ 24 From Digital Dreams to Concrete Change ............................................................................ 24

Education ................................................................................................................. 24 HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 2

World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education ........................................................................ 24 UNESCO eAtlas of Gender Equality in Education ................................................................ 25 Transforming Education: The Power of ICT Policies ............................................................ 25

Harm Reduction and Drug Use................................................................................. 25
World Drug Report 2012 ....................................................................................................... 25 Alternative World Drug Report: Counting the Costs of the War on Drugs ............................ 26 The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS: How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic .............................................................................................................................. 26 Confronting the Tobacco Epidemic in a new Era of Trade and Investment Liberalization ... 26 Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns ........... 27 Soda and Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Campaigns: How Do They Compare?.............................................................................................................................. 27

Millennium Development Goals ................................................................................ 27
Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals: What role for business? ................................... 27

Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 28
A Framework for Action: Social Enterprise & Impact Investing............................................. 28 Piloting Results-Based Financing Programs......................................................................... 28 Open Data in Development Aid............................................................................................. 28 The 2012 DATA Report: Europe’s African Promise .............................................................. 29 AidWatch 2012 ...................................................................................................................... 29 Understanding public attitudes to aid and development ....................................................... 29

Others ...................................................................................................................... 30
WHO QualityRights Tool Kit .................................................................................................. 30 Reclaim the UN from corporate capture................................................................................ 30 The Burden of Disease and the Changing Task of Medicine................................................ 30 Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government ........................................................................................................................... 31 A Year of crises: UNHCR Global Trends 2011 ..................................................................... 31 Population, Climate Change, and Sustainable Development in Africa ................................. 31 A review of training opportunities for ultrasonography in low and middle income countries 32

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 32
ASPIRE - The 2011 Atlas of Social Protection...................................................................... 32 Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012)........................................ 32 People in the Balance - Database......................................................................................... 33

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 33
Health Research Web (HRWeb) ........................................................................................... 33 Health Education and Training (HEAT) ................................................................................. 33 USAID’s online portfolio map ................................................................................................ 33 mPowering Frontline Health Workers ................................................................................... 33

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 34
Designing and Implementing Social Transfer Programmes.................................................. 34 Appropriate Technology in Health Services .......................................................................... 34

CONFERENCES................................................................ 35
Abstracts from the 17th International Symposium on HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID) ................................................................................................................................ 35 5th Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights............................................................. 35

CARTOON ......................................................................... 35 TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 36
Google Reverse Image Search ............................................................................................. 36 Offline web browsing ............................................................................................................. 36

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 3

BOOKS
Social Protection and Cash Transfers: To Strengthen Families Affected by HIV and AIDS
by Michelle Adato and Lucy Bassett International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), 2012 237 pp. 1.8 MB: http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rr177.pdf The authors explain how cash transfer programs can make a difference for families affected by poverty and HIV and AIDS. They review the impacts of a range of cash transfer programs and discuss how these and other social protection programs can be d esigned to address the needs and conditions of families and children in regions hard hit by HIV and AIDS. ***

Twenty Mechanisms for Addressing Torture in Health Care
by Christian Triantaphyllis, Tamar Ezer, Jonathan Cohen Open Society Public Health Program, June 2012 124 pp. 548 kB: http://www.soros.org/sites/default/files/twenty-mechanismsaddressing-torture-health-care-20120621.pdf Across the world, health systems often serve as venues of punishment, coercion, and violations of basic human rights, sometimes amounting to torture or cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment. This abuse is especially prevalent in the care of socially marginalized groups - people living with HIV, ethnic minorities, sexual and gender minorities, people who use drugs, and people with intellectual disabilities or mental health problems. The book provides descriptions of different national and international human rights systems in regards to torture in the health setting and procedures to respond to these violations. ***

Telehealth in the Developing World
Edited by Richard Wootton, Nivritti G. Patil, Richard E. Scott, Kendall Ho Royal Society of Medicine Press/IDRC, February 2009 335 pp. 2.8 MB: http://idl-bnc.idrc.ca/dspace/bitstream/10625/37334/1/127891.pdf This book aims to redress the relative lack of published information on successful telehealth solutions in the developing world. It presents real-life stories from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is rich in practical experience and will be of interest to health professionals, development workers, and e-health and telehealth proponents interested in learning about, or contributing to the implementation of, appropriate solutions for 80% of the world’s population. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 4

An Introduction to Systematic Reviews
by David Gough, Sandy Oliver and James Thomas SAGE Publications Ltd, March 2012, 304 pp. Paperback ISBN: 9781849201810; Price £ 26.99 Download sample chapter 1 (16 pp. 181 kB): http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/46999_Gough_Chapter_1.pdf To order online go to: http://www.uk.sagepub.com/books/Book234152/samples#tabview=title This book provides an introduction to the logic of systematic reviews, to the range of current and developing methods for reviewing, and to the consequences of reviewing systematically for the production and use of research. This book differs from most others currently available in examining the nature of the basic components of all reviews driven by any research questions and including any research methods and types of data. ***

Toward Precision Medicine: Building a Knowledge Network for Biomedical Research and a New Taxonomy of Disease
Committee on a Framework for Development a New Taxonomy of Disease; National Research Council, 2011 142 pp. 3.9 MB: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=13284 Motivated by the explosion of molecular data on humans - particularly data associated with individual patients - and the sense that there are large, as-yet-untapped opportunities to use this data to improve health outcomes, the book explores the feasibility and need for a new taxonomy of human disease based on molecular biology and develops a potential framework for creating one. The book notes that moving toward individualized medicine requires that researchers and health care providers have access to very large sets of health- and disease-related data linked to individual patients. These data are also critical for developing the information commons, the knowledge network of disease, and ultimately the new taxonomy.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health The Global Fund Governance Handbook
Download chapter by chapter at: http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/board/ The Global Fund to Fight AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria released the new handbook. It reviews the mission, workings and what is next for the decade-old Geneva, Switzerland-based charity. Coming off a tumultuous few years that saw the fund reorganized in the wake of a series of audits showing misspent and missing money, the fund promises money will be provided in “more flexible, more predictable and more effective ways,” and that the fund “will become more engaged in supporting grant implementation success” in its 2012-2016 strategy. HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 5

Occupy Science: Time for more activist tools to bridge the gap between science and decision making?
by Kristof Decoster International Health Policies, June 22, 2012 3 pp. 189 kB: http://e.itg.be/ihp/wp-content/plugins/down-as-pdf/generate.php?id=4029 The dust hasn’t settled yet on Rio+20, so it is probably too early to tell whether the multilateral conference outcome document and other outcomes will manage to make a difference for the health of this planet. But, at least for now, the impression is that this was yet another multilateral failure or at least a big disappointment, in spite of the progress made in certain areas - campaigners, journalists, analysts and many scientists seem to agree world leaders failed to live up to the expectations.

HIV - AIDS - STI Southern African guidelines for the safe use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in men who have sex with men who are at risk for HIV infection
by Andrew Scheibe The Consensus Committee, Southern African HIV Clinicians Society SAJHIVMED, June 2012, Vol. 13, No. 2 9 pp. 1.4 MB:
http://www.sajhivmed.org.za/index.php/sajhivmed/article/download/832/665

The purpose of this guideline is to: (i) explain what pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is; (ii) outline current indications for its use; (iii) outline steps for appropriate client selection; and (iv) provide guidance for monitoring and maintaining clients on PrEP. ***

Use of Efavirenz during pregnancy: a public health perspective
Technical update on treatment optimization World Health Organization, June 2012 18 pp. 276 kB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503792_eng.pdf Efavirenz (EFV) has been recommended as the preferred option for a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in optimized first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, concerns persist about its safety in early pregnancy, resulting in more complex treatment algorithms for HIV-infected women who might become pregnant and for women in early pregnancy, and ongoing confusion regarding when to use EFV and when to use nevirapine (NVP). This technical update reviews the evidence on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of EFV. It provides reassurance that exposure to EFV in early pregnancy has not resulted in increased birth defects or other significant toxicities. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 6

Patient Attrition Between Diagnosis With HIV in Pregnancy-Related Services and Long-Term HIV Care and Treatment Services in Kenya: A Retrospective Study
by Laura Ferguson, James Lewis, Alison D. Grant et al. JAIDS - Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: 1 July 2012, Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp. e90–e97 8 pp. 219 kB: http://pdfs.journals.lww.com/jaids/2012/07010/Patient_Attrition_B etween_Diagnosis_With_HIV_in.20.pdf There has been little attention, until recently, to linking women who test HIV positive in pregnancy-related services to long-term HIV care and treatment services. The authors found that only 4% of women estimated to need HAART for their own care initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Challenges associated with providing longit udinal care are especially evident in the context of high population mobility. Innovation in service delivery is required to improve uptake of services. ***

Three Postpartum Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Intrapartum HIV Infection
by Karin Nielsen-Saines, D. Heather Watts, Valdilea G. Veloso et al. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:2368-2379; June 21, 2012 12 pp. 299 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa1108275 The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. From their study the authors conclude that in neonates whose mothers did not receive ART during pregnancy, prophylaxis with a two- or three-drug ART regimen is superior to zidovudine alone for the prevention of intrapartum HIV transmission; the two-drug regimen has less toxicity than the three-drug regimen. ***

Maternal and infant antiretroviral regimens to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission: 48-week follow-up of the BAN randomised controlled trial
by Denise J Jamieson, Charles S Chasela, Michael G Hudgens et al. The Lancet, Vol. 379, Issue 9835, pp. 2449- 458, 30 June 2012 10 pp. 217 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612603213.pdf In resource-limited settings where no safe alternative to breastfeeding exists, WHO recommends that antiretroviral prophylaxis be given to either HIV-infected mothers or infants throughout breastfeeding. The authors assessed the effect of 28 weeks of maternal or infant antiretroviral prophylaxis on postnatal HIV infection at 48 weeks. They conclude that antiretroviral prophylaxis given to mothers or infants might decrease HIV transmission. Weaning at 6 months might increase infant morbidity.

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 7

Burden of HIV among female sex workers in low-income and middleincome countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
by Stefan Baral, Chris Beyrer, Kathryn Muessig et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, Issue 7, pp. 538-549, July 2012 12 pp. 970 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS147330991 270066X.pdf Although data characterising HIV risk among female sex workers is scarce, the burden of disease is disproportionately high. The data from this study suggest an urgent need to scale up access to quality HIV prevention programmes. Considerations of the legal and policy environments in which sex workers operate and actions to address the important role of stigma, discrimination, and violence targeting female sex workers is needed. ***

The Rates of HIV Superinfection and Primary HIV Incidence in a General Population in Rakai, Uganda
by Andrew D. Redd, Caroline E. Mullis, David Serwadda et al. J Infect Dis. (2012) 206 (2): 267-274 8 pp. 294 kB: http://www.natap.org/2012/HIV/JInfectDis2012-Redd-infdisjis325.pdf A novel next-generation ultra-deep sequencing technique was utilized to determine the rate of HIV superinfection in a heterosexual population by examining two regions of the viral genome in longitudinal samples from recent HIV sero-converters in Rakai District, Uganda. The results suggests that the rate of HIV superinfection in a general population is substantial, which could have a significant impact on future public health and HIV vaccine strategies. ***

Update on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-2 Infection
by Omobolaji T. Campbell-Yesufu and Rajesh T. Gandhi Clinical Infectious Diseases 2011;52(6):780-787 8 pp. 561 kB:
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/52/6/780.full.pdf#page=1&view=FitH

Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to co nsider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. In this review, the authors present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 8

Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Communication Materials Adaptation Guide
by Isaac Abuya, Tara Kovach, Sarah Meyanathan et al. Communication for Change (C-Change) Project / FHI 360, 2012 40 pp. 3.4 MB: http://www.c-hubonline.org/sites/default/files/resources/main/VMMCCommunication-Materials-Adaptation-Guide%203.2.12.pdf The guidance is intended to support improved Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) communication in Kenya as well as in other countries in the region. As described here, VMMC programmes are being scaled up in 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These programmes aim to decrease HIV infection rates by increasing utilisation of VMMC services. Not all country programmes have the expertise or resources to develop effective VMMC communication materials and products; adaptation of existing VMMC materials is a viable strategy. ***

Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge Is a Poor Predictor of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Genital Tract Inflammation in High-Risk Women in South Africa
by Koleka Mlisana, Nivashnee Naicker, Lise Werner et al. J Infect Dis. (2012) 206 (1): 6-14 - First published online: April 19, 2012 9 pp. 228 kB: http://jid.oxfordjournals.org/content/206/1/6.full.pdf+html Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a public health priority, particularly in regions where the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high. In most developing countries, STIs are managed syndromically. The authors assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory diagnosis of STIs, and evaluated the association between STI diagnosis and the risk of HIV acquisition in a cohort of high-risk women.

Sexual & Reproductive Health Adding It Up: Costs and Benefits of Contraceptive Services Estimates for 2012
by Susheela Singh and Jacqueline E. Darroch UNFPA and Guttmacher Institute, June 2012 28 pp. 667 kB:
https://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publication s/2012/AIU%20Paper%20-%20Estimates%20for%202012%20final.pdf

This report presents 2012 estimates of the numbers and proportions of women in the developing world using modern methods and in need of modern contraception, as well as the cost and impact of meeting this need. The goal of this report is to inform donors, developing country governments and advocates aimed at improving and expanding access to contraceptive services for all women and couples in developing countries.

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 9

Every Woman’s Right: How Family Planning Saves Children’s Lives
by Kathryn Rawe, Ashley Dunford, Jamie Stewart et al. Save the Children, 2012 41 pp. 1.4 MB: http://r.smartbrief.com/resp/dKozCzjebEeBtvgIfDdadwcOtKFh Around the world, more than 200 million women who do not wish to become pregnant are currently unable to access or use contraception. Improving access to contraception would give more couples the power to decide whether or when to have a child. More surprisingly, it is also vital to improving children’s chances of survival. The publication sets out why providing contraception is vital to sustaining and accelerating progress in reducing the deaths of babies, children and mothers. ***

Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems
Second edition World Health Organization, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, June 2012 134 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://extranet.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/70914/1/9789241548434_eng.pdf

Since first publication of this guidance in 2003, a considerable amount of new data have been produced and published, relating to epidemiological, clinical, service delivery, legal and human rights aspects of providing safe abortion care. The substantial revisions in this update reflect changes in methods of abortion and related care, service delivery as it applies to the availability and use of new methods, and application of human rights for policy-making and legislation related to abortion, among other topics.

Maternal & Child Health UNICEF Annual Report 2011
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), 2012 44 pp. 3.2 MB: http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/UNICEF_Annual_Report_2 011_EN_060112.pdf The report highlights UNICEF’s continued commitment to achieving greater results for children through its programmes in more than 150 countries and territories. During 2011, UNICEF helped the most disadvantaged children to reach their full potential with interventions to save and enhance their lives, underscoring the importance of expanding efforts to reach the poorest and most remote communities. UNICEF also helped communities affected by crisis to rebuild and strengthen their resilience for the future. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 10

Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers in Uganda
Summary Report Institut Català d’Oncologia (ICO) and World Health Organization (WHO), September 2010 60 pp. 1.0 MB: http://apps.who.int/hpvcentre/statistics/dynamic/ico/country_pdf/UGA.pdf?CFID=4 005139&CFTOKEN=50211239 The main aim of this report is to summarize the information available on human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer at the country-specific level. The WHO in collaboration with the Institut Català d’Oncologia (ICO) have developed the WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer to evaluate the burden of disease in the country and to help facilitate stakeholders and relevant bodies of decision makers to formulate recommendations on cervical cancer prevention, including the implementation of the newly developed HPV vaccines. ***

Do cervical cancer data justify HPV vaccination in India? Epidemiological data sources and comprehensiveness
by I Mattheij, AM Pollock, P Brhlikova et al. J R Soc Med, June 2012, Vol.105, No.6, pp. 250-262 13 pp. 1.4 MB: http://jrsm.rsmjournals.com/content/105/6/250.full.pdf+html The Indian government suspended research in April 2010 on the feasibility and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in two Indian states (Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat) amid public concerns about its safety. This paper describes cervical cancer and cancer surveillance in India and reviews the epidemiological claims made by the Programme for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH) in support of the vaccine in these two states. Current data on HPV type and cervical cancer incidence do not support PATH’s claim that India has a large burden of cervical cancer or its decision to roll out the vaccine programme. ***

Developmental Difficulties in Early Childhood
Prevention, early identification, assessment and intervention in low- and middle-income countries - A Review by Ilgi Ozturk Ertem, Meena Cabral de Mello, Vibha Krishnamurty et al. World Health Organization, 2012 120 pp. 3.8 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503549_eng.pdf This report includes information from low- and middle-income countries on the conceptualization, epidemiology, prevention, detection, assessment and early management of the broad spectrum of developmental risk factors and developmental difficulties in children aged 3 years and under. This review should not be viewed as a general resource for early childhood disability or for specific developmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, genetic or metabolic disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and cognitive or sensory impairments. These topics deserve specific attention beyond the scope of this review. HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 11

Zinc as adjunct treatment in infants aged between 7 and 120 days with probable serious bacterial infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial
by Shinjini Bhatnagar, Nitya Wadhwa, Satinder Aneja et al. The Lancet, Vol. 379, Issue 9831, pp. 2072-2078, 2 June 2012 7 pp. 205 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612604772.pdf Serious bacterial infections are a major cause of death in early infancy in developing countries. Inexpensive and accessible interventions that can add to the effect of standard antibiotic treatment could reduce infant mortality. The authors conclude that Zinc could be given as adjunct treatment to reduce the risk of treatment failure in infants aged 7-120 days with probable serious bacterial infection.

Malaria Reliability of rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria in north-eastern Tanzania
Daniel TR Minja, Christentze Schmiegelow, Mayke Oesterholt et al. Malaria Journal 2012, 11:211 (21 June 2012) 21 pp. 412 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-11-211.pdf In this study microscopy underestimated the real burden of malaria during pregnancy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) performed better than microscopy in diagnosing pregnancy-associated malaria. In areas where intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy may be abandoned due to low and decreasing malaria risk and instead replaced with active case management, screening with RDT is likely to identify most infections in pregnant women and out-performs microscopy as a diagnostic tool. ***

Rational case management of malaria with a rapid diagnostic test, Paracheck Pf®, in antenatal health care in Bangui, Central African Republic
by Alexandre Manirakiza, Eugène Serdouma, Luc Salva Heredeïbona et al. BMC Public Health 2012, 12:482 (26 June 2012) 17 pp. 356 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-12-482.pdf The aim of this study was to assess use of a rapid diagnostic test for prompt management of malaria in pregnancy in Bangui, Central African Republic. The authors conclude that use of a rapid diagnostic test is useful, affordable and easy for adequate treatment of malaria in pregnant women. More powerful studies of the usefulness of introducing the test into antenatal care are needed in all heath centres in the country and in other tropical areas. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 12

Essential Malaria Action Guide for Kenyan Families
by Elizabeth Juma, John Moro, John Logedi et al. Division of Malaria Control (DoMC) Kenya, May 2012 24 pp. 4.1 MB:
http://www.c-changeprogram.org/sites/default/files/EMA-Guide-Kenya.pdf

This guide is designed to assist district health managers, health workers, and nongovernmental organisation partners in planning and implementing malaria social and behaviour change communication activities at community level. The guide seeks to ensure harmonisation of communication approaches and promotes seven essential malaria actions that fall into four categories: long-lasting insecticide-treated net use, malaria case management, indoor residual spraying, and prevention of malaria during pregnancy. ***

Factors associated with non-adherence to Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) to malaria in a rural population from holoendemic region of western Kenya
by Elizabeth O Onyango, George Ayodo, Carren A Watsierah et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012, 12:143 (24 June 2012) 22 pp. 376 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2334-12-143.pdf There are limited reports on improper use of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) which is a first-line drug in the treatment of malaria in Kenya. Knowing this is important for ensured sustainable cure rates and also protection against the emergence of resistant malarial parasites. This study demonstrates that more than half of those who get ACT prescription do not take recommended dose and that accessibility is of concern. The findings of this study suggest a potential need to improve accessibility and also initiate programmatic interventions to encourage patient-centred care. ***

Implications for health education and intervention strategies arising from children’s caregivers concerns following successful malaria control
by Maria Bornman, Lawrence Schlemmer, Tertia van der Walt et al. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 106, Issue 7, July 2012, pp. 408-414 7 pp. 232 kB: http://www.malarianexus.com/_common/updateable/files/articles/6 34759792250399424.pdf This study was an empirical investigation addressing the extent to which, and the ways in which, socio-cultural, family-based, demographic and economic circumstances in a poor rural African environment influence levels of active malaria infection risk awareness. The results of this study point out the important role of caregivers in rural communities. This function appears to be performed very effectively with minimal means and a surprising amount of ‘happiness’. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 13

Monitoring antimalarial drug resistance: Applying lessons learned from the past in a fast-moving present
by Carol Hopkins Sibley and Ric N. Price International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance, Vol. 2, December 2012, pp. 126-133 8 pp. 337 kB: http://www.malarianexus.com/_common/updateable/files/articles/6 34759788378547967.pdf The need for robust surveillance of antimalarial drugs is more urgent than it has ever been. In the western region of Cambodia, artemisinin resistance has emerged in Pla smodium falciparum and threatens to undermine the eff icacy of highly effective artemisinin combination therapies. In this review the authors outline the spectrum of approaches that were developed to understand the evolution and spread of antifolate resistance, highlighting the importance of integrating information from different methodologies towards a better understanding of the underlying biologic processes.

Tuberculosis Implementing Collaborative TB-HIV Activities: A Programmatic Guide
by Paula I. Fujiwara, Riitta A. Dlodlo, Odile Ferroussier et al. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, April 2012 106 pp. 484 kB: http://www.theunion.org/index.php?id=758&cid=2091&fid=57&task= download&option=com_flexicontent&Itemid=70&lang=en This guide summarises The Union’s experience in developing approaches to integrated TB-HIV care for adults in resource-limited settings. It is recommended for health professionals at the implementation level and national programme staff in charge of policy and practices for collaborative TB-HIV activities. ***

Rifampicin for Continuation Phase Tuberculosis Treatment in Uganda: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
by Yukari C. Manabe, Sabine M. Hermans, Mohammed Lamorde et al. PLoS ONE 7(6): e39187 (18 June 2012) 9 pp. 422 kB: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0039187&representation=PDF In Uganda, isoniazid plus ethambutol is used for 6 months (6HE) during the continuation treatment phase of new tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, the World Health Organization recommends using isoniazid plus rifampicin for 4 months (4HR) instead of 6HE. The authors compared the impact of a continuation phase using 6HE or 4HR on total cost and expected mortality from the perspective of the Ugandan national health system. They conclude that combination therapy with 4HR in the continuation phase dominates 6HE as it is associated with both lower expected costs and lower expected mortality. HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 14

These data support the WHO recommendation to transition to a continuation phase comprising 4HR. ***

Tuberculosis Control in India: Time to get dangerously ambitious?
by Madhukar Pai The National Medical Journal of India, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2011 4 pp. 193 kB: http://www.nmji.in/archives/Volume-24/Issue-2/Editorial-I.pdf Serological (antibody-detection) tests for TB are known to be inaccurate, inconsistent and with no clinical value; this has been demonstrated in several meta-analyses and large-scale WHO studies. No international guideline has ever recommended their use, and the Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Programme (RNTCP) has never promoted or endorsed these tests. Despite the evidence and lack of any supporting policies, 1.5 million TB serological tests are estimated to be done in India every year at an expenditure conservatively estimated at US$ 15 million per year. ***

Implementing the Global Plan to Stop TB, 2011-2015 – Optimizing Allocations and the Global Fund’s Contribution: A Scenario Projections Study
by Eline L. Korenromp, Philippe Glaziou, Christopher Fitzpatrick et al. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38816 (18 June 2012) 10 pp. 1.8 MB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=2BC2041680FCDC37 06782B4E0CFD6A27?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038816&representation=PDF

The Global Plan to Stop TB estimates funding required in low- and middle-income countries to achieve TB control targets set by the Stop TB Partnership within the context of the Millennium Development Goals. The authors estimate the contribution and impact of Global Fund investments under various scenarios of allocations across interventions and regions. ***

Language in tuberculosis services: can we change to patient-centred terminology and stop the paradigm of blaming the patients?
by R. Zachariah, A. D. Harries, S. Srinath et al. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 16(6):714-717 5 pp. 227 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/227595/1/Zacharia h%20Language%20paper%20IJTLD.pdf The words ‘defaulter’, ‘suspect’ and ‘control’ have been part of the language of tuberculosis (TB) services for many decades, and they continue to be used in international guidelines and in published literature. In this article, which brings together a wide range of contributors and institutions from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and the Pacific, the authors discuss the use of the words ‘defaulter’, ‘suspect’ and ‘control’ and argue why it is detrimental to continue using them in the context of TB.

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 15

Other Infectious Diseases Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis in Routine Practice in View of the New Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization Recommendations
by Mediatrice Uwanyiligira, Pierre Landry, Blaise Genton et al. Clin Infect Dis. (2012) 55 (2): 201-205 (15 July 2012) 5 pp. 120 kB: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/55/2/201.full.pdf+html New recommendations for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) were published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization in 2010. In view of these new recommendations, the authors investigated the adequacy of rabies PEP among patients consulting their travel clinic. ***

Guidance for Control of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 21 June 2012 32 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/cre/CRE-guidance-508.pdf CDC has released updated recommendations that detail how states and healthcare facilities should deal with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), deadly germs that cause healthcare-associated infections. CRE are resistant to almost all drugs and can contribute to death in 40% of patients who become infected. Not only are these organisms associated with high mortality rates, but they have the potential to spread quickly.

Non-communicable Diseases Chronic Diseases, Primary Care and Health Systems Performance
Diagnostics, Tools and Interventions by James Macinko, Inês Dourado, Frederico C. Guanais Inter-American Development Bank, November, 2011 35 pp. 266 kB:
http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=36533608

The burden of chronic disease in Latin America and the Caribbean is large and growing. The four main chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) - cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung diseases and diabetes - kill three in five people worldwide. Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries currently face the double burden of NCD in addition to the continued burden of reproductive and communicable diseases and child malnutrition and anemia - especially in poor communities. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 16

Manufacturing Epidemics: The Role of Global Producers in Increased Consumption of Unhealthy Commodities Including Processed Foods, Alcohol, and Tobacco
by David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Shah Ebrahim et al. PLoS Med 9(6): e1001235 (26 June 2012) 8 pp. 257 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=A9F1CDE408DEF039 521353FBF657899E?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001235&representation=PDF

“Unhealthy commodities” - soft drinks and processed foods that are high in salt, fat, and sugar, as well as tobacco and alcohol - are leading risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Their consumption is thought to be rising rapidly, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. However, the extent of and reasons for this growth in unhealthy commodity consumption are not well understood. To understand why people are choosing to consume unhealthy commodities, it is necessary to study the transformations to economic and social systems that are favouring their increasing availability and affordability. ***

Developmental origins of non-communicable disease: Implications for research and public health
by Robert Barouki, Peter D Gluckman, Philippe Grandjean et al. Environmental Health 2012, 11:42 (27 June 2012) 9 pp. 422 kB: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/1476-069X-11-42.pdf Many of the major diseases - and dysfunctions - that have increased substantially in prevalence over the last 40 years seem to be related in part to developmental factors associated with either nutritional imbalance or exposures to environmental chemicals. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept provides significant insight into new strategies for research and disease prevention and is sufficiently robust and repeatable across species, including humans, to require a policy and public health response.

Essential Medicines Downloadable National Formulary of India
You can download the National Formulary of India free of charge if you have an Android Mobile phone v2.2 and above. Steps for Download 1. Go to “PLAY STORE” on your mobile hand set or tablet 2. In the Search box type: NFI 2011 3. Click download and install Note: For installing the mobile application, you will require an internet connection on the mobile or Wi-Fi. Features:  Search entire NFI instantly HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 17

    

431 drugs with concise product monographs Listed by Generic name and categories 15 Appendices Option for create and show bookmarks Personalize with font sizes and backgrounds

Social Protection Emerging practices in mobile microinsurance
by Téllez; Camillo Mobile Money for the Unbanked, 2012 11 pp. 757 kB: http://mmublog.org/wpcontent/files_mf/mmu_minsurancepaper_interactivefinal.pdf This paper outlines opportunities for leveraging the mobile channel, including mobile money, to deliver microinsurance. It also provides a global landscape of attempts to do so from around the world and develops new ideas for collaboration between stakeholders from the mobile and the insurance industry. The statement of this paper is that the mobile platform, including mobile money, can be used as a tool to reduce the costs of microinsurance and to help it to scale. ***

Health Insurance Coverage and Impact: A Survey in Three Cities in China
by Kuangnan Fang, BenChang Shia, Shuangge Ma PLoS ONE 7(6): e39157 (18 June 2012) 8 pp. 98 kB: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F 10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0039157&representation=PDF China has one of the world’s largest health insurance systems, composed of government-run basic health insurance and commercial health insurance. A phone call survey was conducted in three major cities in China in July and August, 2011. The goal was to provide an updated description of the effect of health insurance on the population covered. Of special interest were insurance coverage, gross and out-of-pocket medical cost and coping strategies. ***

Resilience, Equity, and Opportunity: The World Bank’s Social Protection and Labor Strategy 2012-2022
by Arup Banerji, Laura Rawlings, Harold Alderman et al. Human Development Network, World Bank, April 2012 132 pp. 5.8 MB:
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOCIALPROTECTION/Resources/280558-1274453001167/70898671279223745454/7253917-1291314603217/SPL_Strategy_2012-22_FINAL.pdf

Effective social protection and labor (SPL) policies occupy center stage, as never before. As our globalized world continues to be gripped by an economic downturn, few HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 18

countries are spared from having to wrestle with the consequences for their people of unanticipated economic shocks and unmet expectations for good jobs. This publication sets out a snapshot of the World Banks’ strategy goals, direction, and commitments. It is believed that the strategy provides a fundamental underpinning to the work of the Bank and its development partners and hope that it responds to the needs of countries engaged in the move toward effective SPL.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene The Human Right to Safe Drinking Water & Sanitation in Law & Policy - A Sourcebook
Laws and policies guaranteeing the human right to drinking water and sanitation at the national, regional and international levels by Thorsten Kiefer, Laura van de Lande, Heidi Adler-Michaelson et al. WASH United, Freshwater Action Network (FAN Global), WaterLex, 2012 212 pp. 1.9 MB:
http://www.freshwateraction.net/sites/freshwateraction.net/files/RTWS-sourcebook.pdf

This sourcebook details laws and policies guaranteeing the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation at national, regional, and international levels. The collection of reference materials it contains can be drawn on by those seeking to analyse whether national laws and policies are in compliance with international and regional obligations. This evidence can be used to demand change and ultimately improve the lives of people on the ground. ***

WASH 2.0: How mobile technology can improve sanitation and reduce the prevalence of disease in Africa & South Asia
by Luis Arbulu and Ben Armstrong Hattery Labs, June 2012 36 pp. 2.0 MB: http://www.scribd.com/document_downloads/direct/97947028?extension=pdf&ft= 1340707017&lt=1340710627&uahk=SLzsj6e/1BT9OwXfJolyZUy8h3g Access to mobile and internet technology is growing rapidly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, even among those who lack basic sanitation infrastructure. This report examines how the technology revolution in the developing world might be able to improve sanitation behavior. It focuses on the potential for mobile games to drive community learning and engagement in making sanitation improvements. ***

Public-Private Partnerships for Rural Water Services
by Elizabeth Kleemeier, Harold Lockwood, Victoria Delmon IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, June 2012 8 pp. 1.8 MB: http://water.worldbank.org/sites/water.worldbank.org/files/publication /Public-Private-Partnerships-for-Rural-Water-Supply.pdf HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 19

Community management, the dominant model for rural domestic water service, works in many contexts but faces several critical challenges, particularly in regard to more complex water supplies. An alternative is to delegate operations and maintenance, or maintenance only, to the private sector through formal contracts and performance agre ements. These public-private partnerships (PPPs) potentially harness market incentives to improve service delivery and leverage private capital for investment costs.

Health Systems & Research The price of health: Exploring cost-effectiveness analysis in public health
by Modupeola Dovi Consultancy Africa Intelligence, June 2012 Read online at:
http://www.consultancyafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1048:the-price-of-health-exploringcost-effectiveness-analysis-in-public-health-&catid=61:hiv-aids-discussion-papers&Itemid=268

This paper provides an overview of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in public health. Although CEA has been used in the assistance of various medication distributions, it is not without error. It faces an ethical dilemma that raises questions about the fairness of resource allocation resulting from such an analysis. The paper explores instances in public health where CEA has been used and examines the benefits and the challenges that stem from the application thereof. ***

A Guide to Evaluation in Health Research
by Sarah Bowen Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), June 2012 55 pp. 702 kB: http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/documents/kt_lm_guide_evhr-en.pdf Evaluation is a useful strategy for generating knowledge that can be immediately applied in a specific context, and, if certain evaluation approaches are used, can also generate transferable knowledge useful to the broader health system. The purpose of this learning module is to build knowledge and skill in the area of evaluation of health and health research initiatives (including knowledge translation initiatives). The primary purpose of this module is to serve as a practical guide for those with research skill but limited experience conducting evaluations. ***

Why should we translate Cochrane Reviews into French? A view from Cameroon
by Lawrence Mbuagbaw & Harriet MacLehose The Cochrane Library, June 13, 2012 Read online at: http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/details/editorial/2069959/Whyshould-we-translate-Cochrane-Reviews-into-French-A-view-from-Cameroon.html

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 20

The Cochrane Collaboration is a leader in the preparation of high-quality systematic reviews, but they are prepared and available mainly in the English language. This alone greatly undermines the potential of Cochrane Reviews as building blocks for decisionmaking in many low- and middle-income countries, including those in Africa, where evidence about the benefits and harms of healthcare interventions is needed urgently. ***

Perceptions of per diems in the health sector: evidence and implications
by Taryn Vian, Candace Miller, Zione Themba et al. Health Policy Plan. (2012) - First published online: June 8, 2012 10 pp. 159 kB: http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2012/06/08/heapol.cz s056.full.pdf+html Per diems are used to pay work-related expenses and motivate employees, yet they also can distort incentives and may be abused. The study found that per diems provide benefits such as encouraging training, increasing staff motivation and supplementing salary. Despite these advantages, respondents voiced many discontents about per diems, stating that they create conflict, contribute to a negative organizational culture where people expect to be paid for all activities, and lead to negative changes in work time allocation. ***

10 best resources for … evidence-informed health policy making
by Kaelan A Moat and John N Lavis Health Policy and Planning 2012;1-4, First published online: 20 June 2012 4 pp. 64 kB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/1046 Linking research to policy requires both a comprehensive understanding of the policymaking process - including the influence of institutions, interests, ideas and external events - and an awareness of a number of established strategic approaches that are available to support the use of relevant research evidence in the formulation of health policies. To help guide this understanding, a framework has been developed to identify and organize key elements that can help one understand ways to support the use of evidence in the policy-making process. ***

Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review
by Sanjay Basu, Jason Andrews, Sandeep Kishore et al. PLoS Med 9(6): e1001244 (19 June 2012) 14 pp. 300 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=9F50899D478D34718 80F60756C6BAABA?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001244&representation=PDF

Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 21

Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and ev idence-based care. The authors conclude that the studies evaluated in this systematic review do not support the claim that the private sector is usually more efficient, accoun table, or medically effective than the public sector; however, the public sector appears frequently to lack timeliness and hospitality towards patients. ***

Health research in Africa: getting priorities right
by Ole F. Olesen and M. Iqbal Parker Tropical Medicine & International Health; Article first published online: 21 June 2012 5 pp. 122 kB: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.03027.x/pdf Better knowledge about diseases and how to prevent them means that many health conditions could be improved with relatively small and coordinated investments in the right places, but funding agencies and policy makers are often reluctant to divert scarce resources into new areas. This situation will only change if African governments provide leadership and demand international donors to consolidate their funding priorities rather than competing with each other in isolated silos. To achieve this, African countries must prioritise health and health research on their own political agenda. ***

The case-cohort design in outbreak investigations
by O Le Polain de Waroux, H Maguire, A Moren Eurosurveillance, Volume 17, Issue 25, 21 June 2012 Read online at: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=20202 The case-cohort is a case-control study where controls are sampled from the initial population at risk, and may thus include both cases and non-cases. An advantage of the design, compared to traditional case-control studies, is that risk ratios can easily be obtained directly from the cross-product of exposed and unexposed cases and controls. The use of the case-cohort design for outbreak investigations has been limited. Here the authors discuss its strengths and limitations based on real and fictitious examples. ***

Measuring and Analyzing Health Care Disparities
Health Services Research (HSR) - Special Issue Volume 47, Issue 3pt2, June 2012 Enjoy FREE access to this research at: http://dmmsclick.wiley.com/view.asp?m=ipu0z3w82ib51da72lpo&u=8811727&f=h This special issue of Health Services Research is devoted to highlighting challenges in the measurement of disparities in health care and exploring innovative approaches to address these challenges. The articles in this issue arose from a conference on “Methodological and Conceptual Issues in the Measurement of Healthcare Disparities” convened at Harvard University in February 2010. HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 22

Council on Health Research for Development (COHRED) Annual Report 2011
Supporting research and innovation systems for health, equity and development 20 pp. 859 kB: http://www.cohred.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/COHREDAnnual-Report-2011-Final-Web-Version-07062012.pdf The year 2011 was probably the most exciting and most challenging year yet in the history of COHRED, for two reasons: the integration of COHRED and the Global Forum for Health Research (GFHR), and the rapidly changing external environment. The Forum's link with COHRED will strengthen its role as an amplifier of the voice of low- and middleincome countries in the world of global research for health.

Information & Communication Technology IT Sector Promotion in Developing and Emerging Countries
by Pierre Lucante, Lucas von Zallinger, Anja Kiefer et al. GIZ’s Sector Project Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D), November 2011 Manual (124 pp. 4.0 MB): http://ict.ez-blogs.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Manual_ITSector-Promotion_blog.pdf Toolbox (256 pp. 6.1 MB): http://ict.ez-blogs.de/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Toolbox_ITSector_Druck_Lesez_1.pdf The Manual and the Toolbox introduce a methodology and a set of practical tools to promote the IT industry in developing and emerging countries. Relying on German Development Cooperation’s instruments and project experience, the Manual and the Too lbox provide a strategic “roadmap” for IT sector promotion which can be flexibly adapted to accommodate future changes in resources, global markets and technologies. ***

High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a crosssectional survey study
by Mark J Siedner, Jessica E Haberer, Mwebesa B Bwana et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2012, 12:56 (21 June 2012) 14 pp. 262 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6947-12-56.pdf Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health inforHESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 23

mation in the region. the authors conclude that cell phone text messaging for commun ication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied. ***

Heterogeneous Mobile Phone Ownership and Usage Patterns in Kenya
by Amy Wesolowski, Nathan Eagle, Abdisalan M. Noor et al. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35319 (25 April 2012) 6 pp. 376 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=2F5F17CB18D291C8 EBEA7A2B6F8F557C?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0035319&representation=PDF

The rapid adoption of mobile phone technologies in Africa is offering exciting opportunities for engaging with high-risk populations through mHealth programs, and the vast volumes of behavioural data being generated as people use their phones provide valuable data about human behavioural dynamics in these regions. Taking advantage of these opportunities requires an understanding of the penetration of mobile phones and phone usage patterns across the continent, but very little is known about the social and geographical heterogeneities in mobile phone ownership among African populations. ***

From Digital Dreams to Concrete Change
The International Institute for Communication and Development (IICD) Annual Report 2011 62 pp. 3.8 MB: http://www.iicd.org/about/publications/iicd-annual-report-2011-fullversion/Annual%20report%202011%20full%20version.pdf IICD uses the power of innovative digital solutions to contribute to a better world. Their vision is to connect people in Africa and Latin America so that they too can take advantage of information and communication technologies to shape their future and that of their society. They want to help 10 million low-income people in Africa and Latin America to access ICT and use it to improve health, education, economic development and livelihoods, especially agricultural livelihoods.

Education World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education
by Edward B. Fiske United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UESCO), 2012 95 pp. 6.4 MB: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/Documents/unesco-worldatlas-gender-education-2012.pdf This Atlas presents the latest data on trends in educational access and progression, HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 24

from pre-primary through tertiary levels and adult literacy, with special attention to the all-important issue of gender equality.

UNESCO eAtlas of Gender Equality in Education
http://www.app.collinsindicate.com/atlas-gender-education/en-us The eAtlas of Gender Equality in Education complements the print publication (see above) by presenting the latest available sex-disaggregated data and gender indicators in education from the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS). The UNESCO eAtlas enables readers to visualize the educational pathways of girls and boys through indicators on all levels of education for more than 200 countries and territories. The maps and ranking tables can also be used to evaluate the extent to which educational disparities between the sexes are changing over time. ***

Transforming Education: The Power of ICT Policies
by Robert Kozma, Shafika Issacs, Tayseer Alnoaimi et al. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2011 244 pp. 3.0 MB: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002118/211842e.pdf Information and communications technologies (ICT) in schools are seen by education policy-makers as an opportunity. Yet, once policy-makers consider making significant investments in ICT, a host of questions emerge. This book reviews policies, programmes, and experiences in a range of regional and developmental settings – Jordan, Namibia, Rwanda, Singapore, and Uruguay. Each brings a unique historical, cultural, political, social, and economic context to bear on policy and its formulation. These case studies provide models and lessons that can help other countries in formulating their own policies regarding ICT in education.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use World Drug Report 2012
by Sandeep Chawla, Justice Tettey, Alice Hamilton et al. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), June 2012 112 pp. 11.8 MB (!): http://www.unodc.org/documents/data-andanalysis/WDR2012/WDR_2012_web_small.pdf Illicit drug markets have global dimensions and require coordinated responses on a comparable scale. In this context, the World Drug Report aims to improve understanding of the illicit drug problem and contribute to more international cooperation for countering it. This year’s edition begins with an overview of recent trends and the current situation in terms of production, trafficking and consumption and the consequences of illicit drug use in terms of treatment, drug-related diseases and drug-related deaths. *** HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 25

Alternative World Drug Report: Counting the Costs of the War on Drugs
by Steve Rolles, George Murkin, Martin Powell et al. Count the Costs, June 2012 112 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://www.soros.org/sites/default/files/alternative-drug-report-20120626.pdf

This report exposes the failure of governments and the UN to assess the extraordinary costs of pursuing a global war on drugs, and calls for UN member states to meaningfully count these costs, and explore all the alternatives. After 50 years of the current enforcement-led international drug control system, the “war on drugs” is coming under unparalleled scrutiny. The Alternative World Drug Report details the full range of negative impacts resulting from choosing an enforcement-led approach. ***

The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS: How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic
Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy, June 2012 24 pp. 1.6 MB: http://globalcommissionondrugs.org/wpcontent/themes/gcdp_v1/pdf/GCDP_HIV-AIDS_2012_REFERENCE.pdf Throughout the world, research has consistently shown that repressive drug law enforcement practices force drug users away from public health services and into hidden environments where HIV risk becomes markedly elevated. Any sober assessment of the impacts of the war on drugs would conclude that many national and international organizations tasked with reducing the drug problem have actually contributed to a wor sening of community health and safety. This must change. ***

Confronting the Tobacco Epidemic in a new Era of Trade and Investment Liberalization
by Raman Minhas, Benn McGrady, Nathalie Bernasconi et al. Commissioned by the World Health Organization Tobacco Free Initiative, June 2012 130 pp. 2.1 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503723_eng.pdf This paper provides an update of the links between trade and investment liberalization and tobacco control and outlines two ways in which the tobacco industry has sought to exploit trade and investment agreements. Furthermore, it examines the challenges that trade and investment agreements continue to pose for tobacco control at the domestic level and outlines challenges faced by governments in coordinating their public health policies with their trade and investment policies. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 26

Graphic Warning Labels in Cigarette Advertisements: Recall and Viewing Patterns
by Andrew A. Strasser, Kathy Z. Tang, Daniel Romer et al. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 43, Issue 1, pp. 41-47, July 2012 7 pp. 774 kB: http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/07493797/PIIS0749379712002073.pdf The authors evaluated how adult smokers recall and view patterns of text-only versus graphic cigarette warning labels, finding that the graphic labels draw attention more quickly and also improve smokers’ memory of warning and health risks. ***

Soda and Tobacco Industry Corporate Social Responsibility Campaigns: How Do They Compare?
by Lori Dorfman, Andrew Cheyne, Lissy C. Friedman et al. PLoS Med 9(6): e1001241 (19 June 2012) 7 pp. 126 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=E9AE59915C82209A B7E789E21C1DDB3E?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001241&representation=PDF

Because sugary beverages are implicated in the global obesity crisis, major soda manufacturers have recently employed elaborate, expensive, multinational corporate social responsibility (CSR) campaigns. These campaigns echo the tobacco industry’s use of CSR as a means to focus responsibility on consumers rather than on the corporation, bolster the companies’ and their products’ popularity, and to prevent regulation. As they did with tobacco, public health advocates need to counter industry CSR with strong denormalization campaigns to educate the public and policymakers about the effects of soda CSR campaigns and the social ills caused by sugary beverages.

Millennium Development Goals Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals: What role for business?
by Paula Lucci Overseas Development Institute (ODI), June 2012 38 pp. 594 kB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7702.pdf There appears to be increasing consensus that the private sector has to be more involved than last time in the design and/or implementation of any new development goals, particularly as economic growth, trade and jobs are high on the agenda. Yet discussions on a new post-2015 framework have to date mostly included development practitioners, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and have largely excluded the private sector. This paper considers how the private sector can usefully be involved in global and national dialogues on a post-2015 development framework.

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 27

Development Assistance A Framework for Action: Social Enterprise & Impact Investing
by Gavin Power, Bianca Wilson, Margot Brandenburg et al. United Nations Global Compact and Rockefeller Foundation, June 2012 30 pp. 940 kB: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/development/Fra mework_Social_Enterprise_Impact_Investing.pdf Social enterprise and impact investing, by definition, proactively intend to create positive impact as well as generate profits. Both private and public entities could benefit from viewing social enterprise development not only as a responsibility but as a financially or strategically valuable investment. Based on this concept, the United Nations Global Compact and The Rockefeller Foundation seek to encourage investors, corporations and policymakers to explore the potential of social enterprise. They have therefore developed this “Framework for Action” to enable the exploration process. ***

Piloting Results-Based Financing Programs
Consultation-Paper - Asian Development Bank (ADB), June 2012 77 pp. 695 kB: http://beta.adb.org/sites/default/files/piloting-results-based-financing-programs.pdf This consultation paper describes the proposed piloting of a results-based financing (RBF) program modality. The RBF programs will directly link disbursements with achievements of results in a government owned program. These programs will be based on ex ante assessments, supported by ex post results verifications, and underpinned by systematic institutional development. The objectives of an RBF program are to increase accountability and incentives to deliver sector results, improve the effectiveness and efficiency of a government owned program, support institutional development, facilitate development coordination and harmonization, and enhance development effectiveness. ***

Open Data in Development Aid
by Daniel Dietrich European Public Sector Information (EPSI) Platform, March 2012 22 pp. 1.2 MB: http://epsiplatform.eu/sites/default/files/Final%20TR%20Open%20Aid%20Data.pdf This topic report focuses on the question of how improved access to and analysis of data can help increase transparency, accountability and effectiveness in development aid and development co-operation. Development aid and co-operation is a complex issue and subject to multiple in-depth studies and research. This topic report focuses on the role that data and computing technology can play to improve analysis methods and thus improve our understanding of how aid can be made more effective. *** HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 28

The 2012 DATA Report: Europe’s African Promise
by Caitlyn Hendrickson, Ben Leo, Sara Messer et al. ONE and DATA (debt, AIDS, trade Africa), 14 June 2012 98 pp. 3.8 MB:
http://one.org.s3.amazonaws.com/pdfs/data_report_2012_en.pdf

Since its inception, the DATA Report has held the world’s wealthiest countries accountable for their commitments to the world’s poorest countries. This year, the DATA Report monitors EU commitments to reach a target of 0.7% of gross national income to be pr ovided as official development assistance (ODA) by 2015 and to provide half of its ODA increases to Africa. The 2012 DATA Report continues to monitor commitments to the quality of aid, as well as its quantity. ***

AidWatch 2012
by Katja Albrecht, Zuzana Sladkova, Daniel Puglisi Confédération européenne des ONG d’urgence et de développement (CONCORD), 2012 72 pp. 1.3 MB: http://aidwatch.concordeurope.org/static/files/assets/2f4d9b96/AIDWATCH-web.pdf Since 2005 the development NGOs from all 27 EU countries have come together through the AidWatch initiative to produce this report, under the umbrella of CONCORD. In recent years AidWatch has highlighted a growing and worrying trend of EU Member States increasingly focusing their ODA programmes on their own security and economic interests. There are signs that this trend has accelerated in 2011. ***

Understanding public attitudes to aid and development
by Alex Glennie, Will Straw, Leni Wild Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR) and Overseas Development Institute (ODI), 2012 32 pp. 2.2 MB: http://ippr.org/images/media/files/publication/2012/06/publicattitudes-aid-development_June2012_9297.pdf This report argues that while the UK government and public have historically been strong advocates of the international development agenda, there are clear signs that the consensus around the value of aid is starting to fray. However, this research has also revealed considerable appetite for greater understanding of development and for more complex stories of how change and progress happens. Instead of a simple reassurance that ‘aid works’, people would like to hear about how and why it works, why it doesn’t always work and the reasons aid alone cannot achieve development targets. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 29

Others WHO QualityRights Tool Kit
Assessing and improving quality and human rights in mental health and social care f acilities by Michelle Funk and Natalie Drew World Health Organization, June 2012 104 pp. 684 kB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241548410_eng.pdf The WHO QualityRights tool kit provides countries with practical information and tools for assessing and improving quality and human rights standards in mental health and social care facilities. The Toolkit is based on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. It is designed for use in low-, middle- and highincome countries and is an essential resource, not only for putting an end to past neglect and abuses but also for ensuring high quality services in the future. ***

Reclaim the UN from corporate capture
by Paul de Clerck, Natacha Cingotti, Lucia Ortiz Friends of the Earth International, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 2012 32 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.foei.org/en/resources/publications/pdfs/2012/reclaimthe-un-from-corporate-capture/at_download/file On the eve of a key United Nations Summit in Rio De Janeiro, Friends of the Earth International launched this new report exposing the increasing influence of major corporations and business lobby groups within the UN. Governmental positions have been increasingly hijacked by narrow corporate interests linked to polluting industries and bus iness sectors seeking to profit from the environment, the climate and the financial crises. The report presents a number of cases that clearly expose how UN policies and agencies have been excessively influenced by the corporate sector. ***

The Burden of Disease and the Changing Task of Medicine
by David S. Jones, Scott H. Podolsky, and Jeremy A. Greene N Engl J Med 2012; 366:2333-2338; 21 June, 2012 6 pp. 562 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMp1113569 At first glance, the inaugural 1812 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine and Surgery, and the Collateral Branches of Science seems reassuringly familiar: a review of angina pectoris, articles on infant diarrhoea and burns. The apparent similarity to today's Journal, however, obscures a fundamental discontinuity. Disease has changed since 1812. People have different diseases, doctors hold different ideas about those diseases, and diseases carry different meanings in society. To understand the material HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 30

and conceptual transformations of disease over the past 200 years, one must explore the incontrovertibly social nature of disease. ***

Addressing the social determinants of health: the urban dimension and the role of local government
Edited by Mike Grady and Peter Goldblatt WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2012 56 pp. 9.4 MB: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/166136/Urba nDimensions.pdf This report summarizes the evidence on the social determinants of health in the urban context, drawing on the findings of the global Commission on Social Determinants of Health and the European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. It also highlights how, through its leadership, local government can play a significant role in addressing these causes of health inequalities, by working across sectors and with civil society partners. ***

A Year of crises: UNHCR Global Trends 2011
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), June 2012 48 pp. 4.3 MB: http://www.unhcr.org/4fd6f87f9.pdf For the fifth consecutive year the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide exceeded 42 million, a result of persistent and new conflicts in different parts of the world. The report shows 2011 to have been a record year for forced displacement across borders, with more people becoming refugees than at any time since 2000. It details for the first time the extent of forced displacement from a string of major humanitarian crises that began in late 2010 in Côte d'Ivoire, and was quickly followed by others in Libya, Somalia, Sudan and elsewhere. In all, 4.3 million people were newly displaced, with a full 800,000 of these fleeing their countries and becoming refugees. ***

Population, Climate Change, and Sustainable Development in Africa
Population Action International and the African Institute for Development Policy, June 2012 4 pp. 2.0 MB:
http://populationaction.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/PAI-AFIDEP.pdf

The link between population dynamics and sustainable development, including climate change, is particularly critical for Africa. This is important given that a large share of Africa’s population lives in areas susceptible to climate variation and extreme weather events. Policymakers need to connect population dynamics and climate change as continued rapid population growth will diminish the capacity of communities to adapt to climate change impacts, and ultimately, jeopardize their economic and human welfare.

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 31

A review of training opportunities for ultrasonography in low and middle income countries
by Lacey N. LaGrone, Vijay Sadasivam, Adam L. Kushner et al. Tropical Medicine & International Health - Article first published online: 30 May 2012 12 pp. 82 kB:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.03014.x/pdf

Ultrasonographic training in low and middle income countries (LMICs) often does not meet the WHO criteria such as the number of scans under supervision and length of training programme recommended by WHO. Nevertheless, some programmes manage to have excellent outcomes with regard to diagnostic accuracy and retention of knowledge by trained personnel. Regulation and quality control of training in ultrasound skills for those working in LMICs can be improved. Research on effective training and followup should be encouraged.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
ASPIRE - The 2011 Atlas of Social Protection
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTSOCIALPROTECTION/0,,contentMDK:2 2986320~menuPK:8117656~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:282637,00.html

The World Bank’s ASPIRE online tool is the most up-to-date compilation of global social protection and labor (SPL) estimates, including data from 56 countries - mostly in the developing world - from 2005-2010. ASPIRE provides open and accessible householdlevel data on populations’ social and economic status; assessments of SPL programs, including weaknesses such as low coverage and poor targeting; SPL program impacts on poverty and inequality; and ways to improve household data collection for SPL pr ograms. ***

Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine - Vol. 13, No. 2 (2012)
http://www.sajhivmed.org.za/index.php/sajhivmed/issue/view/51/showToc The SAJHIVMED is a quarterly medical journal focused on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention and related topics relevant to clinical and public health practice. The purpose of the journal is to disseminate original research results and to support high level learning related to HIV Medicine. In this issue:  Guidelines for PrEP for MSM at risk of HIV infection  Clinical case study resource for CME  Analysis of CD4 count variability within and among laboratories  Lung fibrosis, HIV and PcP  Part 2: Blood and blood product use in HIV-infected patients ***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 32

People in the Balance - Database
http://populationaction.org/data-and-maps/people-in-thebalance/?utm_source=working_papers&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=rio+20 The updated People in the Balance database illustrates how population exerts pressure on available natural resources, especially in countries experiencing rapid population growth. The database provides information about the availability of three critical resources: freshwater, cropland and forests. It also includes data for population growth, which has important implications for resource availability. Investing in family planning programs, particularly in countries with rapid population growth, together with the sustainable use of these critical natural resources, would ensure the well-being of future generations.

INTERESTING WEB SITES
Health Research Web (HRWeb)
http://www.healthresearchweb.org/en/home HRWeb is a web-based, interactive platform aimed at improving health, equity and development through research. HRWeb is particularly aimed at research focusing on improving health in low and middle income countries and populations, but it will be useful to high income countries as well. ***

Health Education and Training (HEAT)
http://www8.open.ac.uk/africa/heat/ HEAT is a radical programme launched in early 2011 by The Open University with a bold ambition - to reach and help train 250,000 frontline healthcare workers across sub-Saharan Africa by 2016. By working in close collaboration with African Governments, NGOs and funding institutions, it is believed that HEAT will transform access to healthcare in the region. ***

USAID’s online portfolio map
http://map.usaid.gov/ The revamped website of U.S. Agency for International Development now includes a feature that transparency advocates are likely to approve of: an interactive map of the agency’s projects around the world. This map depicts the locations of USAID-funded projects to better monitor development results, improve aid effectiveness and coordin ation, and enhance transparency and social accountability. ***

mPowering Frontline Health Workers
http://www.mhealthalliance.org/ourwork/partnerships/mpowering-frontline-health HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 33

USAID and the mHealth Alliance have joined forces to form a three-year public-private partnership called mPowering Frontline Health Workers. This innovative public-private partnership is designed to improve child health by accelerating the use of mobile technology by millions of health workers around the world.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Designing and Implementing Social Transfer Programmes
15 - 26 October 2012, Chiang Mai, Thailand Organized by the Economic Policy Research Institute (EPRI), HelpAge International and the Maastricht Graduate School of Governance Around the world, developing countries are increasingly recognising the value of social transfer programmes in reducing extreme poverty, with success stories in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. This two-week course includes a number of specialised modules aimed at providing participants with an in-depth understanding of the conceptual and practical issues involved in the development of social transfer programmes. Participants will acquire tools required for the appropriate identification and successful design and implementation of these programmes. For more information see: http://epri.org.za/what-we-do/courses/chiangmai2012/ Download the course brochure (4 pp. 251 kB) at:
http://epri.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/CM12CourseBrochureHAIFin20120611aAN.pdf

***

Appropriate Technology in Health Services
11 to 16 November 2012, Medical Mission Institute, Würzburg, Germany Prerequisites: Basic medical background, fluent in English Fees: 500 Euro (pilot course, reduced fee in 2012) TropEd accreditation in progress Registration until 30 September 2012 For more information see:
http://medmissio.de/kurse-veranstaltungen/index-old-%281285078507814%29.html/appropriate-technologyin-health-services/70b69b2c-a53a-4a34-8b59-2c03fe12560b?mode=detail

or download course flyer (2 pp. 4.6 Mb) at:
http://medmissio.de/surf/proxy/alfresco-system/api/node/content/workspace/SpacesStore/73f6870e-35e04223-ab62-84eef5d05dc7/Flyer%202012.pdf

***

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 34

CONFERENCES
Abstracts from the 17th International Symposium on HIV and Emerging Infectious Diseases (ISHEID)
Marseille, France, 23-25 May 2012 Edited by Alain Lafeuillade Retrovirology 2012, Volume 9 Suppl. 1; Published: 25 May 2012 54 pp. 1.4 MB: http://www.retrovirology.com/supplements/full/1742-4690-9-S1.pdf The abstract summary publication contains: 24 Invited Speaker Presentations 11 Oral Presentations 151 Poster Presentations ***

5th Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights
19-22 September 2012, Windhoek, Namibia Namibia Planned Parenthood Association (NAPPA) "Sexual Health and Rights in Africa: Where are we?" The conference will explore the status of sexual health and rights in Africa and in pa rticular focus on women, girls, adolescents, and youth. Efforts will be made to ensure that many constituent groups and stakeholders engage in learning exchange around policy and programme management including financing for sexual health. The objective of the conference is to take stock of responses to sexual health and rights on the continent and to explore sexual health and rights of women, girls, adolescents, and youth in Africa. For more information see: http://www.africasexuality.org/?conference=5th-africaconference-on-sexual-health-and-rights

CARTOON

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 35

TIPS & TRICKS
Google Reverse Image Search
You have an image you grabbed off the Internet and you want to find a larger size, but you can’t quite remember where you got the image in the first place? What do you do? Where do you go? There is an easy way, and you can find it at Google. It is called “Reverse Image Search”. Just head over to http://google.com and click the Images button in the upper lefthand corner. The page should reload and you should see a little camera icon in the search box.

Now, you have options here – you can either browse to where your image is on your computer, paste the URL of an image from another site (rightclick on the image and select Copy image URL) or even drag and drop and image from your desktop into the search bar. Whichever method you choose, after you hit the Search button Google will scour the internet for like-looking images to the one you uploaded. You can also click on the link at the bottom and watch a short video that offers more explanation. ***

Offline web browsing
http://ictupdate.cta.int/en/Regulars/Bookmarks/Offline-web-browsing

HTTrack automatically downloads a website’s entire content, or even just a specific section of it, for future offline reference. For telecentres with limited internet access, it can be useful to have a local copy of some websites. Web browsers let you save individual pages, but not an entire site. For that, you need specialised software. True offline navigation requires a mirror (copy) of a particular website on a hard drive with the content and link structure to recreate the original site’s structure. HTTrack is a free and open source website copier. It is multilingual and compatible with Windows (WinHTTrack), Linux and OSX (WebHTTrack). The program is easy to install and use, is fully customisable and actively supported by the developer. This freeware will automatically download a website’s entire content, or even just a specific section of it, for future offline reference. Visit http://www.httrack.com, open the download page from the top menu and select the appropriate version of the program, based on your operating system. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD

HESP-News & Notes - 14/2012 - page 36

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