LAPSED HUNTERS’ LICENSE PURCHASING BEHAVIORS AND THEIR OPINIONS ON MESSAGES ENCOURAGING THEM TO PURCHASE HUNTING LICENSES

TELEPHONE SURVEY RESULTS Conducted for the National Shooting Sports Foundation by Responsive Management
and the

Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries

This project is supported by the Hunting Heritage Partnership, a grant program of the National Shooting Sports Foundation, Inc.

2009

LAPSED HUNTERS’ LICENSE PURCHASING BEHAVIORS AND THEIR OPINIONS ON MESSAGES ENCOURAGING THEM TO PURCHASE HUNTING LICENSES
TELEPHONE SURVEY RESULTS

2009

Responsive Management National Office
Mark Damian Duda, Executive Director Martin Jones, Senior Research Associate Tom Beppler, Research Associate Steven J. Bissell, Ph.D., Qualitative Research Associate Andrea Criscione, Research Associate James B. Herrick, Ph.D., Research Associate Weldon Miller, Research Associate Joanne Nobile, Research Associate Amanda Ritchie, Research Associate Carol L. Schilli, Research Associate Tim Winegord, Survey Center Manager Alison Lanier, Business Manager

130 Franklin Street Harrisonburg, VA 22801 Phone: 540/432-1888 Fax: 540/432-1892 E-mail: mark@responsivemanagement.com www.responsivemanagement.com

Acknowledgments
Responsive Management would like to thank Coren Jagnow, Carol Heiser, Tom Wilcox, Lee Walker, and Julia Dixon of the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries; Jodi Valenta of Mile Creek Communications, LLC; Tammy Sapp; Southwick Associates; and Melissa Schilling of the National Shooting Sports Foundation for their input, support, and guidance on this project.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

i

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY This report discusses the results of a telephone survey that was conducted for the National Shooting Sports Foundation in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) as part of a larger study regarding messages to encourage lapsed hunters to purchase a hunting license. The overall project entailed the following: • Identification of lapsed hunters (i.e., to develop the sample for the survey), including categorizing the lapsed hunters into their various Tapestry segments. (Tapestry Segmentation™ is a market segmentation system developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Tapestry segments are more fully explained in the section of this report titled “An Examination of the Data Regarding Tapestry Segments.”) This portion of the project was completed by Southwick Associates. • A review of VDGIF strategic and marketing plans, a literature review regarding past research pertinent to the study, an inventory of current VDGIF outreach and educational activities, and staff interviews. This portion of the project was completed by Tammy Sapp. • Three focus groups of lapsed hunters (used in part to develop the survey instrument for the telephone survey that followed). This portion of the project was completed by Responsive Management. • • A telephone survey of lapsed hunters and an analysis of the telephone survey data. This portion of the project was completed by Responsive Management. Note that a final report will be produced subsequent to this report with recommendations and strategies regarding marketing to lapsed hunters. This report discusses only the results of the telephone survey of lapsed hunters and the analysis of the telephone survey data. Specific aspects of the telephone survey methodology are discussed below. For the survey of lapsed hunters, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of the almost universal ownership of telephones among hunters in Virginia. Additionally, telephone surveys, relative to mail or Internet surveys, allow for more scientific

ii

Responsive Management

sampling and data collection, provide higher quality data, obtain higher response rates, are more timely, and are more cost-effective. Telephone surveys also have fewer negative effects on the environment than do mail surveys because of reduced use of paper and reduced energy consumption for delivering and returning the questionnaires. A central polling site at the Responsive Management office allowed for rigorous quality control over the interviews and data collection. Responsive Management maintains its own in-house telephone interviewing facilities. The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by Responsive Management, the VDGIF, Southwick Associates, Tammy Sapp, and Mile Creek Communications. Responsive Management conducted a pre-test of the questionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey. Interviews were conducted Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday from noon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. The survey was conducted in November 2009. Responsive Management obtained a total of 803 completed interviews of lapsed hunters from Virginia. The software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language. The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well as proprietary software developed by Responsive Management. For this report, a nonparametric analysis examined how various responses to the survey related to behavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics. Responses for selected questions were tested by means of z-scores for relationships to behavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics. A positive z-score means that the response and characteristic are positively related; a negative z-score means that the response and characteristic are negatively related. Throughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidence interval. For the entire sample of Virginia lapsed hunters that was provided to the research team, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 3.45 percentage points. Sampling error was calculated using a sample size of 803 and a population size of 118,713 lapsed hunters that were provided in the sample.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results HUNTING BEHAVIORS AND PURCHASE OF HUNTING LICENSES Nearly half of the “lapsed” hunters in the sample (46%) had hunted on private land in Virginia in the 2008-2009 season. (Virginia hunting regulations allow hunting on private land without a license in specific situations.) • The survey asked about hunting anywhere in Virginia in the past 5 years: 32% of all

iii

respondents had hunted all 5 of the past 5 years in Virginia; the median is 4 of the past 5 years. • • The median number of days per year that hunters had typically hunted is 10 days. The majority of respondents (58%) indicate that their amount of hunting in Virginia has decreased over the past 5 years. Only 9% indicate that it has increased. The survey also asked about hunting outside of Virginia in the past 5 years: 17% had done so, most commonly hunting in North Carolina, West Virginia, Maryland, or Pennsylvania. The most commonly hunted species among the lapsed hunters are deer (89%, the top answer by far), small game/upland game birds (41%), and wild turkey (36%). The most common hunting companions are friends (38%), the respondent’s son (20%), the respondent’s father (13%), and/or the respondent’s brother (11%). The majority of lapsed hunters (89%) are not members of a hunt club in Virginia; however, 9% are members of a hunt club in Virginia. The survey asked about purchasing behaviors over the past 4 years. For each of the hunting years asked about (starting with the 2004-2005 season through the 2007-2008 season), at least 57% but no more than 64% had purchased a hunting license. • The most commonly purchased licenses are the Basic Hunting license (78% had purchased this type) and the Bear, Deer, and Turkey license (70%). Regarding plans to purchase a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season, 34% indicate being very likely to do so (along with the 9% who indicated that they had already bought one, this

iv

Responsive Management makes an anticipated purchase rate of approximately 43% among the sample). On the other hand, 24% indicate being not at all likely. Respondents were asked to choose their most important reason for hunting from among four reasons (for the meat, for a trophy, to be with family and friends, or to be close to nature). They are fairly evenly divided among three of the answers: 32% did so to primarily be with family and friends, 32% did so primarily to be close to nature, and 28% did so primarily for the meat. Just under a third of lapsed hunters (31%) have been a member of and/or have donated to a conservation or sportsman’s organization other than a hunt club in the past 2 years.

SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION WITH HUNTING IN VIRGINIA, AND CONSTRAINTS TO HUNTING PARTICIPATION The overwhelming majority of lapsed hunters (87%) report that they have been satisfied with their hunting experiences in Virginia over the past 5 years; only 8% say that they have been dissatisfied. The survey asked 32 questions about things that may have taken away from respondents’ enjoyment of hunting, shown in Text Box 1 on the following page. In examining the results of things that strongly or moderately took away from enjoyment of hunting, 8 of the 32 items stand out above the rest, each with about a third or more of respondents saying that it strongly or moderately took away from their enjoyment. For the most part, they relate to time, access, and cost. • Three items are at the top, all related to time; each has at least half of respondents saying it took away from enjoyment: not having enough time (61%), work obligations (56%), and family obligations (50%). • In the next tier are five items, with access and cost being prominent. This tier consists of the following: having other interests that are more important (42%), not having enough access to places to hunt (41%), not having enough places to hunt (40%), the cost of licenses (35%), and the cost of hunting equipment (31%).

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

v

Text Box 1: Things That May Have Taken Away From Enjoyment of Hunting That Were Asked About in the Survey (Did this strongly take away, moderately take away, or not take away from your enjoyment of hunting?)
What about because you feel you lack skills? What about because you think hunting may be wrong? What about because you have other interests that are more important? What about because you don't have time? What about because you're not interested? What about work obligations? What about family obligations? What about personal health? What about poor behavior of other hunters? What about poor behavior of other recreationists? What about not enough places to hunt? What about not enough access to places to hunt? What about not having anyone to go with? What about fear of injury by another hunter? What about having to travel too far to hunt? What about the cost of hunting equipment? What about the costs of licenses? What about other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging? What about other people's negative opinions of hunting? What about harassment by anti-hunters? What about not enough law enforcement officers? What about because you don't want to kill animals? What about too many hunters in the field? What about your concern that hunting might endanger animal populations? What about pollution or litter? What about not enough game? What about the concern about causing pain to animals? What about complex regulations? What about bag limits or season lengths? What about mandatory hunter education requirements? What about not enough trophy game? What about not enough big bucks?

As a follow-up to the above list of potential problems, the survey asked respondents to name the most important reasons that they did not buy a 2008-2009 Virginia hunting license (although the question followed the above listing, respondents were not limited to the reasons on the list but could say anything that came to mind). Five reasons stand out above the rest, all with 10% or more of respondents: hunted on private land (i.e., did not need a license) (25%), lack of time (25%), work obligations (17%), family obligations (11%), and personal health (11%).

vi

Responsive Management Near the end of the survey, those who indicated that they would be not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license were asked to name the reasons why. The top reason is not being required to purchase one: 30% said because they will hunt on private land. Three other reasons were named by more than 10% of this “not at all likely” group: personal health (15%), not being interested (13%), and lack of time (12%).

MOTIVATIONS FOR PURCHASING A HUNTING LICENSE The survey included 19 questions about potential things that might encourage respondents to purchase a license, shown in Text Box 2 on the following page. Five of the questions relate to actions that the state would take (e.g., more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia being made available, having a family license available); the other questions relate to the respondent being informed about various positive aspects of hunting and can be thought of as themes that would resonate with them. • The top themes that resonated (i.e., the themes with the highest percentages of respondents saying that the items would make them very likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license) are as follows, each with more than a third of respondents saying it would make them very likely to purchase a license:
o

Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country (48%). Being reminded that hunting helps people relax (43%). Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources (42%). Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food (41%). Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature (38%). Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife (37%). Being reminded that hunting is peaceful (also 37%). Having a family license made available (34%).

o o

o

o o

o

The top action items are:
o

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results
o

vii

Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of a Virginia hunting license (30%).

Text Box 2: Things That Would Make Hunters Likely To Purchase a Virginia Hunting License That Were Asked About in the Survey (Would this make you very likely, somewhat likely, or not at all likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that you otherwise might not?)
What about just having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available? What about being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management? What about being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources? What about being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife? What about being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife? What about being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food? What about being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia? What about being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country? What about being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources? What about being reminded that hunting helps people relax? What about being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature? What about being reminded that hunting is peaceful? What about being reminded that hunting is important to your family? What about being reminded that you can bond with family and friends while hunting? What about being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting? What about if a family hunting license was available in Virginia? What about being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license? What about receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start? What about receiving a reminder to purchase your license?

A question asked respondents if they support or oppose having the VDGIF provide reminders to hunters to encourage them to purchase a license: the large majority support doing so (78%), while only 10% oppose. Those who indicated that they would be very likely to purchase a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license or who said that they had already done so were asked to indicate their primary reason for buying a license. If they simply said, “to hunt,” respondents were prompted to be more specific. Nonetheless, this answer, “to hunt,” or the related answer, “to hunt in Virginia,” remained the top answers. However, excluding those, the top answers are to hunt on public land in Virginia, to connect with nature/to escape/to relax, to take children hunting, to take an adult family member hunting, to obtain meat, and to take a friend hunting.

viii

Responsive Management

REACTIONS TO WORDS, PHRASES, AND MESSAGES AS THEY RELATE TO HUNTING The survey presented respondents with 36 words or short phrases, shown in Text Box 3 below. Respondents were asked to indicate if the word/phrase had a positive association with hunting, a neutral association, or a negative association with hunting. • In this list, 8 of the 36 words/phrases had at least 90% of respondents making a positive association: connect to nature (96%), quality time (94%), fun (94%), get away from it all (93%), relaxing (92%), memories (91%), excitement (91%), and heritage (90%).

Text Box 3: Words and Phrases That Were Asked About in the Survey (Does this have a positive, negative, or neutral association with hunting?)
Conserve Environment Economical Family Active Thrill Heritage Natural Quality Conservation Environmentally friendly Inexpensive Friends Relaxing Tradition Stewardship Manage Outdoor lifestyle Conservation funding Organic Investment Roots Peaceful Get away from it all Quality time Connect to nature The basics Preserve Protect Expensive Memories Fun Excitement Escape Wildlife management Healthy

The survey presented respondents with 28 messages that might encourage them to purchase a hunting license; these are shown in Text Box 4 on the following page. For each message, the survey asked respondents if the message would be very effective, somewhat effective, or not at all effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license. • Three of the messages stand out, each with at least half of respondents saying it would be very effective:
o o o

Make memories. Take someone special hunting. (54%) Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. (54%) Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. (50%)

Six more messages rank above the rest, all with 44% or more saying it would be very effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license:
o

Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. (47%)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results
o o o o o

ix

Hunters, the original stewards of the land. (46%) Hunting connects family and friends. (46%) Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. (45%) Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. (44%) Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. (44%)

Text Box 4: Messages Presented to Respondents in the Survey
(Do you think this message would be very effective, somewhat effective, or not at all effective at getting you to buy a Virginia hunting license during a year that you otherwise might not?)
Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting - it's our nature. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Hunting connects family and friends. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Big game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. [or Small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia.]* Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today.
*This message used the term, “Big game,” for hunters who indicated that they hunted bear, deer, elk, or wild turkey in the species question earlier in the survey; the message used the term, “Small game,” for hunters who did not hunt any of the big game species and who indicated hunting for fox, raccoon, small game, and/or waterfowl. All remaining respondents (those who hunted some other species or who answered “Don’t know” to the species question) were randomized between “Big game” and “Small game.”

x PERSONAL LIFESTYLE DATA

Responsive Management

The survey asked questions about personal lifestyle choices that relate to characteristics of Tapestry segments (note that Tapestry Segmentation™ is more fully explained in the following section; it is essentially a marketing system that categorizes all parts of the country into various marketing segments called “Tapestry segments”). For this analysis, all of the respondents were assigned to the Tapestry segment in which their residence is located. Specific characteristics are conjectured to be associated with each Tapestry segment. For each Tapestry segment, respondents identified as being in that segment were asked questions about a characteristic of that segment, and some respondents identified as being not in that Tapestry segment were asked the same questions about the characteristic associated with the segment. A comparison was then made of those within the segment versus those outside of the segment. In other words, those respondents within the Tapestry segment should answer in the affirmative regarding the characteristic more often than those outside the Tapestry segment. This was done to test the validity of the characteristics conjectured to be associated with the Tapestry segment. • In the first question along these lines, respondents were presented a list of eight behaviors (e.g., reading the Sunday paper, listening to country music on the radio or TV) and were asked if the behaviors were true for them. Presumably, the percentage exhibiting the behavior should be greater among those who are in that identified Tapestry segment versus those who are not in that Tapestry segment. Of the eight behaviors in this question, three show statistically significant differences between the two groups: subscribes to satellite TV (67% of those in the Tapestry segment that supposedly includes this behavior versus 49% of those not in the Tapestry segment) (p < 0.001), has four or more TVs in the household (51% of those in the segment; 33% of those not in the segment) (p < 0.01), and has high-speed Internet access (60% versus 43%) (p < 0.01). All other differences between the groups are not statistically significant. • Following the above question, the survey had 12 additional questions that delved into Tapestry segment characteristics. For 8 of the 12 questions, those whose Tapestry segment includes the characteristic more often have the characteristic when compared to those who are not within that Tapestry segment—in other words, the Tapestry segment description is accurately predicting the more common presence of the characteristic;

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results however, the differences are not statistically significant. For 4 of the 12 questions, the

xi

findings contradict the Tapestry segment description—in other words, those from outside the segment more often have the characteristic than do those within the Tapestry segment; again, however, the differences are not statistically significant.

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DATA REGARDING TAPESTRY SEGMENTS Using the personal lifestyle questions discussed above, the researchers examined how the results relate to Tapestry Segmentation™, which is a system of analysis developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). This discussion starts with a short overview of Tapestry Segmentation™. ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ is a “market segmentation system [that] classifies U.S. neighborhoods into 65 segments based on their socioeconomic and demographic composition.” Tapestry Segmentation is based on the entire U.S. population and is used for marketing purposes. The telephone survey for this project provided data to test the validity of the system as it applies to lapsed hunters by asking specific questions about various Tapestry characteristics and then crosstabulating these results by whether the respondent lives in the Tapestry segment associated with that characteristic. Responsive Management determined the top 13 Tapestry segments in the sample of lapsed Virginia hunters. Each of these top 13 segments was then reviewed for a variety of factors. Income, residential area type, and education level for each segment were noted. In addition, certain details from each Tapestry description were also noted, and 20 questions were created pertaining to these details. Respondents were then asked a series of questions to test the validity of these Tapestry descriptions. Finally, results from the survey questions were compared to the details predicted by the Tapestry Segmentation™ system. In general, surveyed income information was relatively close to the Tapestry Segmentation™ prediction. For 7 of the 13 segments, median household income of the respondents was within $10,000 of the predicted income for their segment. For the remaining 6 segments, the

xii

Responsive Management

differences between surveyed median income and predicted income ranged from approximately $10,000 to $22,000. Regarding education levels, ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ gives a fairly accurate assessment of education levels for many segments. The Salt of the Earth segment (Virginia lapsed hunters’ largest segment) is predicted to have about two-fifths of its population having attended some college. This aligns well with the survey results of 41%. In addition, ESRI reports about oneseventh of the population in the Salt of the Earth segment as having a bachelor’s or graduate degree. This is slightly lower than the survey results of 21%. On the other hand, about one-third of Sophisticated Squires (another top Tapestry segment of lapsed hunters in Virginia) are predicted to have a bachelor’s or graduate degree, with an additional one-third having attended college. In the telephone survey results, only 23% of lapsed hunters in this segment possessed a bachelor’s or graduate degree, although an additional 32% had some college experience without having earned a bachelor’s degree. In general, education levels in the survey data appear to be fairly close to the predicted Tapestry segment. The Tapestry Segmentation™ system uses 11 categories to describe how urban or rural an area is; the telephone survey used 4 categories. Therefore, the 11 Tapestry categories were categorized into the 4 categories used by the survey. The analysis found that the telephone survey results closely match the Tapestry Segmentation™ predictions on this characteristic, thereby validating the Tapestry Segmentation™ system regarding urban-rural residency. In addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, each Tapestry segment includes a “Preferences” section that is usually a few paragraphs. Hobbies, recreational activities, personal interests, and other unique characteristics are given to create a portrait of the population in each Tapestry segment. Responsive Management reviewed the 13 Tapestry segments that predominated in the sample and created questions from common themes found in the “Preferences” sections. Each question developed to explore the characteristics was asked of all of the respondents within that segment associated with the characteristic and some respondents not in that segment. Rates

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results of having the characteristic were compared between respondents in that segment versus respondents not in that segment. For all but three characteristics, the differences between the

xiii

groups (those in the segment versus those not in the segment) were not statistically significant, as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Tapestry Questions Tapestry Question 1) Sunday paper 2) Country music 3) Auto racing 4) Satellite TV 5) Four or more TVs 6) High speed Internet 7) Personal computer 8) Separate freezer 9) Power tool use 10) Riding lawnmower 11) American-made vehicle 12) Motorcycle ownership 13) Treadmill ownership 14) Home improvement project 15) Garden 16) Golf 17) Catalog or telephone purchase 18) Eating out more on weekends 19) Life insurance 20) Political views
*Denotes being statistically significant

Pearson Chi-Sq. P-Value p = 0.228 p = 0.607 p = 0.544 p < 0.001* p < 0.01* p < 0.01* p = 0.631 p = 0.526 p = 0.365 p = 0.307 p = 0.924 p = 0.246 p = 0.825 p = 0.879 p = 0.585 p = 0.594 p = 0.054 p = 0.321 p = 0.551 p = 0.524

For satellite TV use, ownership of four or more TVs, and having high speed Internet, a correlation exists between the characteristic (as determined in the survey) and the Tapestry segment. As the remaining 17 p-values show, there is not a correlation between a characteristic being mentioned in the Tapestry segment and the prevalence of the characteristic in those people identified as being in that segment. It should be noted that the survey sample included only lapsed hunters and thus may not be representative of that Tapestry segment as a whole. The conclusion of this aspect of the research is that ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ can be a useful tool in identifying certain demographic and socioeconomic data for a region. In the

xiv

Responsive Management

analysis, the predicted information for education, income, and residential area matched fairly well with the survey data. However, the predicted information did not match most other data in the survey. Individuals interested in hunter marketing would be wise, therefore, to use caution when reading the “Preferences” of households living in a given segment. In short, the researchers found little correlation between the preferences given in the Tapestry segment and those of the respondents in the survey, although it is important to note that the Tapestry segments were designed from data that included the entire U.S. population and not solely hunters. Nonetheless, as the preeminent marketing segmentation system, ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ is increasingly being used by fish and wildlife departments to market to hunters and anglers. Users should be aware of the strengths and limitations of Tapestry Segmentation™ when tailoring their messages to the desired audience.

AN EXAMINATION OF TARGET MARKETS As part of the analysis, Responsive Management explored potential target markets of lapsed hunters. Two questions in particular were examined to help characterize those hunters who could be persuaded to buy a Virginia hunting license. The first question was the number of previous seasons the respondent had bought a hunting license. The question asked each respondent to indicate all of the previous four hunting seasons in which he/she had purchased a Virginia hunting license. The results of the question were then simplified to show how many of the previous four seasons before 2008-2009 the respondent had purchased a license. Respondents were then grouped into one of two groups: those who had purchased a license 1 or 2 years in the past 4 years and those who had purchased a license 3 or 4 years in the past 4 years. The second question of interest was the likelihood of purchasing a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license. Respondents could answer “Very likely,” “Somewhat likely,” “Not at all likely,” or “Don’t know.” The “Don’t know” respondents were eliminated, and the remaining three selections were examined in a nonparametric analysis to see if the groups that gave that particular answer were closely associated with any demographic characteristics. In that nonparametric analysis, z-score testing revealed an association between the group that purchased licenses only 1 or 2 years and the group answering “Not at all likely” to purchasing a

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license (p < 0.01). On the other hand, hunters who had purchased licenses 3 or 4 years were associated with answering “Very likely” to purchasing a 2009-2010 license (p < 0.01). This suggests that lapsed hunters who have lapsed only once (i.e., have missed only one season) are more likely to “re-enter the fold” and purchase another license,

xv

relative to those lapsed hunters who have missed more seasons. Conversely, after several years of not hunting, it appears to become more difficult to convince lapsed hunters to purchase a license and start hunting again. Respondents who purchased a license only in 1 or 2 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 were positively associated with having children (p < 0.05). Those respondents who had children were positively associated with answering “Strongly” or “Moderately” to the question that asked if not having enough time took away from hunting enjoyment (p < 0.05). Respondents who hunted 3 or 4 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 had a positive association with having no children (p < 0.05). In addition, this group had positive associations with four messages (p < 0.05 for each one): • • • • Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat.

Finally, those who hunted 3 or 4 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 had a positive association with the Exurbanites Tapestry segment (p < 0.01). Respondents who reported being “Very likely” to buy a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season had positive associations with 16 hunter messages (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05): • • • • • • • • • Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting - it's our nature. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting.

xvi • • • • • • •

Responsive Management Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia.

In addition, respondents who reported being “Very likely” to buy a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season were more likely to be in the Heartland Communities Tapestry (p < 0.05) and to have hunted in 3 or 4 of the seasons before 2008-2009 (p < 0.01). Respondents who answered that they were “Somewhat likely” to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license were positively associated with the education level “Some college or an associate's degree” (p < 0.05). This was the only association for this group. Respondents who answered that they were “Not at all likely” to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license had several associations. They were strongly associated with having at most a high school diploma (p < 0.01). In addition, they were positively associated with having a household income of less than $40,000 per year (p < 0.05). They were also associated with the Salt of the Earth Tapestry (p < 0.05). As mentioned before, this group of respondents was also positively associated with having purchased a Virginia hunting license only 1 or 2 years in the 4 years preceding the 2008-2009 season (p < 0.01).

A DISCUSSION OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE TELEPHONE SURVEY RESULTS ON COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES A final part of this report discusses some of the implications of the survey research regarding marketing messages. The data suggest the following:

DO consider using the top three messages (or variations of the messages using similar themes, phrases, and words) rated by respondents as very or somewhat effective at getting them to buy a hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not. These three messages were the top three messages among those rated very effective, as well as the top three

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

xvii

messages (ranked in a slightly different order) when ratings of very and somewhat effective were combined, and they were at the bottom of the ranking by not at all effective. • • • Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Hunting – protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience.

DO use messages and outreach materials that incorporate the “passing on the hunting heritage” theme. All of the top three messages rated as very or somewhat effective overall (discussed above) pertain to the “passing on the hunting heritage” theme. Two of the top three messages focus on the hunting heritage, and the third is a “blended theme” message that combines the hunting heritage theme with a conservation theme. Furthermore, when asked about message themes (i.e., the series of questions about things that would make lapsed hunters likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license), respondents’ top message theme was “being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country” (this was the top item that respondents indicated would make them very or somewhat likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year they otherwise might not). Finally, “heritage” ranked eighth among words and phrases with which respondents said they had a positive association regarding hunting.

DO use the words, phrases, and concepts of “connect,” “share,” “make memories,” and “heritage.” These terms were used frequently in the top nine messages rated as being very or somewhat effective. All messages that used the word “connect” were in the top nine messages, regardless of whether the concept referred to making connections with nature or with family and friends. The phrase “connect to nature” was the top-ranked term among words and phrases that respondents indicated as having a positive association with hunting; the word “memories” ranked sixth. Also note that the message that ranked fourth overall as very effective, “Connect to nature, hunt Virginia,” was the top-ranked message as being very effective among those who indicated they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license. Furthermore, those who indicated that they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license had three messages ranked among the top six in the rating by very effective that used the word “connect.” Another message among the top few messages used the phrase “make

xviii

Responsive Management

memories.” Note, however, that the word, “tradition,” did not appear to be as effective as the other words and phrases that were related to the hunting heritage. “Tradition” ranked lower on the list of words and phrases with positive associations, and messages using the word “tradition” were not rated as high in effectiveness as were messages using the terms “connect,” “share,” “make memories,” and “heritage.”

DON’T use the term “environment” or other words, phrases, and concepts related to the theme of “environmentally friendly,” “eco-friendly,” or “going green” unless it is blended or used with another theme (other than the direct “buy a license” theme), such as the hunting heritage theme. Although one of the top messages overall uses the word “environment,” its concept of protecting the environment is blended with the hunting heritage theme. All three messages pertaining only to the “environmental impact of hunting” theme— essentially an “environmentally friendly” or “going green” theme—ranked quite low in the very or somewhat effective ratings and were in the top messages rated not at all effective. Also note that the blended messages that ranked high did not have a strong “going green” message, but rather an appeal to protect the environment that did not use common “going green” terms that were used in the low-ranked messages, such as “natural,” “organic,” and “local.”

DON’T use the term “conserve” without being specific about what is being conserved. Conserving the “environment” is too general or broad; specify conservation of wildlife, habitat, etc. Two of the three messages pertaining to the “conservation/appreciation of the natural world” theme were among the top dozen messages rated as very effective. The conservationthemed message that resonated the best was “Buy your license, help conserve habitat.” The nearly identical conservation-themed message, “Buy your license, help conserve the environment,” did not rank as high and was not among the top dozen messages rated very effective. For the two nearly identical messages pertaining to the “monetary contribution of hunters to conservation and wildlife management” theme, the one using the word “conserve” ranked higher than the one using the word “manage.” Messages with direct “buy a license” statements also ranked high when blended with a conservation theme. It appears that “conserve” is a preferred word or concept, but that messages that specify what is being conserved, such as

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results wildlife or habitat, may be more effective among lapsed hunters than more general or broad concepts like “the environment.”

xix

DO use messages and outreach materials that appeal to passing on the hunting heritage, connecting, making memories, and bonding with someone special, but be non-specific (e.g., someone special) or all inclusive (e.g., friends and family) regarding who “someone special” is (see next “DON’T”).

DON’T make family the primary or central person/people in messages and campaign materials that appeal to passing on the hunting heritage, connecting, making memories, and bonding. Lapsed hunters most commonly hunt with friends, followed by alone. Male family members were common hunting companions, but still less typical than friends and alone. Also note that over half (58%) of lapsed hunters in Virginia do not have children in the household. Although the age distribution indicates that the slight majority who do not have children in the household may likely be due to their children being grown, their absence may still contribute to the higher likelihood of friends being hunting companions rather than family members. Additionally, those messages that specifically mention “someone special,” “a friend,” and “family and friends” all ranked higher (by a few percentage points) in the top seven messages rated as very effective by those who indicated they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license than the message that mentions only family.

DON’T focus predominantly on time constraints and obligations that interfere with hunting. These factors are, for the most part, beyond the control of the VDGIF. Additionally, all four messages with a “time factor” theme ranked fairly low among messages rated as very or somewhat effective among respondents overall; three of the four “time factor” messages ranked in the top dozen messages rated as not at all effective.

DO address availability and quality of hunting opportunities on public land in messages and outreach materials. Also consider focusing some Department resources, if necessary, on improving hunting opportunities on public lands (e.g., acquiring more land, adjusting regulations, attempting to reduce crowding). Having hunted on private land was the top reason

xx

Responsive Management

given for not purchasing a 2008-2009 hunting license, and about a third (30%) of those who indicated that they are not at all likely to buy a 2009-2010 license said that they are not at all likely to do so because they will hunt on private land. Nearly half of all lapsed hunters—this percentage is about the same for both those who indicated they are likely to purchase or have already purchased a 2009-2010 hunting license and those who are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license—hunted on private land during the 2008-2009 season. Finally, not having enough places to hunt and not having enough access to places to hunt were among the top four factors that strongly took away from lapsed hunters’ enjoyment of hunting in Virginia. It may even be an effective message approach to associate hunting on public land with the hunting heritage, the latter being the most popular message theme.

DON’T use “buy a license” as the primary or dominant theme in messages and campaign materials. Many direct “buy a license” messages were not popular. The direct “buy a license” message appears to be more effective when used in conjunction with the words “conserve” or “conservation”: the 3 messages with a direct “buy a license” statement that were among the top 12 messages rated as very or somewhat effective associated buying a license with the concept of conservation. Note, however, that receiving a reminder to purchase a license was the top item rated not at all likely to make respondents purchase a license during a year in which they otherwise might not.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

xxi

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction and Methodology ........................................................................................................1 Survey Results .................................................................................................................................6 Hunting Behaviors and Purchase of Hunting Licenses ...........................................................6 Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction With Hunting in Virginia, and Constraints To Hunting Participation..............................................................................23 Motivations for Purchasing a Hunting License .....................................................................32 Reactions To Words, Phrases, and Messages as They Relate To Hunting ...........................41 Demographic and Personal Lifestyle Data ............................................................................48 An Examination of the Data Regarding Tapestry Segments .........................................................73 Overview ...............................................................................................................................73 Methodology..........................................................................................................................73 Demographic and Socioeconomic Results ............................................................................74 Tapestry Details.....................................................................................................................75 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................77 An Examination of Target Markets ...............................................................................................78 A Discussion of the Implications of the Telephone Survey Results on Communication Strategies ..................................................................................................81 About Responsive Management ....................................................................................................95 List of Tables Table 1. Tapestry Questions .........................................................................................................76 List of Figures Figure 1. Nonparametric Analysis Equation...................................................................................4 Figure 2. Sampling Error Equation.................................................................................................4 Figure 3. Hunting on Private Land .................................................................................................8 Figure 4. Years Hunted of Past 5 Years..........................................................................................9 Figure 5. Days Hunting.................................................................................................................10 Figure 6. Increase or Decrease of Hunting Activity .....................................................................11 Figure 7. Hunting Outside Virginia ..............................................................................................12 Figure 8. Other States Hunted.......................................................................................................13 Figure 9. Species Hunted ..............................................................................................................14 Figure 10. Hunting Companions...................................................................................................15 Figure 11. Membership in Hunt Clubs .........................................................................................16 Figure 12. Purchase of Licenses in Past 4 Seasons.......................................................................17 Figure 13. Types of Licenses Purchased.......................................................................................18 Figure 14. Likelihood to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License ...............................................19 Figure 15. Reasons for Hunting ....................................................................................................20 Figure 16. Membership in Conservation or Sportsmen’s Organizations......................................21 Figure 17. Involvement in Hunting Accidents..............................................................................22 Figure 18. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction With Hunting in Virginia............................................26 Figure 19. Things That Strongly Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment.....................................27 Figure 20. Things That Strongly or Moderately Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment.............28 Figure 21. Things That Did Not Take Away From Hunting Enjoyment......................................29

xxii

Responsive Management

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
List of Figures (continued) Figure 22. Most Important Reasons for Not Purchasing a 2008-2009 Hunting License..............30 Figure 23. Reasons for Not Planning to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License........................31 Figure 24. Things That Would Be Very Likely to Encourage License Purchase.........................35 Figure 25. Things That Would Be Very or Somewhat Likely to Encourage License Purchase......................................................................................................................36 Figure 26. Things That Would Be Not at All Likely to Encourage License Purchase.................37 Figure 27. Support or Opposition to License Purchase Reminders ..............................................38 Figure 28. Reasons for Opposing Hunting License Purchase Reminders ....................................39 Figure 29. Reasons for Purchasing a 2009-2010 Hunting License...............................................40 Figure 30. Word and Phrase Associations With Hunting .............................................................44 Figure 31. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase .............45 Figure 32. Messages That Would Be Very or Somewhat Effective at Encouraging License Purchase......................................................................................................................46 Figure 33. Messages That Would Be Not at All Effective at Encouraging License Purchase......................................................................................................................47 Figure 34. Gender of Respondents................................................................................................51 Figure 35. Ethnic Backgrounds of Respondents...........................................................................52 Figure 36. Children in Household.................................................................................................53 Figure 37. Ages of Respondents ...................................................................................................54 Figure 38. Years of Residency in Virginia ...................................................................................55 Figure 39. Levels of Education of Respondents ...........................................................................56 Figure 40. Occupations of Respondents .......................................................................................57 Figure 41. Household Incomes of Respondents ...........................................................................58 Figure 42. Type of Residential Area of Respondents ...................................................................59 Figure 43. Tapestry Behaviors of Respondents ............................................................................60 Figure 44. Ownership of Power Tools..........................................................................................61 Figure 45. Ownership of Riding Lawnmowers.............................................................................62 Figure 46. Ownership of American-Made Vehicles .....................................................................63 Figure 47. Ownership of Motorcycles ..........................................................................................64 Figure 48. Ownership of Treadmills or Stationary Bikes .............................................................65 Figure 49. Work on Home Improvement Projects........................................................................66 Figure 50. Planting of Flower or Vegetable Gardens ...................................................................67 Figure 51. Golf Playing.................................................................................................................68 Figure 52. Purchase of Items Over the Telephone........................................................................69 Figure 53. Eating Out on Weekends or Weekdays .......................................................................70 Figure 54. Ownership of Life Insurance Policies .........................................................................71 Figure 55. Political Views of Respondents...................................................................................72 Figure 56. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown) ..................................................................................................82 Figure 57. Messages That Would Be Very or Somewhat Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown).....................................................................................83

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

xxiii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
List of Figures (continued) Figure 58. Messages That Would Be Not at All Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown) ..................................................................................................84 Figure 59. Things That Would Be Very or Somewhat Likely to Encourage License Purchase (Previously Shown) ..................................................................................................85 Figure 60. Word and Phrase Associations With Hunting (Previously Shown) ............................86 Figure 61. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase Crosstabulated by Not Likely To Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License.............................88 Figure 62. Most Important Reasons for Not Purchasing a 2008-2009 Hunting License (Previously Shown) ....................................................................................................91 Figure 63. Reasons for Not Planning to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License (Previously Shown) ....................................................................................................92 Figure 64. Hunting on Private Land Crosstabulated by Likelihood To Purchase Hunting License .......................................................................................................................93 Figure 65. Things That Strongly Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment (Previously Shown) ...............................................................................................94

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

1

INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY
This report discusses the results of a telephone survey that was conducted for the National Shooting Sports Foundation in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) as part of a larger study regarding messages to encourage lapsed hunters to purchase a hunting license. The overall project entailed the following: • Identification of lapsed hunters (i.e., to develop the sample for the survey), including categorizing the lapsed hunters into their various Tapestry segments. (Tapestry Segmentation™ is a market segmentation system developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Tapestry segments are more fully explained in the section of this report titled “An Examination of the Data Regarding Tapestry Segments.”) This portion of the project was completed by Southwick Associates. • A review of VDGIF strategic and marketing plans, a literature review regarding past research pertinent to the study, an inventory of current VDGIF outreach and educational activities, and staff interviews. This portion of the project was completed by Tammy Sapp. • Three focus groups of lapsed hunters (used in part to develop the survey instrument for the telephone survey that followed). This portion of the project was completed by Responsive Management. • • A telephone survey of lapsed hunters and an analysis of the telephone survey data. This portion of the project was completed by Responsive Management. Note that a final report will be produced subsequent to this report with recommendations and strategies regarding marketing to lapsed hunters. This report discusses only the results of the telephone survey of lapsed hunters and the analysis of the telephone survey data. Specific aspects of the telephone survey methodology are discussed below. For the survey of lapsed hunters, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium because of the almost universal ownership of telephones among hunters in Virginia. Additionally, telephone surveys, relative to mail or Internet surveys, allow for more scientific sampling and data collection, provide higher quality data, obtain higher response rates, are more

2

Responsive Management

timely, and are more cost-effective. Telephone surveys also have fewer negative effects on the environment than do mail surveys because of reduced use of paper and reduced energy consumption for delivering and returning the questionnaires. A central polling site at the Responsive Management office allowed for rigorous quality control over the interviews and data collection. Responsive Management maintains its own in-house telephone interviewing facilities. These facilities are staffed by interviewers with experience conducting computer-assisted telephone interviews on the subjects of natural resources and outdoor recreation. The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively by Responsive Management, the VDGIF, Southwick Associates, Tammy Sapp, and Mile Creek Communications. Responsive Management conducted a pre-test of the questionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey. To ensure the integrity of the telephone survey data, Responsive Management has interviewers who have been trained according to the standards established by the Council of American Survey Research Organizations. Methods of instruction included lecture and role-playing. The Survey Center Managers and other professional staff conducted project briefings with the interviewers prior to the administration of this survey. Interviewers were instructed on type of study, study goals and objectives, handling of survey questions, interview length, termination points and qualifiers for participation, interviewer instructions within the survey instrument, reading of the survey instrument, skip patterns, and probing and clarifying techniques necessary for specific questions on the survey instrument. The Survey Center Managers and statisticians monitored the data collection, including monitoring of the actual telephone interviews without the interviewers’ knowledge, to evaluate the performance of each interviewer and ensure integrity of the data. After the surveys were obtained by the interviewers, the Survey Center Managers and/or statisticians checked each completed survey to ensure clarity and completeness. Interviews were conducted Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday from noon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. A five-callback design was used to maintain the representativeness of the sample, to avoid bias toward people easy to reach by telephone, and to provide an equal opportunity for all to participate. When a respondent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

3

could not be reached on the first call, subsequent calls were placed on different days of the week and at different times of the day. The survey was conducted in November 2009. Responsive Management obtained a total of 803 completed interviews of lapsed hunters from Virginia. The software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL). The survey data were entered into the computer as each interview was being conducted, eliminating manual data entry after the completion of the survey and the concomitant data entry errors that may occur with manual data entry. The survey instrument was programmed so that QPL branched, coded, and substituted phrases in the survey based on previous responses to ensure the integrity and consistency of the data collection. The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well as proprietary software developed by Responsive Management. For this report, a nonparametric analysis examined how various responses to the survey related to behavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics. Responses for selected questions were tested by means of z-scores for relationships to behavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics. A positive z-score means that the response and characteristic are positively related; a negative z-score means that the response and characteristic are negatively related. The z-score shows the strength of the relationship between the characteristic and the response to the question. Those z-scores that have an absolute value of 3.30 or greater indicate a relationship that is so strong that it would happen by chance only 1 out of 1,000 times (p < 0.001). Those z-scores that have an absolute value of 2.58 to 3.29 indicate a relationship that is so strong that it would happen by chance only 1 out of 100 times (p < 0.01). Finally, those z-scores that have an absolute value of 1.96 to 2.57 indicate a relationship that is so strong that it would happen by chance only 5 out of 100 times (p < 0.05). The z-scores were calculated as shown in the formula on the following page (Figure 1).

4 Figure 1. Nonparametric Analysis Equation

Responsive Management

z=

( p1 − p2 ) ⎡1 1 ⎤ p(1 − p)⎢ + ⎥ ⎣ n1 n2 ⎦
n1 represents the number of observations in Group 1. n2 represents the number of observations in Group 2. p1 = a/(a + b) = a/n1 and represents the proportion of observations in Group 1 that falls in Cell a. It is employed to estimate the population proportion Π1 (% of Group 1 who had specific characteristic). p2 = c/(c + d) = c/n2 and represents the proportion of observations in Group 2 that falls in Cell c. It is employed to estimate the population proportion Π2 (% of Group 2 who had specific characteristic). p = (a + c)/(n1 + n2) = (a + c)/n and is a pooled estimate of the proportion of respondents who had specific characteristic in the underlying population.

where:

(Equation from Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures, 2nd Edition by David J. Sheskin. © 2000, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL.)

Throughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidence interval. For the entire sample of Virginia lapsed hunters that was provided to the research team, the sampling error is at most plus or minus 3.45 percentage points. This means that if the survey were conducted 100 times on different samples that were selected in the same way, the findings of 95 out of the 100 surveys would fall within plus or minus 3.45 percentage points of each other. Sampling error was calculated using the formula described below (Figure 2), with a sample size of 803 and a population size of 118,713 lapsed hunters that were provided in the sample.

Figure 2. Sampling Error Equation

⎛ ⎜ B=⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝

⎞ Np (.25) − .25 ⎟ Ns ⎟(1.96) ⎟ Np − 1 ⎟ ⎠

Where:

B = maximum sampling error (as decimal) NP = population size (i.e., total number who could be surveyed) NS = sample size (i.e., total number of respondents surveyed)

Derived from formula: p. 206 in Dillman, D. A. 2000. Mail and Internet Surveys. John Wiley & Sons, NY. Note: This is a simplified version of the formula that calculates the maximum sampling error using a 50:50 split (the most conservative calculation because a 50:50 split would give maximum variation).

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Note that some results may not sum to exactly 100% because of rounding. Additionally, rounding in the graphs may cause apparent discrepancies of 1 percentage point between the graphs and the reported results of combined responses (e.g., when “very likely” and “somewhat likely” are summed to determine the total percentage being likely). The 28 messages that were tested in this survey included 4 messages (or close derivatives thereof) that were developed in past research sponsored by the National Shooting Sports Foundation conducted by D.J. Case & Associates and that were considered for use by some agencies, such as the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. These four messages that were not developed exclusively for this study are as follows:
o o o o

5

Hunting season only comes once a year – don’t miss it. Big game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. [or Small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia.]* Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia’s outdoors. Go hunting.

*This message used the term, “Big game,” for hunters who indicated that they hunted bear, deer, elk, or wild turkey in the species question earlier in the survey; the message used the term, “Small game,” for hunters who did not hunt any of the big game species and who indicated hunting for fox, raccoon, small game, and/or waterfowl. All remaining respondents (those who hunted some other species or who answered “Don’t know” to the species question) were randomized between “Big game” and “Small game.”

6

Responsive Management

SURVEY RESULTS
HUNTING BEHAVIORS AND PURCHASE OF HUNTING LICENSES The sample consisted of those who had not purchased a hunting license for the 2008-2009 season (respondents who had were not interviewed). Nonetheless, nearly half of the “lapsed” hunters in the sample (46%) had hunted on private land in Virginia in the 2008-2009 season (Figure 3). (Virginia hunting regulations allow hunting on private land without a license in specific situations.) • The survey asked about hunting anywhere in Virginia in the past 5 years: 32% of all respondents had hunted all 5 of the past 5 years in Virginia; the median is 4 of the past 5 years (Figure 4). • The number of days per year that hunters had typically hunted (in those years in which they had hunted) is shown in Figure 5. While 32% typically hunted no more than 5 days, there are some who hunted much more often, including 14% who typically hunted more than 25 days annually. The median is 10 days. • Because the sample consists of hunters identified (in the sample as well as through screener questions in the survey) as lapsed, it is not surprising that the majority (58%) indicate that their amount of hunting in Virginia has decreased over the past 5 years (Figure 6). Only 9% indicate that it has increased. The survey also asked about hunting outside of Virginia in the past 5 years: 17% had done so (Figure 7). • Those other states in which they had hunted include North Carolina (18% of those out-ofstate hunters had hunted there), West Virginia (18%), Maryland (9%), and Pennsylvania (9%) (Figure 8). The most commonly hunted species among the lapsed hunters are deer (89%, the top answer by far), small game/upland game birds (41%), and wild turkey (36%) (Figure 9). The most common hunting companions are friends (38%), the respondent’s son (20%), the respondent’s father (13%), and/or the respondent’s brother (11%) (Figure 10).

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results The majority of lapsed hunters (89%) are not members of a hunt club in Virginia; however, 9% are members of a hunt club in Virginia (Figure 11). The survey asked about purchasing behaviors over the past 4 years. For each of the hunting years asked about (starting with the 2004-2005 season through the 2007-2008 season), at least 57% but no more than 64% had purchased a hunting license (Figure 12). • The most commonly purchased licenses are the Basic Hunting license (78% had purchased this type) and the Bear, Deer, and Turkey license (70%) (Figure 13). These were distantly followed by the Muzzleloading license (29%) and the Archery license (19%), among others.

7

Regarding plans to purchase a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season, 34% indicate being very likely to do so (along with the 9% who indicated that they had already bought one, this makes an anticipated purchase rate of approximately 43% among the sample) (Figure 14). On the other hand, 24% indicate being not at all likely. Respondents were asked to choose their most important reason for hunting from among four reasons (for the meat, for a trophy, to be with family and friends, or to be close to nature). They are fairly evenly divided among three of the answers: 32% did so to primarily be with family and friends, 32% did so primarily to be close to nature, and 28% did so primarily for the meat; a relatively low percentage did so for a trophy (5%) (Figure 15). Just under a third of lapsed hunters (31%) have been a member of and/or have donated to a conservation or sportsman’s organization other than a hunt club in the past 2 years (Figure 16). A final question in this section asked hunters if they had ever been involved in or witnessed a hunting accident in which somebody was injured by a hunting weapon: 6% indicated that they had (Figure 17).

8 Figure 3. Hunting on Private Land

Responsive Management

Q16. Did you hunt on private land in Virginia during the 2008-2009 season?

Yes

46

No

53

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 4. Years Hunted of Past 5 Years

9

Q24. How many of the past 5 years have you hunted in Virginia?

5 years

32

4 years

21

3 years

18

2 years

13

Mean = 3.4 Median = 4

1 year

10

Have not hunted in Virginia in the past 5 years

5

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

10 Figure 5. Days Hunting

Responsive Management

Q27. When you hunted in Virginia in the past, how many days did you typically hunt in Virginia in a year?

More than 25 days

14

21-25 days

3

16-20 days

8

Mean = 15.1 Median = 10

11-15 days

14

6-10 days

24

1-5 days

32

0 days

1

Don't know

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 6. Increase or Decrease of Hunting Activity

11

Q30. Has your amount of hunting in Virginia increased, decreased, or stayed the same over the past 5 years?

Increased

9

Stayed the same

32

Decreased

58

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

12 Figure 7. Hunting Outside Virginia

Responsive Management

Q40. Have you hunted outside of Virginia in the past 5 years?

Yes

17

No

83

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 8. Other States Hunted

13

Q42/43/44. In what states other than Virginia did you hunt in the past 5 years? (Asked of those who hunted in another state in the past 5 years; shows only those states with at least 3%.)
North Carolina West Virginia Maryland Pennsylvania Colorado Texas South Dakota New Mexico Kansas Alabama Idaho Maine New York Wyoming 0 9 9 7 7 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 20 40 60 80 100 18 18

Multiple Responses Allowed

Percent (n=139)

14 Figure 9. Species Hunted

Responsive Management

Q34. Which species have you hunted in Virginia?

Deer

89

Small game / upland game birds

41

Turkey Multiple Responses Allowed

36

Waterfowl

11

Bear

10

Fox

4

Raccoon

3

Elk

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 10. Hunting Companions

15

Q38. With whom do you typically hunt?

Friends Nobody / goes alone Son Father Brother Multiple Responses Allowed In-law Spouse Uncle Cousins Organized group Grandson Nephew Daughter Grandfather 0 6 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 20 13 11 23 20

38

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

16 Figure 11. Membership in Hunt Clubs

Responsive Management

Q203. Are you currently a member of a hunt club in Virginia?

Yes

9

No

89

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 12. Purchase of Licenses in Past 4 Seasons

17

Q20. Please tell me if you bought a Virginia hunting license for each of the following seasons?

2004-2005

59

2005-2006 Multiple Responses Allowed

61

2006-2007

64

2007-2008

57

Don't know

18

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

18 Figure 13. Types of Licenses Purchased

Responsive Management

Q23. Which of the following licenses have you purchased in the past?

Basic Hunting license Bear, Deer, and Turkey license Muzzleloading license Multiple Responses Allowed

78

70

29

Archery license

19

State Waterfowl Stamp Sportsman's license

11

8

Crossbow license

6

Trapping license

1

None of these

2

Don't know

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 14. Likelihood to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License

19

Q185. How likely are you to buy a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license?

Very likely

34

Somewhat likely

29

Not at all likely

24

I have already bought a 20092010 license

9

Don't know

4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

20 Figure 15. Reasons for Hunting

Responsive Management

Q31. Thinking about when you've hunted, what is your most important reason for hunting?

To be with family and friends

32

To be close to nature

32

For the meat

28

For a trophy

5

Don't know

3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 16. Membership in Conservation or Sportsmen’s Organizations

21

Q204. In the past 2 years, have you been a member of or donated to any conservation or sportsman's organizations other than a hunt club?

Yes

31

No

66

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

22 Figure 17. Involvement in Hunting Accidents

Responsive Management

Q205. Have you ever been involved in or witnessed a hunting accident in which someone was injured by a hunting weapon?

Yes

6

No

92

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION WITH HUNTING IN VIRGINIA, AND CONSTRAINTS TO HUNTING PARTICIPATION

23

The overwhelming majority of lapsed hunters (87%) report that they have been satisfied with their hunting experiences in Virginia over the past 5 years; only 8% say that they have been dissatisfied (Figure 18). The survey asked 32 questions about things that may have taken away from respondents’ enjoyment of hunting, shown in Text Box 1 on the following page. In examining the results of things that strongly or moderately took away from enjoyment of hunting, 8 of the 32 items stand out above the rest, each with about a third or more of respondents saying that it strongly or moderately took away from their enjoyment. For the most part, they relate to time, access, and cost (Figures 19, 20, and 21). • Three items are at the top, all related to time; each has at least half of respondents saying it took away from enjoyment: not having enough time (61%), work obligations (56%), and family obligations (50%). • In the next tier are five items, with access and cost being prominent. This tier consists of the following: having other interests that are more important (42%), not having enough access to places to hunt (41%), not having enough places to hunt (40%), the cost of licenses (35%), and the cost of hunting equipment (31%). • A large middle tier exists: 15 of the 32 items have at least 15% of lapsed hunters (but less than 30%) who say the item took away from hunting enjoyment, as shown in the graph. These problems run the gamut, such as poor behavior of other hunters, not enough game, complex regulations, personal health/age issues, and not having anybody to go with. Included within this tier are a couple of items that relate to access and cost, as well. • At the bottom are 9 items, suggesting that the problems in this tier are relatively unimportant. Many of the problems here appear to be related to respondents’ basic beliefs about hunting (e.g., other people’s negative opinion of hunting, thinking hunting may be wrong). The relatively small percentage of people naming the problems in the bottom tier appear to be a group that is not well-informed about hunting (e.g., concern that hunting might endanger animal populations, mandatory hunter education

24

Responsive Management requirements) and is also prone to anti-hunting rhetoric. That these problems are in the bottom tier suggests that they are relatively unimportant.

Text Box 1: Things That May Have Taken Away From Enjoyment of Hunting That Were Asked About in the Survey (Did this strongly take away, moderately take away, or not take away from your enjoyment of hunting?)
What about because you feel you lack skills? What about because you think hunting may be wrong? What about because you have other interests that are more important? What about because you don't have time? What about because you're not interested? What about work obligations? What about family obligations? What about personal health? What about poor behavior of other hunters? What about poor behavior of other recreationists? What about not enough places to hunt? What about not enough access to places to hunt? What about not having anyone to go with? What about fear of injury by another hunter? What about having to travel too far to hunt? What about the cost of hunting equipment? What about the costs of licenses? What about other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging? What about other people's negative opinions of hunting? What about harassment by anti-hunters? What about not enough law enforcement officers? What about because you don't want to kill animals? What about too many hunters in the field? What about your concern that hunting might endanger animal populations? What about pollution or litter? What about not enough game? What about the concern about causing pain to animals? What about complex regulations? What about bag limits or season lengths? What about mandatory hunter education requirements? What about not enough trophy game? What about not enough big bucks?

As a follow-up to the above list of potential problems, the survey asked respondents to name the most important reasons that they did not buy a 2008-2009 Virginia hunting license (although the question followed the above listing, respondents were not limited to the reasons on the list but could say anything that came to mind) (Figure 22). Five reasons stand out

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results above the rest, all with 10% or more of respondents: hunted on private land (i.e., did not need a license) (25%), lack of time (25%), work obligations (17%), family obligations (11%), and personal health (11%). Near the end of the survey, those who indicated that they would be not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license were asked to name the reasons why (Figure 23). The top reason is not being required to purchase one: 30% said because they

25

will hunt on private land. Three other reasons were named by more than 10% of this “not at all likely” group: personal health (15%), not being interested (13%), and lack of time (12%).

26 Figure 18. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction With Hunting in Virginia

Responsive Management

Q45. How satisfied or dissatisfied have you been with your hunting experiences in Virginia in the past 5 years?

Very satisfied

53

Somewhat satisfied

34

Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied

3

Somewhat dissatisfied

5

Very dissatisfied

3

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 19. Things That Strongly Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment

27

Percent who indicated that the following strongly took away from their enjoyment of hunting.
Q51. Not having time Q53. Work obligations Q58. Not having enough places to hunt Q59. Not having enough access to places to hunt Q54. Family obligations Q64. Costs of licenses Q50. Having other interests that are more important Q55. Personal health issues Q56. Poor behavior of other hunters Q63. Cost of hunting equipment Q72. Pollution or litter Q65. Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Q73. Not enough game Q79. Not enough big bucks Q75. Complex regulations Q62. Having to travel too far to hunt Q70. Having too many hunters in the field Q76. Bag limits or season lengths Q57. Poor behavior of other recreationists Q60. Not having anyone to go with Q61. Fear of injury by another hunter Q68. Not having enough law enforcement officers Q78. Not enough trophy game Q66. Other people's negative opinions of hunting Q67. Harassment by anti-hunters Q74. Concern about causing pain to animals Q52. Not being interested Q77. Mandatory hunter education requirements Q48. Lack skills Q69. Not wanting to kill animals Q71. Concern that hunting might endanger animal populations Q49. Thinking hunting may be wrong

31 27 20 20 18 14 12 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

28

Responsive Management

Figure 20. Things That Strongly or Moderately Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment

Percent who indicated that the following strongly or moderately took away from their enjoyment of hunting.
Q51. Not having time Q53. Work obligations Q54. Family obligations Q50. Having other interests that are more important Q59. Not having enough access to places to hunt Q58. Not having enough places to hunt Q64. Costs of licenses Q63. Cost of hunting equipment Q56. Poor behavior of other hunters Q65. Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Q73. Not enough game Q72. Pollution or litter Q75. Complex regulations Q55. Personal health issues Q62. Having to travel too far to hunt Q70. Having too many hunters in the field Q79. Not enough big bucks Q61. Fear of injury by another hunter Q60. Not having anyone to go with Q76. Bag limits or season lengths Q57. Poor behavior of other recreationists Q78. Not enough trophy game Q52. Not being interested Q66. Other people's negative opinions of hunting Q68. Not having enough law enforcement officers Q74. Concern about causing pain to animals Q48. Lack skills Q67. Harassment by anti-hunters Q69. Not wanting to kill animals Q71. Concern that hunting might endanger animal populations Q77. Mandatory hunter education requirements Q49. Thinking hunting may be wrong

61 56 50 42 41 40 35 31 26 24 24 23 23 21 21 21 21 20 19 19 18 18 15 12 12 11 8 8 7 6 6 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 21. Things That Did Not Take Away From Hunting Enjoyment

29

Percent who indicated that the following did not take away from their enjoyment of hunting.
Q49. Thinking hunting may be wrong Q71. Concern that hunting might endanger animal populations Q77. Mandatory hunter education requirements Q48. Lack skills Q67. Harassment by anti-hunters Q69. Not wanting to kill animals Q66. Other people's negative opinions of hunting Q74. Concern about causing pain to animals Q68. Not having enough law enforcement officers Q52. Not being interested Q78. Not enough trophy game Q57. Poor behavior of other recreationists Q76. Bag limits or season lengths Q60. Not having anyone to go with Q61. Fear of injury by another hunter Q62. Having to travel too far to hunt Q55. Personal health issues Q70. Having too many hunters in the field Q79. Not enough big bucks Q72. Pollution or litter Q65. Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Q75. Complex regulations Q73. Not enough game Q56. Poor behavior of other hunters Q63. Cost of hunting equipment Q64. Costs of licenses Q58. Not having enough places to hunt Q59. Not having enough access to places to hunt Q50. Having other interests that are more important Q54. Family obligations Q53. Work obligations Q51. Not having time

98 94 93 92 92 92 88 88 86 85 82 81 81 80 80 79 78 78 78 77 76 76 75 73 69 65 59 59 57 50 43 39

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

30

Responsive Management

Figure 22. Most Important Reasons for Not Purchasing a 2008-2009 Hunting License

Q82/85/88/89/90. Thinking about the list of factors I just read to you, what are the most important reasons you did not buy a 2008-2009 Virginia hunting license?
Hunted on private land Don't have time Work obligations Family obligations Personal health The costs of licenses Not enough places to hunt

25 25 17 11 11 8 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

Multiple Responses Allowed

Concern about causing pain to animals Not interested Have other interests that are more important The cost of hunting equipment Not enough access to places to hunt Not having anyone to go with Hunted outside of Virginia Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Complex regulations Poor behavior of other hunters Not enough game Bag limits or season lengths Not enough trophy game Fear of injury by another hunter Having to travel too far to hunt Not enough big bucks

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 23. Reasons for Not Planning to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License

31

Q190/193/196. Why are you not at all likely to buy a 2009-2010 license? (Among those not likely to buy a license.)
Will hunt on private land Personal health Not interested Don't have time Family obligations Work obligations The costs of licenses

30 15 13 12 7 7 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

Multiple Responses Allowed

Will hunt outside of Virginia Not enough places to hunt Have other interests that are more important Bag limits or season lengths Not enough access to places to hunt Not having anyone to go with The cost of hunting equipment Not enough game Poor behavior of other hunters Fear of injury by another hunter Mandatory hunter education requirements Think hunting may be wrong Other costs related to hunting Other people's negative opinions of hunting Complex regulations

Percent

32 MOTIVATIONS FOR PURCHASING A HUNTING LICENSE

Responsive Management

The survey included 19 questions about potential things that might encourage respondents to purchase a license, shown in Text Box 2 on the following page. Five of the questions relate to actions that the state would take (e.g., more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia being made available, having a family license available); the other questions relate to the respondent being informed about various positive aspects of hunting and can be thought of as themes that would resonate with them. In the graphs, the “action” items are denoted by grey bars (Figures 24, 25, and 26). • The top themes that resonated (i.e., the themes with the highest percentages of respondents saying that the items would make them very likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license) are as follows, each with more than a third of respondents saying it would make them very likely to purchase a license:
o

Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country (48%). Being reminded that hunting helps people relax (43%). Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources (42%). Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food (41%). Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature (38%). Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife (37%). Being reminded that hunting is peaceful (also 37%). Having a family license made available (34%). Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of a Virginia hunting license (30%).

o o

o

o o

o

The top action items are:
o o

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

33

Text Box 2: Things That Would Make Hunters Likely To Purchase a Virginia Hunting License That Were Asked About in the Survey (Would this make you very likely, somewhat likely, or not at all likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that you otherwise might not?)
What about just having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available? What about being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management? What about being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources? What about being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife? What about being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife? What about being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food? What about being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia? What about being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country? What about being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources? What about being reminded that hunting helps people relax? What about being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature? What about being reminded that hunting is peaceful? What about being reminded that hunting is important to your family? What about being reminded that you can bond with family and friends while hunting? What about being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting? What about if a family hunting license was available in Virginia? What about being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license? What about receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start? What about receiving a reminder to purchase your license?

A question asked respondents if they support or oppose having the VDGIF provide reminders to hunters to encourage them to purchase a license: the large majority support doing so (78%), while only 10% oppose (Figure 27). (Note, however, that the two questions about providing reminders to hunters were at the bottom of the ranking of items that would make respondents very or somewhat likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license in the above series of questions. This question relates to whether the state should be allowed to send reminders rather than to the effectiveness of doing so.) • Those who oppose having the VDGIF provide reminders to hunters to encourage them to purchase a license were asked why they oppose (Figure 28). Most commonly they say they oppose because they feel it is unnecessary, because they feel it is a waste of time and money, and/or because they feel it would be irritating.

34

Responsive Management Those who indicated that they would be very likely to purchase a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license or who said that they had already done so were asked to indicate their primary reason for buying a license (Figure 29). This question was open-ended, meaning that no answer set was read, and respondents could name anything that came to mind. If they simply said “to hunt,” respondents were prompted to be more specific. Nonetheless, this answer, “to hunt,” or the related answer, “to hunt in Virginia,” remained the top answers. However, excluding those, the top answers are to hunt on public land in Virginia, to connect with nature/to escape/to relax, to take children hunting, to take an adult family member hunting, to obtain meat, and to take a friend hunting.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 24. Things That Would Be Very Likely to Encourage License Purchase

35

Percent who indicated that the following would be very likely to make them purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not purchase one.
Q100. Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country Q102. Being reminded that hunting helps people relax Q101. Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources Q98. Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food Q103. Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature Q97. Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife Q104. Being reminded that hunting is peaceful Q108. If a family hunting license was available in Virginia Q106. Being reminded that you can bond with family and friends Q96. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife Q109. Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license Q107. Being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting Q105. Being reminded that hunting is important to your family Q110. Receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start Q93. Having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available Q95. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources Q99. Being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia Q94. Being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management Q111. Receiving a reminder to purchase your license

48 43 42 41 38 37 37 34 33 30 30 29 27 27 26 25 23 20 19 0 20 40 60 80 100
Grey bars = actions that state would take Black bars = relate to the respondent being informed

Percent

36

Responsive Management

Figure 25. Things That Would Be Very or Somewhat Likely to Encourage License Purchase

Percent who indicated that the following would be very or somewhat likely to make them purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not purchase one.
Q100. Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country Q98. Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food Q101. Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources Q97. Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife Q102. Being reminded that hunting helps people relax Q103. Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature Q107. Being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting Q108. If a family hunting license was available in Virginia Q96. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife Q106. Being reminded that you can bond with family and friends Q104. Being reminded that hunting is peaceful Q109. Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license Q93. Having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available Q105. Being reminded that hunting is important to your family Q95. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources Q94. Being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management Q99. Being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia Q110. Receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start Q111. Receiving a reminder to purchase your license

78 73 71 70 69 65 64 64 62 62 61 60 56 53 52 47 46 46 38 0 20 40 60 80 100
Grey bars = actions that state would take Black bars = relate to the respondent being informed

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 26. Things That Would Be Not at All Likely to Encourage License Purchase

37

Percent who indicated that the following would be not at all likely to make them purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not purchase one.
Q111. Receiving a reminder to purchase your license Q110. Receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start Q94. Being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management Q99. Being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia Q95. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources Q105. Being reminded that hunting is important to your family Q93. Having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available Q109. Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license Q96. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife Q104. Being reminded that hunting is peaceful Q106. Being reminded that you can bond with family and friends Q107. Being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting Q108. If a family hunting license was available in Virginia Q103. Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature Q97. Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife Q102. Being reminded that hunting helps people relax Q98. Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food Q101. Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources Q100. Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country

62 54 52 52 46 46 44 39 38 37 37 36 34 33 30 28 26 26 21 0 20 40 60 80 100
Grey bars = actions that state would take Black bars = relate to the respondent being informed

Percent

38 Figure 27. Support or Opposition to License Purchase Reminders

Responsive Management

Q112. Do you support or oppose the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries providing reminders to purchase a hunting license?

Strongly support

43

Moderately support

35

Neither support nor oppose

10

Moderately oppose

6

Strongly oppose

4

Don't know

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 28. Reasons for Opposing Hunting License Purchase Reminders

39

Q113. Why do you oppose the Department providing reminders to purchase a hunting license?

Don't need it / it's unnecessary

56

Multiple Responses Allowed

Waste of time and money

30

Would be irritating

6

Don't know

10

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=81)

40 Figure 29. Reasons for Purchasing a 2009-2010 Hunting License

Responsive Management

Q186. What is your primary reason for buying a 2009-2010 license? (Asked of those likely to buy a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license.)
To hunt on public land in Virginia To connect with nature / escape / relax To take children hunting To take adult family member hunting To obtain meat To take friend hunting To support the DGIF financially To help conserve wildlife / natural resources To help manage wildlife To be prepared if invited to hunt public land in Virginia To participate in an organized hunt To be prepared if invited to hunt private land in Virginia To hunt To hunt specifically in Virginia Don't know

12 11 6 6 4 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 37 16 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent (n=578)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results REACTIONS TO WORDS, PHRASES, AND MESSAGES AS THEY RELATE TO HUNTING The survey presented respondents with 36 words or short phrases, shown in Text Box 3 below. Respondents were asked to indicate if the word/phrase had a positive association with hunting, a neutral association, or a negative association with hunting (Figure 30). •

41

In this list, 8 of the 36 words/phrases had at least 90% of respondents making a positive association: connect to nature (96%), quality time (94%), fun (94%), get away from it all (93%), relaxing (92%), memories (91%), excitement (91%), and heritage (90%).

On the least positive end of the continuum (listed from the bottom up) are the following: expensive (21% say this has a positive association with hunting), investment (43%), organic (47%), inexpensive (48%), roots (58%), and economical (59%).

Text Box 3: Words and Phrases That Were Asked About in the Survey (Does this have a positive, negative, or neutral association with hunting?)
Conserve Environment Economical Family Active Thrill Heritage Natural Quality Conservation Environmentally friendly Inexpensive Friends Relaxing Tradition Stewardship Manage Outdoor lifestyle Conservation funding Organic Investment Roots Peaceful Get away from it all Quality time Connect to nature The basics Preserve Protect Expensive Memories Fun Excitement Escape Wildlife management Healthy

42

Responsive Management The survey presented respondents with 28 messages that might encourage them to purchase a hunting license; these are shown in Text Box 4 on the following page. For each message, the survey asked respondents if the message would be very effective, somewhat effective, or not at all effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license (Figures 31, 32, and 33). • Three of the messages stand out, each with at least half of respondents saying it would be very effective:
o o o

Make memories. Take someone special hunting. (54%) Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. (54%) Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. (50%)

Six more messages rank above the rest, all with 44% or more saying it would be very effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license:
o o o o o o

Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. (47%) Hunters, the original stewards of the land. (46%) Hunting connects family and friends. (46%) Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. (45%) Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. (44%) Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. (44%)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

43

Text Box 4: Messages Presented to Respondents in the Survey
(Do you think this message would be very effective, somewhat effective, or not at all effective at getting you to buy a Virginia hunting license during a year that you otherwise might not?)
Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting - it's our nature. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Hunting connects family and friends. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Big game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. [or Small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia.]* Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today.
*This message used the term, “Big game,” for hunters who indicated that they hunted bear, deer, elk, or wild turkey in the species question earlier in the survey; the message used the term, “Small game,” for hunters who did not hunt any of the big game species and who indicated hunting for fox, raccoon, small game, and/or waterfowl. All remaining respondents (those who hunted some other species or who answered “Don’t know” to the species question) were randomized between “Big game” and “Small game.”

44 Figure 30. Word and Phrase Associations With Hunting

Responsive Management

Percent who indicated that the following had a positive / neutral / negative association with hunting.
(Numbers show percentage saying positive association and negative association.)

Q141. Connect to nature Q140. Quality time Q147. Fun Q139. Get away from it all Q129. Relaxing Q146. Memories Q148. Excitement Q122. Heritage Q151. Healthy Q125. Conservation Q119. Family Q128. Friends Q130. Tradition Q133. Outdoor lifestyle Q120. Active Q123. Natural Q138. Peaceful Q150. Wildlife management Q126. Environmentally friendly Q116. Conserve Q117. Environment Q144. Protect Q134. Conservation funding Q131. Stewardship Q132. Manage Q143. Preserve Q121. Thrill Q124. Quality Q149. Escape Q142. The basics Q118. Economical Q137. Roots Q127. Inexpensive Q135. Organic Q136. Investment Q145. Expensive

96 94 94 93 92 91 91 90 89 88 87 87 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 80 79 79 77 76 75 75 74 74 71 68 59 58 48 47 43 21 41

0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 1 6 2 5 4 16 10 9

Positive Neutral Negative

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 31. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase

45

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be very effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today.

54 54 50 47 46 46 45 44 44 42 42 42 40 40 39 39 38 38 37 37 36 34 33 32 30 26 25 25 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

46

Responsive Management

Figure 32. Messages That Would Be Very or Somewhat Effective at Encouraging License Purchase

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be very or somewhat effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat.

86 84 84 83 83 82 82 82 81 80 80 78 78 76 76 76 75 75 75 74 73 73 72 68 66 64 61 52 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

47

Figure 33. Messages That Would Be Not at All Effective at Encouraging License Purchase

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be not at all effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience.

43 36 34 33 30 27 25 25 25 23 22 22 21 21 21 21 20 20 19 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 15 12 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

48 DEMOGRAPHIC AND PERSONAL LIFESTYLE DATA

Responsive Management

Most of the lapsed hunters in the survey are male (94%), as shown in Figure 34. The overwhelming majority of lapsed hunters in the survey are white/Caucasian (90%) (Figure 35). A majority of hunters in the sample (58%) do not have children living in their household; 40% have children in their household (Figure 36). Most of those with children have only one or two children. Figure 37 shows the age of respondents: the median is 49 years. Figure 38 shows years of residency of lapsed hunters in the survey, with answers well distributed. The median is 40 years. Figure 39 shows the education levels of respondents: 54% have taken some college or trade school coursework, with or without getting a degree; 26% have a bachelor’s degree, with or without a higher degree. Figure 40 shows the occupations of respondents: manufacturing/factory/industry (11%), construction-related (10%), and government services (8%) top the list. Also prominent are retirees (15% of respondents are retired). Figure 41 shows annual household incomes of respondents, which range widely: while 19% have a household income of less than $40,000, nearly the same percentage (20%) have a household income of $100,000 or more. Just under half of the sample considers their place of residence to be a rural area, the most common type of residential area (Figure 42). Meanwhile, 22% consider their place of residence to be in a small city or town, and 28% consider their place of residence to be a suburban or large city/urban area.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

49

In addition to the strictly demographic questions discussed above, the survey asked questions about personal lifestyle choices that relate to characteristics of Tapestry segments (note that Tapestry Segmentation™ is more fully explained in the following section; it is essentially a marketing system that categorizes all parts of the country into various marketing segments called “Tapestry segments”). For this analysis, all of the respondents were assigned to the Tapestry segment in which their residence is located. Specific characteristics are conjectured to be associated with each Tapestry segment. For each Tapestry segment, respondents identified as being in that segment were asked questions about a characteristic of that segment, and some respondents identified as being not in that Tapestry segment were asked the same questions about the characteristic associated with the segment. A comparison was then made of those within the segment versus those outside of the segment. In other words, those respondents within the Tapestry segment should answer in the affirmative regarding the characteristic more often than those outside the Tapestry segment. This was done to test the validity of the characteristics conjectured to be associated with the Tapestry segment. • In the first question along these lines, respondents were presented a list of eight behaviors (e.g., reading the Sunday paper, listening to country music on the radio or TV) and were asked if the behaviors were true for them (Figure 43). The graph shows those whose Tapestry segment description includes the behavior (black bars) and those whose segment does not (white bars). Presumably, the percentage exhibiting the behavior should be greater among those who are in that identified Tapestry segment versus those who are not in that Tapestry segment. Of the eight behaviors in this question, three show statistically significant differences between the two groups: subscribes to satellite TV (67% of those in the Tapestry segment that supposedly includes this behavior versus 49% of those not in the Tapestry segment) (p < 0.001), has four or more TVs in the household (51% of those in the segment; 33% of those not in the segment) (p < 0.01), and has highspeed Internet access (60% versus 43%) (p < 0.01). All other differences between the groups are not statistically significant. • Following the above question, the survey had 12 additional questions that delved into Tapestry segment characteristics (Figures 44 through 55). Again, the graphs show those in the segment (black bars) versus those outside of the segment (white bars). For 8 of the 12 questions, those whose Tapestry segment includes the characteristic more often have

50

Responsive Management the characteristic when compared to those who are not within that Tapestry segment—in other words, the Tapestry segment description is accurately predicting the more common presence of the characteristic; however, the differences are not statistically significant. For 4 of the 12 questions, the findings contradict the Tapestry segment description—in other words, those from outside the segment more often have the characteristic than do those within the Tapestry segment; again, however, the differences are not statistically significant.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 34. Gender of Respondents

51

Q242. Respondent's gender (not asked; observed by interviewer).

Male

94

Female

6

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

52 Figure 35. Ethnic Backgrounds of Respondents

Responsive Management

Q233. What races or ethnic backgrounds do you consider yourself, and please mention all that apply?

White or Caucasian

90

Native American or Alaskan native or Aleutian

2

Multiple Responses Allowed

Black or African-American

1

Hispanic or Latino

Less than 1%

Middle Eastern

Less than 1%

Don't know

2

Refused

5

0

20

40

60

80 100

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 36. Children in Household

53

Q221. How many children, age 17 or younger, do you have living in your household?

More than 3 children

2

3 children

6

2 children

14

1 child

18

No children

58

Don't know

1

Refused

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

54 Figure 37. Ages of Respondents

Responsive Management

Q235. Respondent's age.

65 years old or older

13

55-64 years old

21

45-54 years old

26

Mean = 48.5 Median = 49

35-44 years old

20

25-34 years old

10

18-24 years old

7

Don't know

1

Refused

3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 38. Years of Residency in Virginia

55

Q199. How many years have you lived in Virginia?

60 years or more

14

50-59 years

16

40-49 years

20

Mean = 38.6 Median = 40

30-39 years

16

20-29 years

15

10-19 years

12

9 years or less

5

Don't know

1

Refused

1

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

56 Figure 39. Levels of Education of Respondents

Responsive Management

Q224. What is the highest level of education you have completed?

Not a high school graduate

8

High school graduate or equivalent Some college or trade school, no degree Associate's degree or trade school degree

35

18

10

Bachelor's degree

18

54%

Master's degree

7

26%

Professional or doctorate degree

1

Don't know

1

Refused

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 40. Occupations of Respondents

57

Q225. What's your current occupation?
11 10 8 7 5 5 5 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 2 15 2 3 5 0 20 40 60 80 100

Manufacturing / factory / industry Construction / carpentry / plumbing / electrical / craftsman Government services Mechanical / machine servicing Retail / wholesale sales Computer / technical / electronics Transportation / shipping Agriculture / farming Finance / insurance / real estate Medical / wellness Office / consulting / data analysis Military Education Business owner / self-employed Restaurant / hotel / tourism / entertainment Other Student Retired Disabled Unemployed Don't know / can't say

Percent (n=803)

58 Figure 41. Household Incomes of Respondents

Responsive Management

Q227. Which of these categories best describes your total household income before taxes last year?

Under $20,000

6

$20,000-$39,999

13

$40,000-$59,999

16

$60,000-$79,999

12

$80,000-$99,999

9

$100,000$119,999

6

$120,000 or more

14

Don't know

5

Refused

20

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 42. Type of Residential Area of Respondents

59

Q220. Do you consider your place of residence to be a large city or urban area, a suburban area, a small city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch, or a rural area not on a farm or ranch?

Large city or urban area

11

Suburban area

17

Small city or town

22

Rural area on a farm or ranch

18 48%

Rural area not on a farm or ranch

30

Don't know

1

Refused

2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=803)

60 Figure 43. Tapestry Behaviors of Respondents

Responsive Management

Did the respondent's Tapestry description include this detail? Yes No

Q208. Percent of respondents who said each of the following was true for him/her.

Reads the Sunday paper

50 60

p > 0.05
Not sig.

Listens to country music on the radio or TV

77 76

p > 0.05
Not sig.

Multiple Responses Allowed

Watches auto racing on TV or listens to it on the radio

54 52

p > 0.05
Not sig.

Subscribes to satellite TV

67 49

p < 0.01
Sig.

Has four or more TVs

51 33

p < 0.01
Sig.

Has high-speed Internet access

60 43

p < 0.01
Sig.

Has a personal computer that was purchased in the past 2 years

51 48

p > 0.05
Not sig.

Has a separate freezer for frozen foods 0
Sig. = Statistically Significant Not sig. = Not Statistically Significant

71 74 20 40 60 80

p > 0.05
Not sig.

100

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 44. Ownership of Power Tools

61

Q210. Do you or does someone in your household own several power tools, such as a router, a table or circular saw, or a sander?

90 Yes 86

8 No 12 Did the respondent's Tapestry description include this detail? Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

2 Refused 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=164)

62 Figure 45. Ownership of Riding Lawnmowers

Responsive Management

Q211. Do you or does someone in your household own a riding lawnmower?

83 Yes 74

13 No 20 Did the respondent's Tapestry description include detail? Yes No 3 Don't know 2 p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

3 Refused 4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=94)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 46. Ownership of American-Made Vehicles

63

Q212. Do you or does someone in your household own a vehicle made by an America-based company, such as Ford, Chevy, Chrysler, or Saturn?

88 Yes 85

10 No 10 Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? Yes No 1 Don't know 3 p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

2 Refused 3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=184)

64 Figure 47. Ownership of Motorcycles

Responsive Management

Q213. Do you or does someone in your household own a motorycle?

17 Yes 22

82 No 76

0 Don't know 1

Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

1 Refused 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=273)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 48. Ownership of Treadmills or Stationary Bikes

65

Q214. Do you have a treadmill or stationary bike in your home?

43 Yes 42

56 No 57

Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? 1 Refused 1 Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=220)

66 Figure 49. Work on Home Improvement Projects

Responsive Management

Q215. In the past 2 years, have you or your spouse personally worked on a home improvement project, such as interior or exterior painting, installing carpet or insulation, roofing, or other remodeling?

78 Yes 76

20 No 18

Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? 1 Don't know 3 Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

2 Refused 3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=222)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 50. Planting of Flower or Vegetable Gardens

67

Q216. In the past 2 years, have you or your spouse personally planted or maintained a flower or vegetable garden?

81 Yes 75

17 No 21 Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? 1 Don't know 0 Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

1 Refused 4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=185)

68 Figure 51. Golf Playing

Responsive Management

Q217. Have you or your spouse played golf in the past 2 years?

28 Yes 22

72 No 71

Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? 0 Don't know 3 Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

0 Refused 4

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=125)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 52. Purchase of Items Over the Telephone

69

Q218. Have you or your spouse purchased something from a catalog or over the phone in the past 3 months? (Does not include any web or Internet purchases.)

54 Yes 36

42 No 54

3 Don't know 7

Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

1 Refused 3

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=160)

70 Figure 53. Eating Out on Weekends or Weekdays

Responsive Management

Q219. Would you say that you eat out on weekends more often than you eat out during the week?

46 Yes 61

46 No 39 Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? 4 Don't know 0 Yes No p > 0.05
Not Statistically Significant

4 Refused 0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=85)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 54. Ownership of Life Insurance Policies

71

Q229. Do you or your spouse have a life insurance policy?

76 Yes 78

15 No 10 Did respondent's Tapestry description include detail? Yes No p > 0.05 3
Not Statistically Significant

2 Don't know

7 Refused 10

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=95)

72 Figure 55. Political Views of Respondents

Responsive Management

Q230. On political issues, do you consider yourself conservative, moderate, or liberal?

52 Conservative 62

23 Moderate 14 Respondent's Tapestry description indicated having conservative political views? Yes No p > 0.05 6 Don't know 5
Not Statistically Significant

9 Liberal 5

10 Refused 14

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=124)

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

73

AN EXAMINATION OF THE DATA REGARDING TAPESTRY SEGMENTS
Using the personal lifestyle questions discussed above, the researchers examined how the results relate to Tapestry Segmentation™, which is a system of analysis developed by Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI). The discussion starts with a short overview of Tapestry Segmentation™.

OVERVIEW ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ is a “market segmentation system [that] classifies U.S. neighborhoods into 65 segments based on their socioeconomic and demographic composition.”1 The segments are also grouped into “12 LifeMode Summary Groups that reflect lifestyles/life stages and 11 Urbanization Summary Groups that show levels of affluence and population density.”2 These segments are updated annually with new data. Tapestry Segmentation is based on the entire U.S. population and is used for marketing purposes. The telephone survey for this project provided data to test the validity of the system as it applies to lapsed hunters by asking specific questions about various Tapestry characteristics and then crosstabulating these results by whether the respondent lives in the Tapestry segment associated with that characteristic.

METHODOLOGY The telephone survey for this project included demographic questions and several Tapestryrelated questions. Using the demographic questions along with these added Tapestry questions, Responsive Management was able to test whether the Tapestry Segmentation system as it applies to lapsed hunters is a valid and useful tool in tailoring marketing messages. Responsive Management determined the top 13 Tapestry segments in a large sample of lapsed Virginia hunters, which can be assumed to approximate lapsed hunters overall in Virginia. The research team then extracted from that large sample a smaller sample of lapsed hunters for the telephone survey and ensured that the smaller sample was reflective of lapsed hunters overall; because the smaller sample matched lapsed hunters overall in this regard, no additional

1 2

ESRI Tapestry Segmentation page: http://www.esri.com/data/esri_data/tapestry.html Ibid.

74

Responsive Management

adjustments to the telephone survey sample were necessary. In short, the sample of lapsed hunters used in the telephone survey matched lapsed hunters as a whole regarding Tapestry segments. Each of these top 13 segments was then reviewed for a variety of factors. (The document used is available at: http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/tapestrysegmentation.pdf). Income, residential area type, and education level for each segment were noted. In addition, certain details from each Tapestry description were also noted, and 20 questions were created pertaining to these details. Respondents were then asked a series of questions to test the validity of these Tapestry descriptions. Finally, results from the survey questions were compared to the details predicted by the Tapestry Segmentation™ system.

DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIOECONOMIC RESULTS Income is a sensitive topic in surveys, with a substantial portion of respondents refusing to answer. Approximately 20% of survey respondents refused to give an approximate annual income in the telephone survey. In general, however, surveyed income information was relatively close to the Tapestry Segmentation™ prediction. For 7 of the 13 segments, median household income of the respondents was within $10,000 of the predicted income for their segment. For the remaining 6 segments, the differences between surveyed median income and predicted income ranged from approximately $10,000 to $22,000. Regarding education levels, ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ gives a fairly accurate assessment of education levels for many segments. The Salt of the Earth segment (Virginia lapsed hunters’ largest segment) is predicted to have about two-fifths of its population having attended some college. This aligns well with the survey results of 41%. In addition, ESRI reports about oneseventh of the population in the Salt of the Earth segment as having a bachelor’s or graduate degree. This is slightly lower than the survey results of 21%. On the other hand, about one-third of Sophisticated Squires (another top Tapestry segment of lapsed hunters in Virginia) are predicted to have a bachelor’s or graduate degree, with an additional one-third having attended college. In the telephone survey results, only 23% of lapsed hunters in this segment possess a bachelor’s or graduate degree, although an additional 32% have some college experience without having earned a bachelor’s degree. In general, education levels in the survey data appear to be fairly close to the predicted Tapestry segment.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

75

The Tapestry Segmentation™ system uses 11 categories to describe how urban or rural an area is; the telephone survey used 4 categories. Therefore, the 11 Tapestry categories were categorized into the 4 categories used by the survey. The analysis found that the telephone survey results closely match the Tapestry Segmentation™ predictions on this characteristic, thereby validating the Tapestry Segmentation™ system regarding urban-rural residency.

TAPESTRY DETAILS In addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, each Tapestry segment includes a “Preferences” section that is usually a few paragraphs. In the “Preferences” section, a “personal sketch” of individuals in that segment is given. Hobbies, recreational activities, personal interests, and other unique characteristics are given to create a portrait of the population in each Tapestry segment. Responsive Management reviewed the 13 Tapestry segments that predominated in the sample and created questions from common themes found in the “Preferences” sections. These questions covered topics involving: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Reading the Sunday paper Listening to country music or going to country music concerts Watching or listening to auto racing on the TV, radio, or in person Using satellite TV Having four or more TVs in the household Having a high-speed Internet connection Owning a personal computer purchased within the past 2 years Owning a separate freezer Having two or more power tools Owning a riding lawnmower Owning or leasing a American-branded vehicle (e.g., Ford, Chevrolet) Owning a motorcycle Owning a treadmill or stationary bike Completing a home improvement project within the past 2 years Planting or maintaining a flower or vegetable garden within the past 2 years Playing golf within the past 2 years Purchasing something on the telephone or through a catalog within the past 3 months Eating out more on weekends than weekdays Having a life insurance policy Political views held by the respondent

Each question developed to explore the characteristics was asked of all of the respondents within that segment associated with the characteristic and some respondents not in that segment. Rates

76

Responsive Management

of having the characteristic were compared between respondents in that segment versus respondents not in that segment. For all but three characteristics, the differences between the groups (those in the segment versus those not in the segment) were not statistically significant, as shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Tapestry Questions Tapestry Question 1) Sunday paper 2) Country music 3) Auto racing 4) Satellite TV 5) Four or more TVs 6) High speed Internet 7) Personal computer 8) Separate freezer 9) Power tool use 10) Riding lawnmower 11) American-made vehicle 12) Motorcycle ownership 13) Treadmill ownership 14) Home improvement project 15) Garden 16) Golf 17) Catalog or telephone purchase 18) Eating out more on weekends 19) Life insurance 20) Political views
*Denotes being statistically significant

Pearson Chi-Sq. P-Value p = 0.228 p = 0.607 p = 0.544 p < 0.001* p < 0.01* p < 0.01* p = 0.631 p = 0.526 p = 0.365 p = 0.307 p = 0.924 p = 0.246 p = 0.825 p = 0.879 p = 0.585 p = 0.594 p = 0.054 p = 0.321 p = 0.551 p = 0.524

For satellite TV use, ownership of four or more TVs, and having high speed Internet, a correlation exists between the characteristic (as determined in the survey) and the Tapestry segment. As the remaining 17 p-values show, there is not a correlation between a characteristic being mentioned in the Tapestry segment and the prevalence of the characteristic in those people identified as being in that segment. It should be noted that the survey sample included only lapsed hunters and thus may not be representative of that Tapestry segment as a whole.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results CONCLUSION ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ can be a useful tool in identifying certain demographic and socioeconomic data for a region. In the analysis, the predicted information for education,

77

income, and residential area matched fairly well with the survey data. The predicted information did not match most other data in the survey. However, individuals interested in hunter marketing would be wise to use caution when reading the “Preferences” of households living in a given segment. In short, the researchers found little correlation between the preferences given in the Tapestry segment and those of the respondents in the survey, although it is important to note that the Tapestry segments were designed from data that included the entire U.S. population and not solely hunters. Nonetheless, as the preeminent marketing segmentation system, ESRI’s Tapestry Segmentation™ is increasingly being used by fish and wildlife departments to market to hunters and anglers. Users should be aware of the strengths and limitations of Tapestry Segmentation™ when tailoring their messages to the desired audience.

78

Responsive Management

AN EXAMINATION OF TARGET MARKETS
As part of the analysis, Responsive Management explored potential target markets of lapsed hunters. Two questions in particular were examined to help characterize those hunters who could be persuaded to buy a Virginia hunting license. The first question was the number of previous seasons the respondent had bought a hunting license. The question asked each respondent to indicate all of the previous four hunting seasons in which he/she had purchased a Virginia hunting license. The results of the question were then simplified to show how many of the previous four seasons before 2008-2009 the respondent had purchased a license. Respondents were then grouped into one of two groups: those who had purchased a license 1 or 2 years in the past 4 years and those who had purchased a license 3 or 4 years in the past 4 years. The second question of interest was the likelihood of purchasing a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license. Respondents could answer “Very likely,” “Somewhat likely,” “Not at all likely,” or “Don’t know.” The “Don’t know” respondents were eliminated, and the remaining three selections were examined in a nonparametric analysis to see if the groups that gave that particular answer were closely associated with any demographic characteristics. In that nonparametric analysis, z-score testing revealed an association between the group that purchased licenses only 1 or 2 years and the group answering “Not at all likely” to purchasing a 2009-2010 Virginia hunting license (p < 0.01). On the other hand, hunters who had purchased licenses 3 or 4 years were associated with answering “Very likely” to purchasing a 2009-2010 license (p < 0.01). This suggests that lapsed hunters who have lapsed only once (i.e., have missed only one season) are more likely to “re-enter the fold” and purchase another license, relative to those lapsed hunters who have missed more seasons. Conversely, after several years of not hunting, it appears to become more difficult to convince lapsed hunters to purchase a license and start hunting again. Respondents who purchased a license only in 1 or 2 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 were positively associated with having children (p < 0.05). Those respondents who had children were positively associated with answering “Strongly” or “Moderately” to the question that asked if not having enough time took away from hunting enjoyment (p < 0.05).

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

79

Respondents who hunted 3 or 4 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 had a positive association with having no children (p < 0.05). In addition, this group had positive associations with four messages (p < 0.05 for each one): • • • • Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat.

Finally, those who hunted 3 or 4 of the 4 years before 2008-2009 had a positive association with the Exurbanites Tapestry segment (p < 0.01). Respondents who reported being “Very likely” to buy a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season had positive associations with 16 hunter messages (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting - it's our nature. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia.

In addition, respondents who reported being “Very likely” to buy a hunting license for the 2009-2010 season were more likely to be in the Heartland Communities Tapestry (p < 0.05) and to have hunted in 3 or 4 of the seasons before 2008-2009 (p < 0.01). Respondents who answered that they were “Somewhat likely” to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license were positively associated with the education level “Some college or an associate’s degree” (p < 0.05). This was the only association for this group.

80

Responsive Management

Respondents who answered that they were “Not at all likely” to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license had several associations. They were strongly associated with having at most a high school diploma (p < 0.01). In addition, they were positively associated with having a household income of less than $40,000 per year (p < 0.05). They were also associated with the Salt of the Earth Tapestry (p < 0.05). As mentioned before, this group of respondents was also positively associated with having purchased a Virginia hunting license only 1 or 2 years in the 4 years preceding the 2008-2009 season (p < 0.01).

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

81

A DISCUSSION OF THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE TELEPHONE SURVEY RESULTS ON COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES
A final part of this report discusses some of the implications of the survey research regarding marketing messages. (Many of the graphs that pertain to this section were previously shown but are reproduced in this section for the reader’s convenience.) The data suggest the following:

DO consider using the top three messages (or variations of the messages using similar themes, phrases, and words) rated by respondents as very or somewhat effective at getting them to buy a hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not. These three messages were the top three messages among those rated very effective, as well as the top three messages (ranked in a slightly different order) when ratings of very and somewhat effective were combined, and they were at the bottom of the ranking by not at all effective (Figures 56, 57, and 58). • • • Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Hunting – protect the heritage, protect the environment. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience.

DO use messages and outreach materials that incorporate the “passing on the hunting heritage” theme. All of the top three messages rated as very or somewhat effective overall (discussed above) pertain to the “passing on the hunting heritage” theme. Two of the top three messages focus on the hunting heritage, and the third is a “blended theme” message that combines the hunting heritage theme with a conservation theme. Furthermore, when asked about message themes (i.e., the series of questions about things that would make lapsed hunters likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license), respondents’ top message theme was “being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country” (this was the top item that respondents indicated would make them very or somewhat likely to purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year they otherwise might not) (Figure 59). Finally, “heritage” ranked eighth among words and phrases with which respondents said they had a positive association regarding hunting (Figure 60).

82

Responsive Management

Figure 56. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown)

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be very effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today.

54 54 50 47 46 46 45 44 44 42 42 42 40 40 39 39 38 38 37 37 36 34 33 32 30 26 25 25 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

83

Figure 57. Messages That Would Be Very or Somewhat Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown)

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be very or somewhat effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat.

86 84 84 83 83 82 82 82 81 80 80 78 78 76 76 76 75 75 75 74 73 73 72 68 66 64 61 52 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

84

Responsive Management

Figure 58. Messages That Would Be Not at All Effective at Encouraging License Purchase (Previously Shown)

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be not at all effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license.
Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience.

43 36 34 33 30 27 25 25 25 23 22 22 21 21 21 21 20 20 19 18 17 17 16 16 15 15 15 12 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 59. Things That Would Be Very or Somewhat Likely to Encourage License Purchase (Previously Shown)

85

Percent who indicated that the following would be very or somewhat likely to make them purchase a Virginia hunting license during a year that they otherwise might not purchase one.
Q100. Being reminded that it is important to continue the hunting heritage of this country Q98. Being reminded that hunting provides an environmentally friendly source of food Q101. Being reminded that hunting helps people learn the value of wildlife and natural resources Q97. Being reminded that purchasing a hunting license helps fund conservation of wildlife Q102. Being reminded that hunting helps people relax Q103. Being reminded that hunting helps people connect with nature Q107. Being reminded about the thrill or excitement you get from hunting Q108. If a family hunting license was available in Virginia Q96. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of wildlife Q106. Being reminded that you can bond with family and friends Q104. Being reminded that hunting is peaceful Q109. Being able to attend an outdoors show free with the purchase of your Virginia hunting license Q93. Having more specific information about hunting opportunities in Virginia made available Q105. Being reminded that hunting is important to your family Q95. Being reminded that hunting is important for the conservation of land and natural resources Q94. Being reminded that hunting is important for wildlife management Q99. Being reminded that you can hunt elk in Virginia Q110. Receiving a reminder about when hunting seasons for specific species will start Q111. Receiving a reminder to purchase your license

78 73 71 70 69 65 64 64 62 62 61 60 56 53 52 47 46 46 38 0 20 40 60 80 100
Grey bars = actions that state would take Black bars = relate to the respondent being informed

Percent

86

Responsive Management

Figure 60. Word and Phrase Associations With Hunting (Previously Shown)

Percent who indicated that the following had a positive / neutral / negative association with hunting.
(Numbers show percentage saying positive association and negative association.)

Q141. Connect to nature Q140. Quality time Q147. Fun Q139. Get away from it all Q129. Relaxing Q146. Memories Q148. Excitement Q122. Heritage Q151. Healthy Q125. Conservation Q119. Family Q128. Friends Q130. Tradition Q133. Outdoor lifestyle Q120. Active Q123. Natural Q138. Peaceful Q150. Wildlife management Q126. Environmentally friendly Q116. Conserve Q117. Environment Q144. Protect Q134. Conservation funding Q131. Stewardship Q132. Manage Q143. Preserve Q121. Thrill Q124. Quality Q149. Escape Q142. The basics Q118. Economical Q137. Roots Q127. Inexpensive Q135. Organic Q136. Investment Q145. Expensive

96 94 94 93 92 91 91 90 89 88 87 87 85 85 84 84 83 83 82 80 79 79 77 76 75 75 74 74 71 68 59 58 48 47 43 21 41

0 0 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 5 5 3 3 5 5 1 6 2 5 4 16 10 9

Positive Neutral Negative

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results DO use the words, phrases, and concepts of “connect,” “share,” “make memories,” and “heritage.” These terms were used frequently in the top nine messages rated as being very or

87

somewhat effective (Figure 57). All messages that used the word “connect” were in the top nine messages, regardless of whether the concept referred to making connections with nature or with family and friends. The phrase “connect to nature” was the top-ranked term among words and phrases that respondents indicated as having a positive association with hunting; the word “memories” ranked sixth (Figure 60). Also note that the message that ranked fourth overall as very effective, “Connect to nature, hunt Virginia,” was the top-ranked message as being very effective among those who indicated they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license (Figure 61). Furthermore, those who indicated that they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license had three messages ranked among the top six in the rating by very effective that used the word “connect” (also Figure 61). Another message among the top few messages used the phrase “make memories.” Note, however, that the word, “tradition,” did not appear to be as effective as the other words and phrases that were related to the hunting heritage. “Tradition” ranked lower on the list of words and phrases with positive associations, and messages using the word “tradition” were not rated as high in effectiveness as were messages using the terms “connect,” “share,” “make memories,” and “heritage.” DON’T use the term “environment” or other words, phrases, and concepts related to the theme of “environmentally friendly,” “eco-friendly,” or “going green” unless it is blended or used with another theme (other than the direct “buy a license” theme), such as the hunting heritage theme. Although one of the top messages overall uses the word “environment,” its concept of protecting the environment is blended with the hunting heritage theme. All three messages pertaining only to the “environmental impact of hunting” theme— essentially an “environmentally friendly” or “going green” theme—ranked quite low in the very or somewhat effective ratings and were in the top messages rated not at all effective (Figures 57 and 58). Also note that the blended messages that ranked high did not have a strong “going green” message, but rather an appeal to protect the environment that did not use common “going green” terms that were used in the low-ranked messages, such as “natural,” “organic,” and “local.”

88

Responsive Management

Figure 61. Messages That Would Be Very Effective at Encouraging License Purchase Crosstabulated by Not Likely To Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License

Percent who indicated that the following messages would be very effective at getting them to buy a Virginia hunting license. (Among those not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license.)
Q178. Connect to nature, hunt Virginia. Q160. Make memories. Take someone special hunting. Q167. Buy a license, take a friend, make memories. Q170. Hunting - protect the heritage, protect the environment. Q180. Hunting connects family and friends. Q183. Connect with nature, connect with family. Hunt Virginia. Q174. Hunting bonds family. Share the experience. Q166. Life is short. Break free and go hunting. Q172. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help conserve wildlife. Q165. Buy your license, help conserve habitat. Q168. Unwind the time, hunt Virginia. Q179. Purchase a Virginia hunting license and help manage wildlife. Q169. Hunting provides healthy, organic meat, no hormones or chemicals. Q159. Hunters, the original stewards of the land. Q162. Hunting is a source of quality, naturally replenished food. Q163. Hunting - big game, big fun, big benefits. Hunt Virginia. Buy your license. Q173. Need a break? Peace awaits you in Virginia's outdoors. Go hunting. Q177. Hunting - make memories, fund conservation. Buy a license. Q181. Hunting - pass on the tradition. It starts with a license. Q171. Hunting - it's our nature. Q182. Big/small game, big fun. Hunt Virginia. Q164. Hunting is an investment with many returns. Q184. Life is short, don't miss the hunting season. Buy your license today. Q157. Get outside, hunt Virginia. Only a license away. Q175. Hunting season only comes once a year - don't miss it. Q158. Buy your license, help conserve the environment. Q161. Buy your license today, plan your trip today. Visit www.dgif.virginia.gov/hunting. Q176. Hunt Virginia and reduce your carbon footprint with a local, organic source of meat.

52 45 45 45 45 45 42 40 39 38 37 35 34 33 33 33 33 33 33 32 32 31 27 26 26 20 20 20 0 20 40 60 Percent 80 100

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results DON’T use the term “conserve” without being specific about what is being conserved.

89

Conserving the “environment” is too general or broad; specify conservation of wildlife, habitat, etc. Two of the three messages pertaining to the “conservation/appreciation of the natural world” theme were among the top dozen messages rated as very effective (Figure 56). The conservation-themed message that resonated the best was “Buy your license, help conserve habitat.” The nearly identical conservation-themed message, “Buy your license, help conserve the environment,” did not rank as high and was not among the top dozen messages rated very effective. For the two nearly identical messages pertaining to the “monetary contribution of hunters to conservation and wildlife management” theme, the one using the word “conserve” ranked higher than the one using the word “manage.” Messages with direct “buy a license” statements also ranked high when blended with a conservation theme. It appears that “conserve” is a preferred word or concept, but that messages that specify what is being conserved, such as wildlife or habitat, may be more effective among lapsed hunters than more general or broad concepts like “the environment.”

DO use messages and outreach materials that appeal to passing on the hunting heritage, connecting, making memories, and bonding with someone special, but be non-specific (e.g., someone special) or all inclusive (e.g., friends and family) regarding who “someone special” is (see next “DON’T”). DON’T make family the primary or central person/people in messages and campaign materials that appeal to passing on the hunting heritage, connecting, making memories, and bonding. Lapsed hunters most commonly hunt with friends, followed by alone. Male family members were common hunting companions, but still less typical than friends and alone. Also note that over half (58%) of lapsed hunters in Virginia do not have children in the household. Although the age distribution indicates that the slight majority who do not have children in the household may likely be due to their children being grown, their absence may still contribute to the higher likelihood of friends being hunting companions rather than family members. Additionally, those messages that specifically mention “someone special,” “a friend,” and “family and friends” all ranked higher (by a few percentage points) in the top seven messages rated as very effective by those who indicated they are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license than the message that mentions only family (Figure 61).

90

Responsive Management

DON’T focus predominantly on time constraints and obligations that interfere with hunting. These factors are, for the most part, beyond the control of the VDGIF. Additionally, all four messages with a “time factor” theme ranked fairly low among messages rated as very or somewhat effective among respondents overall; three of the four “time factor” messages ranked in the top dozen messages rated as not at all effective (Figures 57 and 58).

DO address availability and quality of hunting opportunities on public land in messages and outreach materials. Also consider focusing some Department resources, if necessary, on improving hunting opportunities on public lands (e.g., acquiring more land, adjusting regulations, attempting to reduce crowding). Having hunted on private land was the top reason given for not purchasing a 2008-2009 hunting license (Figure 62), and about a third (30%) of those who indicated that they are not at all likely to buy a 2009-2010 license said that they are not at all likely to do so because they will hunt on private land (Figure 63). Nearly half of all lapsed hunters—this percentage is about the same for both those who indicated they are likely to purchase or have already purchased a 2009-2010 hunting license and those who are not at all likely to purchase a 2009-2010 hunting license—hunted on private land during the 2008-2009 season (Figure 64). Finally, not having enough places to hunt and not having enough access to places to hunt were among the top four factors that strongly took away from lapsed hunters’ enjoyment of hunting in Virginia (Figure 65). It may even be an effective message approach to associate hunting on public land with the hunting heritage, the latter being the most popular message theme.

DON’T use “buy a license” as the primary or dominant theme in messages and campaign materials. Many direct “buy a license” messages were not popular. The direct “buy a license” message appears to be more effective when used in conjunction with the words “conserve” or “conservation”: the 3 messages with a direct “buy a license” statement that were among the top 12 messages rated as very or somewhat effective associated buying a license with the concept of conservation (Figure 57). Note, however, that receiving a reminder to purchase a license was the top item rated not at all likely to make respondents purchase a license during a year in which they otherwise might not.

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 62. Most Important Reasons for Not Purchasing a 2008-2009 Hunting License (Previously Shown)

91

Q82/85/88/89/90. Thinking about the list of factors I just read to you, what are the most important reasons you did not buy a 2008-2009 Virginia hunting license?
Hunted on private land Don't have time Work obligations Family obligations Personal health The costs of licenses Not enough places to hunt

25 25 17 11 11 8 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

Multiple Responses Allowed

Concern about causing pain to animals Not interested Have other interests that are more important The cost of hunting equipment Not enough access to places to hunt Not having anyone to go with Hunted outside of Virginia Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Complex regulations Poor behavior of other hunters Not enough game Bag limits or season lengths Not enough trophy game Fear of injury by another hunter Having to travel too far to hunt Not enough big bucks

Percent

92

Responsive Management

Figure 63. Reasons for Not Planning to Purchase a 2009-2010 Hunting License (Previously Shown)

Q190/193/196. Why are you not at all likely to buy a 2009-2010 license? (Among those not likely to buy a license.)
Will hunt on private land Personal health Not interested Don't have time Family obligations Work obligations The costs of licenses

30 15 13 12 7 7 6 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 100

Multiple Responses Allowed

Will hunt outside of Virginia Not enough places to hunt Have other interests that are more important Bag limits or season lengths Not enough access to places to hunt Not having anyone to go with The cost of hunting equipment Not enough game Poor behavior of other hunters Fear of injury by another hunter Mandatory hunter education requirements Think hunting may be wrong Other costs related to hunting Other people's negative opinions of hunting Complex regulations

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results Figure 64. Hunting on Private Land Crosstabulated by Likelihood To Purchase Hunting License

93

Q16. Did you hunt on private land in Virginia during the 2008-2009 season?

46 Yes 47

52 No 52

1 Don't know 1

Very or somewhat likely, or already purchased license Not at all likely

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent (n=773)

94

Responsive Management

Figure 65. Things That Strongly Took Away From Hunting Enjoyment (Previously Shown)

Percent who indicated that the following strongly took away from their enjoyment of hunting.
Q51. Not having time Q53. Work obligations Q58. Not having enough places to hunt Q59. Not having enough access to places to hunt Q54. Family obligations Q64. Costs of licenses Q50. Having other interests that are more important Q55. Personal health issues Q56. Poor behavior of other hunters Q63. Cost of hunting equipment Q72. Pollution or litter Q65. Other costs related to hunting, such as gas and lodging Q73. Not enough game Q79. Not enough big bucks Q75. Complex regulations Q62. Having to travel too far to hunt Q70. Having too many hunters in the field Q76. Bag limits or season lengths Q57. Poor behavior of other recreationists Q60. Not having anyone to go with Q61. Fear of injury by another hunter Q68. Not having enough law enforcement officers Q78. Not enough trophy game Q66. Other people's negative opinions of hunting Q67. Harassment by anti-hunters Q74. Concern about causing pain to animals Q52. Not being interested Q77. Mandatory hunter education requirements Q48. Lack skills Q69. Not wanting to kill animals Q71. Concern that hunting might endanger animal populations Q49. Thinking hunting may be wrong

31 27 20 20 18 14 12 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Percent

Lapsed Hunter Message Testing: Telephone Survey Results

95

ABOUT RESPONSIVE MANAGEMENT
Responsive Management is a nationally recognized public opinion and attitude survey research firm specializing in natural resource and outdoor recreation issues. Its mission is to help natural resource and outdoor recreation agencies and organizations better understand and work with their constituents, customers, and the public. Utilizing its in-house, full-service, computer-assisted telephone and mail survey center with 45 professional interviewers, Responsive Management has conducted more than 1,000 telephone surveys, mail surveys, personal interviews, and focus groups, as well as numerous marketing and communications plans, need assessments, and program evaluations on natural resource and outdoor recreation issues. Clients include most of the federal and state natural resource, outdoor recreation, and environmental agencies, and most of the top conservation organizations. Responsive Management also collects attitude and opinion data for many of the nation’s top universities, including the University of Southern California, Virginia Tech, Colorado State University, Auburn, Texas Tech, the University of California—Davis, Michigan State University, the University of Florida, North Carolina State University, Penn State, West Virginia University, and others. Among the wide range of work Responsive Management has completed during the past 20 years are studies on how the general population values natural resources and outdoor recreation, and their opinions on and attitudes toward an array of natural resource-related issues. Responsive Management has conducted dozens of studies of selected groups of outdoor recreationists, including anglers, boaters, hunters, wildlife watchers, birdwatchers, park visitors, historic site visitors, hikers, and campers, as well as selected groups within the general population, such as landowners, farmers, urban and rural residents, women, senior citizens, children, Hispanics, Asians, and African-Americans. Responsive Management has conducted studies on environmental education, endangered species, waterfowl, wetlands, water quality, and the reintroduction of numerous species such as wolves, grizzly bears, the California condor, and the Florida panther.

96

Responsive Management

Responsive Management has conducted research on numerous natural resource ballot initiatives and referenda and helped agencies and organizations find alternative funding and increase their memberships and donations. Responsive Management has conducted major agency and organizational program needs assessments and helped develop more effective programs based upon a solid foundation of fact. Responsive Management has developed websites for natural resource organizations, conducted training workshops on the human dimensions of natural resources, and presented numerous studies each year in presentations and as keynote speakers at major natural resource, outdoor recreation, conservation, and environmental conferences and meetings. Responsive Management has conducted research on public attitudes toward natural resources and outdoor recreation in almost every state in the United States, as well as in Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan. Responsive Management routinely conducts surveys in Spanish and has also conducted surveys and focus groups in Chinese, Korean, Japanese, and Vietnamese. Responsive Management’s research has been featured in most of the nation’s major media, including CNN, ESPN, The Washington Times, The New York Times, Newsweek, The Wall Street Journal, and on the front pages of The Washington Post and USA Today. Visit the Responsive Management website at: www.responsivemanagement.com

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful