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VALVES AND PENSTOCKS GENERAL All equipment and materials shall be of the highest quality from an approved manufacturer

whose products have proved reliable in service in similar installations. Flanges on valves are to be fully faced drilled and rated in accordance with the relevant Standards. Back faces shall be fully machined or spot faced for nuts and washers. The whole of the works and materials shall comply with: ISO 2531 Circular flanges for pipes, valves and fittings (PN designated) EN 1171 Industrial valves - Cast iron gate valves EN 1984 Industrial valves - Steel gate valves BS 5151 Cast iron (parallel slide) valves for general purposes BS 5163 Valves for waterworks purposes EN 12334 Industrial valves - Cast iron check valves BS 5158 Cast iron plug valves BS 5159 Cast iron and carbon steel ball valves for general purposes. Spheroidal graphite iron to EN 1563 may be used as an alternative to cast iron for waterworks purpose valves to BS 5163 Penstocks, valves and actuators (where fitted) shall be designed and manufactured to ensure satisfactory operation where reliability of service and safe inspection and maintenance are the prime considerations. Penstocks and valves, other than those operated by Tee key shall have rising spindles, except where otherwise specified. All penstocks and valves above DN150 shall be fitted with jacking bolts. All faces shall be fully seating. Penstocks shall be mounted with spindles vertical. All valves and penstocks shall be pressure tested in accordance with the appropriate Standard or pressure rating to which they are manufactured. All valves and penstocks shall be capable of withstanding the same test pressures as the pipeline on which they operate (i.e. 150 % times the maximum working pressure). Where necessary, valves and penstocks shall be fitted with extension spindles or universal joint operating rods and headstock or spindle caps as appropriate. All valves and penstocks arranged for keyway operation shall be supplied with the necessary cast iron surface boxes. The valves and penstocks shall be carefully selected for the duties to be performed, due regard being paid to the fluid being conveyed, climatic conditions and operating temperatures and pressures, and shall be suitably protected internally against corrosion.

All valves larger than DN50 shall have flanged construction with flanges to ISO 2531, full faced and pin-bitted. Sewage valves larger than DN125 shall be provided with a suitable drain plug on the valve body. Where electric actuators are fitted on to valves or penstocks they shall be preassembled and tested in the valve manufacturer's works with all necessary limit switches and other devices preset before delivery to site. Valves incorporated in the delivery pipework shall be sized such that maximum velocities do not exceed 2.5 m/s. Each pump delivery pipe shall incorporate gate type isolating valves and a check valve. The working pressure rating of valves shall be suitable for 120% of the maximum pressure that can be developed by the pump in the pipework system plus the maximum pressure at the pump inlet. Gland packing shall be entirely suitable for use in conditions in the country of use. Valves shall generally be gate valves. Globe valves shall be used when throttling is required. Other kind of valves may be used where required or specified. Valves having extended operating shafts shall be provided with all necessary lubricated support brackets for the shaft extensions. Gate, globe, lift and swing check valves for general use and butterfly, tilting check valve, ball valve, etc. shall be in accordance with manufacturer's standard, but face to face dimension and end flange dimension shall conform to those for same class valves in prescribed standards as much as possible. The machine faces of flanges shall be coated with a suitable protective composition in order to prevent their being affected by corrosion. VALVE OPERATION Each valve shall be fitted with a handwheel and headstock and shall be suitable for operation by one man against the maximum working head. Valves shall be geared if necessary to permit this and shall CLOSE by CLOCKWISE operation of the handwheel. Handwheels shall be readily removable. The position of valve handwheels and operating gear shall be carefully arranged so as to afford easy operation from the adjacent floor or platform level. Gate valves shall be provided with pressure equalising by-pass with a globe type by-pass valve, when a differential pressure approximately equal to the pressure rating of the valve at the operating temperature may exist at the valve shut condition, and cannot otherwise be equalised in normal operation and start-up.

Gear operations shall be provided in the following sizes and larger, unless otherwise specified: CLASS GATE GLOBE BALL BUTTERFLY PN6 PN16 PN64 350mm 300mm 250mm 300mm 250mm 200mm 200mm 200mm 200mm 200mm 150mm Where gearing is required for operation, the gears shall be machine cut and shall be fully enclosed with external greasing points. PENSTOCKS All penstocks shall be flat backed and shall close by clockwise rotation of the operating stem and shall have clear indication of opening and closing cast into the operating handwheel or lever. Where stated operating stems shall be suitable of fitting of electrically operated actuators by others. Equipment in which the direction of flow is important shall have clear indication of low direction cast into the body. A permanent metal label shall be fitted to every handwheel and penstock. This shall indicate clearly the function and reference number, which details shall be agreed with the Engineer. Suitable fixings shall be provided to allow the handwheel of any penstock to be securely locked in any position. Cast iron penstocks and cast iron penstocks with plastic/rubber seals shall be constructed and installed such that they are capable of withstanding the impact of floating debris in wastewater. Composite plastics shall only be used on screened wastewater applications. Channel mounted penstocks shall be constructed to suit the channel profile and where practicable shall have flush inverts. Cast Iron penstocks shall be capable of sustaining differential pressures (in either on- or off-seating directions) of in excess of 6m head of water with a maximum leakage rate of 30 litres per hour per linear metre of sealed perimeter. Frame and gate shall be cast iron to BS 1452, with gunmetal sealing

faces to BS 1400. Spindles and all fixings, bolts, pins and screws shall be stainless steel to BS 970, except for those retaining gunmetal faces which shall be of non-ferrous materials. Operating cams shall be bronze or other approved non-ferrous materials. Construction and installation shall be such that galvanic corrosion is prevented. Cast Iron penstocks with plastic/rubber sealing faces shall be capable of sustaining differential pressures (in either on- or off-seating directions) of in excess of 4m head of water with a maximum leakage rate of 20 litres per hour per linear metre of sealed perimeter. Frame and gate shall be cast iron to BS 1452, with nitrile rubber and/or plastic sealing faces. Spindles and all fixings, bolts, pins and screws shall be stainless steel to BS 970. Operating cams shall be bronze or other approved non-ferrous materials. Construction and installation shall be such that galvanic corrosion is prevented. Composite Plastic Gate Penstocks shall be capable of sustaining differential pressures (in either on- or off-seating directions) of in excess of 3m head of water with a maximum leakage rate of 20 litres per hour per linear metre of sealed perimeter. Frames shall be mild steel and gates shall be mild steel and plastic. Spindles and all fixings, bolts, pins and screws shall be stainless steel to BS 970. Operating cams where fitted shall be bronze or other approved nonferrous materials. Construction and installation shall be such that galvanic corrosion is prevented. 3870GATE VALVES Gate valves of 50mm to 600mm size shall comply with BS 5163. Gate valves over 600mm size shall be in accordance with BS 5151 and shall be of approved design and manufacture. SEWAGE KNIFE GATE VALVES Knife gate valves shall be used for sludge duties. The spindle shall be rising and the spindle nut and all moving parts other than the gate shall be external to the valve body. BUTTERFLY VALVES Butterfly valves shall comply with the latest Standards and shall be of the drop tight closure, wafer type of the appropriate class with horizontal spindles. The valves shall have cast iron body and disc and removable neoprene or nitrile rubber sealing faces. Means of slinging shall be provided where necessary. CHECK VALVES All check valves complying with the latest Standards shall be of the recoil Page Break type designed to close rapidly without shock. The valves shall have a cast iron body to the latest Standard, and gunmetal sealing faces to the latest Standards. The valve covers shall be of ample size to allow clear access to the valve seats when the valve is fully open, and each valve shall be fitted with a bypass and isolating valve.

Each check valve shall have the direction of flow, nominal pressure rating and size cast or stamped onto the body. Sewage check valves shall be "swing check" single disc type, manufactured to EN 12334 and capable of passing a 100mm diameter sphere. The valve and valve seats shall be shock resistant and suitable for repeated operation. Where stated in the Particular Specification an extended hinge pin shall be provided on which a lever arm, counterbalance weight and proximity sensor cam shall be attached. The cam shall operate a single pole changeover proximity sensor rated 5A/240V with an adjustable operating arm and roller. Check valves of 50mm and over shall be furnished with a boss on the downstream side of the check valve when the wall thickness is not sufficient to permit a drain connection to be drilled and tapped in the field. AIR RELIEF VALVES Air relief valves shall be of the double orifice pattern with grey or ductile cast iron bodies. They shall be with small orifice valve, rubber balls, brass air vent orifices, gun metal nipple, screw down valve and seats, and operating screw. The valves shall have a nominal working pressure of PN 10. Air relief valves for use with sewage shall be of sewage pattern and shall be designed such that fluid is contained within the lower chamber and cannot come into contact with the sealing face(s). Each air relief valve will be provided with a separation valve. FOOT VALVES The foot valves fitted to the suction pipes of the pumps shall be of a full type with high hydraulic efficiency. The foot valves shall be provided with a basket type strainer. The area of the inlet shall be 3 to 5 times the area of the suction pipe. SPINDLES Spindles shall be provided in one piece whenever practicable. Where sectionalised spindles are unavoidable they shall have a minimum number of couplings consistent with an unsupported maximum spindle length of 2.00m. Exposed couplings which are likely to be submerged shall be either shrouded or designed to prevent debris collecting on them. Couplings shall be of stainless steel allowing adequate adjustment tolerances to permit spindle alignment. Spindle nuts, collars and guide brackets shall be securely located, with easy and safe access to lubrication points. Lubrication shall require refreshment/replacement at intervals less than six months. POSITION INDICATOR

Rising spindle penstocks and valves shall be fitted with a graduated transparent plastic cover over the spindle. The plastic shall be resistant to discoloration or opacity caused by UV light. Non-rising spindle penstocks and valves (where permitted) shall have an indicator (slot and pointer) integral with the support pillar. Non-rising spindle penstocks and valves (where permitted) without support pillars shall have a suitable indicator incorporated into the body. HYDRANTS Fire hydrants shall be aboveground type, frost proof and comply with the requirements of the Fire Fighting Authority and STAS 3479. The inlet shall be flanged, diameter DN 80. The hydrant shall be supplied with a duck foot bend, gate valve with telescopic extension spindle and spindle cover. The dimension of connecting flanges shall be in accordance with ISO 7005-2 or DIN 2501 and pressure class PN 10. The hydrant shall be provided with a system for automatic drainage of the inside after use. The material of the body, bonnet, obturator body and driving bonnet shall be cast iron in accordance with DIN 1691. Seat ring shall be manufactured from copper alloy and the hose connection of the hydrant from aluminium. All inside and outside surfaces (except for rubber, stainless steel or bronze) shall be coated with epoxy powder paint with a thickness of 250 micron. WATER METRES Water metres shall be provided for the measurement of drinking water domestic consumption. They shall be manufactured in accordance with ISO and shall have a pattern approval from the Romanian Office for Legal Metrology. They shall be of class B accuracy, suitable for installation in horizontal position.. The body shall be made of brass with threaded ends and an embossed arrow indicating the flow direction. All metres shall be provided with screw caps and stud at both ends. The totalizer shall be extra-dry, with a resistant lid and protected against condensation, 360 orientable on site, with eight digits index - five for m and three for litres. The display must ensure an easy and without ambiguity reading of water volume and serial number, even on a reading angle of 45 . The meter shall have a magnetic protection system and an internal reverse flow restrictor with a maximum pressure loss of 0.5 bar at Qmax. The meter shall have protective devices which can be sealed in such way that, after sealing, both before and after the water meter has been correctly installed, there is no possibility of dismantling, or altering the water meter, or its adjustment device without evident damage to the protective device or seal. Any external calibration device to the meter shall be concealed.

Metrological performances shall be as follows: Nominal Flow 6 m/h Maximum Flow 12 m/h Starting Flow 10 l/h Minimum Flow 120 l/h Transition Flow 480 l/h Nominal pressure 16 bar Pressure loss at Qn 0,25 bar Pressure loss at Qmax 1 bar Test pressure 25 bar Smallest reading 0,05 bar Maximum index value 105 bar Maximum working temperature 30 C Maximum accidental temperature 50 C FROST PROTECTION All pipework susceptible to freezing shall be trace heated, thermally insulated and clad for frost protection. Where proven by calculation to be satisfactory and agreed by the Engineer, trace heating may be omitted from a frost protection system.