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Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, water and chemical admixtures. Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating robust stone-like material. Concrete is by far the most widely used construction material today. Concrete is used more than any other manmade material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic meters of concrete are made each year more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth. It is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural structures, foundations, motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls, footings for gates, fences and poles and even boats. Its success and popularity may be largely attributed to (1) durability under hostile environment (2) ease with which it can be cast into a variety of shapes and sizes, and (3) its relative economy and easy availability. The main strength of concrete lies in its compression bearing ability, which surpasses that of traditional material like brick and stone masonry. Concrete is remarkably strong in compression, but it is equally remarkably weak in tension. Its tensile strength is approximately one tenth of compressive strength. Due to this, concrete is weak in bending, shear and torsion. Hence the use of plain concrete is limited to applications where great compressive strength and weight are principal requirements and where tensile stresses are either totally absent or are extremely low. However, to use cement concrete for common structures such as beams, slab, retaining wall etc; steel bars may be place at tensile zone of the structure which may be concrete, take the tensile stresses. The concrete so obtained is termed as reinforcement cement concrete, commonly abbreviated as R.C.C. Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and precast concrete are the most widely used types of concrete in modern days.
FIG: 1.1. Largest –man made-island PALM DEIRA Of DUBAI Egyptian pyramids were constructed by concrete, but this type of concrete might have some different composition. Roman concrete was made from quick –lime, pozolana and an aggregate of pumice concrete, as the Roman‘s knew, it was new and revolutionary materials, laid in the shape of arches, vaults and domes of the internal rusts and strain. Modern structural concrete differs from Roman‘s concrete into two important details: First, its mixed consistency is fluid and homogenous and it is to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand layering together with the placement of aggregate which in Roman, often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steels gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension ,whereas Roman concrete could depends only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist the tension. A Drexel University professor has determined that the Great Pyramids of Giza are constructed with a combination of not only carved stones but the first blocks of limestone-based concrete cast by any civilization.
FIG: 1.2.The Great Pyramids One of the ultimate aims of studying the various properties of the materials of concrete, plastic concrete and hardened concrete is to enable a concrete technologist to design a concrete mix of particular strength. The design of concrete mix is not a simple task on account of the widely varying properties of the constituent materials, the condition that prevails at the site of work for which the mix is designed. Thus mix design can be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible. The purpose of designing as can be seen from the above definitions is twofold. The first object is to achieve the stipulated minimum strength. The second object is to make the concrete in the most economical manner. The relationship between aggregate and paste are the two essential ingredients of concrete. Workability of mass is provided by the lubricating effect of the paste and is influenced by the amount of dilution of paste. The strength of concrete is limited by the amount of dilution of paste, since little water flows through aggregate either under pressure or by the capillarity. Further, the predominant contribution to drying shrinkage of concrete is that of paste. Since the properties of the concrete are governed to a considerable extent by the paste, it is helpful to consider more closely the structure of the paste. The fresh paste is a suspension, not a solution of cement and water. The more dilute the paste, the greater the spacing between cement particles, and thus the weaker will be the ultimate paste structure. The other conditions being equal, for workable mixes, the strength of concrete varies as an inverse function of the water–cement ratio. Since
the quantity of water required also depends upon amount of paste, it is important that as little paste should be used and hence the importance of grading. Concrete leads to the formation of many worlds‘ great structures. One of them are given below.
FIG: 1.3. BURJ –AL –ARAB
CONSTITUENTS OF CONCRETE
Concrete is a composite of constructing materials, the constituent of concrete are as follows 1. 2. 3. 4. Cement Aggregate Water and Some additive admixture
2.1. PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE:
The properties of concrete depend on the qualities and qualities of its components because cement is the most active components of concrete and usually has the greatest unit cost. Its selection and proper use are important in obtaining most economically the balance of properties cement, which can provide adequate level of strength and durability are the most popular cement used by concrete producers. However, some applications require the use of other cement to provide higher levels of properties. The need for high early strength cement in permanent repairs and the use of blended cement with aggregate susceptible to alkali aggregate reaction re example of such application .Some of the important properties of fresh concrete are - durability, setting, workability, segregation, bleeding, hydration, air entrainment
2.1.1. DURABILITYOF CONCRETE:
Durability is the property of concrete by virtue of which it is capable of resisting its disintegration and decay. The concrete should be durable with proper regard to the various weathering conditions such as atmospheric gases, moisture changes, temperature variations. For durable concrete, water required for reaction is about 25% of the weight of cement. Hence excess water present in concrete later evaporates, leaving voids and pores. These pores or voids are later evaporates leaving voids and pores. These water cement ratio should be small as possible to get a workable mix. A well compacted concrete has less voids and pores and has more durability.
2.1.2. SETTING OF CONCRETE
The hardening of concrete before its hydration is known as setting of concrete. The transition process of changing of concrete from plastic state to hardened state is called setting of concrete. Setting of concrete is based or related to the setting of cement paste. Thus cement
properties greatly affect the setting. The factors that affect the setting of concrete are Water
Cement ratio Water Cement ratio, Suitable temperature, Cement content, Type of Cement, Fineness of Cement, Relative Humidity, Admixtures, Type and amount of Aggregate
2.1.3. WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE:
It is difficult to properly define and measure the workability of concrete, despite its being the most important property. In its simplest form, the term workability may defined as the ease with which concrete may be mixed, handled transported placed in position and compacted. According to IS: 1199, it is defined as the property of concrete which determines the amount of internal work necessary to produce full compaction. The greatest single factor affecting the workability is the amount of water in the mix. A workable concrete does not show any bleeding or segregation. Bleeding of concrete takes place when excess of water in the mix comes up at the surface, causing small pores through the mass of concrete. Segregation is caused when coarse aggregate separate out from the finer materials, resulting in large voids, less durability and less strength. To enable the concrete to be fully compacted with given efforts, normally a higher water cement ratio than that calculated by theoretical consideration may be required the function of water is also to lubricate the concrete so that the concrete can be compacted with specified effort forthcoming at the site of work. The lubrication required for handling concrete without segregation, for placing without loss of homogeneity for compaction with the amount of efforts forthcoming and to finish it sufficiently easily, the presence of a certain quantity of water is of vital importance. The quality of concrete satisfying the above requirements is term as workable concrete. The word ‗workability‘ satisfies much wider and deeper meaning than the other terminology ‗consistency‘. A concrete which has high consistency and which is more mobile need not right workability for particular job. A concrete which is considered workable for mass concrete foundation is not workable for concrete to be used in roof construction. Even in roof construction, concrete considered workable when vibrator is used is not workable when concrete is to be compacted by hand. The comprehensive knowledge of workability is required for designing a mix. Workability is a parameter, a mix designer is required specify in the mix design process, with full understanding of work, distance of transport, loss of slump, method of placing and many other parameter involved. Assumptions of right workability with proper understanding backed by experience will make the concreting operation economical and durable. Some of the factors that affect workability are - Water-Cement ratio, Amount and type of Aggregate, Amount and type of Cement, Weather conditions. Chemical Admixtures, Sand to Aggregate ratio
220.127.116.11. Water content or Water Cement Ratio: More the water cement ratio more will be workability of concrete. Since by simply adding water the inter particle lubrication is increased. High water content results in a higher fluidity and greater workability. Increased water content also results in bleeding. Another effect of increased water content can also be that cement slurry will escape through joints of formwork.
18.104.22.168. Amount and type of Aggregate: More the amount of aggregate less will be workability. Using smooth and round aggregate workability can be increased. Workability reduces if angular and rough aggregate is used. Greater size of Aggregate- less water is required to lubricate it, the extra water is available for workability. If angular aggregates are increased flakiness or elongation thus reduces workability. Round smooth aggregates require less water and less lubrication and
greater workability in a given w/c ratio Porous aggregates require more water compared to non absorbent aggregates for achieving same degree of workability. 22.214.171.124. Aggregate Cement ratio: If aggregate cement ratio is more then less workability. Since less cement mean less water, so the paste is stiff. 126.96.36.199. Weather Conditions: If temperature is high, evaporation increases, thus workability decreases. If wind is moving with greater velocity, the rate of evaporation also increase reduces the amount of water and ultimately reducing workability. 188.8.131.52. Admixtures: Chemical admixtures can be used to increase workability. Use of air entraining agent produces air bubbles which acts as a sort of ball bearing between particles and increases mobility, workability and decreases bleeding, segregation. The use of fine pozzolanic materials also has better lubricating effect and more workability. 184.108.40.206. Sand to Aggregate ratio: If the amount of sand is more the workability will reduce because sand has more surface area and more contact area causing more resistance.
2.1.4. SEGREGATION OF CONCRETE
Segregation can be defined as the separation of the constituent materials of concrete. A good concrete is one in which all the ingredients are properly distributed to make a homogeneous mixture. There are considerable differences in the sizes and specific gravities of the constituent ingredients of concrete. Therefore, it is natural that the materials show a tendency to fall apart. Segregation may be of three types: 1. Coarse aggregate separating out or settling down from the rest of the matrix. 2. Paste separating away from coarse aggregate. 3. Water separating out from the rest of the material being a material of lowest specific gravity. A well made concrete, taking into consideration various parameters such as grading, size, shape and surface texture of aggregate with optimum quantity of waters makes a cohesive mix. Such concrete will not exhibit any tendency for segregation. The cohesive and fatty characteristics of matrix do not allow the aggregate to fall apart, at the same time; the matrix itself is sufficiently contained by the aggregate. Similarly, water also does not find it easy to move out freely from the rest of the ingredients. The conditions favourable for segregation are: 1. Badly proportioned mix where sufficient matrix is not there to bind and contain the aggregates 2. Insufficiently mixed concrete with excess water content 3. Dropping of concrete from heights as in the case of placing concrete in column concreting
4. When concrete is discharged from a badly designed mixer, or from a mixer with worn out blades 5. Conveyance of concrete by conveyor belts, wheel barrow, long distance haul by dumper, long lift by skip and hoist are the other situations promoting segregation of concrete Vibration of concrete is one of the important methods of compaction. It should be remembered that only comparatively dry mix should be vibrated. It too wet a mix is excessively vibrated; it is likely that the concrete gets segregated. It should also be remembered that vibration is continued just for required time for optimum results. If the vibration is continued for a long time, particularly, in too wet a mix, it is likely to result in segregation of concrete due to settlement of coarse aggregate in matrix.
2.1.5 BLEEDING OF CONCRETE
Bleeding in concrete is sometimes referred as water gain. It is a particular form of segregation, in which some of the water from the concrete comes out to the surface of the concrete, being of the lowest specific gravity among all the ingredients of concrete. Bleeding is predominantly observed in a highly wet mix, badly proportioned and insufficiently mixed concrete. In thin members like roof slab or road slabs and when concrete is placed in sunny weather show excessive bleeding. Due to bleeding, water comes up and accumulates at the surface. Sometimes, along with this water, certain quantity of cement also comes to the surface. When the surface is worked up with the trowel, the aggregate goes down and the cement and water come up to the top surface. This formation of cement paste at the surface is known as ―Laitance‖. In such a case, the top surface of slabs and pavements will not have good wearing quality. This laitance formed on roads produces dust in summer and mud in rainy season. Water while traversing from bottom to top, makes continuous channels. If the water cement ratio used is more than 0.7, the bleeding channels will remain continuous and un segmented. These continuous bleeding channels are often responsible for causing permeability of the concrete structures. While the mixing water is in the process of coming up, it may be intercepted by aggregates. The bleeding water is likely to accumulate below the aggregate. This accumulation of water creates water voids and reduces the bond between the aggregates and the paste. The above aspect is more pronounced in the case of flaky aggregate. Similarly, the water that accumulates below the reinforcing bars reduces the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete. The poor bond between the aggregate and the paste or the reinforcement and the paste due to bleeding can be remedied by re vibration of concrete. The formation of laitance and the consequent bad effect can be reduced by delayed finishing operations. Bleeding rate increases with time up to about one hour or so and thereafter the rate decreases but continues more or less till the final setting time of cement. Prevention of Bleeding in concrete can be done
Bleeding can be reduced by proper proportioning and uniform and complete mixing. Use of finely divided pozzolanic materials reduces bleeding by creating a longer path for the water to traverse. Air-entraining agent is very effective in reducing the bleeding. Bleeding can be reduced by the use of finer cement or cement with low alkali content. Rich mixes are less susceptible to bleeding than lean mixes.
The bleeding is not completely harmful if the rate of evaporation of water from the surface is equal to the rate of bleeding. Removal of water, after it had played its role in providing workability, from the body of concrete by way of bleeding will do good to the concrete.Early bleeding when the concrete mass is fully plastic, may not cause much harm, because concrete being in a fully plastic condition at that stage, will get subsided and compacted. It is the delayed bleeding, when the concrete has lost its plasticity, which causes undue harm to the concrete. Controlled re vibration may be adopted to overcome the bad effect of bleeding.
2.1.6 HYDRATION OF CONCRETE
Concrete derives its strength by the hydration of cement particles. The hydration of cement is not a momentary action but a process continuing for long time. Of course, the rate of hydration is fast to start with, but continues over a very long time at a decreasing rate In the field and in actual work, even a higher water/cement ratio is used, since the concrete is open to atmosphere, the water used in the concrete evaporates and the water available in the concrete will not be sufficient for effective hydration to take place particularly in the top layer. If the hydration is to continue, extra water must be added to refill the loss of water on account of absorption and evaporation. Therefore, the curing can be considered as creation of a favourable environment during the early period for uninterrupted hydration. The desirable conditions are, a suitable temperature and ample moisture. Concrete, while hydrating, releases high heat of hydration. This heat is harmful from the point of view of volume stability. Jeat of hydration of concrete may also shrinkage in concrete, thus producing cracks. If the heat generated is removed by some means, the adverse effect due to the generation of heat can be reduced. This can be done by a thorough water curing.
2.1.7 Air Entrainment
Air entrainment reduces the density of concrete and consequently reduces the strength. Air entrainment is used to produce a number of effects in both the plastic and the hardened concrete. These include: 1. Resistance to freeze–thaw action in the hardened concrete. 2. Increased cohesion, reducing the tendency to bleed and segregation in the plastic concrete. 3. Compaction of low workability mixes including semi-dry concrete. 4. Stability of extruded concrete. 5. Cohesion and handling properties in bedding mortars.
Cement is a substance that sets and hardens independently, and can bind other materials together. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick additives that were added to the burnt lime to obtain a hydraulic binder were later referred to as cement. The most important use of cement is the production of mortar and concrete -the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to form a strong building material that is durable in the face of normal environmental effects.
Fig: 2.1. Cement
2.2.1. CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF CEMENT:
Cement may be divided into five groups -Portland cement, High alumina cement, Super sulphated cement, Natural cement, Special cement. Cement are subdivided into following types Ordinary Portland cement Rapid hardening cement Extra rapid hardening cement Quick setting cement Sulphate resisting cement low heat cement Portland pozzolana cement Coloured cement Air-Entraining Cement Hydrophobic cement
a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) o) p)
Expansive Cement Oil wet cement High early strength cement Readiset Cement High alumina cement
220.127.116.11. Ordinary Portland cement: Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is the most important type of cement. It was classified into three grades, namely 33 grade, 43 grade and53 grade depending upon the strength of the cement at 28 days when tested as per IS 4031-1988. If the 28 days strength is not less than 33N/mm2, it is called 33 grade cement, if the strength is not less than 43N/mm2, it is called 43 grade cement, and if the strength is not less than 53 N/mm2, it is called 53 grade cement. But the actual strength obtained by these cements at the factory are much higher than the specifications.
18.104.22.168. Rapid hardening cement: This cement is similar to ordinary Portland cement. As the
name indicates it develops strength rapidly and as such it may be more appropriate to call it as high early strength cement. Rapid hardening cement develops higher rate of development of strength. Rapid hardening cement develops at the age of three days, the same strength as that is expected of ordinary Portland cement at seven days. The rapid rate of development of strength is attributed to the higher fineness of grinding and higher C3S and lower C2S content. The higher fineness of cement particles expose greater surface area for action of water and also higher proportion of C3S results in quicker hydration. Therefore, rapid hardening cement should not be used in mass concrete construction. 22.214.171.124. Extra rapid hardening cement: Extra rapid hardening cement is obtained by intergrading calcium chloride with rapid hardening Portland cement. The normal addition of calcium chloride should not exceed 2 percent by weight of the rapid hardening cement. It is necessary that the concrete made by using extra rapid hardening cement should be transported, placed and compacted and finished within about 20 minutes. It is also necessary that this cement should not be stored for more than a month. Extra rapid hardening cement accelerates the setting and hardening process. A large quantity of heat is evolved in a very short time after placing. The acceleration of setting, hardening and evolution of this large quantity of heat in the early period of hydration makes the cement very suitable for concreting in cold weather. The strength of extra rapid hardening cement is about 25 per cent higher than that of rapid hardening cement at one or two days and 10–20 per cent higher at 7 days. The gain of strength will disappear with age and at 90 days the strength of extra rapid hardening cement or the ordinary Portland cement may be nearly the same. There is small amount of initial corrosion of reinforcement when extra rapid hardening cement is used, but in general, this effect does not appear to be progressive and as such there is no harm in using extra rapid hardening cement in reinforced concrete work. However, its use in prestress concrete construction is prohibited.
126.96.36.199. Quick setting cement: This cement as the name indicates sets very early. The early setting property is brought out by reducing the gypsum content at the time of clinker grinding. This cement is required to be mixed, placed and compacted very early. It is used mostly in under water construction where pumping is involved .Use of quick setting cement in such conditions reduces the pumping time and makes it economical. Quick setting cement may also find its use in some typical grouting operations.
188.8.131.52. Sulphate resisting cement: Ordinary Portland cement is susceptible to the attack of sulphates, in particular to the action of magnesium sulphate. Sulphates react both with the free calcium hydroxide in set cement to form calcium sulphate and with hydrate of calcium aluminate to form calcium sulphoaluminate, the volume of which is approximately 227% of the volume of the original aluminates. Their expansion within the frame work of hardened cement paste results in cracks and subsequent disruption. Solid sulphates do not attack the cement compound. Sulphates in solution permeate into hardened concrete and attack calcium hydroxide, hydrated calcium aluminate and even hydrated silicates. The above is known as sulphate attack. Sulphate attack is greatly accelerated if accompanied by alternate wetting and drying which normally takes place in marine structures in the zone of tidal variations. To remedy the sulphate attack, the use of cement with low C3A content is found to be effective. Such cement with low C3A and comparatively low C4AF content is known as Sulphate Resisting Cement. In other words, this cement has a high silicate content. The specification generally limits the C3A content to 5 per cent. Tetra calcium Alumino Ferrite (C3AF) varies in Normal Portland Cement between to 6 to 12%. Since it is often not feasible to reduce the Al2O3 content of the raw material, Fe2O3 may be added to the mix so that the C4AF content increases at the expense of C3A. IS code limits the total content of C4AF and C3A, as follows. 184.108.40.206. low heat cement : It is well known that hydration of cement is anexothermic action which produces large quantity of heat during hydration. Formation of cracks in large bodyof concrete due to heat of hydration has focussed the attention of the concrete technologists to produce a kind of cement which produces less heat or the same amount of heat, at a low rate during the hydration process. Cement having this property was developed in U.S.A. during 1930 fo r use in mass concrete construction, such as dams, where temperature rise by the heat of hydration can become excessively large. A low-heat evolution is achieved by reducing the contents of C3S and C3A which are the compounds evolving the maximum heat of hydration and increasing C2S. A reduction of temperature will retard the chemical action of hardening and so further restrict the rate of evolution of heat. The rate of evolution of heat will, therefore, be less and evolution of heat will extend over a longer period. The specific surface of low heat cement as found out by air-permeability method is not less than 3200 sq. cm/gm. The 7 days strength of low heat cement is not less than 16 MPa in contrast to 22 MPa in the case of ordinary Portland cement. Other properties, such as setting time and soundness are same as that of ordinary Portland cement. 220.127.116.11. Portland Pozzolana cement : Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) is manufactured by the intergrinding of OPC clinker with 10 to 25 per cent of pozzolanic material (as per the latest amendment, it is 15 to 35%). A pozzolanic material is essentially a silicious or aluminous material which while in itself possessing no cementatious properties, which will, in finely divided form and in the presence of water, react with calcium hydroxide, liberated in the hydration process, at ordinary temperature, to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. The pozzolanic materials generally used for manufacture of PPC are calcined clay or fly ash. The pozzolanic action is shown below: Calcium hydroxide + Pozzolana + water ----> C – S – H (gel)
Portland pozzolana cement produces less heat of hydration and offers greater resistance to the attack of aggressive waters than ordinary Portland cement. Moreover, it reduces the leaching of calcium hydroxide when used in hydraulic structures. It is particularly useful in marine and hydraulic construction and other mass concrete constructions. 18.104.22.168. Coloured cement: For manufacturing various colored cements, either white cement or grey Portland cement is used as a base. The use of white cement as a base is costly. With the use of grey cement, only red or brown cement can be produced. Coloured cement consists of Portland cement with 5-10% of pigment. The pigment cannot be satisfactorily distributed throughout the cement by mixing, and hence, it is usual to grind the cement & pigment together. Chromium oxide – green colour Cobalt – blue colour Iron oxide – brown colour The raw materials used for white cement are: High purity limestone (96% CaCO3 & less than 0.07% iron oxide) China clay (0.72-0.8% of iron oxide, silica sand, fluorspar as flux and selenite as retarder) Grey colour of OPC is due to the iron oxide present. 22.214.171.124.Air-entraining cement : Air-Entraining Cement is made by mixing a small amount of an air-entraining agent with ordinary Portland cement clinker at the time of grinding. The following types of air-entraining agents could be used:
Alkali salts of wood resins. Synthetic detergents of the alkyl-aryl sulphonate type. Calcium lignosulphate derived from the sulphite process in paper making. Calcium salts of glues and other proteins obtained in the treatment of animal hides.
These agents in powder, or in liquid forms are added to the extent of 0.025–0.1 per cent by weight of cement clinker. There are other additives including animal and vegetable fats, oil and their acids could be used. Wetting agents, aluminium powder, hydrogen peroxide could also be used. Air-entraining cement will produce at the time of mixing, tough, tiny, discrete non-coalesceing air bubbles in the body of the concrete which will modify the properties of plastic concrete with respect to workability, segregation and bleeding. It will modify the properties of hardened concrete with respect to its resistance to frost action. Airentraining agent can also be added at the time of mixing ordinary Portland cement with rest of the ingredients. 126.96.36.199. Hydrophobic cement: Hydrophobic cement is obtained by grinding ordinary Portland cement clinker with water repellant film-forming substance such as oleic acid, and stearic acid.The water-repellant film formed around each grain of cement, reduces the rate of deterioration of the cement during long storage, transport, or under unfavourable conditions.The film is broken out when the cement and aggregate are mixed together at the mixer exposing the cement particles for normal hydration. The film forming water-repellant material will entrain certain amount of air in the body of the concrete which incidentally will
improve the workability of concrete. Some places get plenty of rainfall in the rainy season and have high humidity in other seasons.The transportation and storage of cement in such places cause deterioration in the quality of cement. In such far off places with poor communication system, cement perforce requires to be stored for long time. Ordinary cement gets deteriorated and loses some if its strength, whereas the hydrophobic cement which does not lose strength is an answer for such situations. The properties of hydrophobic cement is nearly the same as that ordinary Portlandcement except that it entrains a small quantity of air bubbles. The hydrophobic cement is made actually from ordinary Portland cement clinker. After grinding, the cement particle is sprayed in one direction and film forming materials such as oleic acid, or stearic acid, or pentachlorophenol, or calcium oleate are sprayed from another direction such that every particle of cement is coated with a very fine film of this water repellant material which protects them from the bad effect of moisture during storage and transportation. The cost of this cement is nominally higher than ordinary Portland cement.
188.8.131.52. Masonary cement : Ordinary cement mortar, though good when compared to lime
mortar with respect to strength and setting properties, is inferior to lime mortar with respect to workability, water retentivity , shrinkage property and extensibility.Masonry cement is a type of cement which is particularly made with such combination of materials, which when used for making mortar, incorporates all the good properties of lime mortar and discards all the not so ideal properties of cement mortar. This kind of cement is mostly used, as the name indicates, for masonry construction. It contains certain amount of air-entraining agent and mineral admixtures to improve the plasticity and water retentivity.
184.108.40.206. Expansive Cement :Concrete made with ordinary Portland cement shrinks while
setting due to loss of free water. Concrete also shrinks continuously for long time. This is known as drying shrinkage. Cement used for grouting anchor bolts or grouting machine foundations or the cement used in grouting the prestress concrete ducts, if shrinks, the purpose for which the grout is used will be to some extent defeated. There has been a search for such type of cement which will not shrink while hardening and thereafter. As a matter of fact, a slight expansion with time will prove to be advantageous for grouting purpose. This type of cement which suffers no overall change in volume on drying is known as expansive cement. Cement of this type has been developed by using an expanding agent and a stabilizer very carefully. Proper material and controlled proportioning are necessary in order to obtain the desired expansion. Generally, about 8-20 parts of the sulphoaluminate clinker are mixed with 100 parts of the Portland cement and 15 parts of the stabilizer. Since expansion takes place only so long as concrete is moist, curing must be carefully controlled. The use of expanding cement requires skill and experience. One type of expansive cement is known as shrinkage compensating cement. This cement when used in concrete, with restrained expansion, induces compressive stresses which approximately offset the tensile stress induced by shrinkage. Another similar type of cement is known as Self Stressing cement. This cement when used in concrete induces significant compressive stresses after the drying shrinkage has occurred. The induced compressive stresses not only compensate the shrinkage but also give some sort of prestressing effects in the tensile zone of a flexural member.
220.127.116.11. Oil wet cement: Oil-wells are drilled through stratified sedimentary rocks through a great depth in search of oil. It is likely that if oil is struck, oil or gas may escape through the space between the steel casing and rock formation. Cement slurry is used to seal off the annular space between steel casing and rock strata and also to seal off any other fissures or cavities in the sedimentary rock layer. The cement slurry has to be pumped into position, at considerable depth where the prevailing temperature may be upto 175°C. The pressure required may go upto 1300 kg/ cm2. The slurry should remain sufficiently mobile to be able to flow under these conditions for periods upto several hours and then hardened fairly rapidly. It may also have to resist corrosive conditions from sulphur gases or waters containing dissolved salts. The type of cement suitable for the above conditions is known as Oil-well cement.The desired properties of Oil-well cement can be obtained in two ways: by adjusting the compound composition of cement or by adding retarders to ordinary Portland cement. Many admixtures have been patented as retarders. The commonest agents are starches or cellulose products or acids. These retarding agents prevent quick setting and retains the slurry in mobile condition to facilitate penetration to all fissures and cavities. Sometimes workability agents are also added to this cement to increase the mobility. 18.104.22.168.High alumina cement :High alumina cement is obtained by fusing or sintering a mixture, in suitable proportions, of alumina and calcareous materials and grinding the resultant product to a fine powder. The raw materials used for the manufacture of high alumina cement are limestone and bauxite. These raw materials with the required proportion of coke were charged into the furnace. The furnace is fired with pulverised coal or oil with a hot air blast. The fusion takes place at a temperature of about 1550-1600°C. The cement is maintained in a liquid state in the furnace. Afterwards the molten cement is run into moulds and cooled. These castings are known as pigs. After cooling the cement mass resembles a dark, fine gey compact rock resembling the structure and hardeness of basalt rock. The pigs of fused cement, after cooling are crushed and then ground in tube mills to a finess of about 3000 sq.cm/gm. 22.214.171.124. Rediset Cement : Accelerating the setting and hardening of concrete by the use of admixtures is a common knowledge. Calcium chloride, lignosulfonates, and cellulose products form the base of some of admixtures. The limitations on the use of admixtures and the factors influencing the end properties are also fairly well known. High alumina cement, though good for early strengths, shows retrogression of strength when exposed to hot and humid conditions. A new product was needed for use in the precast concrete industry, for rapid repairs of concrete roads and pavements, and slip-forming. In brief, for all jobs where the time and strength relationship was important. In the PCA laboratories of USA, investigations were conducted for developing cement which could yield high strengths in a matter of hours, without showing any retrogression. Rediset cement was the result of investigation. Associated Cement Company of India has developed equivalent cement by name ―REDISET‖ Cement. 126.96.36.199.High Early Strength Cement: Development of high early strength becomes an important factor, sometimes, for repair and emergency work. Research has been carried out in the recent past to develop rapid setting and hardening cement to give materials of very high
early strength. Lithium salts have been effectively used as accelerators in high alumina cement. This has resulted in very high early strength in cement and a marginal reduction in later strength. Strength as high as 4 MPa has been obtained within 1 hour and 27 MPa has been obtained within 3 hours time and 49 MPa in one day.
2.2.2. TESTING OF CEMENT:
Checking of materials is an essential part of civil engineering as the life span of structure is dependent on the quality of material used. The following are the test to be conducted to judge the quality of cement. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Fineness Soundness Consistency Initial and final setting Compressive strength Tensile strength Some of the tests are explained below-
188.8.131.52. FINENESS: To determine the fineness of cement by dry sieving as per IS: 4031 (Part 1) – 1996.The principle of this is that we determine the proportion of cement whose grain size is larger than specified mesh size. The apparatus used are 90µm IS Sieve, Balance capable of weighing 10g to the nearest 10mg, A nylon or pure bristle brush, preferably with 25 to 40mm, bristle, for cleaning the sieve.
FIG :2.2 SIEVE FOR FINENESS TEST
Procedure to determine fineness of cement:
i) Weight is taken for approximately 10g of cement to the nearest 0.01g and place it on the sieve. ii) Agitated the sieve by swirling, planetary and linear movements, until no more fine material passes through it.
iii) Weight is taken for the residue and expressed its mass as a percentage R1,of the quantity first placed on the sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent. iv) Gently brushed all the fine material off the base of the sieve. v) Repeated the whole procedure using a fresh 10g sample to obtain R2. Then calculated R as the mean of R1 and R2 as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1 percent. When the results differs by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third sieving and calculated the mean of the three values.
184.108.40.206. SOUNDNESS: Soundness of cement is determined by Le-Chatelier method as per IS: 4031 (Part 3) – 1988. Apparatus – The apparatus for conducting the Le-Chatelier test should conform to IS: 5514 – 1969 Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g and Water bath.
FIG: 2.3 SOUNDENESS OF CEMENT TEST Procedure to determine soundness of cement : i) The mould on a glass sheet is placed and it is filled with the cement paste formed by gauging cement with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. ii) The mould is covered with another piece of glass sheet, and a small weight is placed on this covering glass sheet and immediately the whole assembly is submereged in water at a temperature of 27 ± 2oC and it is kept in there for 24hrs. iii) The distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5mm (say d1 ) is measured. iv) The mould is again submereged in water at the temperature prescribed above. The water is brought to boiling point in 25 to 30 minutes and kept boiling for 3hrs. v) The mould is removed from the water, allowed to cool and measured the distance between the indicator points (say d2). vi) (d2 – d1) represents the expansion of cement. vii) Sieving is done and calculated the mean of the three values.
220.127.116.11. CONSISTENCY: The basic aim is to find out the water content required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as specified by the IS: 4031 (Part 4) – 1988. The principle is that standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the Vicat plunger penetrates to a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould. Apparatus – Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 – 1976, Balance, whose permissible variation at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g, Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 – 1982.
FIG : 2.4. VICAT APPARATUS FOR CONSISTENCY TEST FOR CEMENT
Procedure to determine consistency of cement:
i) Weight is taken for approximately 400g of cement and mixed it with a weighed quantity of water. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes. ii) Vicat mould is filled with paste and levelled it with a trowel. iii) Lowered the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface. iv) Released the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste. v) Noted the reading on the gauge. vi) Repeated the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm. vii) Calculated the mean of the three values. 18.104.22.168. INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING: Procedure to determine initial and final setting time of cement i) A cement paste is prepared by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency. ii) Started a stop-watch, the moment water is added to the cement.
iii) The Vicat mould is completely filled with the cement paste gauged as above, the mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the mould is the test block A) INITIAL SETTING TIME: Placed the test block under the rod bearing the needle. Lowered the needle gently in order to make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly, allowing it to penetrate the test block. Repeated the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block to a point 5.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The time period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle fails to pierce the test block by 5.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time. B) FINAL SETTING TIME: Replaced the above needle by the one with an annular attachment. The cement should be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression therein, while the attachment fails to do so. The period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle makes an impression on the surface of the test block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the final setting time.
Aggregates are the important constituent in concrete. They give the body to the concrete. Earlier aggregates were considered as chemically inert materials but now it has been recognised that some of the aggregate are chemically active also certain aggregate exhibit chemical bond at the interface of aggregate and paste. The mere fact that the aggregates occupy 70–80 per cent of the volume of concrete, their impact on various characteristics and properties of concrete is undoubtedly considerable. To know more about the concrete it is very essential that one should know more about the aggregates which constitute major volume in concrete.
: Fig: 2.5. Coarse Aggregate
Fig: 2.6. Fine Aggregate
Aggregates can be classified as (i) Normal weight aggregates, (ii) Light weight (iii) Heavy weight aggregates. Normal weight aggregates can be further classified as natural aggregates and artificial aggregates
Natural Sand, Gravel, Crushed Rock such as Granite, Sandstone Quartzite Artificial Broken brick Air-cooled Slag. Sintered fly ash
Aggregates can also be classified on the basis of the size of the aggregates as coarse aggregate and fine aggregate
2.3.2. TESTING OF AGGREGATE:
Tests to be done to check the quality of aggregate: 1) Aggregate crushing value. 2) Aggregate Impact Value 22.214.171.124. AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE This test helps to determine the aggregate crushing value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963. The apparatus used is cylindrical measure and plunger, Compression testing machine, IS Sieves of sizes – 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm
Procedure to determine Aggregate Crushing Value:
i) The aggregates passing through 12.5mm and retained on 10mm IS Sieve are oven-dried at a temperature of 100 to 110oC for 3 to 4hrs. ii) The cylinder of the apparatus is filled in 3 layers, each layer tamped with 25 strokes of a
tamping rod. iii) The weight of aggregates is measured (Weight ‗A‘). iv) The surface of the aggregates is then levelled and the plunger inserted. The apparatus is then placed in the compression testing machine and loaded at a uniform rate so as to achieve 40t load in 10 minutes. After this, the load is released. v) The sample is then sieved through a 2.36mm IS Sieve and the fraction passing through the sieve is weighed (Weight ‗B‘). vi) Two tests should be conducted. Aggregate crushing value = (B/A) x 100%.
FIG: 2.7 TEST FOR AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE
126.96.36.199. AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE
This test is done to determine the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part IV) – 1963. The apparatus used for determining aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates is Impact testing machine conforming to IS: 2386 (Part IV)- 1963,IS Sieves of sizes – 12.5mm, 10mm and 2.36mm, A cylindrical metal measure of 75mm dia. and 50mm depth, A tamping rod of 10mm circular cross section and 230mm length, rounded at one end and Oven Preparation of Sample
i) The test sample should conform to the following grading: - Passing through 12.5mm IS Sieve – 100% - Retention on 10mm IS Sieve – 100% ii) The sample should be oven-dried for 4hrs. at a temperature of 100 to 110oC and cooled. iii) The measure should be about one-third full with the prepared aggregates and tamped with 25 strokes of the tamping rod.
A further similar quantity of aggregates should be added and a further tamping of 25 strokes given. The measure should finally be filled to overflow, tamped 25 times and the surplus aggregates struck off, using a tamping rod as a straight edge. The net weight of the aggregates in the measure should be determined to the nearest gram (Weight ‗A‘).
FIG: 2.8. TEST FOR IMPACT VALUE Procedure to determine Aggregate Impact Value: i) The cup of the impact testing machine should be fixed firmly in position on the base of the machine and the whole of the test sample placed in it and compacted by 25 strokes of the tamping rod. ii) The hammer should be raised to 380mm above the upper surface of the aggregates in the cup and allowed to fall freely onto the aggregates. The test sample should be subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than one second. Reporting of Results: i) The sample should be removed and sieved through a 2.36mm IS Sieve. The fraction passing through should be weighed (Weight ‗B‘). The fraction retained on the sieve should also be weighed (Weight ‗C‘) and if the total weight (B+C) is less than the initial weight (A) by more than one gram, the result should be discarded and a fresh test done. ii) The ratio of the weight of the fines formed to the total sample weight should be expressed as a percentage. Aggregate impact value = (B/A) x 100% iii) Two such tests should be carried out and the mean of the results should be reported
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN
One of the ultimate aims of studying the various properties of the materials of concrete, plastic concrete and hardened concrete is to enable a concrete technologist to design a concrete mix for a particular strength and durability. The design of concrete mix is not a simple task on account of the widely varying properties of the constituent materials, the conditions that prevail at the site of work, in particular the exposure condition, and the conditions that are demanded for a particular work for which the mix is designed. Design of concrete mix requires complete knowledge of the various properties of these constituent materials, the implications in case of change on these conditions at the site, the impact of the properties of plastic concrete on the hardened concrete and the complicated inter-relationship between the variables. All these make the task of mix design more complex and difficult. The structural designer stipulates certain minimum strength; and the concrete technologist designs the concrete mix with the knowledge of the materials, site exposure conditions and standard of supervision available at the site of work to achieve this minimum strength and durability. Further, the site engineer is required to make the concrete at site, closely following the parameters suggested by the mix designer to achieve the minimum strength specified by the structural engineer. Mix designer, earlier, may have made trial cubes with representative materials to arrive at the value of standard deviation or coefficient of variation to be used in the mix design. Mix design can be defined as the process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative proportions with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economically as possible. The first object is to achieve the stipulated minimum strength and durability. The second object is to make the concrete in the most economical manner. Therefore attention is mainly directed to the cost of materials. Since the cost of cement is many times more than the cost of other ingredients, attention is mainly directed to the use of as little cement as possible consistent with strength and durability.
3.2. CONCEPT OF MIX DESIGN:
Workability of the mass is provided by the lubricating effect of the paste and is influenced by the amount and dilution of paste. The strength of concrete is limited by the strength of paste, since mineral aggregates with rare exceptions, are far stronger than the paste compound. Essentially the permeability of concrete is governed by the quality and continuity of the paste, since little water flows through aggregate either under pressure or by capillarity. Further, the predominant contribution to drying shrinkage of concretes is that of paste. Since the properties of concrete are governed to a considerable extent by the quality of paste, it is helpful to consider more closely the structure of the paste. The fresh paste is a suspension, not a solution of cement in water. The more dilute the paste, the greater the spacing between cement particles, and thus the weaker will be the ultimate paste structure. The other conditions being equal, for workable mixes, the strength of concrete varies as an inverse function of the water/cement ratio. Since the quantity of water required also depends upon the amount of paste, it is important that as little paste as possible should be used and hence the importance of grading.
3.3. VARIABLES IN PROPORTIONING:
With the given materials, the four variable factors to be considered in connection with specifying a concrete mix are: a) Water-Cement ratio b) Cement content or cement-aggregate ratio c) Gradation of the aggregates d) Consistency Water/cement ratio expresses the dilution of the paste- cement content varies directly with the amount of paste. Gradation of aggregate is controlled by varying the amount of given fine and coarse aggregate. Consistency is established by practical requirements of placing. In brief, the effort in proportioning is to use a minimum amount of paste (and therefore cement) that will lubricate the mass while fresh and after hardening will bind the aggregate particles together and fill the space between them. Any excess of paste involves greater cost, greater drying shrinkage, greater susceptibility to percolation of water and therefore attack by aggressive waters and weathering action. This is achieved by minimizing the voids by good gradation.
3.4. VARIOUS METHODS OF PROPORTIONING:
a) Arbitrary proportion b) Fineness modulus method c) Maximum density method
d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l)
Surface area method Indian Road Congress, IRC 44 method High strength concrete mix design Mix design based on flexural strength Road note No. 4 (Grading Curve method) ACI Committee 211 method DOE method Mix design for pumpable concrete Indian standard Recommended method IS 10262-82
The ACI Committee 211 method, the DOE method and Indian standard recommended methods are commonly used. Since concrete is very commonly placed by pumping these days method of mix design of pumpable concrete has become important.
3.4.1. American Concrete Institute Method of Mix Design:
This method of proportioning was first published in 1944 by ACI committee 613. In 1954 the method was revised to include, among other modifications, the use of entrained air. In 1970, the method of mix design became the responsibility of ACI committee 211. ACI committee 211 have further updated the method (ACI–211.1) of 1991. Almost all of the major multipurpose concrete dams in India built during 1950 have been designed by using then prevalent ACI Committee method of mix design.
3.4.2. DOE Method of Concrete Mix Design :
The DOE method was first published in 1975 and then revised in 1988. While Road Note No 4 or Grading Curve Method was specifically developed for concrete pavements, the DOE method is applicable to concrete for most purposes, including roads. The method can be used for concrete containing fly ash (in U.K. it is called pulverized fuel ash, PFA) or GGBFS. Since DOE method presently is the standard British method of concrete mix design, the procedure involved in this method is described instead of out dated Road Note No 4 method.
Table 3.1 Reduction in the free water content of table when using Fly - ash Percentage of fly ash Slump mm Reduction in water content kg/m3 in cementitious vebe seconds 0-10 10-30 30-60 60-180 material >12 10 20 30 40 50 5 10 15 20 25 6-12 5 10 15 20 25 3-6 5 10 20 25 30 0-3 10 15 20 25 30
Find the cement content knowing the water/cement ratio and water content. Cement content is calculated simply dividing the water content by W/C ratio. The cement content so calculated should be compared with the minimum cement content specified from the durability consideration and higher of the two should be adopted. Sometime maximum cement content is also specified. The calculated cement content must be less than the specified maximum cement content. Next find out the total aggregate content. This requires an estimate of the wet density of the fully compacted concrete. This can be found out for approximate water content and specific gravity of aggregate. If sp. gr. is unknown, the value of 2.6 for uncrushed aggregate and 2.7 for crushed aggregate can be assumed. The aggregate content is obtained by subtracting the weight of cement and water content from weight of fresh concrete.
Fig : 3.1Estimated wet density for full compacted concrete
Then, proportion of fine aggregate is determined in the total aggregate. The parameters involved are maximum size of coarse aggregate, the level of workability, the water/cement ratio, and the percentage of fines passing 600µ sieve. Once the proportion of F.A. is obtained, multiplying by the weight of total aggregate gives the weight of fine aggregate. Then the weight of the C.A. can be found out. Course aggregate can be further divided into different fractions depending on the shape of aggregate. As a general guidance the figures given in Table below can be used. Table 3.2: Proportion of Coarse Aggregate Fractions According to the 1988 British method
Total C.A 100 100
5–10 mm 33 18
10–20 mm 67 27
20–40 mm – 55
The proportion so worked out should be tried in a trial mix and confirmed about it suitability for the given concrete structure.
3.4.3. Mix Design for Pumpable Concrete
A concrete which can be pushed through a pipe line is called a pumpable concrete. It is proportioned in such a manner that its friction at the inner wall of the pipeline does not become so high to prevent its movement at the pressure applied by the pump. A pumpable concrete is no special concrete. It is a standardized good concrete with certain content of fines to offer lubrication at the inner wall of pipe line. The pumpable concrete has: a) A minimum content of FINES (cement + fine aggregate particle smaller than 0.25 mm size) of approximately 400 kg/m for maximum size of 32 mm C.A. In case of very angular, flaky aggregates this quantity is to be increased by approximately 10%. b) A minimum cement content of approximately 240 kg/m for maximum size of 32 mm C.A. It must be increased by 10% in case of maximum size aggregate of 16 mm. c) A water/cement ratio of 0.42 to 0.65 (d) A slump of 75 mm to 150 mm or a consistency determinable by means of the flow table spread in the range of k2 and k2 e) A grading of aggregate is to be used.
A clear understanding of what happens to concrete when it is pumped through a pipeline is fundamental to any study of concrete pumping and when designing a pumpable concrete mix. Under pressure from the pump, the mix must not segregate or bleed. The mix must be able to bind all the constituent materials together. The mix should also be able to deform while flowing through the pipeline at bends and tapered section. To achieve this, the proportion of ―FINES‖ is of prime importance. A good grading is very important to produce pumpable concrete. Elongated and flaky aggregate will make the concrete harsh for the given cement content and water/cement ratio. The aggregates for the proposed mix should have a grading parallel to these curves, but not coarser than curve 2. Adjustments to bring the grading parallel to the curves can be made by altering the proportions between C.A and F.A. It is recommended that 10–20% of the fine aggregate should pass through 300µ sieve. Sometimes 3–4% extra sand is added to safeguard against understanding. 3.4.4. MIX DESIGN (IS10262-1982) INDIAN STANDARD RECOMMENDED
METHOD OF CONCRETE
The Bureau of Indian standards, recommended a set of procedure for design of concrete mix mainly based on the work done in national laboratories. The mix design procedure are covered in IS 10262-82.The method given can be applied for both medium strength and strength concrete. The procedure of concrete mix design needs revision and at third point of time (2000 AD) a committee has been formed to look into the after of mix design. 1. The strength of cement as possible in the country today has greatly improved since 1982.The 28 days strength of A,B,C,D,F category of cement is to be reviewed. 2. The graph connecting, different strength of cement and W/C is to be reestablished. 3. The graph connecting 28 days compressive strength of concrete and W/C ratio is to be extended up to 80 MPa, if this graph is to be catering for high strength concrete. 4. As per the revision of IS: 456-2000, the degree of workability is expressed in term of slump instead of compacting factor. This result in change of values in estimating approximate sand water content for normal concrete up to 35 MPa and high strength concrete above 35MPa. 5. In view of the above and other changes made in revision of IS: 456-2000, the mix design procedure as recommended in IS: 10262-82 is required to be modified to extent considered necessary an example of mix design is work out.
FIG: 3.2. Curing of concrete 188.8.131.52Factor to be considered for mix design 1. The grade designation giving the characteristics strength requirement of concrete. 2. The type of cement influences the rate of development of compressive strength of concrete. 3. Maximum nominal size of aggregates to be used in concrete may be as large as possible within the limit prescribed by IS: 456-2000. 4. The cement content is to be limited for shrinkage, cracking and creep. 5. The workability for concrete for satisfactory placing and compaction is related to the size and shape of section, quantity and spacing of reinforcement and technique used for transportation, placing and compaction. 184.108.40.206 Procedure as per IS code 10262-1982 1. Target mean strength for mix design: The target mean compressive (f‘ck) strength at 28 days is given by f‘ck =f ck +ts Where f ck=characteristic compressive strength at 28 days. S is the deviation. The value of the standard deviation has to be work out from the trails conducted in the laboratory or field. T=A statistic value depending on expected proportion of low result (risk factor).
2. Selection of water/cement ratio: Various parameters like type of cement, aggregate, maximum size of aggregate, surface texture of aggregate etc. are influencing strength of concrete , when W/C ratio remain constant, hence it is desirable to establish a relation between concrete strength and free water cement ratio with materials and condition to be used at site. In absence of such relationship, the free W/C ratio corresponding to target strength may be determined from the relationship as shown in the fig. One of good features of IS: 10262-1982 method of mix design is that is incorporates the strength of cement in mix design procedure. By incorporating the strength of cement, it is possible to affect the economy in mix design. If the 28 days strength of cement is known, use of fig. may be made for more accurate estimation of W/C ratio. However, this will need at least 28 days for testing the strength of cement, thereby delaying the whole process by 28 days. Accelerated strength test may be adopted to cut down the delay. 3. Estimation of Entrapped Air: The air content is estimated from table for the normal maximum size of aggregate used.
TABLE: 3.3.: APPROXIMATE AIR CONTENT Maximum size of aggregate 10 20 30 Entrapped air as % of volume of concrete 3.0 2.0 1.0
4. Selection of Water Content and Fine to Total Aggregate Ratio: For the desired workability the quantity of mixing water per unit volume of concrete and the ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume are to be estimated from table as applicable, depending upon the nominal maximum size and type of aggregates. Table :3.4. APPROXIMATE SAND AND WATER CONTENTS PER CUBIC METRE OF CONCRETE FOR GRADES UP TO M 35 Nominal maximum size of Water content per cubic Sand as % of total aggregate mm meter of concrete kg aggregate by absolute volume 10 208 40 20 186 35 40 165 30
TABLE :3.5. APPROXIMATE SAND AND WATER CONTENTS PER CUBIC METRE OF CONCRETE FOR GRADES ABOVE M 35
Nominal maximum size of Water content per cubic aggregate Meter of concrete 10 20 200 180
Sand as aggregate volume
% of total by absolute 28 25
5. Calculation of Cement Content : The cement content per unit volume of concrete be calculated from free water/cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of concrete (cement by mass = Water content/water cement ratio). The cement content as calculated shall be checked against the minimum cement content for the requirement of durability and the greater of the two are adopted. Table: 3.6.: Adjustment of values in water content and sand percentage for other conditions Correction 1) For sand conforming to grading Zone 2, zone 3 , zone 4 2) Increase or decrease in the value of compacting factor by 0.1 3) Each 0.05 increase or decrease in free water cement ratio 4) For rounded aggregate Total Water content 0 Percentage sand in total aggregate +1.5 % for zone 1 -1.5 % for zone 3 -3.0 % for zone 4 0
0 -15 kg / m3 0
±1 % -7 % -2
6. Calculation of Aggregate Content: Aggregate content can be determined from the following equation: V=[ W + C/Sc+ fa/P Sfa] 1/1000 V=[ W + C/Sc+ fa/(1-P) Sfa] 1/1000 Where, V= absolute volume of fresh concrete, which is equal to the gross volume (m3) minus the volume of entrapped air, W=mass of water kg/m3 of concrete C= mass of cement kg/m3 of concrete Sc= specific gravity of cement P= ratio of F.A to total aggregate by absolute volume fa‘ Ca= total masses of F.A and C.A kg/m3 of concrete respectively Sfa SCa = specific gravities of saturated, surface dry fine aggregate and coarse aggregate respectively. 7. Actual Quantity Required for Mix : It may be mentioned that the above mix proportion has been arrive at the assumption that aggregates are saturated and surface dry. For any deviation from this condition i.e. when aggregate are moist or air dry or bone dry, correction has to be applied on quantity of mixing water as well as to the aggregates. 8. The Calculated Mix Proportions : This shall be check by means of trial batches. Quantities of materials for each trial shall be enough for at least three 150 mm size cubes and concrete required to carry out workability test according to IS : 1199-59. Trial mix no. 1 should be for workability and freedom from segregation and bleeding and its finishing property. If the measured workability is different from that assumed in the calculation, a change in the water content has to be done from the table and the whole mix design has to be recalculated keeping W/C ratio constant. A minor adjustment in the aggregate quantity may be made to improve the finishing quality or freedom from segregation and bleeding. Trial mix no. 2 , now W/C ratio is changed by ± 10% of reselected value and mix proportions are recalculated. Trial no. 3 and 4 are done simultaneously, these test normally provide sufficient information, including the relationship between compressive strength and water cement ratio, from which the mix proportions for field may be arrived at.
220.127.116.11. Procedure as per IS code 10262-2009: DATA REQUIRED FOR MIX PROPORTIONING 1) The following data are required for mix proportioning of a particular grade of concrete: a) Grade designation; b) Type of cement; c) Maximum nominal size of aggregate; d) Minimum cement content ; e) Maximum water cement ratio; f) Workability; g) Maximum temperature of concrete at the time of placing; h) Method of transportation and placing; i) Early age requirement s, if required; j) Type of aggregate; k) Maximum cement content ; l) Whether an admixture shall or shall not be used and the type of admixture and condition of use. 1. Target mean strength for mix design: The target mean compressive (f‘ck) strength at 28 days is given by f‘ck =f ck +1.65s Where f ck=characteristic compressive strength at 28 days in N/mm2 S is the standard deviation. The value of the standard deviation has to be work out from the trails conducted in the laboratory or field. 2. Selection of water/cement ratio: Relationship between strength and free water cement ratio should be established for the materials usually to be used. The preliminary free water cement ratio corresponding to the target strength at 28 days may be selected from the established relationship. Otherwise the water cement ratio given in Table 5 of IS 456 for the respective environment export conditions may be used as starting point. 3. Selection of Water Content: The quantity of maximum water per unit volume concrete maybe determined from table .The water content in table is for angular coarse aggregate and for 25 to 50 mm slum range. The water estimate in table can be reduced by approximately 10kg for sub angular aggregates, 20kg for gravel with some crush particles and 25 kg for rounded gravel to produce same workability.
TABLE: 3.7.Minimum water content per cubic metre of concrete for nominal maximum size of aggregate Nominal maximum size of aggregate 10 20 40 4. Calculation of Cement Content : The cement content per unit volume of concrete be calculated from free water/cement ratio and the quantity of water per unit volume of concrete (cement by mass = Water content/water cement ratio). The cement content as calculated shall be checked against the minimum cement content from table 5 of IS 456 . 5. Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate content :
TABLE 3.8: Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate
Maximum water comtent 208 186 165
Nominal maximum size of aggregate mm 10 20 40
Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for different zones of fine aggregate. Zone 4 Zone 3 Zone 2 Zone 1 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.66 0.61 0.62 0.60 0.75 0.71 0.71 0.69
For the given size of aggregate against the value of volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate are taken and adjusted for given conditions. 6. Mix calculations: For unit volume of concrete volume of cement, volume of water and volume of chemical admixtures are evaluated. Thus mass of coarse aggregate and find aggregate for the same concrete is evaluated. 18.104.22.168. IS CODE: 10262 -1982 Vs IS CODE: 10262 -2009: There are some differences between the two IS codes i.e. IS: 10262 – 1982 and IS: 10262 – 2009 .These differences are listed below – 22.214.171.124 .1. Title of the Code: The modified title of the code itself makes the designer feel little flexible. i.e. ―IS 10262-1982-Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design‖ modified as ―IS 10262-2009-Concrete Mix proportioning Guidelines.‖
126.96.36.199.2. Strength & Durability: The 1982 version considers strength as the governing criteria for durability and so also for the mix design process. But according to the revised one strength may be a factor for acceptance but may not assures durability. 188.8.131.52 .3. Air Content: IS: 10262-1982 considers expected air content of 1% to 3% in the design process depending on the nominal maximum size of aggregates. IS:10262 -2009 eliminates consideration of air content in the mix proportion calculation as it‘s not of much significance. 184.108.40.206 .4. Water Cement Ratio: The old version suggested that selection of preliminary free w/c ratio may be adopted from established relationships presented in form of graph as generalized w/c ratio curves for different cement strengths. Accordingly six ready reference curves were there namely A to F for a wide range of cement strengths from 325kg/cm 2 to 625kg/cm2. This selected w/c ratio is to be checked against limiting w/c ratio for durability. The revised version encourages establishing the relationships for actually used material. Otherwise it suggests to consider it from the specified table (Table-5) of IS: 456 for desired exposure condition as preliminary w/c ratio that has to be further checked for limiting value ensuring durability. 220.127.116.11.5. Measure of Workability: IS: 10262-1982 considers compaction factor as the measure of workability. In revised one, slump is considered as the measure of workability. Measurement of workability as slump is more convenient and widely used at sites and is better acceptable. 18.104.22.168.6. Mineral Additives: The revised code provides guidelines for addition of supplementary cementitious additives. So additives like fly ash, silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag, rice husk ash etc. can be used in concrete mix provided the strength and durability requirement are met with. So as per the revised code the concrete is no longer a four component system (cement, sand, coarse aggregates & water) as considered in the previous version, but it is much more. 22.214.171.124 .7. Calculation of water content: The quantity of water to be used plays a vital role in concrete mix design. Agreeing with the old guidelines, values of water content have been specified in terms of kg per cubic meter of concrete depending upon the nominal maximum size of aggregates which can be considered as starting selection point of water content. IS: 10262-2009 allows use of water reducers/ super plasticizers and also specifies the alteration in water content accordingly. Further water adjustment was specified in terms of variation of compaction factor in the older version whereas the same has been remoulded in terms of slump variation (+3% for every 25mm slump over 50mm) in the revised one. 126.96.36.199 .8. Estimations of Coarse and Fine Aggregates: The 1982 publication specifies ratio of fine aggregates to all-in-aggregates from which coarse aggregates content can be derived. In revised one the volume of coarse aggregates per unit volume of total aggregates for different zones of fine aggregates and different maximum nominal size of aggregates has
been tabulated from which the fine aggregates content has to be derived. Further in the earlier guidelines necessary adjustments in sand content has been suggested depending on its grading zone, whereas the recent guidelines allow reduction in coarse aggregates content for better workability, provided other desired properties are satisfied.
NUMERICAL EXAMPLE AND COMPARISON OF THE METHODS
4.1. NUMERICAL EXAMPLE:
Let us consider a mix design with following design parameters.
4.1.1. Design Stipulations:
Grade designation M25
Maximum nominal size of aggregates 20mm. Sand conforming to Zone-II of IS: 383-1983 Degree of workability medium.
Cement used: PPC IS: 14892 Specific gravity of
Cement = 3.15 Fine Aggregates = 2.67 Coarse Aggregates = 2.78
Water absorption of Fine Aggregates = 0.86% Coarse Aggregates = 0.48% Free surface moisture of Fine Aggregates – nil Coarse Aggregates – nil Grading of Aggregates (IS:383) Fine Aggregates- Zone-II Coarse Aggregates- nominal 20 mm size
4.1.3.Design as per IS: 10262-1982
Target mean strength
ft = fck +k.S = 25 + 1.65 x 4.0 =31.6 Mpa Selection of w/c ratio: 28 day compressive strength of cement comes to be 543kg/cm2. w/c ratio from curve E of figure.2 is 0.52. Maximum w/c ratio from table 5 of IS: 456 is 0.5 Lets adopt w/c ratio = 0.5
Water & sand content: For 20mm nominal maximum size of aggregates water content is 186kg/m 3 of concrete. Fine Aggregates percentage of total aggregates by absolute volume = 35 Adjustment in water & sand content Change in condition w/c ratio (-0.1) Workability (+0.1 CF) Sand zone (Zone-II) Total Water adjustment ,% 0 +3.0 0 +3% Sand adjustment ,% 2.0 0 0 -2%
Adjusted water content=186kg x 1.03 = 191.6 kg Adjusted sand content = (35-2) %= 33% Cement content calculation w/c ratio = 0.5 Cement quantity = 191.6/ 0.5 = 383 kg. Determination of Aggregates content: For 20mm nominal maximum size aggregates entrapped air as specified is 2%. Total volume of ingredients excluding void per cubic meter of concrete designed = 0.98 m3. Total volume of aggregates = 0.98 – [(383/3.15) +191.6]/1000 = 0.667m3 Total mass of Fine Aggregates per m3 of concrete = 0.667 x 2.67 x 0.33 x 1000 = 588 kg Total mass of Coarse Aggregates per m3 of concrete = 0.66 x 2.78 x (1-0.33) x 1000 = 1242 kg Calculated proportions: Particulars Water Cement Sand Coarse Aggregates Total Qty. in kg/m3 of concrete 191.6 383 588 1242 2405 Mix Proportions by mass 0.5 1 1.54 3.24
4.1.4.Design as per IS: 10262-2009:
Target mean strength ft= fck +k.S = 25 + 1.65 x 4.0 =31.6 Mpa
Selection of w/c ratio: Maximum w/c ratio from table 5 of IS: 456 is s 0.5 Let‘s adopt w/c ratio = 0.5 Water content: For 20mm nominal maximum size of aggregates and slump range 25mm to 50mm, water content is 186kg/m3 (Table 2) of concrete. Cement content calculation: w/c ratio = 0.5 Cement quantity = 186/ 0.5 = 372 kg. Determination of Coarse & Fine Aggregates Content: From table 3 of the standard, volume of Coarse Aggregates corresponding 20mm nominal maximum size aggregates and for Zone-II Fine Aggregates = 0.62% • Volume of concrete = 1m3 • Volume of cement = 372/3.15×1000 = 0.118m3 • Volume of water = 186/1000 = 0.186m3 • Volume of all-in-aggregates =1-(0.118+0.186) m = 0.696m3 • Mass of Coarse Aggregates =0.62 x 0.696 x 2.78 x 1000 =1200kg • Mass of Fine Aggregates = (1-0.62) x 0.696 x 2.67 x 1000 =706kg Mix Proportion for Trial Mix No. I Particulars Water Cement Sand Coarse Aggregates Total Qty. in kg/m3 of concrete 186 372 706 1200 2464 Mix Proportions by mass 0.5 1 1.90 3.22
188.8.131.52.The designed mixes can be graphically presented as following.
Fig : 3.3Figure showing the comparison between the designed mix as per IS:10262-1982 & IS:10262-2009 Proportions of ingredients for different grade concrete (M20-M40) are calculated out. All these are listed below in tabular form.
4.2.1. During the 1980s the cements used were relatively of lower strengths. So the design
following the old code results in more cement consumption. 4.2.2. Allowance for mineral additives as per revised code makes the mix economic and also properties like strength and durability are enhanced. 4.2.3. From the Numerical example it was observed that, 4.2.4. The Fine Aggregates content is appreciably higher, when designed as per the revised guidelines indicating the improved workability 4.2.5. Mix as per revised code yields better yield than that by older one, resulting a denser concrete. However numerical interpretations are to be verified experimentally.
In the present report, the properties of medium strength (M 30-M45) as per both the IS code (IS 10262:1982 & IS 10262:2009) has been studied. At first the specific gravity for fine aggregate ,cement and 20 mm down coarse aggregate, has been evaluated as per the IS code IS: 2386 (Part 3) of 1963. The zone of fine aggregate is found out using sieve analysis and it is found to be zone 2 & zone 4 for our project. The values found in sieve analysis is given in tabular form
TABLE 5.1.: SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR ZONE 4 IS sieve designation 4.75mm 2.32mm 1.18mm 600µ 300µ 150µ Weight Retained (kg) 13.25 8.75 14 30.85 269.75 101.05 Cumulative weight retained (kg) 2.65 1.75 2.8 6.17 53.95 20.21 Cumulative percentage retained 2.65 4.4 7.2 13.37 67.32 87.53 Cumulative percentage passing 97.35 95.6 92.8 86.63 32.68 12.47
TABLE 5.2.: SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR ZONE 2 IS sieve designation 4.75mm 2.36mm 1.18mm 600µ 300µ 150µ PAN Weight Retained (kg) 5 55 65 175 75 100 25 Cumulative weight Cumulative retained percentage retained (kg) 5 1 60 12 125 25 300 60 375 75 475 95 500 100 Cumulative percentage passing 99 88 75 40 25 5 —
The target mean strength of concrete as per the IS code 10262:1982 is calculated using the relationship f‘ck =f ck +ts .Here the value of standard deviation (s) is taken from the table 1 of IS:10262 :1982. The value of t is taken from table 2 of the same IS code. But in case of IS Code 10262: 2009; t is kept constant as 1.65 so the relationship becomes as f‘ck =fck+1.65s. The value of standard deviation is taken from the table 1 of IS: 10262:2009. The 1982 version considers strength as the governing criteria for durability and so also for the mix design process. But according to the IS: 10262:2009 strength may be a factor for acceptance but may not assure durability. As per IS:10262-1982 expected air content of 2% in the design process for 20 mm nominal maximum size of aggregates is considered .But the IS:10262-2009 eliminates consideration of air content in the mix proportion calculation as it‘s not of much significance. Water cement ratio is taken from the fig 1 of IS: 10262:1982. For IS: 10262:2009 maximum water cement ratio is taken from table 5 of IS 456. The preliminary water cement ratio that has to be further checked for limiting value ensuring durability. Water content and cement content are evaluated as per both the IS codes in their respective manner. There is provision for using superplasticizer for IS: 10262:2009, but there is no such provision as per using IS: 10262:1982. Mix proportion is calculated using the formulae as in given IS: 10262:1982 V=[ W + C/Sc+ fa/P Sfa] 1/1000 And V=[ W + C/Sc+ fa/(1-P) Sfa] 1/1000 But as per IS: 10262:2009 mix calculations are done for 1 m3 volume of concrete. Volume of cement, volume of water and volume of chemical admixtures are calculated out. Thus mass of coarse aggregate and find aggregate for the same concrete is evaluated.
Calculations involved in determining the relative proportions of different ingredients of concrete with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength are given below with step by step procedure.
5.2. MIX DESIGN FOR A CONCRETE OF M -20 GRADE ( according to IS :10262-1982 )
The desired design stipulations and the test data of different materials are given below. 1) DESIGN STIPULATIONS a) Characterstics compressive strength required in the field at 28 days 20 N /mm2 b) Maximum size of aggregate 20 mm c) Degree of workability 0.80 compacting factor d) Degree of quality control good e) Type of exposer mild 2) TEST DATA FOR MATERIALS a) Cement used ordinary Portland cement satisfying the requirements of IS : 269 1976 b) Specific gravity of cement 3.15 c) Specific gravity 1) Coarse aggregate 2.60 2) Fine aggregate 2.62 A) TARGET MEAN STRENGTH OF CONCRETE : Standard deviation for good quality control = 4.6 N/mm2 f‘ck = fck + 1.65s = 20 +1.65 ×4.6 = 27.59 N/mm2 B) SELECTION OF WATER – CEMENT RATIO : The free water cement ratio required for the target mean strength of 27.59 N/mm2 = 0.50 C) SELECTION OF WATER AND SAND CINTENT : For 20mm nominal maximum size aggregate and sand conforming to grading Zone 2 water content per cubic meter of concrete = 186 kg and sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35%
Table :3.6.: Adjustment of values in water content and sand percentage for other conditions Correction Water content Percentage sand in total aggregate 5) For sand 0 0 conforming to grading Zone 2 6) For compacting 0 0 factor 0.8 7) Decrease in water cement ratio = 0.6 0 -2 0.5 =0.1 8) For angular 0 0 aggregate Total 0 -2 Therefore, required sand content as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35% - 2% =33% D) DETERMINATION OF CEMENT CONTENT : Water cement ratio = 0.5 Cement =186/0.5 =372 kg/m3 E) DETERMINATION OF COARSE AND FINE AGGREGATE CONTENT : Specific gravity of fine aggregate =2.60 Specific gravity of coarse aggregate =2.62 Now, using the formulas, V= [W+C/SC +fa/(P.Sfa)] V= [W+C/SC +Ca/(1-P)Sca ] Required mix proportion: Cement: fine aggregate: coarse aggregate 372: 579.9: 1186.48 1: 1.55: 3.189 F) ACTUAL QUANTITIES REQUIRED FOR THE MIX PER BAG OF CEMENT : For 50kg of cement, the quantities of materials are worked out as below: a) Cement =50 kg b) Sand = 77.5 kg c) Coarse aggregate =159.45 kg d) Water 1) For water cement ratio of 0.50 quantity =25.0 litres of water
2) Extra quantity of water to be added for absorption in case of coarse aggregate at 0.5 percentage by mass = 0.77 3) Quantity of water to be deducted for free moisture present in sand= -1.42 4) Actual quantity of water to be added =25.0+0.77-1.42=24.35 e) Actual quantity of sand required after allowing for mass of free moisture = 77.5+1.42=78.92 kg f) Actual quantity of coarse aggregate required : =159.45-0.77= 158.68 kg Therefore the actual quantities of different constituents required for the mix are: Water =24.35 kg Cement =50.00 kg Sand =78.92 kg Coarse aggregate =158.68 kg
5.3.MIX DESIGN FOR A CONCRETE OF M -20 GRADE ( according to IS :102620-2009 )
1) TARGET STRENGTH FOR MIX PROPOTIONING: fck‘ = fck + 1.65 ×s = 20+ 1.65×4 =26.6N/mm2 2) SELECTION OF WATER CEMENT RATIO : From IS 456 -2000 Maximum value of water cement ratio for target strength 27.6 N/mm2 =0.50 Adopted water cement ratio =0.45 3) SELECTION OF WATER CONTENT: For 20mm aggregate, Maximum water content =186 litres Estimated water content for 100 mm slump =186 + 6×106/100 =197 litres Due to presence of super plasticizer water content reduction of 29% has been achieved. Hence the arrived water content = 197 × 0.71= 140 litres 4) CALCULATION OF CEMENT CONTENT :
Water cement ratio = 0.45 Cement content =140/0.45=311 kg /m3 From IS 456 , minimum cement content for severe exposer condition= 250 kg /m3 310>250 kg /m3, hence O.K. 5) PROPORTION OF VOLUME OF COARSE AGGREGATE AND FINE AGGREGATE CONTENT : For 20 mm aggregate Volume of coarse aggregate per unit volume of total aggregate for zone 2 of fine aggregate=0.62 Water cement ratio =0.45 Decrease in volume = 0.62 + 0.034 Volume of fine aggregate = 1-0.65 =0.35
6) MIX CALCULATIONS: a) Volume of concrete =1 m b) Volume of cement = mass of cement /sp.graviety of cement ×1000 =311/(3.15×1000) c) Volume of water = mass of water /sp.graviety of water× 1000 = 140/1000= 0.140m3
d) volume cement admixture =7/(1.145×1000) = 0.006 m3 e) volume of all in aggregate =[a-( b+c+d)] 0.756 m3 f) Mass of coarse aggregate =e×volume of coarse aggregate ×sp. Gravity of coarse aggregate ×1000 g) Mass of fine aggregate =0.658 ×0.35 ×2.74× 1000
=725.00 kg Mix proportion : Cement =311 kg/m3 Water = 140 kg /m3 Fine aggregate = 725 kg Coarse aggregate = 1346.4 kg Chemical admixture =7kg/m3 Water cement ratio = 0.45 After getting the different proportions for different grade of concrete (M 30-M 45), the weight of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water are calculated for 50 kg of concrete. The values of cement, coarse aggregate, fine aggregate and water required for obtaining the desired strength of concrete as per IS: 10262:1982 & IS: 10262:2009 are given below in pie diagram.
M-30 ZONE 4 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 11.34 10.76 26.84
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-30 ZONE 4 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 11.28 12.3 26.39
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-35 ZONE 4 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTUTUENTS WEIGHT(KG) CEMENT 11.88 SAND 11.99 COARSE AGGREGATE 26.13
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-35 ZONE 4 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENTS WEIGHT(KG) CEMENT 12.37 SAND 10.76 COARSE AGGREGATE 26.84
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-40 Z0NE 4 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 13.69 7.53 28.75
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-40 ZONE 4 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 12.85 11.05 26.08
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-30 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT 11.36 11.7 26.92
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-30 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTITUENTS CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 9.62 14.81 25.59
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-35 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENTS WEIGHT(KG) CEMENT 12.66 SAND 11.014 COARSE AGGREGATE 26.33
CEMENT SAND COARSE
M-35 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTITUENTS WEIGHT(KG) CEMENT 9.86 SAND 14.49 COARSE AGGREGATE 25.64
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-40 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:1982) CONSTITUENT CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE WEIGHT(KG) 13.66 6.83 29.51
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
M-40 ZONE 2 (IS 10262:2009) CONSTITUENTS WEIGHT(KG) CEMENT 10.48 SAND 14.16 COARSE AGGREGATE 25.36
CEMENT SAND COARSE AGGREGATE
Fig: 5.1.Pie diagram comparing the consumption of constituents of concrete for desired concrete as per IS: 10262:1982 & IS: 10262:2009 Now at first cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate are mixed dry thoroughly and then water is added slowly and gradually by turning at least three times to get uniform plastic mix. It is then put in cubes of size 150mm×150mm×150mm with ramming it properly. It is then put in vibration machine for proper vibration.
FIG:5.2. Mixing of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water
Fig: 5.3. Ramming the concrete
FIG: 5.4. Vibration of concrete using vibrator Then the concrete is put in water for curing. The compressive strength of the concrete is calculated after 7 days and 28 days using the compressive test machine.
Fig: 5.5. Curing of Concrete
Fig: 5.6.Compressive strength test The values obtained in compressive strength test are tabulated below:
In this work, an effort has been made to check the difference in strength of concrete as per obtained using IS: 10262-1982 and IS: 10262- 2009.It is found that the IS: 10262- 2009 is more economical as compare to IS: 10262-1982. The design following the old code results in more cement consumption. . Allowance for mineral additives as per revised code makes the mix economic and also properties like strength and durability are enhanced. Mix as per revised code yields better yield than that by older one, resulting a denser concrete.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. IS 10262-1982 Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 2. IS 10262-2009-Concrete Mix proportioning Guidelines, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 3. CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY By M.S. SHETTY 4. CONCRETE MIX DESIGN By Dr. B.N. KRISHNASWAMI
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