Jeremy Keeshin Both the Ottoman and Mughal empires were distinctive civilizations in their time due to the

local cultural forces and Islamic influence that impacted them in the areas of military, government, the arts, and social structure. The Ottoman and Mughal empires were considered to be gunpowder empires because they had access to advanced weaponry, allowing them to have great military success. Islam affected the military in the Ottoman Empire because the Devinshirme, which collected and converted Christian boys into Muslims, ultimately led into becoming a Janissary, a foot soldier, or a government official. Besides the military, the government structure of both civilizations was a combination of local and Islamic influence. In both places Islam had an influence on the leaders, who often controlled both the government and religion. In the Ottoman Empire the sultan and grand vezir had government power as well as religious authority because the sultan was caliph. The division of society in the Ottoman Empire was a function of Islamic influence. The Ottoman Empire was split into nations based on the non-Muslim religious groups. The Ottomans were religiously tolerant of these groups, and allowed them to have their own lives as long as they did not challenge the Muslims. However there was a tax imposed on these non-Muslims. The Ottoman pasha, who was the equivalent of the Mughal zamindar, collected these taxes. The zamindars and pashas were encouraged to collect these taxes because their salary was based off them. In the Mughal Empire there was also this toleration. Akbar was accepting of diversity and in order to be just, he would base the tax system upon the weather so that if there were bad farming years, the tax would be less. A drastic opposite was shown when the rule of Aurangzeb

Jeremy Keeshin arrived. He was a controversial ruler, who as a radical Muslim, erased the Mughal religious tolerance and forced non-Muslims to convert to Islam. The arts, architecture and literature of the Mughals and Ottomans were based off of local ideas and Islamic traditions. The Mughal culture was a combination of Islamic, Hindu and Persian culture. These Persian and Indian architectural ideas were brought together in the Mughal Taj Mahal. The literature in the Mughal Empire thrived when paper and printing became readily available. Urdu, language used in court and poetry, was a combination of Persian and Hindi and therefore was a local influence. In Ottoman society these ideas were also present. Since the Ottomans had conquered the Byzantines, they took many of the local ideas that they had. One of these ideas that they adopted was the knowledge of silk making. The Ottomans revived the silk industry of the Byzantines and expanded on it. Ottoman architecture was influenced by the Byzantine idea of having open space as used in the Hagia Sophia. Islam necessitated the Ottoman construction of minarets. The Blue Mosque designed by Sinan was the epitome of Ottoman architecture. Another idea that was a response to local and Islamic influence was giving women more rights. In the Mughal Empire women fought, owned land, ran business and were able to obtain salaries. However there was still the Muslim practice of purdah, which isolated women. In Ottoman society women inherited property, had a say in marriage, and had power in the government. One reason that women had privileges was because of the way Islamic law was applied in these cultures. The tolerance of women in the Ottoman Empire was specifically due to the fact that Turkish peoples viewed women as almost equal to men, and Ottomans civilization evolved from the Turks. This was also the reason nomadic tribes were involved in Ottoman culture. Both the Ottoman and

Jeremy Keeshin Mughal Empires are the products of local and Islamic influence in the areas of military, government, the arts, and general social outlook.

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