Jeremy Keeshin What were the consequences of European expansion on the conquerors and the conquered?

Portugal –Angola Outline I. II. Thesis- The Portuguese conquest of Angola had many positive implications for Portugal and its economy, while it left the Angolan population in ruins. The Portuguese colonization of Angola had devastating effects on Angolan society in economic areas as well as the overall community status. a. Angolan society fell apart socially i. The strongest members were all sent to slavery because they were assumed to be more fit for the exhausting labor (“African Slave Trade”) ii. Community is left with lopsided ratios of males to females iii. Actual conditions of slavery are terrible 1. Many died during the Middle Passage to the New World 2. Part of “slave coast,” so many members were lost to slavery b. European expansion caused more conflicts i. European merchants catalyzed conflict by pressuring slave trade ii. Conflict arose between African states based on slave trade c. Portuguese influence negatively changes Angolan economy i. Angolans receive goods that do not make up for slaves lost 1. Guns and weaponry 2. Alcohol 3. Cloth 4. Gold ii. Kings receive wealth from slaves that does not disperse throughout the community (Page, 12) iii. Crops shift from agricultural goods to cheap exporting foods for slaves, and economy never recovers (Page, 12) d. Portuguese force their culture on Angolans i. The Portuguese tried to convert Angolans to Christians ii. Jesuits pressure Portugal to impose Christianity on Angolans, which later leads to a Portuguese military occupation (Middleton, 25) The expansion of Portugal into Angola was beneficial to the Portuguese because their colonization allowed them to retain great economic profit. a. The slaves that work in the plantations helped generate economic profit for Portugal i. Many slaves from Angola are sent to Brazil to work on plantations with coffee, sugar, and raw crops which later create a profit for Portugal ii. The Portuguese dominated the slave trade for a period of time, and this was helpful to their wealth

III.

Jeremy Keeshin iii. Slave labor helped the self-sufficiency of the colonies, which in turn helped b. The Portuguese, being some of the earliest of the European expansionists, got off to an early lead in slave trade when the first Portuguese explorers reached Angola in 1483 (Middleton, 26) c. Portuguese ideas are spread around the globe i. Christianity is spread to Angola, the New World, and other Portuguese cultural ideas are founded in new places ii. Portuguese ideas of control are implemented in Angola (Duffy, 81) Conclusion- The consequences of expansion on both the conquering country of Portugal and the conquered country of Angola were significant in the further development of their economies, social structures, and daily community life.

IV.

Works Cited “African Slave Trade” ABC Clio World History The Modern Era. Deerfield High School Library, Deerfield, IL. 9 Feb 2005 <http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com/home/>. Duffy, James. Portuguese Africa. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959. Middleton, John. “Angola.” Africa: An Encyclopedia for Students. Vol. I. New York: Gale Group, 2002. Page, Willie F. “Angola.” Encyclopedia of African History and Culture. Vol. III. New York: Facts on File, 2001.