Jeremy Keeshin 20s and 30s Study Guide Deficit spending was a concept that said that would

increase demand in an economy by having the government help put people back in work and build public buildings. This was significant because even though the government would go into debt while doing this, it was a way to over time get an economy out of depression. Totalitarian state was a government that controlled every aspect of civilian life, economic, social, intellectual, and cultural. The significance of the totalitarian state was its presence in Stalinist Russia and Nazi Germany emphasized the tolerance of only one party and one leader and one ideology. Anti-Semitism is persecution and hostility towards the Jews. The Nuremberg Laws were a direct separation of Jews from the rest of Germany and an example of anti-Semitism. It was significant because as Hitler was anti-Semitic, he used the Jews as a scapegoat for many of Germany’s problems. This anti-Semitism was responsible for many of his actions of killing during World War II and specifically the Holocaust. Propaganda was a major media tool used by Hitler as well as other dictators such as Stalin to sway the public into believing their side. Propaganda was significant because it was a major part of helping Hitler rise to power by convincing the people of his good attributes and positive goals. Appeasement was Great Britain’s policy before World War II to satisfy Germany’s demands so that they would be content and be able to have peace in Europe and avoid a war. Appeasement was significant because it did not work in the fact that World War II ended up occurring. Economic sanctions, or stopping the trade between countries, was what the US under Franklin Roosevelt threatened to do if Japan kept seeking resources in China. This was significant because after Japan failed to comply, they bombed Pearl Harbor, and it indirectly brought the US into the war. The Occupation of the Ruhr was during the early 1920s when France was seeking out its reparations from Germany. When Germany was unable to pay, France sent troops into the Ruhr, which was the industrial center of Germany to compensate. The occupation of the Ruhr was significant because it helped neither country. The French did not benefit because of German passive resistance and it caused mass inflation in Germany from the government overprinting the money. The Dawes Plan was a plan set up by an American banker who aided Germany in paying off the reparations and basically acted at a German debt consultant. The plan was significant because it got the US started with investing in Europe which helped both the US and German economies.

Jeremy Keeshin The Kellog-Briand Pact was an accord signed by 63 countries that in theory outlawed war. The significance of this pact was its failure to assess the necessary action if violated, because outlawing war was not a plausible idea because of the insecurity nations felt without an armed force. The Locarno Pact, which was organized by Briand and Stresemann, the foreign ministers of France and Germany, settled the borderlines of Germany with France and Belgium. It was significant because besides resolving the dispute over Alsace and Loraine, it was thought to start a new era of European peace, which it didn’t. Keynes was a British economist who stated that the main cause of depression was a loss of demand and that the way to fix this was have the government put money back into the economy through deficit spending. He was significant because his ideas were against previous British principles of laissez-faire and brought a new way to fix the depression. Squadristi was the group of armed Fascists in Italy under Mussolini who would attack socialist offices and newspapers and prevent strikes and activities of that sort. The squadristi was significant because it was a vital element of control in Mussolini’s fascist regime. Franco was the dictator in Spain who was brought to power after winning the Spanish Civil War. The dictatorship under Franco favored large landowners, businesspeople, the clergy and the upper class. He was significant because he was an example of a authoritative government that had complete power over his people. Il Duce, meaning “the leader,” refers to Benito Mussolini, who was the Fascist dictator of Italy. His call for land for Italy was appealing to the nation and led to the King making Mussolini prime minister, which later turned into fascist dictator. He was significant because his Fascist movement was a basis for Hitler in developing his regime and it also reshaped Italy at the time. Mein Kampf which in German means “My Struggle” was the autobiography written by Hitler when he was in jail that talks about Nazi ideas as well as Social Darwinism and the fight for power. This book was significant because it had many of the brutal plans that Hitler was to use in the war as well as his Nazi ideas. SS short for Schutzstaffeln or guard squadrons was originally Hitler’s bodyguard but later turned into the Nazi secret police. The SS was significant because its use of terror controlled the people and furthered the act of making a “total state” under Hitler. Anschluss or union was the combing and conquering of Austria with Germany to improve Germany’s strategic position in Europe. This was significant because it strengthened Germany’s control before the involvement of other Western nations. Munich Conference was where the British, French, Germans, and Italians met to appease basically all of Hitler’s demands. It was significant because it was thought to

Jeremy Keeshin have settled things and created peace but it did not as Hitler broke his promise to stop making demands once again. Manchukuo was the new name for Manchuria after Japan conquered it and put it under the Chinese emperor Henry Pu Yi. Manchukuo was significant because its annexing by Japan in 1931 was the start date for World War II. Ethiopia was the country in Africa that was taken over by Italy in October of 1935. This was significant because it was one of the only remaining countries not to be colonized in Africa and it marked a start of change for the regime in Italy when it accepted Hitler’s support after the French and British opposed the invasion of Ethiopia. Stalin was the ruthless communist dictator in Russia who was responsible for millions of deaths of his opposition and citizens who were sent to labor camps. He was significant because he made a completely totalitarian government and was in no way hesitant to use force to get his way in addition to changing the face of Russia to a new industrial based country. NEP, or the New Economic Policy was Lenin’s modified version of a capitalist system where peasants and small businesses could be operated, but the government controlled all big companies, industries, and banking. The NEP was significant because its inherent government control allowed for a transformation of Russia from an agricultural to an industrial nation. Collectivization was the idea in Russia where the government had the complete control and would try to eliminate private farming in favor of collective farming. Collectivization was significant because it altered the lifestyle in Russia and made it all governmentally controlled. Purges were when Stalin would eliminate the Old Bolsheviks, army officers, diplomats, union officials, and party members that he considered a threat by either putting them on trial and then to death or simply putting them to death. This was significant because it showed the zero tolerance of Fascist regimes and the complete one-sidedness that was under Stalin. 1. Adolf Hitler, German dictator, was a man who held very severe anti-Semitic beliefs as well as deep feelings of nationalism for Germany. He was anticommunist, as he controlled a highly fascist government, and he also firmly believed in the Social Darwinism of society and power. He came to power via a number of things. Firstly, the terrible economic and overall state of Germany made them susceptible to any politician who came across as seeming decent. However, strong propaganda and Hitler’s impressive oratory skills made him come across even better than that. With the strengthening of the Nazi party, Hitler became chancellor and later the Enabling Act gave Hitler almost complete rule, and after Hindenburg died it solidified this.

Jeremy Keeshin 2. The main characteristics of a Fascist state are that it has complete control over all aspects of life and this enables it to manipulate the people in such a way as to convince them that the leader is always right. Fascism may come across as appealing because if presented right with propaganda, the people will not know that they are being fooled into accepting a complete dictator, and the militaristic approach may offer some type of stability and positive outlook. 3. After Lenin died in 1924, the members of the Politburo, the leading members of the communist party, fought for power. The main candidates were Leon Trodsky of the Left and Joseph Stalin of the Right. Stalin ended up having Trodsky killed and became the sole dictator of Russia. He main ideas were to have a communist state with no opposition, and this was the reason he killed or sent all who were suspected to labor camps. He tried to have collectivization in order to insure again the complete governmental control of the state. Stalin was all for power and went to any lengths to keep it. 4. The quote “Promises not to go to war, without a way to enforce them, were rather worthless” is very representative of the lack of action and lack of effect that the League of Nations had on the world. It was in theory a great peace keeping organization, but without the United States involvement and others it could not possibly do this. For example, when Japan dropped out, there was nothing to do to them. This is very similar to the case with the Kellog-Briand pact outlawing war. A great idea in theory, but no nation was secure enough with its position to just give up all defenses and rely on the word of others. 5. Timeline 6. The Hitler Youth was an important part of the 1920s and 1930s because it encompassed the total nationalist concept and dedication to Hitler. The Hitler Youth got the idea circulating from a very young age of the way that things should happen and how you should completely obey Hitler. Heinrich Himmler, who was the leader of the SS was also a perfect example of obedience because his actions were all for Hitler and his pure race. The Map on 28.1 shows of the aggression of Germany in the way that it reoccupied the Rhineland and annexed Austria and Sudetenland. It was a complete violation of the Treaty of Versailles because it its showing that Germany is now a powerful country and will do what it wants with who it will conquer. The Mass Meetings in Nazi Germany were important because it got much of the German community rallied up to be a Nazi. A key element of all the fascist regimes is getting the people to buy into the cause, no matter what it takes. Likewise with collective farming, it is all based on having it revolve around the government and not the individual anymore.

Jeremy Keeshin

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