Jeremy Keeshin World War II Study Guide Blitzkrieg, also known as lightning war, was the new type

of warfare Hitler and Germany raged initially on Poland and later against Denmark, Norway and other European countries. Blitzkrieg was significant because it used new technology such as tanks and more advanced airplanes to get a breakthrough in the fighting, which differed greatly from the stalemate trench fighting in World War I. Two Front War, or war on both sides of a country, was what Hitler wanted to avoid fighting, but still had to fight anyway. He assumed that the Soviet army would be weak and defeated easily, but this was not the case as the Germans were devastated by the cruel Soviet winter. This two front war was significant because it was demoralizing to Germany in World War I, and this trend continued into World War II as Hitler had to fight with the Soviets on one side, and the rest of the Allies on the other. Island Hopping was the practice the Allies, especially the US, used when invading islands in the Pacific in order to get to Japan. They would not invade every island completely, but they would get enough control to use that island to conquer the next island. Island hopping was significant because it was a key tactic used by the Allies in systemically defeating Japan. Bombing in World War two was used in a much different way than previous wars. Countries not only bombed military targets and troops, but civilian populations as well. The Germans bombed the British and the Allies bombed back. The US dropped the atomic bomb on Japan as well. This was significant because it brought in a foreboding total war aspect to the war, as well as drastically altering the morale and economy of the countries involved. Vichy was a city in France where Hitler set up a provisional government after France was conquered. Vichy was significant because besides being the new capital of France, it showed the French collaboration with Germany and the power Germany had at the time. Zyklon B was the popular name used for the gas hydrogen cyanide, which was the gas used in extermination camps to kill off massive numbers of Jews as well as other groups disliked by the Nazis. Zyklon B was significant because it brought a gruesome aspect and a new efficient manner to the Nazi killing machine. Luftwaffe was the German air force that was used to attack Britain’s air force in order to be able to attack Britain’s naval forces. The Luftwaffe was significant because after it had major losses, Britain was able to defeat Germany and continued the tradition of Britain being a major military power. RAF, or the Royal Air Force of Britain was significant because it defeated Germany in the Battle of Britain by simply not losing to them. The RAF was lucky in the sense that when Hitler changed his strategy from bombing military targets to civilians and

Jeremy Keeshin attempting to diminish the British morale, the opposite affect was achieved and it rallied the RAF as well as the rest of Britain. Churchill was the British prime minister as well as one of the main leaders and great orators of Britain throughout the war. He was significant because he held strong ideas of persistency until Hitler was out of power; he helped rally the people of Britain, and was vital in the peace conferences at Yalta and Potsdam. Bataan Death March took place at the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines where the US troops retreated to, and after a difficult loss, the troops were made to march 100 miles to the POW camp while thousands died from starvation and cruel conditions. The Bataan Death March was significant because was exemplary of the ruthless treatment of prisoners that occurred in World War II. Nanjing was a city in China that was taken over by the Japanese. In what was known as the Rape of Nanjing, many Japanese soldiers raped, looted, and killed the Chinese. Nanjing was significant because it showed the lack of respect Japanese held towards their victims and the new brutality of warfare in World War II. Operation Overlord, also known as D-Day and the Battle of Normandy, started on June 6, 1944, and was where the Allies under General Eisenhower defeated the German defense in Northern France while using a massive army of near two million men. Operation Overlord was significant because it started the collapse of the Germans, which later led to the end of the war. Stalingrad was a city in the Soviet Union that was host to the major Battle of Stalingrad in which Hitler and the Germans lost a major battle to Stalin and the Soviets. Stalingrad was significant because the battle was the major turning point of the war as well as being the most horrific. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was basically Japan called itself and the areas it annexed. It was supposedly an economic community to give mutual benefits to the territories. However, it was just a kinder name and a cover up for Japan and its possessions. It was significant because it showed the shift from Western colonial rule to new Japanese imperialism. Internment was the practice of detaining individuals who were considered to be affiliated with the enemy during wartime. This was done to the Japanese Americans during World War II in the United States when they were put in either relocation centers or internment camps. This was significant because it showed the racism in the US as well as the skeptical view Americans held of other Axis associated Americans. Kamikaze, directly translated as divine wind, was the name for the suicide pilots that the Japanese used against the US ships at sea. Kamikaze were significant because it showed the complete dedication of Japanese soldiers for their countries cause, and the new dilemma the US faced in fighting soldiers who did not care to lose their life.

Jeremy Keeshin

Dresden was a city in Germany that was subject to the bombings from February 13 th to 15th, 1945 in which possibly 100,000 were killed. Dresden was significant because it showed the terror and extent of the bombing in World War II. Great Patriotic War was what the Soviets called World War II. This was significant because it contradicted the communist ideas of the Soviet Union and suggested it was more in favor of nationalism to save the country. Unconditional Surrender was what the Allies wanted from the Axis powers of Germany, Japan, and Italy. The terms of unconditional surrender were significant because it locked in the coalition of the Allies and made it more difficult for Hitler to defeat them. Comfort Women was the name for Korean women who were prostitutes for Japanese soldiers. Comfort women were significant because it showed how the Japanese viewed themselves as superior and the sheer savagery of the war. Einsatzgruppen was Hitler’s mobile killing squad that would follow the German army and round up and eliminate Jews, most of the time my just shooting them. This wore on the morale of the death squad and made them inefficient, according to Hitler. This was significant because it later led to the development of gas chambers because Hitler wanted more efficiency in his killings. 1. The Final Solution was the Nazi idea of the complete elimination of the Jews. This was Hitler’s inhumane plan to rid Europe and the rest of the world of what he viewed as an inferior parasitic race. The Einsatzgruppen was a key part in the killings of the Final Solution. The rest of the SS also followed Hitler’s extermination plan. Later when the gas chambers were developed, many Jews were gassed to death in the death camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau. Others were killed in concentration camps because of the forced labor and brutal conditions. The Nazis went as far to mandate a boycott of Jewish businesses and develop the Nuremberg Laws, officially setting the Jews as inferior and furthering the dehumanization process. All off these parts together made up Hitler’s Final Solution. 2. The Japanese aim during the war was to acquire natural resources that they lacked, such as tin, oil, and rubber. They also wanted an outlet for their manufactured goods. This was done by creating the Great East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere and later the Ministry for Great East Asia, both which handled the economy and arrangements between Japan and its territories. The Japanese later used the native people of the conquered lands in the military and for public works projects. They completely altered the society of the colonies to fit exactly to their liking. 3. After the war ended when the US dropped the Atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the US, Britain, and the Soviet Union, did not all share the same opinions on how to deal with Germany and the other countries after the war. Churchill, Stalin, and Roosevelt, the Big Three, all agreed on dividing Germany.

Jeremy Keeshin However, the biggest issue was between the United States and the Soviet Union on the issue of free elections. Later when Truman came in, he demanded free elections but Stalin was against it. Stalin believed that if there were free elections then countries might be anti-Soviet, which was not what he wanted. Especially after losing the most people in the war, security was a big issue to him, and being surrounded by anti-Soviet countries was not appealing. These divisions on elections and security led to the Cold War because the Soviets felt the need to be secure, and thus went into a technology race to do so. 4. The main factors that contributed to dropping the atomic bombs on Japan were first that the Germans may have be making an atomic bomb, and if that was so, the US wanted to have one before them. Also, the kamikaze strategy that the Japanese was using was very difficult to combat because those soldiers did not care to lose their life. This would mean lots of US casualties if they invaded the actual land of Japan. The final step was when the Japanese government mobilized all persons ages thirteen to sixty to fight. Truman contemplated the implications for this and decided that dropping the atomic bomb was necessary. This way direct contact was not needed and they could send a clear message to the people and government of Japan.