Jarol Fernando Vaca


Yasuni Biosphere Reserve The privileged location of the Yasuni between: the Andes, the Western Amazon Basin and the Equator make the Ecuador’s most interesting wilderness for Mankind: the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve; home of the extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Huaorani; relatives of the Waoranis, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve. The Yasuní Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador’s chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. In 1989, the area in and around the original limits of Yasuni National Park was designated as a Man and the Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The Yasuni Biosphere Reserve. Now covers 16 820 km2, including a 5000 km2 core area. According to UNESCO documents, this core area is centered on the Yasuni and Nushiño Rivers in the northeast section of the park. The rest of the reserve (a 7000 km2 buffer zone and a 4820 km2 transition zone) includes much of the remaining park area and the adjacent Waorani Ethnic Reserve. The Yasuni Biosphere Reserve is the core of a small, unique area where South America’s plant, amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness centers overlap. Furthermore, the reserve is located within the ‘Core Amazon’, an especially wet region to maintain wet, rainforest conditions as climate change-induced drought intensifies in the Eastern Amazon. Haffer (1969, 1997) postulated that the area in and around the Yasuni Biosphere Reserve was one of several Amazonian forest refugia during dry climatic periods over the past 65 million years, but this hypothesis has now largely been rejected (Mayle et al 2004, Maslin et al 2005). The Waorani People The Waorani are Amerindians from the Amazonian Region of Ecuador (Napo, Orellana and Pastaza Provinces) who have marked differences from other ethnic groups from Ecuador. The entire Yasuni Biosphere Reserve region is ancestral Waorani territory, which

extends from the Napo River on the north and west, down to the Curaray River in the south and eastward into Peru. This vast territory, which stretches over 20 000 km2, underlies the current limits of Yasuni National Park and the Waorani Ethnic Reserve Information on Waorani history and distribution prior to the twentieth century is scarce and speculative The Waorani were traditionally a highly mobile, semi-nomadic population of hunter-gatherer horticulturalists. They lived in four warring and widely dispersed groups located on hilltops away from major rivers; the headwaters of the Tiputini River constituted the core of ancestral Waorani territory. Other indigenous groups, mainly the Zaparos, lived along the Tiputini and Curaray rivers in essence surrounding the Waorani. When the Zaparos were suddenly decimated by disease and violent displacement during the rubber boom that hit the region in the late 1800s, the Waorani were able to expand their territory northward to the Napo and southward to the Upper Curaray and Villano rivers. Waorani territory likely reached its greatest extent at the beginning of 20th century . At least two lines of evidence suggest that the Waorani were quite isolated, even from other indigenous groups in the area, for a long time: 1. - Their language, Wao Terero, is an isolated one without known congeners and with only two known cognates at the time of missionary contact in the late 1950s Wao Terero is considered unique in linguistic construction, with no known similarities with Zaparoan phonology or structure. 2. - The genetic homogeneity of The Waorani also points to a lengthy isolation of their population. During modern history, there were four major periods of early contact between the Waorani —which translates to ‘the people’ or ‘true human beings’ in Wao Terero— and outsiders encroaching on their territory: 1. - The rubber boom in the late 1800s/early 1900s, 2. - Early oil exploration in the 1940s, 3. - Missionary work starting in the 1950s, and 4. - The oil boom starting in the 1970s.

001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024

TINAMOUS Great Tinamou White-throated Tinamou Cinereous Tinamou Little Tinamou Undulated Tinamou Variegated Tinamou Bartlett’s Tinamou DARTERS Anhinga Blue-winged Teal


025 Greater Yellow-headed Vulture 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037

Rufescent Tiger-Heron Cocoi Heron Great Egret Snowy Egret Little Blue Heron Cattle Egret Striated Heron Agami Heron Capped Heron Boat-billed Heron IBISES & SPOONBILLS Bare-faced Ibis Green Ibis AMERICAN VULTURES King Vulture Black Vulture Turkey Vulture


TINAMIDAE Tinamus major Tinamus guttatus Crypturellus cinereus Crypturellus soui Crypturellus undulatus Crypturellus variegatus Crypturellus bartletti ANHINGIDAE Anhinga anhinga ANATIDAE Anas discors ARDEIDAE Tigrisoma lineatum Ardea cocoi Ardea alba Egretta thula Egretta caerulea Bubulcus ibis Butorides striatus Agamia agami Pilherodius pileatus Cochlearius cochlearius Phimosus infuscatus



Mesembrinibis cayennensis

KITES, EAGLES, HAWKS Osprey Gray-headed Kite Hook-billed Kite Swallow-tailed Kite Snail Kite Pearl Kite Double-toothed Kite Plumbeous Kite Tiny Hawk Bicolored Hawk Gray-bellied Hawk Crane Hawk

CATHARTIDAE Sarcoramphus papa Coragyps atratus Cathartes aura Cathartes melambrotus ACCIPITRIDAE Pandion haliaetus Leptodon cayanensis
Chondrohierax uncinatus

Geranospiza caerulescens

Elanoides forficatus Rostrhamus sociabilis Gampsonyx swainsonii Harpagus bidentatus Ictinia plumbea Accipiter superciliosus Accipiter bicolor Accipiter poliogaster

Slate-colored Hawk 039 Black-faced Hawk 040 White Hawk
038 042 043 044 045 046 041 Great Black-Hawk

047 Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle 048 049 050 051 052 054

Riverside Hawk Crested Eagle Harpy Eagle Black Hawk-Eagle Ornate Hawk-Eagle

053 Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon

Black Caracara Red-throated Caracara Yellow-headed Caracara Barred Forest-Falcon Lined Forest-Falcon


Leucopternis schistacea Leucopternis melanops Leucopternis albicollis Buteogallus urubitinga Buteo magnirostris Morphnus guianensis Harpia harpyja Spizaetus tyrannus Spizaetus ornatus Spizaetus melanoleucus FALCONIDAE Daptrius ater
Ibycter americanus


Collared Forest-Falcon 055 Buckley’s Forest-Falcon 056 Laughing Falcon 057 Bat Falcon
058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073

Milvago chimachima Micrastur ruficollis Micrastur gilvicollis Micrastur mirandollei Micrastur semitorquatus Micrastur buckleyi
Herpetotheres cachinnans

Speckled Chachalaca Spix’s Guan Common Piping-Guan Nocturnal Curassow Salvin’s Curassow NEW WORLD QUAILS Marbled Wood-Quail RAILS & GALLINULES Rufous-sided Crake Black-banded Crake Chestnut-headed Crake Gray-necked Wood-Rail Purple Gallinule Azure Gallinule SUNBITTERN Sunbittern FINFOOTS Sungrebe LIMPKIN Limpkin TRUMPETERS Gray-winged Trumpeter


Odontophorus gujanensis Laterallus melanophaius

Falco rufigularis CRACIDAE Ortalis guttata Penelope jacquacu Pipile pipile Nothocrax urumutum Mitu salvini ODONTOPHORIDAE RALLIDAE

Anurolimnas castaneiceps

Laterallus fasciatus

Aramides cajanea Porphyrula martinica Porphyrula flavirostris EURYPYGIDAE Eurypyga helias HELIORNITHIDAE Heliornis fulica ARAMIDAE Aramus guarauna PSOPHIIDAE Psophia crepitans

JACANAS 074 Wattled Jacana SANDPIPERS & SNIPES 075 Solitary Sandpiper 076 Spotted Sandpiper
077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

101 Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet

Southern Lapwing Pied Plover Collared Plover GULLS & TERNS Laughing Gull PIGEONS & DOVES Rock Pigeon Ruddy Pigeon Plumbeous Pigeon Ruddy Ground-Dove Blue Ground-Dove Gray-fronted Dove Sapphire Quail-Dove Ruddy Quail-Dove PARROTS & MACAWS Blue-and-yellow Macaw Scarlet Macaw Red-and-green Macaw Chestnut-fronted Macaw Red-bellied Macaw White-eyed Parakeet Dusky-headed Parakeet Maroon-tailed Parakeet Blue-winged Parrotlet Dusky-billed Parrotlet Cobalt-winged Parakeet Sapphire-rumped Parrotlet Black-headed Parrot Orange-cheeked Parrot Blue-headed Parrot Yellow-crowned Amazon Orange-winged Amazon Mealy Amazon CUCKOOS & ANIS Dark-billed Cuckoo Squirrel Cuckoo Black-bellied Cuckoo


Aratinga leucophthalmus

JACANIDAE Jacana jacana SCOLOPACIDAE Tringa solitaria Actitis macularia CHARADRIIDAE Vanellus chilensis Hoploxypterus cayanus Charadrius collaris LARIDAE Larus atricilla COLUMBIDAE Columba livia Columba subvinacea Columba plumbea Columbina talpacoti Claravis pretiosa Leptotila rufaxilla Geotrygon saphirina Geotrygon montana PSITTACIDAE Ara ararauna Ara macao Ara chloroptera Ara severa Orthopsittaca manilata


Aratinga weddellii Pyrrhura melanura Forpus crassirostris Forpus sclateri Brotogeris cyanoptera Touit purpurata Touit huetii Pionites melanocephala Pionopsitta barrabandi Pionus menstruus Amazona ochrocephala Amazona amazonica Amazona farinosa CUCULIONIDAE Coccyzus melacoryphus Piaya cayana Piaya melanogaster

111 112 113 114 115 116 117 119

118 Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148

Little Cuckoo Greater Ani Smooth-billed Ani Pheasant Cuckoo Rufous-vented Ground-Cuckoo HOATZIN Hoatzin TYPICAL OWLS Tropical Screech-Owl Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl Crested Owl Spectacled Owl Black-banded Owl POTOOS Great Potoo Long-tailed Potoo Common Potoo Rufous Potoo Short-tailed Nighthawk Common Nighthawk Pauraque Ocellated Poorwill Ladder-tailed Nightjar SWIFTS White-collared Swift Short-tailed Swift Gray-rumped Swift Pale-rumped Swift


Piaya minuta Crotophaga major Crotophaga ani Dromococcyx phasianellus Neomorphus geoffroyi OPISTHOCOMIDAE Opisthocomus hoazin STRIGAIDAE Otus choliba Otus watsonii Glaucidium brasilianum Lophostrix cristata Pulsatrix perspicillata Strix huhula NYCTIBIIDAE Nyctibius grandis Nyctibius aethereus Nyctibius griseus Nyctibius bracteatus CAPRIMULGIDAE Lurocalis semitorquatus Chordeiles minor Nyctidromus albicollis Nyctiphrynus ocellatus
Hydropsalis climacocerca


136 Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift

Neotropical Palm-Swift HUMMINGBIRDS Rufous-breasted Hermit Pale-tailed Barbthroat Great-billed Hermit White-bearded Hermit Straight-billed Hermit Reddish Hermit Black-throated Hermit Buff-tailed Sicklebill Gray-breasted Sabrewing White-necked Jacobin Black-throated Mango

APODIDAE Streptoprocne zonaris Chaetura brachyura Chaetura cinereiventris Chaetura egregia Panyptila cayennensis Tachornis squamata TROCHILIDAE Glaucis hirsuta Threnetes leucurus Phaethornis malaris Phaethornis hispidus Phaethornis bourcieri Phaethornis ruber Phaethornis atrimentalis Eutoxeres condamini Campylopterus largipennis Florisuga mellivora
Anthracothorax nigricollis

Black-bellied Thorntail 150 Golden-tailed Sapphire 151 Fork-tailed Woodnymph

152 Glittering-throated Emerald

Black-throated Brilliant 154 Gould’s Jewelfront 155 Fiery Topaz 156 Black-eared Fairy
153 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187

Pavonine Quetzal Black-tailed Trogon Amazonian White-tailed Trogon Collared Trogon Black-throated Trogon Blue-crowned Trogon Amazonian Violaceous Trogon KINGFISHERS Ringed Kingfisher Amazon Kingfisher Green Kingfisher Green-and-rufous Kingfisher American Pygmy Kingfisher MOTMOTS Broad-billed Motmot Rufous Motmot Blue-crowned Motmot JACAMARS White-eared Jacamar Brown Jacamar Yellow-billed Jacamar Purplish Jacamar Great Jacamar PUFFBIRDS White-necked Puffbird Chestnut-capped Puffbird Spotted Puffbird Collared Puffbird White-chested Puffbird Lanceolated Monklet Brown Nunlet Black-fronted Nunbird White-fronted Nunbird Yellow-billed Nunbird Swallow-winged Puffbird


Popelairia langsdorffi Chrysuronia oenone Thalurania furcata Amazilia fimbriata Heliodoxa schreibersii Heliodoxa aurescens Topaza pyra Heliothryx aurita TROGONIDAE
Pharomachrus pavoninus


Galbalcyrhynchus leucotis

Trogon melanurus Trogon viridis Trogon collaris Trogon rufus Trogon curucui Trogon violaceus ALCEDINIDAE Megaceryle torquata Chloroceryle amazona Chloroceryle americana Chloroceryle inda Chloroceryle aenea MOMOTIDAE Electron platyrhynchum Baryphthengus martii Momotus momota GALBULIDAE Brachygalba lugubris Galbula albirostris Galbula chalcothorax Jacamerops aurea BUCCONIDAE Notharchus macrorhynchos Bucco macrodactylus Bucco tamatia Bucco capensis Malacoptila fusca Nonnula brunnea Monasa nigrifrons Monasa morphoeus Monasa flavirostris Chelidoptera tenebrosa

Micromonacha lanceolata

188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 218


NEW WORLD BARBETS Scarlet-crowned Barbet Gilded Barbet Lemon-throated Barbet TOUCANS Golden-collared Toucanet Chestnut-eared Araçari Many-banded Araçari Ivory-billed Araçari Lettered Araçari Channel-billed Toucan White-throated Toucan

Pteroglossus pluricinctus

CAPITONIDAE Capito aurovirens Capito auratus Eubucco richardsoni RAMPHASTIDAE Selenidera reinwardtii Pteroglossus castanotis Pteroglossus azara Pteroglossus inscriptus Ramphastos vitellinus Ramphastos tucanus PICIDAE Picumnus lafresnayi Chrysoptilus punctigula Piculus flavigula Piculus leucolaemus Piculus chrysochloros Celeus elegans Celeus grammicus Celeus flavus Celeus torquatus Celeus spectabilis Dryocopus lineatus Melanerpes cruentatus Veniliornis passerinus Veniliornis affinis Campephilus melanoleucos Campephilus rubricollis FURNARIIDAE Synallaxis albigularis Synallaxis rutilans Cranioleuca gutturata


217 Orange-fronted Plushcrown

Lafresnaye’s Piculet Spot-breasted Woodpecker Yellow-throated Woodpecker White-throated Woodpecker Golden-green Woodpecker Chestnut Woodpecker Scale-breasted Woodpecker Cream-colored Woodpecker Ringed Woodpecker Rufous-headed Woodpecker Lineated Woodpecker Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Little Woodpecker Red-stained Woodpecker Crimson-crested Woodpecker Red-necked Woodpecker OVENBIRDS Dark-breasted Spinetail Ruddy Spinetail Speckled Spinetail

Point-tailed Palmcreeper 219 Eastern Woodhaunter 220 Chestnut-winged Hookbill

Metopothrix aurantiacus

221 Chestnut-winged Foliage-gleaner 223 224 225 226 227

222 Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner

Rufous-rumped Foliage-gleaner Rufous-tailed Foliage-gleaner Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner Brown-rumped Foliage-gleaner Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner

Berlepschia rikeri Hyloctistes subulatus Ancistrops strigilatus Philydor erythropterus Philydor pyrrhodes Philydor erythrocercus Philydor ruficaudatus Automolus infuscatus Automolus melanopezus Automolus ochrolaemus

228 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241

229 Chestnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner

Ruddy Foliage-gleaner

242 Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper 243 Amazonian Barred-Woodcreeper 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269

Slender-billed Xenops Plain Xenops Rufous-tailed Xenops Short-billed Leaftosser Black-tailed Leaftosser WOODCREEPERS Plain-brown Woodcreeper White-chinned Woodcreeper Long-tailed Woodcreeper Spot-throated Woodcreeper Wedge-billed Woodcreeper Olivaceous Woodcreeper Long-billed Woodcreeper

Automolus rubiginosus Automolus rufipileatus Xenops tenuirostris Xenops minutus Xenops milleri Sclerurus rufigularis Sclerurus caudacutus


Deconychura longicauda

Dendrocincla fuliginosa Dendrocincla merula


Deconychura stictolaema

256 White-shouldered Antshrike

Black-banded Woodcreeper Strong-billed Woodcreeper Straight-billed Woodcreeper Striped Woodcreeper Ocellated Woodcreeper Spix’s Woodcreeper Buff-throated Woodcreeper Lineated Woodcreeper Red-billed Scythebill TYPICAL ANTBIRDS Fasciated Antshrike Undulated Antshrike Great Antshrike

Glyphorynchus spirurus Sittasomus griseicapillus Nasica longirostris Dendrexetastes rufigula Dendrocolaptes certhia
Dendrocolaptes picumnus

Xiphorhynchus obsoletus Xiphorhynchus ocellatus

Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus Xiphorhynchus picus

Frederickena unduligera

Xiphorhynchus spixii Xiphorhynchus guttatus Lepidocolaptes albolineatus Campylorhamphus trochilirostris THAMNOPHILIDAE Cymbilaimus lineatus

Plain-winged Antshrike Mouse-colored Antshrike Pearly Antshrike Spot-winged Antshrike Dusky-throated Antshrike Cinereous Antshrike Pygmy Antwren Moustached Antwren Amazonian Streaked-Antwren Plain-throated Antwren Yasuni Antwren Ornate Antwren Rufous-tailed Antwren

Taraba major Thamnophilus aethiops Thamnophilus murinus Pygiptila stellaris

Thamnophilus schistaceus Megastictus margaritatus Thamnomanes ardesiacus Myrmotherula brachyura
Myrmotherula multostriata

Thamnomanes caesius Myrmotherula ignota

Myrmotherula hauxwelli

Myrmotherula fjeldsaai Myrmotherula ornata Myrmotherula erythrura

270 271 272 273 274 275 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309

276 Chestnut-shouldered Antwren

White-flanked Antwren Long-winged Antwren Rio Suno Antwren Gray Antwren Dot-winged Antwren Dugand’s Antwren

Myrmotherula longipennis Myrmotherula menetriesii

Myrmotherula axillaris


Myrmotherula sunensis


Gray Antbird Blackish Antbird Black Antbird Black-faced Antbird Warbling Antbird Yellow-browed Antbird Spot-backed Antbird Dot-backed Antbird Scale-backed Antbird Banded Antbird Spot-winged Antbird Silvered Antbird Black Bushbird Plumbeous Antbird White-shouldered Antbird Sooty Antbird White-plumed Antbird Bicolored Antbird Lunulated Antbird Hairy-crested Antbird Black-spotted Bare-eye Reddish-winged Bare-eye Wing-banded Antbird

Microrhopias quixensis Herpsilochmus dugandi Terenura humeralis Cercomacra cinerascens Cercomacra nigrescens Cercomacra serva
Myrmoborus myotherinus Hypocnemis hypoxantha

Hypocnemis cantator

Schistocichla leucostigma

Hylophylax naevia Hylophylax punctulata Hylophylax poecilinota Dichrozona cincta

Rhegmatorhina melanosticta

Sclateria naevia Neoctantes niger Myrmeciza hyperythra Myrmeciza melanoceps Myrmeciza fortis Pithys albifrons Gymnopithys leucaspis Gymnopithys lunulata

Phlegopsis nigromaculata

Rufous-capped Antthrush Black-faced Antthrush Striated Antthrush Scaled Antpitta Ochre-striped Antpitta White-lored Antpitta Thrush-like Antpitta GNATEATERS Ash-throated Gnateater TAPACULOS Rusty-belted Tapaculo TYRANT FLYCATCHERS Golden-faced Tyrannulet

Myrmothera campanisona Conopophaga peruviana

Phlegopsis erythroptera Myrmornis torquata FORMICARIIDAE Formicarius colma Formicarius analis Chamaeza nobilis Grallaria guatimalensis Grallaria dignissima Hylopezus fulviventris CONOPOPHAGIDAE

RHINOCRYPTIDAE Liosceles thoracicus TYRANNIDAE Zimmerius chrysops

310 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353

311 Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet

White-lored Tyrannulet

Gray Elaenia Forest Elaenia Ochre-bellied Flycatcher Ringed Antpipit Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant Double-banded Pygmy-Tyrant White-eyed Tody-Tyrant Zimmer’s Tody-Tyrant Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher Brownish Twistwing Rufous-tailed Flatbill Zimmer’s Flatbill Gray-crowned Flatbill Olive-faced Flatbill Golden-crowned Spadebill White-crested Spadebill Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher Black-tailed Flycatcher Eastern Wood-Pewee Drab Water-Tyrant Long-tailed Tyrant Bright-rumped Attila Citron-bellied Attila Cinnamon Attila Grayish Mourner Eastern Sirystes Dusky-capped Flycatcher Short-crested Flycatcher Great Kiskadee Lesser Kiskadee Boat-billed Flycatcher Social Flycatcher Gray-capped Flycatcher Dusky-chested Flycatcher Streaked Flycatcher Piratic Flycatcher Crowned Slaty Flycatcher Sulphury Flycatcher Tropical Kingbird Eastern Kingbird Chestnut-crowned Becard White-winged Becard

Ornithion inerme Tyrannulus elatus Myiopagis caniceps Myiopagis gaimardii Mionectes oleagineus Corythopis torquata Myiornis ecaudatus Lophotriccus vitiosus Hemitriccus zosterops Hemitriccus minimus


Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum

Cnipodectes subbrunneus

Tolmomyias poliocephalus

Ramphotrigon ruficauda Tolmomyias assimilis Tolmomyias viridiceps Platyrinchus coronatus

Platyrinchus platyrhynchos

Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus

Terenotriccus erythrurus Myiobius atricaudus Contopus virens Ochthornis littoralis Colonia colonus Attila spadiceus Attila citriniventris Attila cinnamomeus Rhytipterna simplex Sirystes sibilator Myiarchus tuberculifer Myiarchus ferox Pitangus sulphuratus Philohydor lictor Megarynchus pitangua Myiozetetes similis Myiozetetes granadensis Myiozetetes luteiventris Myiodynastes maculatus Legatus leucophaius Tyrannopsis sulphurea Tyrannus melancholicus Tyrannus tyrannus

Pachyramphus castaneus

Pachyramphus polychopterus

354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391


Pink-throated Becard Black-tailed Tityra Black-crowned Tityra COTINGAS White-browed Purpletuft Cinereous Mourner Screaming Piha Plum-throated Cotinga Spangled Cotinga Bare-necked Fruitcrow Purple-throated Fruitcrow Black-necked Red-Cotinga MANAKINS Golden-headed Manakin Wire-tailed Manakin White-crowned Manakin Blue-crowned Manakin Blue-backed Manakin White-bearded Manakin Western Striped Manakin Green Manakin Dwarf Tyrant-Manakin Wing-barred Piprites Thrush-like Schiffornis

Violaceous Jay VIREOS & ALLIES Red-eyed Vireo Dusky-capped Greenlet Lemon-chested Greenlet Tawny-crowned Greenlet THRUSHES Gray-cheeked Thrush Swainson's Thrush Black-billed Thrush Lawrence's Thrush Hauxwell's Thrush White-necked Thrush Brown-chested Martin Gray-breasted Martin White-winged Swallow White-banded Swallow White-thighed Swallow


Pachyramphus minor Tityra cayana Tityra inquisitor COTINGIDAE Iodopleura isabellae Laniocera hypopyrra Lipaugus vociferans Cotinga maynana Cotinga cayana Gymnoderus foetidus Querula purpurata Phoenicircus nigricollis PIPRIDAE Pipra erythrocephala Pipra filicauda Dixiphia pipra Lepidothrix coronata Chiroxiphia pareola Manacus manacus Machaeropterus regulus Chloropipo holochlora Tyranneutes stolzmanni Piprites chloris Schiffornis turdinus CORVIDAE Cyanocorax violaceus VIREONIDAE Vireo olivaceus Hylophilus hypoxanthus Hylophilus thoracicus Hylophilus ochraceiceps TURDIDAE Catharus minimus Catharus ustulatus Turdus ignobilis Turdus lawrencii Turdus hauxwelli Turdus albicollis HIRUNDINIDAE Progne tapera Progne chalybea Tachycineta albiventer Atticora fasciata Neochelidon tibialis


392 Southern Rough-winged Swallow 393 394 395 396 397 399 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 411 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431

398 White-breasted Wood-Wren 400 Southern Nightingale-Wren

WRENS Black-capped Donacobius Thrush-like Wren Coraya Wren Buff-breasted Wren House Wren Musician Wren

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis TROGLODYTIDAE Donacobius atricapillus
Campylorhynchus turdinus


Wing-banded Wren

Microcerculus marginatus

Thryothorus coraya Thryothorus leucotis Troglodytes aedon Henicorhina leucosticta Cyphorhinus arada


Long-billed Gnatwren Tropical Gnatcatcher NEW WORLD WARBLERS Blackpoll Warbler Canada Warbler Buff-rumped Warbler TANAGERS & ALLIES Short-billed Honeycreeper Purple Honeycreeper Green Honeycreeper Blue Dacnis Black-faced Dacnis Yellow-bellied Dacnis Yellow-backed Tanager Thick-billed Euphonia Orange-bellied Euphonia White-vented Euphonia Rufous-bellied Euphonia White-lored Euphonia Masked Tanager Turquoise Tanager Opal-rumped Tanager Opal-crowned Tanager Paradise Tanager Green-and-gold Tanager Yellow-bellied Tanager Bay-headed Tanager Swallow Tanager Blue-gray Tanager Palm Tanager Silver-beaked Tanager Masked Crimson Tanager

Ramphocaenus melanurus

Microcerculus bambla POLIOPTILIDAE Polioptila plumbea PARULIDAE Dendroica striata Wilsonia canadensis Basileuterus fulvicauda THRAUPIDAE Cyanerpes nitidus Cyanerpes caeruleus Chlorophanes spiza Dacnis cayana Dacnis lineata Dacnis flaviventer Hemithraupis flavicollis Euphonia laniirostris Euphonia xanthogaster Euphonia minuta Euphonia rufiventris Euphonia chrysopasta Tangara nigrocincta Tangara mexicana Tangara velia Tangara callophrys Tangara chilensis Tangara schrankii Tangara xanthogastra Tangara gyrola Tersina viridis Thraupis episcopus Thraupis palmarum Ramphocelus carbo

Ramphocelus nigrogularis

432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465

Summer Tanager Red-crowned Ant-Tanager Gray-headed Tanager Flame-crested Tanager Fulvous-crested Tanager White-shouldered Tanager Fulvous Shrike-Tanager Magpie Tanager SALTATORS, GROSBEAKS Buff-throated Saltator Grayish Saltator Slate-colored Grosbeak Red-capped Cardinal Blue-black Grosbeak Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak EMBERIZINE FINCHES Blue-black Grassquit Lesser Seed-Finch Lesson's Seedeater Chestnut-bellied Seedeater Yellow-browed Sparrow Yellow-rumped Cacique Red-rumped Cacique Solitary Cacique Casqued Oropendola Crested Oropendola Russet-backed Oropendola Green Oropendola Olive Oropendola Shiny Cowbird Giant Cowbird Velvet-fronted Grackle Moriche Oriole Orange-backed Troupial Red-breasted Blackbird Bobolink

Sporophila castaneiventris

Piranga rubra Habia rubica Eucometis penicillata Tachyphonus cristatus Tachyphonus surinamus Tachyphonus luctuosus Lanio fulvus Cissopis leveriana CARDINALIDAE Saltator maximus Saltator coerulescens Saltator grossus Paroaria gularis Cyanocompsa cyanoides Parkerthraustes humeralis Emberizidae Volatinia jacarina Oryzoborus angolensis Sporophila bouvronides Ammodramus aurifrons ICTERIDAE Cacicus haemorrhous Cacicus solitarius Clypicterus oseryi Psarocolius decumanus Psarocolius angustifrons Psarocolius bifasciatus Molothrus bonariensis Scaphidura oryzivora Lampropsar tanagrinus Icterus chrysocephalus Icterus croconotus Sturnella militaris Dolichonyx oryzivorus


Cacicus cela

Psarocolius viridis






We would like to thanks to all the collaborators who spend their time in the forest, assisting us in the identification of many of the species. Rudy Gelis, Mike Tidwell, Holger Licuy, Jose Illanes, Oscar Tapuy, Nick Athanas, Mitch Lysinger and others; without their effort and keenness this list wouldn’t be possible.

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