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Simons model of decision-making

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Simons model of decision-making

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Simons model of decision-making

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Explain the Simons model of decision-making


Decision-making, in organizations, is regarded as a rational process Herbert A. Simon has given a model to describe the decisionmaking process. The model comprises of three major phases, namely. i) ii) iii) Intelligence Design, and Choice

Intelligence Phase: In this phase, the decision maker scans the environment & identifies the problem or opportunity. The scanning of 3/5


Simons model of decision-making

environment may be continuous or non-continuous. Intelligence phase of decision-making process involves: a. b. Problem Searching Problem Formulation

Problem Searching: For searching the problem, the reality or actual is compared to some standards. Differences are measured & the differences are evaluated to determine whether there is any problem or not. Problem Formulation:

When the problem is identified, there is always a risk of solving the wrong problem. In problem formulation, establishing relations with some problem solved earlier or an analogy proves quite useful. Design Phase: In this phase, the decision maker identifies alternative courses of action to solve the problem. Inventing or developing of various alternatives is time consuming and crucial activity, as the decision maker has to explore all the possible alternatives. Choice Phase: At this stage, one of the alternatives developed in design phase is selected & is called a decision. For selecting an 4/5


Simons model of decision-making

alternative, detailed analysis of each and every alternative is made. Having made the decision, it is implemented. The decision maker in choice phase may reject all the alternatives and return to the design phase for developing more alternatives.
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