by Charlie

Gerarti

Amsco PUblicatIons New YOrkllondon/SYdneYICologne

Preface

5 to Chords 6 8

Introduction Introduction

Minor patterns 43 Blues Scale patterns 45 Cycle of Downward Fifths patterns

46

to Improvisation Using the Blues

Scales

51

Blues in D 8 First Blues 12 Vertical-Horizontal Charlie Parker No.1 Charlie Parker No.2

16 19 20 22

Pop Tunes, Turnbacks, and Substitutions Bridging the Gap 23 Johnny Hodges 28 Modal or Scalar Improvisation Modal Man 31 John Coltrane 32 A Rock Modal Solo Free Jazz 36 37 30

Blues Scale Study #1 51 Blues Scale Study #2 53 Whole-Tone Scale Studies 54 Diminished or Octatonic Scale Studies 56 Pentatonic Scale Study #1 59 Pentatonic Scale Study #2 60 Pentatonic Scale Study #3 64 Dominant Seventh Pentatonic Scale Study 68 Kumoi Scale Study 70 Pelog Scale Study 71 Arpeggios 73 75

34

Multiphonics, Microtones, and Other Effects More Tunes 77

Ornette Coleman Patterns 39

llm7V7 patterns 39 Major patterns 42

Ten 77 Riding the Rails 77 The Modal Mix 78 Four Plus Three 79 Chord Chart 80

Improvisation has a long history in music. The Baroque (seventeenth century to eighteenth century) keyboard player was expected to improvise an accompaniment. Bach, Beethoven, and other great composers were renowned improvisers, and in fact many of their compositions were based on their improvisatory flights. Today improvisation is an important aspect of jazz, rock, Indian music, and some contemporary classical music. Improvisation is a mixture of theoretical knowledge and intuition. Intuitive skills are developed by improvising constantly. Soloing with a band gives you an awareness of group dynamics, and soloing by yourself gives you the freedom to explore new ideas. The improviser must be highly confident because once the music has been produced it is impossible to edit it. Frequently an improviser plays a note or phrase he didn't mean to. These unintended notes must be added to the flow of ideas, and may often enrich the solo. Since improvisation is a kind of instantaneous composition, all of the phrases must form a logical whole. The notes, motifs, rhythms, and chords must come almost by themselves. There is little or no time for evaluation during an improvisation. Theoretical understanding develops by studying chords, scales, phrasing, the different types of improvisation, and all the other aspects of jazz. A jazz saxophonist should know the work of Johnny Hodges, Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and all the other great saxophonists.

Since improvisation is by definition "of the moment," the role of records in learning jazz is especially important. The ability to transcribe jazz tunes and solos is essential since jazz material is not readily available. Besides supplying you with material, this will also improve your ear. You transcribe from records by playing what you hear note by note, checking it for accuracy with the record, and then writing it down. The most ideal situation is to tape the selection at a high speed on a reel-to-reel tape recorder. The music can be played at either the speed it was taped or a slower speed. Each slower speed will bring the music down one octave further. If the only tape recorder available is a cassette player, one still has the ability to turn on, off, and rewind, although one can't play at a slower speed. If you don't have access to a tape recorder, play the record at 16 instead of 33 r.p.m. 's; this brings the music down almost an octave. This book has been written for an intermediate level saxophonist who has had little or no experience improvising jazz. I believe it has much in it to interest an advanced player as well, and it can easily be adapted to flute, clarinet, and other treble instruments. Creativity and personal expression are stressed from the beginning since they are essential elements of improvisation. At first the saxophonist is restricted to a few notes. Eventually an extensive range of possibilities is supplied. Examples from master saxophonists-with their own phrasing-are given throughout the text.

5

Introduction to Chordl
Jazz improvisations are often based on the chord structure of a tune. The chords are called chord changes. The traditional jazz format consists of a tune played once or twice followed by an improvisation on the chord changes and a repeat of the tune. Each cycle that the changes are played is called a chorus. Standard chords are based on piled-up thirds. The space between any two notes is called an interval, and the interval between every other note in a minor or major scale is a third. Putting three or more consecutive thirds from any point in the scale together will produce a standard chord. * C Major ~
C

o

o E

o

o G

"
B

II

@

®
"
F

©
D

C Natural Minor o
D o

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60

II

@

C

The simplest chord is composed of a root (the first note), a third, and a fifth (five notes from the root). This is called a triad, and there are four types: Diminished ~ Minor Major Augmented

~~i

A chord with four piled-up thirds is called a seventh chord. There are ten types:

, b~i
~

Diminished 7th

Half Diminished 7th

bti

Minor 7th

Minor triad with Major 7th

ii
Dom. 7th with augmented 5th

Dominant 7th

bl


are in C.

Dominant 7th diminished 5th

bPi

* All
6

examples

in this chapter

Major 7th

Major 7th with dim. 5th

Major 7th with aug. 5th

1
Composers before the middle of the nineteenth century rarely used any chords besides triads and a few seventh chords. Jazz musicians before the thirties rarely used any other chords either. A ninth is composed of five notes; an eleventh, of six notes; and a thirteenth, of seven notes. The tones of these chords can be diminished-lowered a half-tone, or augmented-raised a half-tone. The third of an unaltered eleventh chord is usually omitted. The unaltered eleventh is usually omitted from a thirteenth chord. The notes of a chord can appear in different ways. When the root (which gives the chord its name) is in the bass-the lowest tone-the chord is in root position. When the third is in the bass it is in first inversion, and when the fifth is in the bass it is in second inversion and so on. A few standard chords do not consist entirely of piled-up thirds. These include sixth chords, sixth chords with an added ninth, and suspended chords. A sixth chord is a triad with a sixth added. There are two of them: Minor 6th Major 6th A C minor sixth is the first inversion of an A half-diminished seventh chord, and a C major sixth is the first inversion of an A minor seventh chord. Here are the two sixth chords with added ninths: Minor 6th with added 9th Major 6th with added 9th

, jf

i'
Suspended 4th

I

In a suspended chord a major second or perfect fl)ur·'h replaces the third of a major or minor triad: Suspended 2nd

$

Z;

II

Chord Symbols Major: Ma, M, 6, no symbol used Minor: mi, m,Augmented: aug, + Diminished 7th: dim7, Diminished interval: dim, Major 7th: Ma7, M7, 67 Dominant 7th: 7 Minor 7th: mi7, m7,-7 Half-diminished 7th: m7-5, m7dim5, ~ Extended chords: one example-C7( +~1) is a C dominant 7th with a 9th and augmented 11th added. . Suspended: sus
0

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7

Int,oduction to

ImplOYilation UIint the IIueI
The blues is a classic American form. The twelve-bar blues varies greatly in harmonic sophistication from Muddy Waters and Elvis Presley to Charlie Parker and George Russell. The following is an easy twelve-bar blues followed by a written improvisation. All of this is followed by your own improvisation, and ends with a repetition of the tune. When soloing, use only the root of each chord, as is done in the written improvisation. Try to be inventive with the limiteo choice of notes. Also try to maintain the tempo and meter.

Blues in D
Not too fast

II: r

D

c:tt Itz±) J Ir
G7

G7

D

,~
G7

IT

~Eod•

t

I+

Co ·gro •

D

dt

JI

r

c:t' r I C1 t
j)

D

t

r

A7

~.~------...

1st Chorus of Solo
D

If
G7

rOIl
D

17

D7

r

~ro:l

I

r

10
G7

D

I
D

I

fJ
_.....--..,__

t

D

I

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t-

=t

'~ff rr--r
A7
©Consolidated

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G7
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Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

8

Your improvisation

G7.

D

D7

,~
G7

G7

D

D

G7

D

D

:11

,Wi

D

r

c:t t I tzz±J
gEe d• t
G7

G7

J Ir
t

D

c:J t I Jt

D7

----

~

tt1
Ff=j

,~
G7

IT

I Ltd E
.'

41g

'

41

J Ir
D

D

c:J

0/

)J

r I c:r
r:.J I'$c'
D

D

t

tit; I c:lCtl

~ II

9

Another way to improvise on blues changes is to restrict yourself to the notes of the blues scale:

~

J J #J ; ,J J
JJ
F#
~ • ~~
E

D

rr
e
I

II

~

.;

J ~J

r

F
#r
~

II

,

, #J

r

F #r
b
b

r

II

Ab

bJ
Bb

5.

I

~~
I

br §r
b

rr

II

~r qr r '&r

gr

r

br be

II

, , , ,

~

bJ bJ ~J bJ qJ

Eb

br'

b

r
I

brA

J bJ qJ
G

F

b

r ~r F
F

6.

1=4

;
A

br

~r'

~.r I
F

r=§]
I

JF
B

~.'F r
I

...
I
roo

;
II

Fr

'r r

r #r

r

10

You can restrict yourself to the notes of the pentatonic scale as well, since all five notes in this scale are to be found in the blues scale:

C

~

J bJ
D

J

J

~r r
F

II

&

Db

bJ
Eb

bJ

~j &J

br

~r
b

II

$

JJJJ
E

r
F
#r

II

$

~J ~J
F

&J

~r ~r r
~. r I

II

&J J J

rr
#r
b

II

$
&
~

n

J

F#

J

r

F
hr

II

,
~

&

J bJ J

~r r
F

II

G

~r

rrr

II

Ab

&J &r

~r r
bill!

tr
b

A

II

J

rrrrr

II

~r ~r
Bb

I

r

1: t

II

&r

B

r

F Nr

r

t

II

11

In this next blues my improvisation is based first on the blues scale on G (1st chorus), and then on the pentatonic scale on G (2nd chorus). Do the same in your improvisation. Groups of two eighth notes should be played unevenly, with the first eighth note longer than the second. In jazz, eighth notes are often played in this fashion.

First Blues
Slow blues feeling

G7

I V f' f
C~
..--.._

C7
~

G7

IEr
G7

rn
..--.._

~I
~

'g r
D7
..Q.

C7

IT

f

IT
C7

I
~

g~' ~
~

if r f F
IT
G7

G7

IVqr~
G7

ell
II

,~
1st chorus

I

~

~.

Ii

jE

F

..---....

r

I

fAD

G7

~#

:J ,)20'"

El7ft

G7

,I]
2nd chorus

D7

I

bETtiE?:l
3

C7

'" [fJj
©Consolidated

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lfliW

C7

~tJJ -

G7

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Music Publishers,

1978. All Rights Reserved.

12

,~ jjtJ]

G7

,JfB'1 'R§£F=

C7

C7

I~
G7

I~iQiW tl2JJL2)
G7

G7

G7

I

1l@}J3LJ)EES
Your improvisation

I

I

,~ II:
C7

G7

C7

G7

G7

,~ ,~ ,~ Er ,~r t ,~
D7 G7 C7
~

C7

G7

G7

C7

G7

G7

:II

E

r

----...

C~

IT

I

~~'

~

IE r F r Ie L r r Ie
G7 G7

G7

G7

.--....

r

t

I

r~ gr'

r

7_

~

I

Err
.--....
C7
~

<-,-: I
~
~'

~

----r

G7

t

I

~~

gr' r

tTl
II

~

D7

-'l..

I

~

~'

~

jF

(1

G7

I

fJD

13

In a totally chordal improvisation each note is related to the chord with which it is played. In other words, where there is a Dm7 the main notes are D, F, A, and C, and all non-chord notes must resolve to them. Here is a Dm7 passage of John Coltrane's where all but three notes are chord tones. The chord tones are circled.

1) A passing tone is a note between two chord tones. 2) A neighbor note is a note one step above or below a chord tone which returns immediately to the same tone. 3) Upper and lower neighbor notes can be played in succession. This is a very common device in jazz. 4) The interval of a downward third can be bridged by a nota cambiata, in which a passing tone skips down a third and then comes up to its destination.

Now play the following set of blues changes using only chord tones. With G7 you can play G, B, D, or F. You can play C, E, G, or Bb with C7; and with D7, D, F# ,A, or C.

5) The chromatic tones.

scale can be used between chord

,I ,I
il

6) Notes a semitone lower than the chord tones can be used before them.

G7

C7

G7

G7

C7

C7

G7

G7

D7

C7

G7

G7

II

Some non-chord tones should now be introduced into your solos. Non-chord tones can provide a flowing interconnection between chord tones. Here are some types used in jazz, followed by examples in C major.

fa

, , ,
5)

1)
a

-Z2

a

II
3)
til

ttl

i'2

-b.

-

til

II
a

4)

- ~-

II
6)

Z2

-2) a

a

tJ

0

r.2

II

0

,-

r.2

#-

a

ij

14

Now return to the blues changes just given to utilize some of these devices in your solo. Here are the passing, neighbor and chord tones for each chord: G7: G, A, B, C, D, E, or F C7: C, D, E, F, G, A, or Bb D7: D, E, F # , G. A, B, or C Perhaps the main difference between most blues and modern jazz blues is the frequent use of the IIm7V-7 progression. This is the single most common progression in jazz. The Roman numerals refer to scale steps. There are names for all the scale steps, but the four below should be memorized as they are the most important: Tonic C I D II E III Subdominant F IV Dominant G V A VI Leading Tone B VII

Progression Cm7 to F7 C#m7 to F#7 Dm7 to G7 E~m7 to A!J7 Em7 to A7 Fm7 to Bb7 F#m7 to B7 Gm7 to C7 A~m7 to DII7 Am7 to D7 Bbm7 to E~7 Bm7 to E7

Tonic Bb B C DII D Eb E F Gb G A~ A

The IIm7-V7 progression often leads to a chord on the tonic. When it doesn't, it still strongly suggests the tonic key. The notes that can be played with a IIm7 -V7 progression or a V7 are in the tonic key.

In the following blues changes, a one-measure IIm7 -V7 progression occurs three times and a two-measure IIm7 -V7 progression occurs once. The correct major scale for each chord is placed above it. The notes in parentheses are the accidentals that occur in that scale. Although all the notes in the scale can be used (as well as all the chromatic notes in between), try to stress the chord tones.

C Major C

C Major Dm7

G7

C Major C

F Major (Bb) Gm7

C7

~I
B~Major (Bb, Eb) F7 ~ C Major Dm7 C Major G7 C Major C C Major C BbMajor (Bb, Eb) F7 C Major C D Major (Ft Em7 C~) A7

i

:11

15

In the second and sixth measures of many blues pieces, there is a diminished seventh chord. This type of chord is built on four successive minor thirds that divide the octave into four equal parts. Diminished seventh chords whose roots are a minor third, diminished fifth or diminished seventh apart contain the same tones.

II
II Diminished chords are used in the next blues. The two most basic approaches to playing chord changes are vertical and horizontal. Vertical signifies that most of the chords are arpeggiated; horizontal, that an emphasis is placed on melodic line. Tenor saxophonist Coleman Hawkins is regarded as the first exponent of vertical playing; tenor saxophonist Lester Young, of horizontal playing. The next set of blues changes is followed by a written improvisation. The first chorus is a vertical approach; the second, a horizontal approach.

II
III

II
IV (contains the same tones as I)

Vertical-Horizontal
Not too fast

41
F7

C6

F7

C6

Gm7

C7

C6

Em7

A7

G7

C6

Dm7

G7

©Consolidated Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

16

1st chorus (Vertical)

'r8f-f]Jw
F7

C6

F7

Gm7

j

7l&ttfftJ

tPWI

C7

, -(-@) I Gl
C6
F7

2nd chorus (Horizontal)

F~o

C6 7

t

;&]@.

f?-F~-(r-3Jt-ijITq4-=J

Gm7

C7

, (r:gr
F7

7

J. 1-

F~o

PJ)I] ,}3

II]

C6

tIl; Lftr~-J;- ~1 c§
C6 (C6)

Em7

A7

~#jJ.

17

The diminished or octatonic scale is composed of whole steps alternating with half steps. There are three possible diminished scales:

..

~

J

::.::-~ ~~:.-:--J-------~-~
------------_-----

---.-

--

-

-------

J

!,-I

The following two blues solos resemble two by Charlie Parker. They illustrate material covered in this chapter: improvising with chord tones and non-chord tones. with the blues scale, with IIm7-V7 progressions, and with the diminished seventh chord. Studying and memorizing solos is a tried and proven method for leinning jazz. Thousands of saxophonists, clarinetists, i'luld<;, pianists, trumpeters, trombonists, and bassists have memorized Charlie Parker solos. He was a brilliant alto saxophonist with a virtuoso technique, a vivid imagination, and a thorough knowledge of chords. He is the father of the modern jazz saxophone, and inIluenccd all t he great sax players who came after him. In this solo, there are notes in parentheses called ghost or ghosted notes. They are semi-audible tones usually plaved on the after beat of a two eighth-note group. They are produced by pressing down the reed, which deadens the tone. /\ line going down from a note at an angle is a Iall-ott. This effect can be produced by the lips or by a quick downward glissando. Unlike many saxophonists who use a more even-noted approach-especially those who play with a rock beat-the rhythms are not exact. Slight ritards and accellerandi are used frequently. There are several gradations of note attack and dynamics, and the articulation is totally unpredictable and varied.

Charlie

Parker

18

Charlie Parker No. 1

F~m7

1---

t

ngc Ltl
~
-

B7

~fPfr&dE-r*,_ . _ G~
--c-

/Em7 -

A7

Err
y

r --_Q ffit j ~~ I Er
II
19

;~~_c- 9?~tr7
DM7

"ij

$; {;ri I r I r

©Consolidated

M usic PI' rlishers , 1978 . All I" h ts Reserved. .', U dg

Charlie Parker No. 2

,~~! e;lcrq::FCFg Jill rf1
Uptempo

1st chorus D7

D7

~

~

D7 1

r ft F3i1iF r

D7

j

D7

,~;== E:r
G7

~

7

~f;fflj) I
G7

~

'~~SB~J· 1~
D7 Em7
©Consolidated Music Publishers,

A7

I

,i~filtiW~l r ~ltfwr1 )1
7

3rd chorus D7

/"':0

D7

/"':0

1978. All Rights Reserved.

20

4th chorus

4 Up Ia' @
[or: Fm7 B~7]

D7

F cYlc ffi tr~ J.

G7

G7

I

-

5th chorus

Pop Tunel. Tu.nbackl.

and Subltitutionl
Jazz musicians have always improvised on pop tunes and many jazz compositions are based on pop chord changes. The most common structures are AABA and ABAB. "I Got Rhythm" is an example of an AABA tune, and "How High the Moon" is an ABAB tune. A and B are two different phrases, each usually eight measures long, and many tunes are thirty-two measures in length. The last eight-measure phrase of some tunes is altered and extended by a few measures. "All the Things You Are" is one which is thirty-six measures long. The B of an AABA structure is called the bridge or release. One common bridge is the cycle of fifths bridge, also called the "I Got Rhythm" bridge. It starts a major third above the tonic key, which is usually Bb concert, and makes a cycle of dominant seventh chords. Each new chord is a fifth lower than the one before. The cycle continues until it returns to the tonic key. Key of C Bb saxes Key of G E b saxes B7 B7 E7 E7 A7 A7 D7 D7 E7 E7 A7 A7 D7 D7 G7 G7

Every dominant seventh chord can be preceded by a minor seventh chord a fifth higher. I prefer this substitute version for the cycle of fifths bridge: Key of C B~ saxes Key of G Eb saxes F#m7 B7 E7 E7 Em7 A7 Am7 D7 Bm7 E7 A7 A7 Am7 D7 Dm7 G7

Coleman

Hawkins

On the next page is a thirty-two measure tune with a cycle of fifths bridge. Although it starts on a Dm7, it is in the key of C. After playing the tune, improvise on the changes and then repeat the tune. The cycle of fifths bridge takes a long time to master. Don't be thrown by your mistakes. Accept them gracefully. Sometimes they are more interesting than the notes that you intended!

22

Bridging the Gap

~t-7.~..=~=+r-:-g;'--~ -r
Dm7 E~o Dm7 bm7 G7

Medium swing tempo

Em7

-(-=-"""'1

?~

---~~~?---~--=
A7 9 Em7 A 7-9

~Ep~$=1---¥t'=- V
2

r¥BTnTF~~l¥511
7 -.

~M7

~~tf
Bridge

fi

~r

CG

~--~~r:.:~t -(~r=

Dm7

E~o

--eft'"

r fiT

Em7

A7-9

J~-~e-

.~

©Consolidated

Music Publishers,

1978. All Rights Reserved.

23

When the choruses of a tune are repeated, a turnback is used. This is a connecting chord progression that leads back to the start of a tune. A turn back is indicated by chords in parentheses placed above the chords they replace:

C7 (H): -9
-9

B·m with Ma7

C7(~t~):B~,D~,Gp,A C7

I

(Dm7 C

G7)

(+H ): B~, D~, G
-9

p,

A

I

Since most pop tunes are not published for jazz musicians, turnbacks usually must be added. The last chord of a turnback is the dominant seventh (or dominant seventh substitute) of the first chord of the tune. These turnbacks are used for tunes beginning and ending on the identical major chord: IIorIIIm7 VI7-9IIIm7 V71 V71

C7 ( -1~ ): B~7-5 C7 ( 1~ ): B~Ma7-5 C7 ( -if ): B~ 7
9

C7 ( if ): B b Ma7 C7

(~H B~ 7+5 ):
9 9

9

IIIIm7 III~m71 IIm7

II

C7 (+if ): B~ Ma7+5

IIH71 VU

II~71

Now return to the tune just given and improvise a few choruses using this turnback in the last measure: Em7 A7. Substitutions and harmonic alterations make pop tunes harmonically sophisticated. Notes can be added to many of the chords. A major sixth, seventh, and/or ninth can be added to a major chord. A ninth and even an eleventh can be added to minor seventh chords and half-diminished seventh chords. Altered and unaltered ninths, elevenths, and thirteenths can be added to dominant seventh chords. The fifth can be altered as well. A dominant seventh chord with a diminished ninth and/or a diminished thirteenth is particularly effective before a minor chord a fifth below. A dominant seventh chord with a ninth and an augmented eleventh is particularly effective before a major seventh chord a fourth below. The lowest tones of extended chords are omitted for melodic flexibility. When playing thirteenth chords, chords whose roots are the seventh are substituted. In the following chart of thirteenth chords the tenth (a third plus an octave) is used where the eleventh is not given. The tones of a chord are given in ascending order where symbols are not applicable. Transposing these substitutions will teach you how to play thirteenth chords in all keys. C7 (~§3): B~7 7 C7 ( ~~ ): C7 (
-9

Any dominant seventh chord can be preceded by a minor seventh chord a fourth below it. In other words, V7 becomesIIm7-V7. This is called a IIm7 substitution. A dominant seventh chord leading to a tonic can be replaced by a seventh chord a tritone+a diminished fifth-lower, which is called a tritone substitution. A diminished seventh chord preceding a minor seventh chord a semi-tone lower can be replaced by a minor seventh chord on the same root. This chord can then be followed by a dominant seventh chord a fifth down. For example, E~dim7 going to Dm7 can be replaced by Ebm7 or E~m7 Ab7. The fifth of a major seventh at the end of a tune can be diminished. CMa7 at the end of a tune, for instance, can be replaced by CMa7-5. Quartal harmony, the use of chords built in fourths, introduces other substitutions. Minor seventh chords can be replaced by a three- or four-note chord built in perfect fourths from the root. Minor and major sixth chords can be replaced by a three- to five-note chord whose first three tones are, in ascending order, the third, sixth, and ninth. In a Gm6 chord, for example, these notes are B~ , E, and A. Dominant seventh chords can be replaced by a three- to six-note chord whose first three tones are, in ascending order, the seventh, tenth, and thirteenth. In a G7 chord these notes are F, B, and E. The first study that follows illustrates different forms of extended dominant sevenths. Two forms of symbols are used for each chord. The slash chord Gm7/C means Gm7 suspended over the tone C. The second study is based on chords built in perfect fourths.

-if ): B~m7

m dim with Ma7

24

Extended dominant seventh chords

, JfJJ#J[iF} 1jJ d iJ IT 5) 1{J d ijJ (f?]

C7-9 or GOIC

C7 (~9) or G07/C

Cll or G-7/C

1

~fJ~

C7

tl§)

or Gm+7/C

C#7-9 or G#oIC#

1_

3

J

r 17) 1;jJ
1

C#7 (~§) or G#07/C#

3

J

"ElU
1

, {J J oJ [ U} 1fJ J ~J
Eb7-9 or BbO/Eb

[ru D J ~Eru
"j
Ebll or Bb-7/Eb

ttffiJ iJ 0 Em l{tV} t r f} I{ftl r r ~
~EO
Ell or B-7/E

Eb7 (~§) or Bb07/Eb

1(f7J

t

EUlgRJEE
F7-9 or COIF

u

25

ttff1f r
b

F# 7-9 or C#o /F~

F# 11 or C#-7/F#

&{fTIrtr B> l[ff:rerg
Gll or D-7 /G G7 (+1~) or Dm+7/G

F~7 (+1~) or C#m+7/F#

G7-9 or DO/G

I_BErni
A~7-9 or Ebo/Ab

~[filE r p U @lit r D '00--1-[-( D
I 1
1

I

~(ffflt U I{j~tf f u Ib@¥r f ~ 1 t=6Ffi ITUI UTE 6 f i} I (FE - t--=-~-r fuM ¥tt r E r #6 r U Ib[f]--fj-j e-:--r-U l{iTj<E~~j
A~7 (~§) or E~07 /A~ A~ 11 or Eb -7/Ab A~7 (+1~) or E~m+7 /A~

qe

A7-9 or EO/A

A7 (~~) or E07 /A

All or E-7 /A

A7 (+1~) or Em+7/A

B~7-9 or FO/B~

B~7 (~~) or F071B~

Bb 11 or F-7/Bb

¥c
&

E

Off [ Er Of r 'r-f [ f Lr I t.ff; [Yd:-j
F#071B
Bll or F#-7/B B7 (+1§) or F#m+7!B

B7 (~~) or

(rFlufi I dE pi t f f_} I tfi!f Eft I"

II

26

27

The next solo transcription is adapted from alto saxophonist Johnny Hodges. It is based on a sixteenmeasure standard. Hodges was an early jazz sax great, one of the most influential of the thirties. Other great saxophonists active at that time were Benny Carter (alto), Sidney Bechet (soprano), Coleman Hawkins (tenor), and Lester Young (tenor). Hodges appeared with Duke Ellington for forty-one years, and Ellington featured him on many ballads. Among the most characteristic features of his playing was his very full sound. He frequently used lip slurs and glissandi. His up-tempo playing possessed a spirited, blues-influenced quality. In the following transcription, a line going up to a note denotes a scoop which is produced by a lip slur, a glide produced mainly by the lips. The symbol (v) is a bend, which is a lip slur that dips down from a pitch and then returns to it.

Johnny Hodges
Slow bluesy feel A

Johnny

Hodges

G~m7

mp
F" 7 B7

J I' F ;/F
:> :>

C"7

:>

F'
Brn7 E7

I'~~~:~qr~r~bE!1ra~·p~[jmID~i§[]~J§l~J£~~ ~1:~' J~I ~EJJ~7~~~F~gF~
3 3 ~3~

pitch begins E7 on

t
3 pitch begins onGq 3

z/r -----r"
Fq
A

slightly behind the beat

C"7

FP

t

1

I

t

/?

r

_______

IT

I' r , r Etbr r §E ftqb£j
F~7

~§~

/~

~

*=

]

7
mp
©Consolidated Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

J.

j

Ir

A

28

,3,

l

mf

;be
3

I

t~"t

Bm7

IP"
A vibrato

=i-JI ~~ ~E~-fmf

G#m7

l-t4 F

f~ '-'

C#7

, It

F#7

:rJ2jj.
mp

:=:===---

g~!3] II J

A

I

I

II

29

lIocJal Of Scala, lmptoYilation
Jazz musicians since the late fifties have been interested in this type of improvisation. Instead of emphasizing the notes of a chord as in chordal improvisation, the soloist restricts himself to the notes in a particular scale. The harmonies of a modal tune change very little or not at all in order that the soloist may use one scale for at least a couple of measures. Many modal tunes are based on chords built on fourths. Any scale which relates to the given chords can be used. I will use a Gm7 as an example. The following scales can be used:

G natural minor

'i'j n Ucrril Utrn~
D minor pentatonic

G harmonic

II

'i' n U' ritr
minor

Itt: EJ i3 :LJ

G Dorian scale

'f2n.~
D pe log scale Kumoi scales

G minor pentatonic

G added pentatonic

'I 101gr1C
b

G pelog scale

II

,!~'5t~

ttiJiJ
whole-tone

scale

U drY J

G blues scale

These scales emphasize at least two notes of the G minor triad. But it is not essential to remain in and around G minor. In any solo in which the harmonic structure is limited, it is always possible to leave the chords behind for a while and then return to them. This is called playing out of the changes.

30

Here is a G minor modal tune. Play it, improvise on G minor, and repeat the tune:

Modal Man
Up tempo

r

Ir l]J}

II
3
©Consolidated Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

3

The next solo transcription is adapted from John Coltrane, who was one of the most brilliant of jazz musicians, and a master of modal playing. Tenor and soprano saxophonist Coltrane achieved prominence in the fifties as a member of the Miles Davis Quintet and of various Thelonious Monk groups, and in addition as the leader of his own groups in the sixties until his untimely death in 1967. Coltrane has impressed listeners with his passionate sincerity and vast skill, and his music reflects the serious attitude he had towards his work. Coltrane had completely mastered all types of jazz improvisation, and was a major influence in every one. The following solo was performed on soprano. The symbol (t) over a note indicates a microtone (less than a semi-tone) higher. In the fourth measure of the seventh line is a note between A and B~. This is the fingering:

• Octave key opened •

Bkey A key G key

0

• • •

F key Ekey Dkey

During the sixties Coltrane used many sounds other than those produced by standard saxophone technique. He was one of the first saxophonists to use multiphonics, the simultaneous sounding of two or more notes on a wind instrument.

31

John Coltrane

~~1 R flEEf=S 0 t!it)J~ rf
~,b~

I

@

§TtJ

I

I

17

ij~=a 8J

Ylt

r1t

ft

Fi

©Consolidated

Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

32

~~.

IIIT
ff

I IT

33

Rock and jazz saxophonists often take modal solos entirely based on the blues scale. Here is an example like one by a James Brown tenor saxophonist. Eighth notes are played evenly with a rock or Latin beat.

A Rock Modal 5010

t&~a1[tIPr HErltrdt

Lively rock tempo D minor throughout

aiL

@eri

rr

c!

7

!,Jr}

©Consolidated

Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

34

35

F,eeJazz
When Ornette Coleman came to New York in 1959 he brought with him a new type of music. The musicians in his band improvised without chord changes. The soloists and the accompanying bassist were free to choose any notes that tied together. They didn't want to restrict themselves to notes related to a series of chord changes. Since their music wasn't based on a predetermined cyclically repeated structure, many elements strongly associated with jazz were eliminated. Alto saxophonist Ornette Coleman, pianist Cecil Taylor, and tenor saxophonists John Coltrane and Albert Ayler experimented with harmony, melody, and rhythm to an extent never before heard in jazz. Free sax solos often contain many standard jazz elements including lip slurs, patterns, unevenly-accented eighth notes, arpeggiated chords, and the common jazz phrasing I call reverse slurring~j

IJ Jl"irf

Any melodic ideas can actually be used, whether derived from jazz or not. The vocabulary of many free jazz saxophonists contains numerous sounds not produced by standard saxophone technique. These include microtones, multi phonics, and shrieking sounds. In free jazz the harmony is not predetermined, although in some performances the musicians begin their solo in the same key as the written tune. Ornette Coleman modulates into recognizable keys. John Coltrane often based his free solos on the whole-tone, pentatonic, and other scales. Where non-traditional sounds are used extensively, solos are not related to chords or scales. Rhythm in free jazz is based on pulse or is entirely free. Rhythm based on pulse mayor may not be metrically organized. If it is based on meter (~, ~ etc.) , the meter is usually not strictly adhered to. Sax solos in free time may bear a resemblance to solos in fixed time. Although the accompaniment may be totally free, there may be elements in the solo which resemble half notes, quarter notes, eighth notes, and any other rhythmic values. On the other hand, the solo may be totally arhythmic and made up of sheets of sound, a term invented by jazz critic Ira Gitler. The next solo resembles one by Ornette Coleman that he played as part of a larger solo. The melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic elements are very effective, and it could easily be harmonized.

Ornetle

Coleman

with bassist David Izenzon

The solo begins in E~ major and modulates through a succession of keys. This solo is primarily in C major from measure sixteen until four measures before the end. Coleman was performing on a plastic alto saxophone at the time, but he replaced it with a metal one later in his career.

36

Ornette Coleman
Lonely feeling

J =120

i j7i7
3

mpr

IbD

I

01 ®tt&

Iq~

@tr~1 'aJ

a~r=-;J=ili?frE;1iJlt (jj?? 7 btl I
¥--ft--trt:L~bF
q48i)#fR'I'5r
3

0/

* a f= I

! --;-----

1©Consolidated Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

37

38

Pattelnl
Practicing patterns -which are also called riffs- is the best way to learn to play chord changes. Not only does the player familiarize himself with new ideas for his solos, but he develops the facility to solo in all keys. It also helps him to master the ability to transpose at sight, which is a useful tool for saxophonists, who often have to transpose concert instrument parts. Transposing a motif is an excellent idea for improvisation and composition. I have written each pattern that follows in the lowest possible saxophone range. After playing them as written, transpose them a semi-tone higher and continue to do so until they are too high to be played. Analyzing the intervallic structure will make transposition easier. For example, the first IIm7-V7 pattern consists of the first, second, third, and fifth scale steps of Bb minor followed by the first, second, third, and fifth scale steps of Eb major. Use these patterns in your practice solos. A twomeasure pattern played twice as fast as it is written can be played with a one-measure progression.

11m 7V7 patterns

it J J

Bbm7

Eb7

bJ
Eb7

t

II

$14.339 QUi
E~m7

A~7

~

it J5@ JJ&3P+&
II

Bb m7

Y

@) II

Pattern no. 3 is adapted from Charlie Parker.
Bbm7 Eb7

fret)) P J J J nJ J l@Dntt_J_9J __J lug

F#m7

B7

E

t

II

Bbm7

'!S~

"0 I FlY

Eb7

II
39

, t JJd ~$Q JD I,ra - II b .

Bb m7

Eb7

------------

l ! d7iU~_{
Bb m7

slow

FJ

U&9 a 3
Eb7

Pj

r ~[IF

I~LjI'f b~

Ab

9

I have written out all the transpositions for the next pattern, as well as for some others, because of their complexity. Slur throughout
Bm7 ..

~ t ~NM~aM de 6f I CWr lJd3&Jj Uj &edWfF
E7

#

A

I-

II

, W5~ ~_"(F IHdrcr $j J]&t'J sa~aa I~tt
C#m7 F#7 B

!-

I
~

i J;JJ j !f15ttr g b [U I WpUbtit¥iJ JJ 9] bOG Ef I £r
Dm7 G7

C

I

40

II

II

t~,plTd] ht¥
Fm7 Fm7 Bm7

r J Ibn r r J .id ] J I ,L_j
Bh7

Bb7

~

Eh

II

I~f J ntlJ
G7 em7 F7 Bbm7 Eb7 Abm7 Db 7

E7

II

The next pattern is transposed in a cycle of downward fifths. The articulation throughout follows that in measure 1. IIm7-V7 Dm7

~C£#1-ruI-tMt1 rEI'a'C Fbe Ccltlbclrbt:!r'U

r~1

Major patterns
F~7

ta1~~Wq.r

16' r rnfJ WW W iJ3SIJ JJ

t

-

mI

]

t i ~.p-;Nii_@lffJ~;!iNjJ! II
B

Wi
C

fE~oo I#rCr(#tr~rCrrtTl#frfnU lIfecn
Gb
F E Eb

D

Db

Same articulation throughout A Ab

, rrrEtt~4!&tcrrwJrrEtrI~frrc&rjrEffI~rtFEt1caiJJl

B

Bb

G

Gb

F

i~¥-iJ~J#JJqmaQJJI
42

E

Eb

D

Db

mDJQWI~mJJJ-

C

B

Bb

II

Minor patterns
The first three patterns Coltrane. are adapted from John

II

$ i,fD J 1,3 or r or?! I I.j

Bbm7

oJ ;J d J

Jd

b7J

t

-

II

, i~4trkm%J~'
Bbm7

Ebm7

II

'1

dOJItn jJ I~br ~

i

II

F#m7

Fm7

Em7

Ebm7

Dm7

C#m7

Cm7

Bm7

& #r@[rqc'errlerre'c'enelrrrrue[firrloo#j,....,.,J
Bb m7 Am7 G# m7 Gm7 F#m7 Fm7 Em7 Eb m7

~J~

~jJ·Bj 3 J J IJjtMd!3 J Ip 3ft] ]J&J ] ] IJ j 3JtFdj1l
* Same articulation
throughout 43

The next pattern is adapted from trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie.

$ .,JJ a CFDEJI.; Deft EO I '!Ob t1 cr (J I#W CrHgDJ]
Dm7 C#m7 Cm7 Bm7

1

$

Bbm7

¥

;Pier

u !J I;

Am7

t:1 £J~J I vDPntJ.J] I~J m B~ 31
G# m7 Gm7 Em7 Eb m7

$ pDn~£jtJ J 14 tl £jJ J I \5 DDJ]#JJ Is dO J] J J U
*Same articulation throughout

F# m7

Fm7

44

Blues Scale patterns

'J JJ3
Bbm The next pattern
Bbm

I)

tiJ.J

a bE ~rE ir It iF iF ;:

iJ d

Y7tr

II

is adapted

from flutist Hubert Laws.

f1 ' bED UJ UJ t!1J UJ
3 3 3 3

3

~J

II

,! eEcr Jf.J 30 <4U
Cm Cm or Eb
~ 5 5

II
5 5 ~

¥4 UJ§]iJ £J§1} Qflj Cd1) IF I

II

45

Cycle of Downward Fifths patterns
Legato Major

:P E UK1
F~ B

C

F

r J i'r r IT f'
E A

Bb

Eb

r
jj

3 I&['r dt>..LJ ~~
D G

Ab

D~

_

I

f#Wft~V#J J I rrt:A [

f ftC J I C rn rf[ ~
Ab Db

r f_]'
Gb

II
1

~-&tMcrr!tr
Legato Major C

G

C

F

Bb

or IbM «bF [j' n:rnrJ: CE'l!1
b

Eb

6' fG 1'(Jd'tffU
A D G

Db

Gb

B

~'4-Jt}
Ab

E

14{}
b
G~

@ I cFll Ee'@ I'f
B . E

C

~

Bb

a, ~
Eb

I

1'F{fEfrT.'f "& 1,#fD Bg I (m £1 @ I
R- 11 ftl I cEltc:ftt7cru
7
E A D G C C F Bb

Db

AD·

q

Eb

Ab

Db

Gb

B

IT
F

Ei I bf¥]W7JQr I
7
Bb Eb

; rk~11tfJr ~cf PI! I r7E? c (t fir ® r ~ I
7
46

C

F

B~

Eb

jlFU r rflJOtG

l'dff'@rYtrtr btL~€tJ
G C

A1

Db

Gb

B

pV (tl f) rft3t r

E

A

D

r:1

1 0/

WEb (

i

-t-~

*Same articulation throughout

47

, 8M j ee u I ;;J n Er r:r IIDr U f r u-rer & ~brs~
E A D G Fm b Bbm bEb m

Minor em

, Etr&er r r @ IpiJuJDtr EJ I £JuD J Cr LJ I IJ

:bm

bDbb

F#~

Bm

E~

Am

Dm

n [Of tJ=!I
Gm

*Same articulation throughout

48

Major

C

.~ ~

HfrfLWiI ErltF([g I ErEterrsJ Fdr{Jla
Eb

F

Bb

~{¥rr=§jJ IbrrtrrCCtrI[be F r

mo Ibtfft~
Ab B

~I

tft¥~tr
*
Same articulation throughout

~

.gJJlbea~rr.ftf(~~
49

~

Nc F ffl#lJi (#r r r ftif fJ 1#0 rur r fJIJJ 1 PE e t En run
E A
em

~

Eb

tutU! 1FrrL1J]1
b .. ~
b
Dbm

Fm

~~

~

(fer 1~rr~@ 1fbc'Ffl3~~1
Bb m Abm

b

~ F b~ ~ ~!, i= br br f ('E'Elf j'Fic'e -E'er 'f 0
~ #F r t ~Err tr 1Pc
Em F~m

b

r

fddJg

#r E Pc
IT

E!r' I:;

c F f qJ J J 1

R#-¥=C'~$!
Am

r L ( :c

r=f-:.pd E F tiCr
Fj'

Fa ~~I
1

~ ( E f [ E LEr

1~
Gm

r t ~[ f

IDE c

r ~ E E E:!

50

Scalel
Improvisation is based on scales as well as chords. In chapter 2, I showed how the blues scale and the pentatonic scale can be used with the blues. In the same chapter I also introduced the diminished scale. The chapter on modal or scalar improvisation concentrated on many different scales which are playable with Gm7. The next chapter contains scale studies based on the scales you have learned so far, and adds new ones. I have placed chords above each study so that you can adapt the scales to your own solos. Practicing these studies with different metronome settings and different articulation will develop speed and improve tonguing. Each study can be totally slurred or broken up into a series of slurs, totally tongued, or played with (t combination of slurring and tonguing.

Blues Scale Study # 1

Paul Desmond

,

, d d,j qU

Ebm,Gb,Ab7

u 'rtf 'E~r t

b b~b~

f:

L r; t

r: Fie r 'jiM diu &iI,j &(j
bb

52

Blues Scale Study #2

* Same dynamics

for eaeh two measure phrase

53

I
Whole-Tone Scale Studies
Whole-tone scales can be played with dominant seventh chords with raised or lowered fifths based on any note of the scale. There are two whole-tone scales.

, i Jj:t'J#-=Aiij~

b}Mr.fcfAn cfbeTbr 6 tpt3dj ~~~ rdf~ F l~f~E: r [ PElF £5 J 3#4":) c
II

~~lf!k

54

4 eer: t em Ere C C1
~"a] g f 3 ~ t- J J -

I E C:; C

r 1t to Cr

i"~~

J J 10 ":fP is

;:U YJ J J f= ~

4

J

j

JL

crt
'

c elf (crJ

1"( [:1 C g-I I#f r;

r

rI

E r;~J
E

crt f e f f IT E e F fEr
##

r r: ra:t.. r C"±

fEd

~ E t!r€

Lr c r J

fJ J I f 3 J i= J P J

J P J J ~ II

PJ W&UJnWiD ffit w rretufuftt

~EVEr-urn

I

"J W m QJt4Juffi
II

55

Diminished or Octatonic Scale Studies
There are three diminished scales. Each consists of eight notes, and the half and whole steps alternate. The first transposition of each exercise can be played with B~ 07, D~ 07, E07, G07, C7, E~ 7, G~ 7, orA7. The chords for the second transposition are a half-tone, and those for the third transposition a whole-tone, above the first one.

Legato

':t~flt1JJJll-9~~W;.2Jt{J»m'ttW~]

ntr--T0f~clFt
i
~

We 6 Far
T

Pc r b flit E f r 6; f rot-j

'EtF f. f"c E'e't~r ~Jff511 J WJ J 1) a j J W J :l j#=-"'PJ1j

56

57

__ .. . ~--=1l
---___:_~

58

Pentatonic Scale Study # 1
Cm7, Db Maj. 7 -5, Eb,F7

Fm7, GbMaj. 7-5, Ab , Bb 7

Bb m7, BMaj. 7-5, Db, Eb7

¥E_,'tI=Ff
Ebm7, EMaj. 7-5, Gb, Ab7

[ e r bl d1fi1b4J±J~1 1
11¥ 0

t,

Wi '0 r U: f t erE
f ~b,..b

b

f C:plhJis a IIg &)J W d ~b/kfffi~~1
n_~ __

~_n~~~~

As m, AMaj. 7-5, B, Db 7

pYff'E € b r tr 'C'E'orltJdD
C#m7, DMaj.7-5, E, F#7

II!&fro l'aiTi€4k1 klm

Brn7, CMaj.7-5, D, E7

Em7, FMaj.7-5, G, A7

'X ,!

~----~-E~~-E-------------~ j9 sa bJ rJ~r = C E 5; EF;r;: Iii j J 3 J J j ~~

Am7, BbMaj.7-5,

tiii b r F! E € ErE
C, D7 F, G7

------~----------------------

C flll§

fj J liOi)it1

11 ~Jr-~E

,---

Dm7, EbMaj.7-5,

Eg ~

= b E 61 E

F Ed' II! J J

J a tD ~~ ~

----

Gm7, Ab Map -5, Bb , C7

~.~~g-;~-f-E~EA-F-t-r-~-~i---=-]'~Jj-J-J

Pentatonic Scale Study #2

, !J)WtJdJ'; f;l3 a Jj J'= &if rJl

Cm7, Db Maj.7-5, Eb, F7

~,iaJ IT bE r;,;6 iJ'1 b
J j 1) J 3 ¥I

b

,or
60

OJ c;r rtf C F b! JSj JO I~Jj J,]

Ij

~JJ a J j J 3 j J J j a fJ J 11 ,'r 6J b j r r Q r (1 go ( r:f 1
, &/tf b r IT L feE
t
1

Gm7, AbMaj.7-5,

Bb ,C7

b

IT f

ftc f k tr 6 f r,;:

e F [;;

1

j

l1J PJ-fi

Am7, BbMaj. 7-5, C, D7

J ]ifJ?~bra I;;j rJ c r d Eo r Cr b [ ITT
I

~

I

t f f r e k u E k r,; ~ F C1 I
II

t- . fa Jj J] 9 a I J'1j J]
Em7, FMaj.7-5, G, A7

& j rj ;; r

rJ b r r f

I
I

tHEta (if H;tfrrfci

Ffrrf:frJ bE U be bt

61

ICErreca;

fEr! ~r ~~

F~m7, GMaj.7-5, A, B7

~

~~gp=j"J D J j InP W

j~

W' rJ bE rt H rII

tffEf ,,((}fere F I

ti·.·~.__~~ -'-=-NW~lp- ijJ j 3 j j ~fJ JI~ ~ !' ~£ I J
C~m7, DMaj. 7-5, E, F#7

n

I ttbCstCCf!EFbtl

62

G# m7, AMaj. 7-5, B, C#7

tlJ#J~ J J sf' tJ J j tID ]~
41&tfi' c;c r!r -

Iu,[#5'

ffWt Crfrr#l
gt1

I~#f l1'

fn EM e r Eyre

ts

Eb m7, EMaj. 7-5, Gb, Ab 7

=~:r~<t~J§g~.· ~~~~~ ~Q~G]~6Jb~~
(be b t

, .grbr; b r rtf u

tf Ibt1?Cbr e f; rtf C C er l'i ~ ~tfj

63

'I &n

Fm7, Gb Maj. 7-5, Ab, Bb 7

d J Fl jD j j

sa I j".l,Fj

M

tl bE rF bE eiJ

b

& 1'6r'dC EJ pJ to EEt E f F I tbC en t f nbc k t b; C §£r:J

Pentatonic Scale Study #3

, ! Jj~j ldO H N jC O

Cm7,C7

13 H I de IT ,lrJr bbF~btFMfj
I @bC ht

, ~hr clr: b r tf b

r rIf

e c u' r r E~r Pr-"~
b

idtb9 J 'r!5 E FEr r r b r rl I Err

Gm7,G7

rr

________

IT

64

, ; J #J Jq$l 9 9 fj j a ,,5

Dm7,D7

rJ I bOb rJ 6;, G F!r E~r tiff ~~~ §I ~
I

'~tjfhEtrrAf~f[

eEu gEm&: E r r~c Sj!,~~ I

---

Bm7,B7

tI~#lJ;~J JW1JJ
t1Htirfg

n J a IlJ;a M r.t gr1r Pr" nNr I
I CPc! t r E!f Fr rYe

r rt

'C*

ct

tIl
65

,I

g -ti-tp~~ ~ ~~~E£l'jj q~

C~m7,C#7

tJ J j 19 JgJl1ut== cPr} ,or ct r r Ki _
a.

~ ~# :l!f~.~-"~~1 l C 1F1

, #dg#rJ

E,r

r!t g t rJf I#Ef#Et r c eft F r b ~r~=l
4
g

,#g~rurr Oc rt n W= £3 Jp II~JJnJijj 1nJ~J~nJ~J 3d)

66

tb;7;;~Jb1P5 j JJ OS n 3D I ;ada eJ at aF~r¢.rcr
, ~k

FFI

'1b r de b r £J t

Ibee EI

bE C1 r F C'C g,.~ I

67

Dominant Seventh Pentatonic Scale Study
C7 3 ~

, i ~~

I@
G7

at ~Fblf

~

S;~

~ticulation

throughout

C(r Cotr-4'l1j
GUbffJEr~J

, cr&l1J fflJ)j IIm &;WWGctl
Same dynamics throughout

#flJ:w-ftt~#:rn
, Aft btU au ~dw #;

g;U1n~ti5£f GcJf!U

w ljj II$:Elf Uf tit I
IMfj aim s-~

, geArEff6UI#WblfftIQj

, aiW7yJdJI ECtaD' by bY Ikr #lID ~ ~II

,~~m.rn gflnff'IGtfWGftltnrwrona ,I~_m no II;. ffat gJ a¢FI#cP=tdf &U f gpI
, #Efff_ fttQ)' I#Qo#ut C
68

c!" II:PS&gg m MiA

, 'M gr; al df11'fIrbiM tu bb' I CU&lj] W ~

I
II

t{aItbIW WI,(affrEE,ftCJ I eWt£j crt ~

if;~'atmaI-: I at ~og[t!h'eftUtttcrbit a I
, W'1'W
b~

'l~n¥jCO' m a rn I

no I ""
F'7

au bit at I
~

, ar cltf ~tffli I t'cF'CCr Err eO' I Grr 00 co rn II

Kumoi Scale Study

$ t &J8d"iEgf¥lJ c r t~ t [L I IT r rb?m&Jg IdQ,o J [
Ab

mfi, BMaj. 7-5, Db13

b b b~b~ ~ ~ ~

bb

, JJ JiS err d IjeEr! ftr IjE r u (l Jill 10 Am6, CMaj. 7-5, D13

§

-----

II
II

i t 3D _. r be F I (r f.r = EtiC E'~ bfj j J I J We· J
Bbm6, DbMaj. 7-5, Eb 13

b

bt!: ~

E

_

b

-

, tid

Cm6, E~Maj. 7-5, F13

JJ

C eej

IrE

e e f r r It

bg-

E my

ia ~

II

II

II

, J d d J I'F r bE;- lEE

Ebm6,GbMaj.7-5,Ab13

b

E f f be be;

It F

t¥ ~

II

70

, cr

Fm6, Ab Maj. 7-5, Bb 7

EJ C E

b

r fie

§
=

A F bE

r E I U(~fbJ J

j

, r bF r r r r

Gm6,BbMaj.7-5,C13

b

r ~ I[

r:. ~

f:. b

t

tr

Err

if

IJ

-

%lI

Pelog Scale Study

Cm, Eb Maj. 7, Gm, AbMaj. 7-5

,

(b

r

be J bE

r 1: 1: IfF e beE
b b~

b

Pc]'

1~ii1 @bl

II

1&J J J ~E:F be r I r r A
Gm,BbMaj.7,Dm,EbMaj.7-5 Dm, FMaj. 7, Am, BbMaj. 7-5

f:.

F

,

C; 'C

CJ C r br fit E

e
~

r [At

j!:

IE r bel _.£J FIG

J ,f+:;~j
t t#
II II II
71

F f br E F
~ ~

t J J J J t: r (1 I t E [
Am, CMaj. 7, Em, FMaj. 7-5 Em, GMaj. 7, Bm, CMaj. 7-5

f[

fer

Ire IT; n J

, 10 UUa (r cJ 1#(b C F = Err

It r FJ

WU

I..,.

& l J J ff3 C~F r J ITt f r C~r [[rJ fJ uU

Bm7, DMaj. 7, F~m, GMaj. 7-5

_=]

72

AtpeggiOl
Transposing these arpeggiated chords into all keys will facilitate improvisation. After playing them as written, transpose them a semi-tone higher, and continue to do so until they are too high to be played. Then transpose them downward. Diminished 7th

tl

JJEJJtffi Ii@@J_ I

ere.

IIf [ t r E fer I
II

f:~

~~

elc~

etc.

ETU eErg

I

et<::j"=ffi

etc.

II

rev rfrj
d

I

etc·1

etc.

II

Dominant

7th etc.

II

i~JffidJ

Dominant

7th with Diminished

5th

I

JJJ!t9JD9 I

etc.

II

ftru EtTffl ETh [~A tW em
j

I

ett=1J

etc.

II

fIN Em

I

etcj=1j

73

Major 7th with Diminished 5th

'[8J~

IfliD_1 I I

,q- __--G I ,teA F
,teo

~

f~

l JQ@9J9? I flf!},£BJ
Major 7th with Augmented 5th

II E~~ 1::_UI II

f:~ BV

,leH

im'ia~
57
Suspended 2

fhtlf!}2
.... ~

,tc.

Eft?fro I 'tq
~~

lJ119JJQi4R 1£b2J_1

'k

II tEu LOr r I ~
't~

f=~

:tft.JiXe_ QJJni2@ I II fiR fru I
,teo

et§$l

etc.==! etc.==I

74

lIIuItiphonicl.lIictotonw. and OthCH EHeet,
Multiphonics are simultaneously produced sounds played on a wind instrument. Multiphonic production varies from player to player because of differences in instruments, mouthpieces, reeds, embouchures and breathing. The best way I have found to get them is by using a tight embouchure, and aiming for the top note of the chord. This is a list of the ones I use, with their approximate pitches: 1) The "Ugly Sound": Finger low C. Lift up the F key (first finger, right hand). 2)

Bp

chord:

Finger low

Bp . Add

the octave key.

3) B chord: 4) C chord:

Finger low B. Add the octave key. Finger low C. Add the octave key. Follow the same procedure
John Coltrane

5) Dp , D, and Ep chords: as above. The Ugly Sound

Bb chord

B chord

C chord

Db chord

D chord

i #:

#-e-

II

b:

~

II

#:

#.Q.

~

II

-g

II

i:-

.Q.

#~
~
e

Eb chord

~

II

If

~~

1

Microtones are the pitches between semi-tones. The symbols (t) and U) indicate respectively a microtone higher, and a microtone lower. 1) Finger middle D. Lift up the G key (third finger, left hand). Most effective when contrasted with regular A. 2) Finger low C. Add the octave key, and lift up the F key (first finger, right hand). Most effective when contrasted with regular G. 3) Same fingering as above, but slightly loosen your embouchure. Most effective when contrasted with regular E. 4) Finger low G. Add the middle trill key on the right side. When contrasted with the G below, produces a European police siren sound.

75

5) The harmonics an octave, a twelfth, two octaves, and two octaves plus a major third above low Bb , B, and C are all micro tones higher than the correctly fingered tones. They are produced by adding the octave key, using a tight embouchure, and overblowing.

*
$

1)

-t

2)

3)

4)
0

5)

II

f

t

II

II

1 lib!

t bl e

.Q..

t

t
0

~!

tiil ..Q. -

t

"

0

t

-t

"6-

t

]

Another interesting effect with low Bb , B, and C results when you remove the thumb from the thumbrest and quickly rub it over each of the three right trill keys from top to bottom. Trills of all sorts offer a wide variety of effects. Produced mainly by the lips, a lip slur is a glide between two notes which may be as close as a semi-tone or as far apart as two octaves. A scoop is a short lip slur going up to a note; and a bend is a slow lip slur which dips down from a note and then returns to it. A fall-off is a glissando and/or lip slur going down from a note; and a doink is one going up from a note. lip slur ~

.-

scoop

-r

II

,2m

bend

.._,
0

fall-off
0

doink

II

II

s:s

II

Q -------

g)

Flutter tonguing is produced by rolling the tongue and saying "drrr." A growl-tone is made by growling at the back of the throat. Another interesting effect similar to the growl-tone comes out of singing into the sax while you are playing. A ghost or ghosted note is produced by playing a note while the reed is pressed down, allowing only a semi-audible tone to be heard. It is usually on the after beat of two eighth notes, and is indicated by parentheses around the note(s) to be ghosted. For high notes-notes in the altissimo range- I would suggest the fingerings listed in Jazz Styles and Analysis for Alto Sax by Harry Miedema (Downbeat Publications ). There are several unorthodox ways of playing the saxophone that are worth exploring. A brass mouthpiece can be used instead of a sax mouthpiece. Scotch tape can be fitted over the holes to produce a buzzing, kazoo-like sound. You can make a sound without the mouthpiece by fitting your lips around the neck and blowing into it. You can also play without the neck. Most mouthpieces can be fitted directly into the main section of the saxophone, and can be kept steady with a piece of thick paper. This produces a range of sounds totally unlike those made when the sax is played in the usual manner.

76

RloteTunw
Ten is a ten-measure
blues.

Ten
Uptempo

~~i r

G7

d,!r

~IFE'r'

C7

C~o

G7

,j)lif(

,D7~r ~1'edEfr 7~1

A~m7

Dp7

1 r brA'
Riding the Rails
Rock feel Dm7

Cm7

r

F7

0/

~

0/

l 1 Fir Fb@jE,

G7

:11

~b

t

r

Dm7

12 2 iCr rtJ

~

'b

~

G7

IT

©Consolidated

Music Publishers, 1978. All Rights Reserved.

77

The changes in the next tune are all chords built in fourths. An M7+4 chord consists of an augmented fourth plus a perfect fourth. The span of this chord is a major seventh. A P4 is a chord built on perfect fourths.

The Modal Mix
Modal

CM7+4

~--~t
CM7 +4

_"!_

V

r I) f rTfF
BP4

BP4

CM7+4

j

7~nOJ>l @E) P n
BP4

r

id=-~~tlT-#}~tJJ; t _3

CM7 +4

CO'l
3

#k~-C~~*.f1 (pfwuID IGr' AC7D
3
©Consolirlated Music Publishers. 197 R. All Rights Reserved.

DP4

EP4

FM7+4

:11

78

The next tune is in ~ . As you can see from the placement of the chords, each measure is divided into four beats plus three beats. Dave Brubeck, Paul Desmond, Max Roach, Don Ellis, and John McLaughlin are some jazz musicians who have explored additive meters. Be careful to keep your solo within the rhythm.

Four Plus Three
Not too fast

Am7

D7

~ I J.

F

, ,

Gm7

J.
l

l

~

r

p-----Bb13 ------..

Eb7

r r r be ,• r I r r
Gm7

~

F
B~13

p------r'
J
E7

C7

F7+9

J

1'[

L

pt= r F
7

I

&g I J !CJ
F7

F7+9

~

J~~,.

I

&li

~1J
:11

, bat bi1 r 6» J

F7+9

Bil13

I J D~g3 r

@itfj

79

Chord Chart
Root
II

Major C ~ Db
LJU

Mimr

A ugrnened

Diminished

Sixth C6 ~ Db 6
LJU

C
-e-

Cm
'~

C+
"~

Co
'IT~

Minx Sixth Cm6
v~

Seventh C7 ~ Db7
LJ()

Minor Seventh Cm7 ~ Dbm7
LJU

Major Seventh CM7 ~ DbM7
DU

Sus 4 Csus4

t)

..,
tJ

Db (c# )
LJU (~)

Dbm
DU

Db+
LJU

Dbo
LJU

Dbrn f
LJU

Dbsus 4
DU

-u

II

D
U

D
ITU

Dm
lJ

D+ H
U

Do
U

D6
U

Dm6
U

D7
110

Dm7
U

DM7
<J

Dsus 4

tJ

..,Eb m# )
tJ
l~U)

Eb
v

Ebm
v ~

Eb+
v

Ebo
v~

Eb6
v ~

Ebm6
V ~

Eb7
v~

Ebm7
v

EbM7
v

Ebsus 4
- -~e--

..,
,)

E

E

Em

E+

Eo

E6

Em6

E7

Em7

EM7

Esus 4

II

F

F

tin

F+

Fo

F6

Fm6

F7

fm7

FM7

F sus 4
..

_-

tJ

.., Gb (F# )
tJ

F#

F#m
IT

F#+
rr

F#

0

F# 6
rr

F#m6 ~
rr

F#7

F#m7

F~M7

F# sus 4

r---rn=:-.:::G7 Gm7

..,
tJ

G

G

Gm

G+

Go

G6

Gm6

9M7
AbM7
co

Gsus 4

~~

..,
,)

Ab (G#)

Ab
L

Abm
l

Ab+

ILL _b~~ 0

Ab6
l

Abrnf
l

L '0

_~:7

1m7

Absus 4

'il

..,
tJ

A

A

Am

A+
.II

LM_Ao

fe6

~6

A7

Am7
_0

0

~~

AS1l,)

4

..,
,)

Bb (A#)

Bb
-""'<

13bm
-""

Bb+
JI

,L b

,~o

Bb 6
,(}_

Bb m6
.....0

~

Bb m7 ~

BbM7 ~

Bbsus 4

..,
tJ

B

,II

B

Bm
II

B+

~

~,f'! Itm6
II.
~O

,~~

137

Bm7
1I-1t-

IIJ~7

BS1B II

4

80

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