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SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION


SOLUTION A solution is defined as the homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. SOLUTE The component of solution present in smaller amount is called Solute. EXAMPLE 5% glucose solution in water, solute is glucose and solvent is water. SOLVENT The component of solution present in greater amount is called Solvent. EXAMPLE 5% glucose solution in water, solute is glucose and solvent is water. AQUEOUS SOLUTION When water is solvent the solution is called aqueous solution. EXAMPLE 20% of Sodium chloride dissolved in 80%Water. CRYSTALLIZATION Crystals are homogeneous solids, having regular and definite geometrical shape with faces and sharp edges. MOLARITY It is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter (1dm3) of a solution. DENOTED It is denoted by (M). FACTORS AFFECTING SOLUBILITY Many factors affect the solubility of solute in a solvent. These factors may be. Temperature Pressure (For gases) Nature of solute Nature of solvent.

UNSATURATED SOLUTION It is that one which contains less solute than it has the capacity to dissolve this type of solution is known as Unsaturated Solution. PREPARATION OF UNSATURATED SOLUTION Take few crystals of sugar and dissolve them in a glass of water. This results in an unsaturated solution, because the solution has the capacity to dissolve more crystals of sugar (solute) at a given temperature. SATURATED SOLUTION It is that one which contains maximum amount of solute dissolved in a given solvent at room temperature this type of solution is called Saturated Solution. PREPARATION OF SATURATED SOLUTION

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Take some water, in a beaker. With constant stirring, add crystals of sugar, till they do not dissolve and start to settle down. The solution thus obtained is saturated solution sugar, at room temperature. SUPER SATURATED SOLUTION It is that which contains greater amount of dissolve solute than that present in saturated solution this type of solution is known as Super Saturated Solution. PREPARATION OF SUPER SATURATED SOLUTION First of all make the saturated solution of water and sugar. And dissolve more sugar in water by stirring and heating and dissolve sugar at that time when more sugar could not be mixed this type of solution is said to be known as Super Saturated Solution. SOLUBILITY AND TEMPERATURE Solubility of Solids in Liquids Solubility of a solid in liquid or solubility of partially miscible liquids increases with increase in temperature. Example Solubility of sugar in water at 0oC is 179gm / 100ml whereas at 100o-C it is 487gm / 100ml. Solubility of Gases in Liquids Solubility of gases in a liquid decreases with increase in temperature. Example When a glass of cold water is warmed, bubbles of air are seen on the inside of the glass. SOLUBILITY AND PRESSURE Solubility of Solids and Liquids The solubilities of solids and liquids are not affected by pressure. Solubility of Gases The solubility of a gas in liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of gas. mP m = KP HENRYS LAW STATEMENT The solubility of a gas in liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of gas. mP m = KP Where m is the amount of gas dissolved. EXPLANATION This effect is used in manufacture of bottled soft-drinks as a coca-cola 7-up etc. These are bottled under a CO2 pressure slightly greater than 1atm. POLAR SOLVENT Those solvents which are formed by ionic bonding is called Polar Solvent. EXAMPLE H2O Water. NON-POLAR SOLVENT Those solvents which are formed by covalent bonding is called Non-Polar Solvents. EXAMPLE CCl4 Carbontetra chloride. C6H6 Benzene.

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SOLUBILITY AND NATURE OF SOLUTE AND SOLVENT Solubility of Polar Solute and Polar Solvents Polar and Ionic solutes are easily dissolve in Polar solvents Example Common salt (NaCl) is soluble in Water because both solute and solvents are polar. Solubility of Non-Polar Solute and Non-Polar Solvents Non-polar and Covalent solutes are easily dissolve in Non-polar solvents. Example Glucose is soluble in Benzene because both solute and solvents are polar. Solubility of Polar Solute and Non-Polar Solvents Polar solutes are insoluble in Non-polar solvents. Example Table salt (NaCl) is insoluble Benzene or Petrol because solute is polar and solvents is Non-polar. Solubility of Non-Polar Solute and Polar Solvents Non-polar solutes are insoluble in Polar solvents. Example Glucose is insoluble in Water because Glucose is Non-polar solute while Water is polar solvent.

PREPARATIONS OF CRYSTALS OF COPPER SULPHATE (BLUE VITRIOL CuSO4 .H2O) Prepare a saturated solution of Copper sulphate in water at room temperature using a beaker. Heat the saturated solution and try to dissolve some more quantity of Copper sulphate while stirring the solution with glass rod. Allow the super saturated solution of copper sulphate to cool down at room temperature. Upon cooling and standing, crystals of CuSO4.5H2O that is Blue vitriol will form. Filter out the crystals and observed the the shape of crystals under a light of microscope. PREPARATION OF CRYSTALS OF POTASSIUM NITRATE (KNO3) Take 100 ml water in a beaker. Prepare a situated solution of KNO3 by dissolving 37g of solute at room temperature by means of stirring with glass rod. Now heat this saturated to 50o and dissolve 20g of KNO3 while stirring the solution Filter the hot super saturated solution quickly and collect the filtrate in another beaker. Cool the filtrate to room temperature. Upon cooling crystal of KNO3 are formed. Filter out the crystals and observe their shape under light microscope. PURIFICATION OF SOLIDS BY CRYSTALLIZATION INTRODUCTION Crystallization is simple and general technique for purification of impure compounds. EXPLANATION Take 50ml of water in beaker and add the impure sample (40g) of KNO3 to it while stirring with glass rod. Supply heat gently till the temperature of the solution is above 50o. Stir the solution at this temperature till most of the solid is dissolved. Filter the hot solution and collect the filtrate in a beaker. Sand being in soluble in water will be removed and collected on the filter paper. Upon cooling of the filtrate, crystals of KNO3 will start appearing. When no further crystals are formed, filter it again and collect the filtrate in a beaker. Purified crystals ofKNO3 are obtained on the filter paper.

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PRACTICE NUMERICALS
MOLARITY i. ii. iii. iv. v. Calculate the Molarity of 4gram of NaOH in 500cm3 of solution. Calculate the Molarity of 5.5gram of NaCl in 500cm3 of solution. Calculate the Molarity of 5.89 moles of solute when dissolve in 7500cm3 of solution. Calculate the Molarity of 140 gram of HCl when dissolve in 2.5dm3 of solution. Calculate the Molarity of 5.75 grams of KOH in 200ml of solution.

NUMBER OF MOLES BY MOLARITY i. ii. Calculate the number of moles of solute in 25dm3 of solution. The Molarity of solution 2.5 M. 6.57 molar concentration of solution is formed when a solute is dissolve in 25dm3 of solution. Calculate the number of moles of solute.

MOLALITY i. Calculate the molality of solution containing 5.3 gram of Na2CO3 in 500 gram of water. ii. Calculate the molality of solution containing 39 gram of NaHCO3 in 500 gram of water. Q. A flask contains 30ml of NaOH solution, it require 50ml of 0.15 M H2SO4 to complete the reaction. Calculate the Molarity of NaOH and how many grams of NaOH were in the flask.

CELL # 0312-2219559