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You are on page 1of 14

Kranthi K. Mamidisetty, Minlan Duan, Shivakumar Sastry, Member, IEEE Computer Society, and

P.S. Sastry, Senior Member, IEEE

AbstractMesh topologies are important for large-scale peer-to-peer systems that use low-power transceivers. The Quality of

Service (QoS) in such systems is known to decrease as the scale increases. We present a scalable approach for dissemination that

exploits all the shortest paths between a pair of nodes and improves the QoS. Despite the presence of multiple shortest paths in a

system, we show that these paths cannot be exploited by spreading the messages over the paths in a simple round-robin manner;

nodes along one of these paths will always handle more messages than the nodes along the other paths. We characterize the set of

shortest paths between a pair of nodes in regular mesh topologies and derive rules, using this characterization, to effectively spread

the messages over all the available paths. These rules ensure that all the nodes that are at the same distance from the source handle

roughly the same number of messages. By modeling the multihop propagation in the mesh topology as a multistage queuing network,

we present simulation results from a variety of scenarios that include link failures and propagation irregularities to reflect real-world

characteristics. Our method achieves improved QoS in all these scenarios.

Index TermsWireless communication, network communications, packet-switching networks, routing protocols, mesh topology.

1 INTRODUCTION

T

HE use of novel devices for computing and communica-

tion in highly engineered networked embedded systems

suchas streetlight management [1], reconfigurable conveyors

[2], and critical infrastructures [3], presents new challenges

and opportunities for monitoring and diagnostics. These

systems contain a large number of nodes, with each node

incorporating a tiny microcontroller, sensors, actuators, and

anintegratedlow-power transceiver [4]. The nodes interact in

a peer-to-peer manner over low-bandwidth wireless links to

achieve the application objectives. To increase the number of

simultaneous interactions between the nodes in the system,

the transmission range of each node is limited so that it

communicates directly only with its set of immediate

neighbors; such an arrangement of nodes is referred to as a

mesh topology [5].

Multihop communications are necessary in such systems

to send messages from any source to any destination. For

example, intermediate nodes must forward messages to a

monitoring station from nodes that cannot communicate

directly with the monitoring station. Routing protocols are

used extensively in wired and wireless networks to support

multihop communication [6]. Such protocols construct and

maintain routing tables at each node by relying on system-

wide unique node identifiers. When the number of nodes is

very large, such as in sensor networks, it is not feasible to use

such identifiers. Several techniques, called dissemination

methods, were developed at the network layer to regulate

the flow of messages between nonadjacent nodes without

relying on unique node identifiers or constructing routing

tables using these identifiers [7], [8], [9].

In this paper, we consider highly engineered systems

comprising of nodes arranged in a regular mesh topology.

We focus on methods for effectively utilizing all the shortest

paths available between a pair of nodes and present results

to show that effective utilization of all the available paths

significantly improves the Quality of Service (QoS).

In many highly engineered systems, one can assume that

the nodes have fixedrelative locations. Often, the systems are

designed to overlay on an underlying grid. For example, in

automation systems, the regions demarcated by such a grid

are calledzones [10]; a zone is a commonlyusedabstractionto

support the design, operation, and maintenance activities.

Motivated by applications in such domains, we consider

regular meshtopologies that arise by embeddingthe nodes in

a 2D Basegrid. We show in Section 2 that several mesh

topologies arise when the location in the 2DBasegrid and the

transmission range of the nodes change. Because the grid

coordinates can specify the nodes, the shortest paths between

any pair of nodes can be locally computed. Most routing

protocols select only one of the shortest paths even when

multiple such paths exist. This results in reduced system-

level QoS [11]. We address the issue of how to effectively

utilize all the shortest paths available. Since the resulting

methods amount to a node making local decisions on howto

distribute messages among its immediate neighbors, without

having to dynamically construct any routing tables, we refer

to this method of forwarding messages as dissemination in

spite of the fact that nodes are identified by their global

coordinates in the underlying 2D Basegrid.

Because each node communicates directly with its im-

mediate set of neighbors, there are multiple shortest paths

betweenmanypairs of nodes inameshtopology. The number

of such paths is limited by the relative locations of the nodes.

For example, the number of shortest paths between certain

1188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

. K.K. Mamidisetty, M. Duan, and S. Sastry are with the Department

of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron,

OH 44325-3904.

E-mail: {km50, ssastry}@uakron.edu, MINLAN_DUAN@denso-diam.com.

. P.S. Sastry is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian

Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

E-mail: sastry@ee.iisc.ernet.in.

Manuscript received 11 Sept. 2007; revised 10 Apr. 2008; accepted 11 July

2008; published online 27 Aug. 2008.

Recommended for acceptance by T. Abdelzaher.

For information on obtaining reprints of this article, please send e-mail to:

tpds@computer.org, and reference IEEECS Log Number TPDS-2007-09-0312.

Digital Object Identifier no. 10.1109/TPDS.2008.164.

1045-9219/09/$25.00 2009 IEEE Published by the IEEE Computer Society

pairs of nodes is one, despite the mesh topology. We define a

Contour as the unionof all the shortest paths betweena pair of

nodes and present some results to precisely characterize the

structure of contours. Using this structure, we show that

when messages are spread in a round-robin manner, nodes

along one path in the contour will always handle more

messages than the nodes along other paths in the contour.

Consequently, the benefits of the multiple paths cannot be

fully realized. We then present a strategy for spreading

messages to neighboring nodes that effectively exploits the

available shortest paths andshowthat our rules for spreading

the messages result in a balanced loading of all the available

shortest paths. We refer to this approach as Contour Guided

Dissemination (CGD).

CGD improves the QoS by disseminating the messages

over all the available shortest paths. Typical application

scenarios in which CGD will be useful are: 1) a node

responding to a diagnostic query from an operator at a

monitoring station, and2) a node sendinga recordedincident

to a monitoring station in a surveillance application. CGD

equitably disseminates the messages over all the available

shortest paths in a manner that maximizes utilization of all

available shortest paths. We present simulation results to

demonstrate all these aspects.

Routing protocols used in traditional wired and wireless

networks are based on shortest path algorithms such as the

Bellman-Ford algorithm [12] and Dijkstras algorithm [6].

Similar protocols have been reported for ad hoc, wireless,

and mobile networks [13], [14], [15], [16]. The QoS achieved

in these systems has also been studied [17], [18], [19]. The

dissemination method we describe in this paper is some-

what similar to a gradient dissemination scheme [13] with

the cost metric being the deviation from evenness of load

distribution on all available shortest paths.

Recent efforts have focused on exploiting multipaths to

improve the QoS in systems [7], [20], [21] using constrained

node distribution models. For example, in [21], the nodes are

distributed randomly in a unit disk. In [7], the nodes are

distributed in a narrow strip no wider than 0.86 times the

transmission range of a node. The multipath, multihop,

approachwe present inthis paper also assumes a constrained

distributionof the nodes, namely, nodes are ona 2DBasegrid.

While there is no stochasticity in the node distribution, we

precisely characterize the geometry of the shortest paths and

show how to exploit it to achieve better QoS.

In the current methods, the motivating factors for

considering multipath routing include fault tolerance, high-

er aggregate bandwidth, and load balancing [22], [20], [23],

[24], [25]. The QoS aspects of multipath routing have been

addressed in [26], [27], [28], and [29]. The split multipath

routing protocol maintains maximally edge-disjoint paths

[30]. Braided multipaths discussed in [31] are useful when

the routing is coupled with diagnostic or prognostic

methods to select alternative paths. All such methods

essentially focus on the discovery and maintenance of

multiple paths that are useful under various constraints on

the node distribution. In contrast, we assume regular mesh

topologies and then precisely characterize the set of all

shortest paths between any pair of nodes. We then use this

geometric structure to propose rules for dissemination that

result in all available shortest paths being utilized effec-

tively so that QoS improves.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2

presents embedding functions that characterize a class of

mesh topologies that we consider for this work. Section 3

discusses contours, their structure, and the significance of

the structure on dissemination methods. Section 4 presents

results to show that when the messages are spread in a

round-robin manner, nodes along one path in the contour

will always handle more messages than nodes along other

paths. Section 5 presents optimal spreading rules that

ensure that all the nodes, which are at a same distance from

the source in a contour, handle roughly the same number of

messages. After presenting simulation results to illustrate

the QoS of CGD in Section 6, we conclude in Section 7.

1

2 EMBEDDING FUNCTIONS

We consider mesh topologies that are obtained by embed-

ding nodes on a 2D Basegrid and adjusting the transmission

range of each node. Each location on a 2D Basegrid is

identified by a unique ordered pair i. ,. The distance

between two consecutive locations on the grid, i.e., between

i. , and i. , 1 or between i. , and i 1. ,, is /.

Let N denote a set of nodes. An embedding function

assigns a location on the 2D Basegrid and a transmission

range to each node, i

i

2 N:

: i

i

2 N ! ININIR. 1

The location to which a node is assigned is assumed to be

fixed for the application. Each node knows its own location

and the number of neighbors it has. Further, we assume that

all the neighbors of a node reliably receive messages sent by

the node; however, in our simulations, we empirically

explore robustness to temporary link failures. Each message

contains the locations of the source and destination nodes as

specified by the embedding function.

Different mesh topologies are obtained by specifying

different embedding functions. Suppose that the nodes in N

must be embedded along 1 rows and C columns, starting at

location A. Y of the 2D Basegrid.

2

Let

denote the

embeddinginwhicheachnode i 2 N communicates directly

with neighbors. For 4, the embedding function

4

: i

i

2 N ! A i 1 mod C. Y

i 1

C

. /

2

yields a mesh topology. Since the transmission range for

each node is /, it can only communicate with its four

immediate neighbors. Similarly, for 8, the embedding

function

8

: i

i

2 N ! A i 1 mod C. Y

i 1

C

. /

2

p

. 3

where the transmission range is /

2

p

, yields the overlapping

mesh topology shown in Fig. 1a. Similarly, other embed-

dings such as

6

shown in Fig. 1b arise by changing the

location and transmission radius of the nodes [33].

In the remainder of this paper, nodes that are assigned to

location i. , on the 2D Basegrid are referred to as i

i.,

. In

the next section, we define contours and their structure

precisely. The results for contours in the

8

embedding are

presented in detail. Contours in other embeddings are

briefly discussed at the end of the section.

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1189

1. A preliminary version of this work was reported in [32].

2. Our method depends only on the relative locations of the source and

destination nodes, and hence, the specific A. Y is not important.

3 CONTOURS AND THEIR STRUCTURE

Definition 1. A contour is the union of all the shortest paths

between a pair of nodes.

Fig. 2 shows two example contours between a pair of

nodes i

i.,

and i

.i

.

3

The shape of a contour depends on the

relative locations of the source and the destination. For

example, Fig. 2a shows a contour in

8

that is a rectangle

enclosed by the four corner nodes: i

.i

, c1, i

i.,

, and c2. Fig. 2b

shows another contour that is a hexagon enclosed by six

corner nodes: i

.i

, c1, c2, i

i.,

, c4, and c3.

Since the contour depends on the relative position of

the source and destination nodes, its structure can be

characterized by using only the differences in the r and

y locations of the pair of nodes. To this end, we define

the following quantities:

r

i

i.,

. i

.i

j ij. 4

y

i

i.,

. i

.i

ji ,j. 5

ry

i

i.,

. i

.i

r

i

i.,

. i

.i

y

i

i.,

. i

.i

. 6

ui

i.,

. i

.i

ry

2

. 7

For example, in Fig. 2a,

r

7,

y

3, and

ry

4, and

in Fig. 2b,

r

8,

y

3, and

ry

5. When the context is

clear, we use

r

,

y

,

ry

, and u without specifying the

source and the destination. The number of shortest paths in

a contour increases as

ry

increases.

In the

8

embedding, the length of the shortest path

between two nodes i

i.,

and i

.i

is

di

i.,

. i

.i

maxf

r

.

y

g. 8

When viewed as the union of shortest paths, a contour is

not symmetric withrespect tothe source andthe sinkbecause

the paths have direction. In addition, a contour can also be

viewedas aset of nodes. Anode i

:.t

is ina contour if andonlyif

it isonashortest pathfromthesourcetothedestination. Inthis

view, acontour issymmetricwithrespect tothesourceandthe

destination. Fromthewell-knownprincipleof optimality[12],

a node, i

:.t

, is in the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

if and only if

di

i.,

. i

:.t

di

:.t

. i

.i

di

i.,

. i

.i

. 9

3.1 Structure of Contours in

8

We now present results to characterize the contour between

two nodes i

.i

and i

i.,

.

To simplify the notation, we only consider the case when i,

i ,, and, whenever

ry

0, i i ,. All other cases

can be handled in a similar manner.

1190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

3. We consistently use i

.i

to represent the source and i

i.,

to represent

the destination in a contour.

Fig. 1. Other embedding examples. (a)

8

. (b)

6

.

Fig. 2. Different contours in the

8

embedding. Depending on the relative

positions of the source and the destination, the contour can be a

rectangle as in (a) or a hexagon as in (b). (a) Contour in

8

enclosed by

a Rectangle. (b) Contour in

8

enclosed by a Hexagon.

Lemma 1. In

8

, the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

is a single shortest

path if and only if

ry

0.

Proof. When

ry

0, we know that i i ,. The path

< i

i.,

. i

i1.,1

. . . . . i

1.i1

. i

.i

is a shortest path in the

embedding

8

between i

i.,

and i

.i

. All other nodes i

:.t

violate the criterion in (9) and are hence are not in the

contour.

Next, we need to show that

ry

0 when the

contour is a single path. Suppose

ry

6 0, and without

loss of generality, let

r

y

. By our notation, this

means that the length of the shortest path is i. Let

1 0 be such that i i,1. Using (8), by direct

calculation, we have di

i.,

. i

i1.,

di

i1.,

. i

.i

di

i.,

. i

1.i

di

1.i

. i

.i

di

i.,

. i

.i

. This implies

that nodes i

1.i

and i

i1.,

have to be on optimal

paths. However, using the distance criterion (9), it is

easily seen that a path from i

i.,

to i

.i

through both

these nodes is not a shortest path. This implies we

have to have at least two shortest paths. But since we

are given the fact that the contour is a single path, we

must have 1 0, which is same as

ry

0. tu

Lemma 2. In

8

, the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

comprises two

shortest paths that are enclosed by the nodes i

i.,

, i

i1.,

, i

1.i

,

and i

.i

if and only if

ry

1.

Proof. Given the nodes as stated, we can use the distance

criterion in (9) to verify that node i

i1.,

and node i

1.i

are on different shortest paths from i

i.,

to i

.i

. It now

suffices to note that nodes i

i2.,

and i

2.i

do not satisfy

the distance criterion in (9) and, hence, these are the only

two shortest paths possible.

Given two shortest paths between i

i.,

and i

.i

, we now

show that the paths are enclosed by the four nodes as

stated. We know that a path from i

.i

to i

i.,

is a shortest

path only if maxf

r

.

y

g is reduced along each step of the

path. Since by our notation, i i ,,

r

must reduce

along each step of the path. In the

8

embedding, there are

only three neighbors of i

.i

with a lower

r

, namely,

i

1.i1

, i

1.i

, and i

1.i1

. i

1.i1

does not satisfy the

distance criterion in (9). Using similar arguments in the

neighborhood of i

i.,

, we conclude that only nodes i

i1.,1

andi

i1.,

can be on any shortest path between i

i.,

andi

.i

.

Finally, we note that only the nodes on the two shortest

paths satisfy the distance criterion in (9), and hence, the

four enclosing nodes are as stated. tu

Lemma 3. In

8

, given i

i.,

and i

.i

with

y

0, the contour is a

rectangle if and only if

r

is even. The four nodes at the

corners of this rectangle are i

i.,

, i

iu.,u

, i

u.,u

, and i

.,

.

(The proof is available in [32].)

Theorem 1. In

8

, the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

is a rectangle

bounded by the nodes i

i.,

, i

iu.,u

, i

u.iu

, and i

.i

if and

only if

ry

is even and

ry

0.

Proof. Given that

ry

is even, we first show that the corner

nodes of the contour are as stated. Since

ry

is even,

either

r

and

y

are both even or they are both odd. Let

r

and

y

be both odd without loss of generality.

Consider the node i

i,.,

. By the criterion of (9),

this node would be in the contour, and no node i

:.,

with : i , would be in the contour. The only

shortest path from node i

i,.,

to i

.i

is through the

nodes i

i,1.,1

. i

i,2.,2

. . . . . i

1.i1

(by Lemma 1).

Because

y

is odd, the length of the path from i

.,

to

i

i,.,

must also be odd. Hence, the length of the path

from i

i.,

to i

i,.,

is even because

r

is odd. It follows

from Lemma 3 that the contour of i

i.,

and i

i,.,

is a

rectangle with u b

i,i

2

c and is enclosed by the

corner nodes: i

i.,

, i

iu.,u

, i

iu.,u

, and i

i,.,

. Let us

refer to this contour as 1. Since the four corner nodes

of 1 satisfy the distance condition in (9), we can

conclude that all the nodes in contour 1 are also in the

contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

.

Now, consider the node i

ii,.i

. By the criterion of (9),

this node would be in the contour, and no node i

:.i

with

: < i i , would be in the contour. We can see that

i

i.,

, i

i1.,1

. . . . . i

ii,.i

is the unique shortest path

between i

i.,

and i

ii,.i

. Since

y

is odd, the length of

this shortest path must be odd. Consequently, the length

of the shortest path from i

ii,.i

to i

.i

via the nodes

i

ii,1.i

. i

ii,2.i

. . . . . i

1.i

. i

.i

must be even. From

Lemma 3, the contour of i

ii,.i

and i

.i

is a rectangle

with u b

i,i

2

c and is enclosed by the nodes i

.i

,

i

u.iu

, i

u.iu

, and i

.i

. Let us refer to this contour as

T. Since the four corner nodes of T also satisfy the

distance condition in (9), we conclude that all the nodes

in contour T are also in the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

.

Consider the path <i

i.,

. i

i1.,1

. i

i2.,2

. . . . . i

ii,u.

i u . Let us refer to this path as line-L. From the

definition of u (7), i i , u u, and hence, line-L

starts at node i

i.,

and ends at i

u.iu

. Similarly, let us

refer to the path < i

.i

. i

1.i1

. i

2.i2

. . . . . i

iu.,u

as

line-R. Every node i

:.t

that is not in contour T or

contour 1 which is in the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

must lie

between line-L and line-R. Any node not in the contours

T and 1, which is not between line-L and line-R, does not

satisfy the distance criterion in (9). We can therefore

conclude that the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

is a rectangle

with line-L and line-R as two edges, and hence, the four

corner nodes are at either ends of these lines.

Next, given a contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

with four corner

nodes as stated in the theorem, we showthat

ry

i

i.,

. i

.i

is even.

ry

i

i.,

. i

.i

is even only when

r

i

i.,

. i

.i

and

y

i

i.,

. i

.i

are both even or are both odd. By definition,

ui

i.,

. i

.i

jijji,j

2

, and ui

i.,

. i

i,.,

ji,ijj,,j

2

.

Thus, ui

i.,

. i

.i

ui

i.,

. i

i,.,

. i

iu.,u

is a corner

node in the contour of i

i.,

and i

i,.,

.

r

i

i.,

. i

i,.i

2 ui

i.,

. i

i,.,

by the structure of the 2DBaseGrid and

hence is even by Lemma 3. Since

ry

i

i.,

. i

i,.i

0, the

distance di

i,.,

. i

.,

is always equal to di

.i

. i

.,

.

Therefore,

r

i

i.,

. i

.i

and

y

i

i.,

. i

.i

are either both

even or both odd. Hence,

ry

i

i.,

. i

.i

must be even. tu

Lemma 4. In

8

, given i

i.,

and i

.i

with

y

0, the contour is

enclosed by a hexagon if and only if

r

is odd and

r

1. The

six nodes at the corners of this hexagon are i

i.,

. i

iu. ,u

.

i

iu1. ,u

. i

u.,u

. i

u1.,u

and i

.,

. (The proof is avail-

able in [32].)

Theorem 2. In

8

, the contour of i

i.,

and i

.i

is a hexagon

bounded by the nodes i

i.,

, i

iu.,u

, i

iu1.,u

, i

u.iu

,

i

u1.iu

, and i

.i

if and only if

ry

is odd and

ry

1.

Proof. The proof is similar to that of Theorem 1 by using

Lemma 4 instead of Lemma 3. tu

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1191

In summary, the results in this section completely

characterize the structure of the contour (or the set of shortest

paths) between any two nodes in the

8

embedding.

3.2 Contours in Other Embeddings

The structure of contours inthe embeddings

3

,

4

, and

6

are

reported in [33]. In the

4

embedding, the contour of i

i.,

and

i

.i

is a single path when either

r

or

y

0. Further, when

r

0and

y

0, thecontour is always arectanglebounded

bythenodesi

i.,

, i

i.i

, i

.i

, andi

.,

. Fig. 3bshowsafewexample

contours inthe

4

embedding. Thestructure of contours inthe

6

embedding is similar to the structure of contours in

4

. In

the

3

embedding, contours have zero, one, or two pendant

(i.e., adjacent only with a single edge) nodes [33].

3.3 Impact of Contour Structure on Dissemination

In a multihop routing scheme, each node receives messages

from its upstream neighbor along some path and forwards

this message to its downstream neighbor. In this paper, our

interest is inmechanisms that exploit all the shortest paths. To

utilize multiple paths, eachnode must receive messages from

a set of upstreamneighbors and forward these messages to a

set of downstream neighbors.

To utilize the results in this paper inpractical applications,

it is assumed that each message packet contains the location

of both the source and the destination. As the messages

propagate through the network, every intermediate node

could easily compute (using, e.g., the distance criterion)

which of its immediate neighbors are on a shortest path to the

destination. (This is explained further in the next section). In

addition, the results of this section allow the intermediate

node to knowits relative position in the contour. In Section 5,

we show how this location information can be used to

effectively exploit all the available shortest paths ina contour.

4 EFFECTS OF UNIFORM SPREADING

The first strategy we consider for spreading messages over

all shortest paths will be called Uniform Spreading. This is a

straightforward strategy where the source, as well as each

intermediate node along every path in the contour, sends

successive messages in a round-robin fashion to all its

immediate neighbors in the contour. We present this

algorithm and show that the nodes along one of the paths

will always handle more messages than the nodes along

other paths whenever this strategy is used.

The following results characterize the nodes that are

inside a contour.

Observation 1. For any node i

:.t

that is in an

8

contour of

shortest paths from i

.i

to i

i.,

, its neighbors i

:.t1

, i

:.t1

, and

i

:1.t1

cannot be in the contour.

This follows from the distance criterion in (9). (Recall that

we are considering the case where i, i ,, and,

whenever

ry

0, i i ,).

Lemma 5. A node i

:1.t1

is in the

8

contour of shortest paths

from i

:.t

to i

i.,

only if

ry

i

:.t

. i

i.,

1.

Proof. For i

:1.t1

to be on a shortest path, we require

maxfj: 1 ij. jt 1 ,jg < maxfj: ij. jt ,jg. Clearly,

j: i 1j < j: ij and, hence, this is possible only

when jt 1 ,j j: 1 ij. Rearranging terms, we get

2 j: ij jt ,j, and hence, from the definition (7),

we conclude that

ry

i

:.t

. i

i.,

1. tu

When a message travels along a shortest path, the

distance to the destination must be reduced along each step

of the shortest path. In view of the above observation and

lemma, a node i

:.t

can send the messages it handles to at

most three of its neighbors, i.e., i

:1.t1

, i

:1.t

, and i

:1.t1

.

Thus, the structure of shortest paths in a contour and the

location of a node in the contour together constrain the

number of shortest paths from the node to the destination.

Specifically, a node i

o./

cannot appear on a shortest path

from i

:.t

to i

i.,

if

ry

i

o./

. i

i.,

!

ry

i

:.t

. i

i.,

.

Given below is the algorithm for uniform spreading. We

note that in the algorithm both i:qConit and iq/i: are

dependent on the source-destination pair. We need separate

counters for each source-destination pair. If the first packet

in a batch contains the total number of packets in that batch,

then we know how long to maintain the counters. The set of

neighbors, iq/i:, of a node in the contour can be computed

by the node as explained above.

Uniform Spreading Algorithm

In the rest of this section, we analyze the properties of

this algorithm.

4.1 Loading under Uniform Spreading in

8

Uniform spreading is achieved when all the nodes in the

contour execute the Uniform Spreading algorithm. To

1192 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

Fig. 3. Examples of different contour structures for various values of

ry

.

(a)

8

. (b)

4

.

characterize the effects of this algorithm, we first define what

we call rows in a contour.

Definition 2. A row in a contour is a set of nodes that are at the

same distance (8) from the source.

If the length of the shortest path is |, then there will be

| 1 rows in a contour. Note that the source and destination

nodes aretrivial rowswithasinglenodeineach. Fig. 4shows a

contour witheight rows that has a shortest pathof 7 hops. The

numbers inthecircles showthenumber of packets handledby

different nodes when all nodes use the uniform spreading

algorithmandthesourcesends 99packets. Eventhoughevery

node spreads the messages it handles over all the available

neighbors, many nodes closer to the destination handle more

messages than other nodes. This is the loading phenomenon

that we will characterize precisely in this section.

In the embedding

8

, notice in Fig. 4 that under uniform

spreading, all the nodes i

:.t

in rows 1. 2. . . . . u (where u is as

defined by (7)) of the contour divide the messages they

handle into three parts and send each part along one of their

three neighbors that are closer to the destination. Thus, we

can conclude that the ratio of the messages handled by a

node in a row to the smallest number of messages handled

by another node in the same row follows the trinomial

coefficients.

4

The trinomial coefficient Tc. is the coeffi-

cient of r

in the expansion of 1 r r

2

c

. We use the

following properties of trinomial coefficients in this section:

1. Tc. c, the central trinomial coefficient, is the

largest coefficient in the expansion of 1 r r

2

c

and Tc. c 0.

2. Suppose c

P

c1

i0

Tc. i

P

2c

,c1

Tc. ,; then,

c

3

c

<

1

2

. This follows from the symmetry of the

trinomial coefficients and Tc. c 0.

Lemma 6. Givena

8

contour with

ry

i

.i

. i

i.,

1, if i

.i

sends

` messages to i

i.,

, nodes alongone pathhandle ` 1messages

after log

2

` steps along the shortest path from i

.i

to i

i.,

.

Proof. Since

ry

1, there are two paths in the contour from

Lemma 2. All the nodes along one path have

ry

1 with

respect toi

i.,

; the nodes alongthe other pathhave

ry

0.

Let us refer to these paths as Path-1 and Path-0,

respectively. Since all the nodes on Path-1 have a higher

ry

than the nodes on Path-0, no messages can go from a

node on Path-0 to a node on Path-1. However, every node

i

:.t

on Path-1 divides the messages it handles equally

between its neighbor i

:1.t

on Path-0 andneighbor i

:1.t1

on Path-1. Hence, if the source i

.i

generates ` messages,

the node onPath-1 that is at a distance log

2

` fromi

.i

will

handle at most one message. This means that the nodes

starting at node i

log

2

`1.ilog

2

`

on Path-0 handle at least

` 1 messages. tu

To show that uniform spreading results in loading one

path of the contour in general, let us consider subpaths in a

contour labeled as shown in Fig. 5. All the nodes on Path-/

have

ry

/ with respect to the destination, i

i.,

. Using

arguments similar to ones used in the proof of Lemma 6, we

note that a node in a lower numbered subpath cannot

forward messages to a node in a higher numbered path

because it will not be on a shortest path.

Lemma 7. Under uniform spreading in a contour in

8

, in every

row, nodes along the subpath with

ry

0 with respect to the

destination will always handle more messages than the nodes

along other paths.

Proof. The proof is similar to that of the previous lemma. tu

Lemma 8. Under uniform spreading in a contour in

8

, nodes

along Path-0 and Path-1 always handle more than

`

2

messages.

Proof. We show that the nodes i

2u1.i

and i

2u1.i1

handle more than

`

2

. Consider the nodes in a row at a

distance 2u 1 from the source in the contour. Notice

that the number of messages handled by node i

2u1.i

corresponds to the central trinomial coefficient

T2u 1. 2u 1. The sum of all the messages in

nodes handled by the nodes in row 2u 1 is

22u 1 T2u 1. 2u 1. The lemma follows

from the property that 2u 1 < 1,2. tu

Theorem 3. Under uniform spreading in a contour in

8

, when

r

6 0 and

y

6 0, nodes on the subpath with

ry

0, with

respect to the destination, will always handle more messages

than the nodes along other paths.

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1193

Fig. 4. Uniform spreading in

8

.

Fig. 5. Labeling paths in a contour.

4. This is true to the extent that the number of messages can be equally

divided among the nodes in a row.

Proof. First, consider nodes along Path-2u. Since each node

sends the messages it handles to three downstreamnodes,

after i log

3

` steps on Path-2u, the node i

i.ii

will

handle at most one message. This node must be inrowiof

the contour. From the properties of trinomial coefficients,

the node i

i.ii1

, on Path-2u 1 path, will handle

imessages. After i

0

log

3

log

3

` more steps alongPath-

2u 1, node i

ii

0

.iii

0

1

will handle at most

i

0

messages. Extending this argument, we conclude that

in Path-/, 2. . . . . 2u, some node i

Olog

3

`. iOlog

3

`2u/

must handle at most one message. Since the messages

always move from nodes in higher numbered layers to

nodes in lower numbered layers, such messages must

eventually arrive at the nodes on the Layer-0 path. Hence,

we have the theorem. tu

4.2 Effects of Embedding on Loading

We observed similar loading effects under uniform spread-

ing in

4

and

6

. Recall that the structure of the contours in

6

closely follows that in

4

. In these embeddings, only the

nodes along paths on either the A or Y axis get loaded. If

r

y

, then the path along the A-axis in the contour will

be loaded. Proofs of loading, similar to the ones presented

for

8

in the preceding section, for contours in

4

and

6

follow from the properties of binomial coefficients.

5 OPTIMAL SPREADING

We now present an algorithm for spreading the messages so

that all the available paths are effectively utilized. Recall

that a row is a collection of nodes in the contour that are at

the same distance from the source. Let n be the number of

nodes in a row of a contour. We refer to n as the width of

the row. If the source sends ` messages and if every node

in every row handles

`

n

messages,

5

then we can say that the

spreading is the best in the sense that all available paths are

effectively used. This is the criterion of optimality that we

choose. We will show that the algorithm presented in this

section is optimal in this sense.

Fig. 6 shows examples of two contoursone in

8

and the

other in

4

. Notice that the width of a row, n, varies with the

row number in three ways in both the contours. n first

increases monotonically, then remains constant, and then

decreases monotonically. We refer to these three regions as

the Expansion region, Propagation region, and Contraction

region, respectively.

Observation 2. Inthe

8

embedding, the width nof any rowinthe

expansion region is odd, and the width of the next downstream

row is n 2. When

ry

0 and even, the width of the rows in

the propagation region is the same as the largest n in the

expansionregion; when

ry

0andodd, the widthof the rows in

the propagationregionis n 1. The widthof eachsuccessive row

in the contraction region reduces by two until the i

i.,

is reached.

Consider two adjacent rows i and i1 in the

expansion region with widths n and n 2, respectively.

Since there are more nodes in row i1, if all of them have

to handle the same number of messages, then at least some

of them have to receive messages from two nodes in row i.

The strategy we propose uses a special labeling of the nodes

in a row; every node can compute its own label using the

contour structure results discussed in Section 3.

5.1 Node Labeling

Inanyrow, nodes onbothsides of themiddle nodeare labeled

as1. 2. 3. . . . . bn,2c, asillustratedinFig. 7. Let i

i

j

represent the

node that is labeledj inthe ithrowof acontour. Note that i

i

j

is not the ID (or coordinates) of the node; in each row, two

nodeswithdifferent IDswouldhavethesamelabel. However,

for any node except the middle one in rowi, only one of the

two nodes with label j would be a neighbor. Thus, for all

nodesexcept themiddleoneinrowi, thenodelabel asper the

convention shown in Fig. 7 uniquely identifies a neighbor in

rowi1. Under this labeling in the

8

embedding, node i

i

j

can communicate with nodes i

i1

j

and i

i1

j1

. For the middle

node in row i, there would be two neighbors in row i1

with the same label.

1194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

Fig. 6. Expansion, propagation, and contraction regions.

(a) Contour in

8

. (b) Contour in

4

.

Fig. 7. Spreading in the expansion region.

5. This is only possible to the extent that ` is an integral multiple of n.

5.2 Optimal Spreading

Our algorithm for optimal spreading is given below. In

the algorithm, the array iq/i: keeps track of the relevant

neighbors for any node. As explained above, the middle

node in a row has two relevant neighbors in the next row

that have the same label.

Optimal Spreading Algorithm

Our algorithm for spreading messages is based on the

following strategy:

. In the expansion region, nodes i

i

j

send messages to

nodes i

i1

j

and nodes i

i1

j1

in different ratios.

. In the propagation region, node i

i

j

sends all the

messages it handles to node i

i1

j

.

. In the contraction region, nodes i

i

j

send messages

to node i

i1

j

and nodes i

i1

j1

in different ratios, as

shown in the algorithm.

Intuitively, the nodes in the expansion region spread

messages over the available paths, the nodes in the propaga-

tion region do not spread messages and propagate them

along a single path, and the nodes in the contraction region

coalesce messages from multiple paths. Our objective is to

ensure that all the nodes in every row of a contour handle

roughly the same number of messages. Theorem 4 below

shows that this objective is achieved when each node in the

expansionregionandthe contractionregionspreadmessages

to its neighbors in the ratios specified in the Optimal

Spreadingalgorithm. The empirical results inthe next section

showthat this notion of optimality significantly improves the

QoS.

Theorem 4. When the source in a contour sends ` messages and

there is no message loss, under the Optimal Spreadingalgorithm,

every node in each row of width n handles

`

n

messages.

6

Proof. We prove the result for the expansion region of the

contour using mathematical induction. As a basis, i

1

1

is in

a row with width n 1, and it handles

`

n

` messages.

This node sends messages to three nodes in the next row

in a specific ratio, as given in the algorithm. The middle

node in row 2 receives

`

n2

`

3

messages from i

1

1

. The

two nodes labeled i

2

1

(recall that the middle node in row

i has two neighbors with the same label in row i1)

receive

`

nn2

`

3

messages each. Thus, all the nodes in

row 2 that has width n 3 handle

`

3

messages.

Assume that the nodes in row i of the contour with

width n handle

`

n

messages. We show that all the nodes

in row i1 handle

`

n2

messages. As per our algorithm,

node i

i

j

sends messages to i

i1

j

and i

i1

j1

in the ratio

n 2 2j : 2j. Since this node has

`

n

messages, this ratio

implies that i

i

j

sends

`j

n2

`j1

n

messages to i

i1

j

and

`j

n

`j

n2

messages to i

i1

j1

. Following this rule, the

nodes i

i1

1

receive

1`

n2

11`

n

`

n2

messages from

the nodes i

i

1

.

The nodes i

i1

,

, 2 , b

n2

2

c 1, receive

.

,1`

n

,1`

n2

messages from nodes i

i

,1

, and

.

,`

n2

,1`

n

messages from nodes i

i

,

.

Hence, each node i

i1

,

handles

`

n2

messages.

Now, consider nodes i

i1

b

n2

2

c

. These nodes receive

1

2

`

n

`

n2

messages from the middle node in row i and

bn,2c`

n

bn,2c`

n2

messages from nodes i

i

bn,2c

. Thus,

nodes i

i1

bn2,2c

also handle

`

n2

messages. Therefore,

since the middle node in row i1 receives

`

n2

messages from the middle node in row i, we conclude

that the spreading rules presented are optimal for the

expansion region.

It is easy to see that if the number of messages

handled by the nodes in a row at the beginning of the

propagation region are roughly the same, this number

will not change since the nodes do not spread messages.

The proof for the contraction region also follows from

similar induction, and the details are omitted. tu

In the above proof (and in specifying our algorithm), it is

assumed that the width of rows in the propagation region is

the same as the largest width in the expansion region.

When the contour is a hexagon (i.e., when

ry

0 and

odd), there are two special cases that must be considered

because if n is the maximum width of the expansion region,

the width of the propagation region is n 1, and the

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1195

6. This is only possible to the extent that ` is an integral multiple of n.

maximum width of the contraction region is n. These rules

are also similar to the rules specified in our algorithm [33].

To implement optimal spreading in practice, in more

general situations, one can effect the spreading of messages

in the desired ratio by using a randomized strategy that

chooses the neighbors with the proportional probabilities.

Then, the above result of equitable distribution of load

holds in an expected sense.

6 RESULTS

To evaluate the QoS achieved by CGD, we designed and

implemented a discrete-event simulation using the OM-

Net++ framework [34]. The results in this section demon-

strate the performance of CGD. For all simulations, the nodes

were embedded on the 2D Basegrid using the

8

embedding

with

ry

4, one source, and one sink in the contour. In the

scenarios where the number of messages was not varied, the

source sent 5,000 messages, each of which is 36 bytes long. To

study the effects of an increased number of messages, the

number was changed between 5 and 50,000.

6.1 Simulation Approach

The multipath, multihop, dissemination of messages from

the source to the sink was modeled as a multistage queuing

network. The service time of each queue was exponentially

distributed with a mean time of 30 ms to represent 1) the

time required to propagate a message from the preceding

node, 2) the time required to receive a message in the node,

and 3) the time required to forward the message toward the

sink. Using the channel modeling capability in OMNet++,

the data rate (bandwidth) was set to 38.4 Kbps. Propagation

delay and bit error rates were assumed to be zero, and all

links between pairs of nodes were identical. The source

generated messages with an interarrival time that was

exponentially distributed with a mean time of 20 ms.

7

To ensure that the simulations reflected real-world

constraints on low-power wireless propagation and topol-

ogy, we weakened the regular topologies, which were used

in the analysis in the preceding sections, by modeling link

failures and wireless propagation irregularities. To model

link failures, the probability of success for each link was

varied between zero (failure) and one (success). Before

sending a message to a dowstream node, a random number

was drawn from a uniform distribution; the message was

sent only if this random number was larger than the link

failure threshold. To account for wireless propagation

irregularities [35], a probability of success was assigned to

each link in the neighborhood of a node that was drawn

from a Weibull distribution using the parameters reported

in [35]. We varied the percentage of such irregular nodes

from 0 (no nodes with irregular propagation) to 100 (all

nodes have irregular propagation). To investigate the

relationship between wireless propagation irregularity and

the structure of the contour, we also considered the case

where irregular nodes were localized to the expansion and

propagation regions of the contour.

6.2 QoS Metrics

The number of messages handledby each node, average end-

to-end latency, jitter, and message loss rate were the primary

QoS metrics. For each message, the time at which it was sent

fromthe source, t, andthe time at which this message arrived

at the sink, t

0

, were recorded. The end-to-end latency for this

message is t

0

t. The average end-to-end latency was the

average value of t

0

t over all the messages received at the

sink. Jitter was the standard deviation of the end-to-end

latencies. The ratio of the number of messages that were not

received at the sink to the number of messages that were sent

from the source was the message loss rate. To evaluate the

effects of congestion on the performance, we considered the

number of messages lost when 1) the service time in each

node increases and 2) the number of messages sent by the

source increases. In addition, throughputdefined as the

number of messages arriving at the sink per unit timewas

used as a metric to evaluate the scalability of CGD.

Since none of the multipath routing methods described in

Section 1 relies on effectively using all the available paths to

improve QoS, the metrics discussed above were used to

compare the performance of CGD with the performance of

1) flooding and 2) single-shortest-path routing (Unipath),

which is typically used in distance vector routing. Our focus

on regular topologies allowed us to hand-compute the

shortest paths. We used flooding with duplicate elimination

and only considered the communication costs incurred by

nodes in the contour. We expected the average latency and

jitter to be much better than flooding. Since CGD exploits

multiple paths, Unipathservedas a watermarkfor acceptable

performance. The performance of CGDwas investigatedboth

under uniformspreading (uniformCGD) and under optimal

spreading (optimal CGD).

6.3 Performance of CGD

Fig. 8 shows a histogram of the number of messages

handled in each node in uniform CGD and optimal CGD.

There were 56 nodes in the contour with

ry

4. As shown

1196 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

7. We developed a Java program that generated the source files required

by the OMNet++ framework. The rules for dissemination, using uniform

and optimal spreading, were encoded in these files.

Fig. 8. In optimal CGD, all the nodes in a row of the contour handle

roughly the same number of messages. This balance is not maintained

in uniform CGD. (a) Uniform CGD. (b) Optimal CGD.

in Fig. 8b, all the nodes in a row handle roughly the same

number of messages in optimal CGD.

6.3.1 Effects of Link Failures

To weaken the regular topologies considered in the

analysis, we examined the effects of link failures. Fig. 9

shows the number of messages handled by the nodes in a

row when the probability of link failure is 0.2. Notice that

optimal CGD (Fig. 9b) is more balanced than uniform CGD

(Fig. 9a). A similar balance across the nodes was observed

when the link failure probability was varied over a range.

This balance improves the QoS achieved by CGD.

Fig. 10 compares the QoS achieved by optimal CGD and

uniform CGD with that achieved using Unipath and

flooding. The probability of link failure was varied from

zero to one, and each link in the multihop network was

assumed to fail independently with equal probability.

Notice in Figs. 10a and 10b that optimal CGDachieves the

lowest average latency and jitter. We believe that the almost

constant jitter achieved by optimal CGD is due to the better

load balancing across nodes. The performance of uniform

CGD follows the performance achieved using Unipath. As

expected, Fig. 10c shows a lowmessage loss rate for flooding.

6.3.2 Effects of Propagation Irregularity

Fig. 11 shows the QoS of CGD in the presence of nodes with

wireless propagation irregularity. As shown in Fig. 11a,

optimal CGD achieves the lowest average end-to-end

latency. Similarly, the Jitter (Fig. 11b) is also low. However,

as expected, the loss rate is lower for flooding.

By comparing Fig. 11 with Fig. 10, it can be noticed that

irregular wireless propagation effects are much less severe

than the effects of link failure. This is because unlike link

failure, when the wireless propagation is irregular, we can

still expect some communication to proceed.

We alsoexaminedhowthe locationof nodes withirregular

wireless propagation affects the QoS of CGD. Fig. 12 shows

the QoS achieved under optimal spreading when the

irregular nodes are localized either to the expansion region

or the propagation region of the contour. The average latency

(Fig. 12a) is worst when the nodes with irregular wireless

propagation occur in the expansion region of a contour. The

jitter followed a similar trend. Note that the message loss rate

(Fig. 12b) is low when the nodes with irregular wireless

propagation occur in the expansion region.

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1197

Fig. 9. Optimal CGD maintains a balance among the nodes in a row of

a contour even in the presence of link failures. This result is obtained

when the probability of link failure was 0.2 for every link in the contour.

(a) Uniform CGD. (b) Optimal CGD.

Fig. 10. The average latency and jitter of optimal CGD is significantly

lower than that of uniform CGD, flooding, or Unipath. The nonzero

message loss rate for Unipath, Flooding, and Uniform CGD, when the

link failure probability is zero, is because of buffer overflow. (a) Average

latency. (b) Jitter. (c) Message loss rate.

6.3.3 Scalability

Weexaminedtheperformanceof optimal CGDwhenthescale

increases, i.e., when the number of nodes and the number of

messages increase. The results in the preceding section show

that uniform CGD performs better than Unipath and Flood-

ing, andoptimal CGDperforms better thanuniformCGD. For

this reason, the following results only compare the perfor-

mance of optimal CGDwith that of uniformCGD.

To investigate how QoS changes with scale, we increased

the number of nodes and the number of messages and

observed the average latency and throughput. Fig. 13 shows

the average latency and throughput achieved when the

number of nodes in the contour is increased. We maintained

ry

4 as the number of nodes increased from around

50 to 500. While the average latency increased linearly,

because the length of the shortest path increased, the

throughput also decreases. However, the throughput of

optimal CGD is better than that of uniform CGD.

Figs. 14 and 15 show a comparison of the average delay

and throughput achieved when the queues in the intermedi-

ate nodes build up. In Fig. 14, the service time is increased

from a mean value of about 3 ms to about 80 ms. The rate at

which messages were generated at the source was not

changed. The average latency and throughput of optimal

CGD is better than that of uniform CGD. In Fig. 15, the

number of messages sent by the source increasedfrom5 to50,

from 50 to 500, from 500 to 5,000, and from 5,000 to 50,000.

Optimal CGD performs much better than uniform CGD.

6.4 Summary and Discussion

The preceding results demonstrate that despite the avail-

ability of multiple shortest paths between a pair of nodes,

these paths cannot be exploited using a straightforward

strategy such as uniform spreading. While the results in

Figs. 10 and 11 showthat uniformspreading performs better

than methods based on Unipath, optimal CGD effectively

exploits all the available shortest paths and improves QoS.

1198 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009

Fig. 11. The average latency and jitter achieved using optimal CGD is

significantly lower even when a large number of nodes in the contour

have irregular propagation. (a) Average latency. (b) Jitter.

Fig. 12. When the nodes with irregular wireless propagation can be

localized to the expansion region of a contour, the message loss rate

improves. (a) Average latency. (b) Message loss rate.

Fig. 13. The average latency and throughput achieved using optimal

CGD are significantly better than those of uniform CGD. (a) Average

latency. (b) Throughput.

Fig. 8 shows that the nodes in the same row of a contour

handle roughly the same number of messages when using

optimal CGD. Optimal CGD maintains this balance across

nodes even in the presence of link failures (Fig. 9). The

performance of CGD remains robust in the presence of

nodes with irregular wireless propagation. Interestingly, as

shown in Fig. 12, when the nodes with irregular wireless

propagation are localized to the expansion region of the

contours, the effect of irregularity on latency and through-

put is less pronounced. This implies that it is important for

designers and system installers to focus on minimizing

nodes with irregular wireless propagation in certain parts of

the system. The performance improvement achieved by

optimal CGD is robust with respect to the increase in

service time, the number of messages sent from the source,

and the number of nodes in the contour, as shown by the

results in the preceding section.

The practical use of CGD will be impacted by physical-

layer effects and application dynamics. In the future, we

expect to investigate the performance of CGD in application

scenarios, through simulations and experiments, that

account for Media Access Control (MAC) and interference

across multiple paths.

7 CONCLUSIONS

Many future engineered systems that are based on peer-to-

peer-connected mesh topologies are likely to have multiple

paths between a pair of nodes. We defined a contour as the

union of all shortest paths between a pair of nodes. Using a

regular topology, we proved that when the messages are

spread uniformly over the paths in a contour, nodes along

one path handle more messages than other messages. We

presented an optimal strategy for spreading messages in

such systems, and our results demonstrate the effectiveness

of the spreading strategy.

Although the results are based on regular topologies,

they represent upper bounds on what can be achieved in

general topologies. These results reveal that to achieve

optimal dissemination, some nodes must disseminate the

messages over the available paths, and other nodes use only

one of the available paths. Identifying these sets of nodes in

general topologies is an interesting problem. In the future,

the optimal dissemination techniques can be enhanced to

improve QoS, mitigate interference, reduce hotspot effects,

and design next-generation monitoring and surveillance

systems based on wireless mesh topologies.

APPENDIX

Proof (Lemma 3). Since

y

0, we have , i. We first

show that when

r

is even, the contour is enclosed by

the four corner nodes. Because

y

0, <i

i.,

. i

i1.,

. . . . .

i

1.,

. i

.,i

, shown in Fig. 16, is a shortest path. Since

r

is even, there are an odd number of nodes in this

path. Let us call this path a Layer-0 path. (This

nomenclature will become clear shortly).

Any subpath < i

:.,

. i

:1.,

. i

:2.,

in the Layer-0

pathcanbe replacedbya path< i

:.,

. i

:1.,1

. i

:2.,

o r < i

:.,

. i

:1.,1

. i

:2.,1

. . . . . i

:/. ,1

. i

:/1. ,

,

where i 1 / 1 without increasing the length of

the shortest path. We call such a path as a Layer-1 path.

Shortest paths that go up to , 2 are called Layer-2 paths,

and so on, until a Layer-u path. Similarly, we can define

Layer-1, Layer -2, . . . , Layer-u paths. Fig. 16 shows such

shortest paths.

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1199

Fig. 14. When the service times increase, the queues in intermediate

nodes buildup. Notice that when uniform CGD is used, the effects on the

average latency and throughput are more pronounced because of

loading. (a) Average latency. (b) Throughput.

Fig. 15. As the number of messages sent from a source increase,

optimal CGD delivers higher throughput and lower latency than uniform

CGD. (a) Average latency. (b) Throughput.

Fig. 16. Layered paths when

r

is even.

The node i

i.,1

cannot be on any shortest path because

any path between i

i.,

and i

.,

that passes through i

i.,1

will have length !

r

1. Similarly, node i

.,1

cannot

be on any shortest path between i

i.,

and i

.,

.

In each layer /, 1 / u, the number of nodes that

can be on any shortest path between i

i.,

and i

.,

reduces by 2 /. For example, the Layer-1 path will

have

r

1 2 nodes, the Layer-2 path will have

r

1 4 nodes, and so on. Hence, the Layer-u path

must have a single node, i.e., i

iu.,u

since the Layer-0

path has an odd number of nodes because

r

is even.

Similar arguments apply to the Layer -1, Layer -2, . . . ,

Layer-u paths, and the Layer-u path must have a single

node, i.e., i

u.,u

. Hence, the four corners of the

rectangle are as required.

Next, given a contour with four corner nodes i

i.,

,

i

iu.,u

, i

u.,u

, and i

.,

, we show that

r

is even.

Consider the path from i

i.,

to i

iu.,u

. The length of this

path is the same as the length of the path from i

i.,

to

i

iu.,

because of the structure of the

8

embedding.

r

is

2 |ciqt/i

i.,

. i

iu.,

and is hence even. tu

Proof (Lemma 4). The arguments are similar to the ones

used in the proof of Lemma 3. The only difference is that

the Layer-u path will have two nodes instead of one

because there are an even number of nodes in the Layer-0

path, and the number of nodes on each successive layer

reduces by two. tu

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank the anonymous reviewers whose com-

ments on an earlier draft of this paper have helped to

improve the presentation. This material is based upon work

supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF)

under Grant 0720736. Any opinions, findings, and conclu-

sions or recommendations expressed in this material are

those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views

of the NSF.

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pp. 125-138, 2004.

Kranthi K. Mamidisetty received the bachelors

degree in electronics and communication en-

gineering from Jawaharlal Nehru Technological

University and the masters degree in electrical

engineering from the University of Akron, Ohio,

in 2008. He is currently pursuing his PhD degree

at the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of Akron.

Minlan Duan received the bachelors degree in

electrical engineering from the Beijing Institute of

Technology, China, in 2005 and the MSdegree in

electrical engineering from the University of

Akron, Akron, Ohio, in 2007. She is currently with

Denso International America, Inc.

Shivakumar Sastry received the bachelors

degree in electronics engineering from Banga-

lore University in 1984, the masters degree in

electrical engineering from Indian Institute of

Science, the masters degree in computer

science from the University of Central Florida,

and the PhDdegree fromCase Western Reserve

University. Prior to his transition into academics,

he held industry positions with GE Consulting

Services and Rockwell Automation. Since 2002,

he has been a member of the faculty in the Department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. He is the

recipient of several awards and holds two US patents. He is a member of

the IEEE Computer Society.

P.S. Sastry received the BSc(Hons) degree in

physics from the Indian Institute of Technology

(IIT), Kharagpur, in 1978 and the BE degree in

electrical communications engineering and the

PhD degree from the Department of Electrical

Engineering, Indian Institute of Science (IISc),

Bangalore, in 1981 and 1985, respectively. Since

1986, he has been a faculty member in the

Department of Electrical Engineering, IISc, where

he is currently a professor. He has held visiting

positions at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, at the University of

Michigan, Ann Arbor, and at General Motors Research Laboratories,

Warren. He is an associate editor of IEEETransactions on Systems, Man,

and Cybernetics and IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and

Engineering. He is a fellowof the Indian National Academy of Engineering

and a senior member of the IEEE. He is a recipient of the Sir C.V. Raman

YoungScientist Award fromthe Government of Karnataka, the Dr. Vikram

Sarabhai Research Award from PRL, and the Most Valued Colleague

Award from General Motors.

> For more information on this or any other computing topic,

please visit our Digital Library at www.computer.org/publications/dlib.

MAMIDISETTY ET AL.: MULTIPATH DISSEMINATION IN REGULAR MESH TOPOLOGIES 1201

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