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Geographic Information System(GIS)
A Geographic information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The acronym GIS is sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatial information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information systems. In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. A Geographic Information System (GIS) should be thought of as being much more than means of coding, storing, and retrieving the data about the aspects of earth’s surface, because these data can be accessed, ,transformed, and manipulated interactively for studying environmental process, analyzing the results for trends ,or anticipating the possible results of planning decisions. 1.2 Definition Of GIS “In common parlance, a geographic information system or GIS is a configuaration of computer hardware and software specifically designed for the acquisition, maintainance and use of cartographic data.” C. Dana Tomlin
“A geographic information system(GIS) is an information system that is designed to work with data referenced by spatial or geographic coordinates. In other words, a GIS is botha database system with specific capabilities for spatially-referenced data, as well as a set of operations for working data. In a sense, a GIS may be thought of as a higher-order map.” jeffery Star and John Estes “GIS is A powerful set of tools for collecting, storing, retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial data from the real world for a particular set of purpose.” Peter A.Burrough ,1986 “GIS is a computer based system that provides for sets of capabilities to handle georeferenced data: data input, data management(data storage and reteival), manipulation and analysis and data output.” Arnoff, 1989 Finally, we can say, A geographic information system (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
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1.3 History of GIS:
In the London City Cholera was spread out in 1854. Soho a British researcher noticed that, cholera is more spread in some water pump area. From this Soho confirm that, cholera spread from some polluted water pump. Then he showed by the map through the collection of information about the disease & the affected people. As a result the problem can be identified & necessary steps have been taken. This work gets praised in London. In the following shows in the amp the location of water pump & the amount of cholera death. Most of the GIS scientist think about Soho’s spatial & non-spatial data presentation is introduction of GIS. GIS and map analysis developments began around the same time as related developments in computer cartography and spatial statistics. They were promoted by the limitations of hardcopy maps, problems with overlaying data sets and the increasing size and number of available data sets (Tomlinson, 1988). The initial development (in the 1960’s) were technical and were aimed at developing a set of spatial data handling and analysis tools that could be used with geographical database for repeated problem solving (Tomlinson, 1988). One of the first systems called GIS appeared in Canada in 1964. Godchild (1995) considers that the roots of current GIS lie in the 1960s, and then pioneering work by the US Bureau of Census that lead to the digital input of in 1970 Census. In turn, these developments influenced work at the Harvard Graphics Laboratory, which led directly to the production of some of the first commercial GIS software, including the package ARC/INFO. CGIS: AS Early GIS. The Canadian Geographic Information System (CGIS) used data collected for the Land Inventory System and was developed as a result of the requirements of the Canadian Agriculture and Development Act. It was designed to produce maps of the crops that areas of land were capable of producing and to map land capability for forestry (based on soil, climate, drainage and physical land characteristics). Over the years CGIS has been modified and improved to keep pace with technology and the equipments are now. For example, microcomputers are now used for data input analysis.
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However, the overall components of CGIS have remained constant. There is a subsystem for scanning input and raster editing that allows editing and verification of scanned images and some auto-processing. Additional subsystems include the interactive digitizing and editing subsystem and a cartographic output subsystem. The Development of ESRI Years 1969 Development of ESRI. ESRI founded by Jack and Laure Dangermond as a privately held consulting group in Redlands, California. 1970 ESRI is involved in applications such as site selection and urban planning which lead to the development of many of the technical and applied aspects of GIS.
ARC/INFO GIS for minicomputer launched. Later the product is shifted to UNIX workstations and PCs the ESRI user conference attracts 18 participants.
ARCVIEW is launched (desktop mapping and GIS tool) SDE (a client-server product for spatial data management) and business map (a consumer mapping product) are launched.
1998 1999 2000
Arc Data online (Internet mapping and data site) launched. Arc Info 8 release. Arc News circulation exceeds 200000. Geography network for publishing, sharing and using geographic information on the Internet launched.
ESRI celebrates 32 years providing software and services to the GIS industry (Source: adapted from ESRI, 2001)
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1.4 Development of GIS:
The Stage of GIS Development Stage and Date Description Characteristics Individual personalities important. Mainframe-based systems dominant. Local experimentation and action. GIS fostered by national agencies. Increasing range of vendors. Workstation and PC systems becoming available. 4. 1990s User dominance, Vendor competition Embryonic standardizations. Systems platforms. Internet mapping launched. available for all hardware
1. Early 1960s – Pioneering 1975 2. 1973 – early Experiment 1980s 3. 1982 – and Practice late Commercial dominance
[Sources: adapted from Tomlinson, 1990; Coppock and Rhind, 1991.]
1.5 GIS in Bangladesh:
In Bangladesh there is a growing application of GIS in land inventories, the population census, urban planning, forestry, petroleum and gas exploration industries, utilities, transportation systems and so on, where the data banks contain location references such as a district, or the actual boundaries of land parcels. GISs are run on the all spectrum of computer systems ranging from personal computers (PCs) to multi user supercomputers, and are available in a wide variety of software languages. There are number of tools that are essential for effective GIS establishment which are computer, digitizer, GPS (Global Positioning System), plotter, and network. CD-ROM drive, printer and of course software which links all of the equipment to run properly. Canada has been a pioneer in the development of GIS. The Canada Geographic Information System (CGIS). Initiated in 1963 by the Agriculture Rehabilitation and Development Agency, was the first operational land resources GIS.
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Rajdhani Unnoyan Kartipakkha (RAJUK) installed GIS in 1993.In this organization the main field of GIS application is urban planning. Here, the GIS activity mainly concentrates on mapping and data management for development planning of Dhaka Metropolitan Area. RAJUK also prepared urban landuse planning map and infrastructure map at strategic 1:50000 to detail 1:3960 using spatial and attribute data. In 1995 Roads and Highways Department (RHD) under an Institutional Development Components (IDC) Project sponsored by Overseas Development Agency (ODA) completed GIS mapping programmes to create national transport network. In 1996 the project also successfully built a comprehensive e geographical database for the road and rail sectors, which started operation in 1997. Survey of Bangladesh (SOB) mainly installed GIS technology for making and publishing digital maps. For this reason SOB works in cooperation with other national organizations like SPARRSO, BBS, DLRS and international organizations like JICA (Japan International cooperation Agency), IGN of France. ITC of Netherlands and Ordinance Survey of England. The major GIS installed in 1991) activities of SPARRSO are to facilitate remote sensing and other spatial and attribute data for various applications in environment and resource sectors. The successful projects of SPARRSO in this regard are Crop, Forest cover mapping, Shrimp Culture Potentiality Mapping, Census Mapping, Monitoring of Ecological Changes, and landuse Mapping. Soil Resources Development Institute (SRDI) render supports for preparing Thana Land and Soil Utilization Guides including a soil database, soil fertility and land use monitoring. Salinity monitoring and preparation of soil and land use related maps. All these activities of mapping and monitoring systems are GIS related. Surface Water modeling Center (SWMC) is using GIS as a data processing, modeling and planning tool. By using GIS, SWMC is succeeded in monitoring optimum operation of Karnafuli Hydro Power Station, arsenic contamination of groundwater and crop damage assessment. They are also successful in GIS based software development. Interactive Information System (IIS) is one of the key development software, which combines topographic maps prepared under
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Geographical Information System and field information of channels, structures, roads, embankments, homesteads stored in a Rational Database Management System (RDMS). The Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO) prepared and updated National Water Resources Database (NWRD) for preparing the national Water Policy adopted by the Government of Bangladesh. The database is designed with SQL (Structural Query Language) in back-end and GIS based graphical user interfaces in front-end. The primary activity of NWRD is to meet the demand of water resource planners for a consolidated and reliable data bank. All the universities of Bangladesh installed GIS for their academic curriculum in order to create skilled manpower for the country. The department of Geography and Environment, Jahangirnagar University set up GIS lab in 1992. The following year several other university departments established GIS lab. These are the department of Geography and Environment, University of Dhaka; the department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Rajshahi University; Urban and Rural Planning Discipline. Khulna University; the Department of Urban and Regional Planning (URP) and Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET). Recently the department of Geology and the department of Soil. Water and Environment, both form Dhaka University and the department of Geography, Chittagong University also established GIS lag for research purposes. Some other GIS installed organizations and companies are Bangladesh Inland Water Transport Authority (BIWTA). Bangladesh Water Board (BWBD), CIPROCO Computers Ltd. Cooperation of American Relief in Everywhere (Care), Directorate of Land Records and Surveys (DLRS). Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA). Development Design Consultants (DDC). Department of Environment (DOE). GEOSRV Ltd. Geographical Solutions Research Center (GSRC) Ltd. International Center for Diarrhoea Disease Research. Bangladesh (ICDDR.B). Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Natural Resources Programs (NRP), Bangladesh Project of the Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, the Mappa etc.
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Field application Agriculture
Monitoring, evaluation and management BARC,SRDI,MOA, Monitoring, modeling and management for SPARRSO,EGIS, land degradation: weather and climate SWMC,DOE,MOA, modeling, prediction and forecasting; river CARE. and coastal erosion modeling; flood
management Health Areal Distribution of different diseases in ICDDR,B;DPHE relation to environmental factors. Forestry Management, Planning, map prepare for site DOF specific matching. Regional/Loc al Planning Development management; of plans, maintenance, RAJUK,DLRS, development SPARRSO, LGED,CARE from Educational and Organizations Resource Management, recording Social studies Demographic analysis Transport network Others Thematci mapping, Topographical mapping, SOB,LGED,DLRS,WAR Site and Location Information, Service, PO,Bangalapedia, Consultancy etc. different firms companies planning and management trends and planning, monitoring, SPARRSO,DOF,BCAS, EGIS,LGED. developments BBS, institutions SOB,LGED,RHD Educational institutions consultant
programme, Land Registration Research and Different education sites problem solution
personal to national level
Fig: Major uses of GIS in Bangladesh
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1.6 Importance of GIS
GIS is important for presenting river erosion, population distribution, utility services(water connection, gas system, telephone, electricity, swearage system etc.), landuse change ,chief election commission(CEC),resource identification, manipulate spatial, analyse spatial, visualized data(i.e. maps, graphs, tables, animation etc.) and so on. GIS can integrate and relate any data with a spatial component, regardless of the source of the data. For example, you can combine the location of mobile workers, located in real-time by GPS devices, in relation to customers' homes, located by address and derived from your customer database. GIS maps this data, giving dispatchers a visual tool to plan the best routes for mobile staff or send the closest worker to a customer. This saves tremendous time and money. Rather than working hard to understand data, GIS puts data to work for user. GIS can provide you with powerful information—not just how things are, but how they will be in the future based on changes you apply. It has been used to solve problems as diverse as
Determining where to place self-service coin counting machines Visualizing and planning how to improve the yield of crops in a traditional Tuscan vineyard
Sharing and managing information for an entire city enterprise
Geographical information science draws on disciplines as diverse as cartography, cognitive science, computer science, engineering, environmental science, geodesy, landscape architecture, law, photogrammetry, public policy, remote sensing, statistics and surveying. Geographical information Science involves the study of fundamental issues arising from the creation, handling, storage and use of geographical information (Longely et al., 2001). Importance A tax assessor’s office produces land use maps for appraisers and planners. An engineering department monitors the condition of roads and bridges and produces planning maps for natural disasters. A water department finds the valves to isolate a ruptured water main. A police department studies crime pattern to intelligently deploy its personnel and to monitor the effectiveness of neighborhood watch programs.
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Wastewater department priorities areas for repairs after an earthquake. A telecommunications company studies the terrain to find locations for new cell phone towers. A hydrologist monitors water quality to protect public health. A pipeline company finds the least-cost path for a new pipeline. A electric utility models its circuits to minimize power loss and to plan the placement of new devices. Meteorologists issues warnings for counties in the path of a severe storm. A business evaluates locations for new retail outlets by considering nearby concentrations customers. A police dispatcher finds the fastest route to an emergency. An emergency management agency plans relief facilities by modeling demand and accessibility. A fire fighting team predicts the spread of a forest fire using terrain and weather data. A water resource manager traces upstream to find the possible sources of a contaminant.
1.7 Applications of GIS:
GIS finds its application in all those areas where professionals are involved in management and planning utilizing analysis of large amount of geographical data that relates to space, typically involving positional data. Positional data determine where things are or perhaps, where they were or will be. In other words, it is dealing with questions related to geographic space. Some of the typical applications may be as under. (i) A forest manager may want to optimize production of timber using data on soil and current tree stand distribution under a number of operational constraints. (ii) A geologist may be interested in identifying the best dam site by analyzing the earthquake data of the area, and rock formation characteristics. (iii) A geoinformatics engineer may want to determine the best sites for his company’s relay stations taking into account the land prices, topography, etc.
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The areas of GIS applications are unlimited as it can be used for management and planning that may be required in any field, e.g., civil engineering, urban planning, forestry, environmental management, flood control, natural disaster management, natural resources management, military, biology, geology, mining, hydrology, etc. GIS is used to study the phenomena which are man-made or natural. Urban planning essentially requires a thorough understanding of the interrelationships between various entities such as road connectivity, schools, hospitals, police stations, etc., with respect to human settlements. On the other hand, in geomorphology, ecology, and soil studies, natural phenomena, such as rock formation, plate tectonics, distribution of soils, are analyzed. GIS applications also consist of study of both natural as well as man-made entities together. The study of effect of human activity on the environment, referred to as environmental impact assessment involves analysis of data about both natural and man-made features. A study on the growing industrial units in an area is a problem of environmental impact assessment.GIS has distinct application in feasibility studies such as site suitability and simulation studies in erosion modeling.
Major areas of Practical Application of GIS
vehicle routing and scheduling location analysis, site selection development of evacuation plans
management of wild and scenic rivers, recreation resources, floodplains, wetlands, agricultural lands, aquifers, forests, wildlife
Environmental impact analysis (EIA)
zoning, subdivision plan review land acquisition
locating underground pipes, cables balancing loads in electrical networks
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Environmental Resource Management Environmental applications lend themselves very well to GIS because they often require the integration of numerous different data sets during the analysis, since environmental systems tend to be complex and composed of inter-related sub-systems. Particular applications include river channel maintenance, coastal defense, forestry and national park management. Emergency Planning and Routing The provision of optimum locations for emergency service centres can also be aided by GIS analysis of the various parameters such as access to roads, population density and various health indicators. Network analysis can be utilised to define optimum routes, such as shortest or fastest, for the routing of emergency service vehicles. Provision of Health, Educational or Retail Services Consideration of the spatial distribution of different sectors of the population, their health and socio-economic characteristics and the accessibility to transport routes plus the location of existing facilities are required prior to the effective location of new facilities or the allocation of new services. Facility Management for the Utilities The utility industries tend to have vast numbers of facilities to manage in order to provide large customer regions with an efficient and reliable service. Gas, water, electricity and sewage utilities for instance own a lot of land, buildings, cables, pipes and other physical facilities which need monitoring, maintaining and managing in order to provide an effective service. Highway Maintenance and Accident Monitoring Roads and motorways need to be maintained and monitored for accident trouble spots. GIS are ideal for representing the spatial relationships between sections and storing the associated information tied to each section of road. Maintenance records can also be incorporated into the GIS and so provide up to date displays of the state of the road network and the sections which require immediate maintenance. Market Analysis The spatial distribution of the population and particularly the different age groups and socioPage | 12
economic sectors are essential information to the market analyst attempting to discover the most suitable place to launch a new product or sell a particular brand. The effectiveness of any given marketing stratey can also be modeled and evaluated. Population Analysis and Prediction The spatial distribution of the population and the predicted level of a population are essential information to planners and developers when deciding what type of facilities need to be constructed now in order to best suit the needs of the future population. Census data thus provide an important input to GIS.
1.8 Advantages of GIS
The GIS can be used in variety of applications in different ways. The versatile use of GIS can nt be genralised.However an effort has been made to clear the basic concept of the advantages of GIS:
GIS have a number of advantagre compared to the traditional mapping systes. Traditional maps are static, with fixed projection, scale and coordinate systems, it is difficult to combine multiple map sheet and overlays are restricted. They are difficult to copy and share between many users. It is easy to update data in GIS, analyse spatial data and convert new scale or coordinate systems. Maps are easily combined and overlaied offering various types of information. Densities quantities and pattern of a specific items in a specific area can be easily derived and terrain models can be generated to aid 3D visualization. Simultaneous and multiple user accessed by multiple user. This can be ensure that organizations and single users use the most up to date information and therefore make better and less time consuming decisions. Geospatial data is better maintained and easier to search, analyze and represent leading to more added value products. Data is digitally organized in GIS. So the user has no need to store numerous maps, datasheet and charts. There is no need to manual check, the search is done automaticallly by computers, making work easier, cost effective and less time consuming. Interactive maps provide information about how geographical features interact with others. Users Can point the location and retrive information, perform editing and analysis, discover new relationship between object and phenomena. Access of geographic information is easy and there is a range of tools which give the capability to interact with the map contents.
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1.9 Limitation GIS A GIS has many benefitial applications; However, like other technological systems, there are also some limitattions to its use. The following are some example Data for a specific area may lack spatial or temporal continuty. GIS data are relatively expensive than traditional data Additionally, privacy and security issues can sometimes limit distribution of data. Collecting the data can be very time consuming GIS often relies on the quality of avialable data which may introduce serious errors. GIS dat may also be subjected to misuse or misinterpretation GIS shows only spatial relationshipsbut does not necessarily explain them or provide absolute solutions, which is the actual need of the users GIS has its Origin in the earth science and computer science.Therefore solution derieved from GIS may not be appropiate for humanities science/ research. Learning time on GIS software and systems can be long, because its easily becomes the objestive of the study rather than just a tool. GIS integrates several individual subjects which demands proper knowledgeon all of integrated disciplines. GIS needs specialised somputer equioement and software (although this is increasongly becoming less important)
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2.1 Components of GIS
The GIS is constitute of five key components, namely, Hardware, Software, procedure, data and users. These fiv components need to be in balance to function information system satisfactorily. Computer Hardware: The general hardware component of a geographical information system is the computer or central processing unit. It is linked to a disk drive storage unit, which provides space for storing data and programs. A digitizer, scanner and other device is used to convert data from maps and documents into digital form and send them to computer. A digitizer board is a flat board used for vectorisation of any map object. A plotter or other kind of display device is used to present the result of the data processing and a tape device is used for storing data or programs on magnetic tape.
Fig: Key components of GIS Computer Software: The GIS software includes the programs and the user interface for driving the hardware. GIS software is essential to generate, store, analyze, manipulate and display geographic information or data. A good GIS software requires user friendliness, functionalities, compatibilities, updatability, documentation, cost effectiveness. The following is a list of GIS software producers and their main products. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI): ArcInfo, ArcView. Autodesk: AutoCAD Map Clark Labs: IDRISI International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences: ILWIS Mapinfo Corporation: Mapinfo. Bentley Systems: Microstation. PCI Geomatics: PAMAP TYDAC Inc. : SPANS
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Data: Data is the most important component of a GIS. Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in house, compiled to custom specifications and requirements, or purchased from a commercial data provider. A GIS can integrate spatial data with other existing data resources, often stored in a DBMS. The integration of spatial and tabular data stored in a DBMS is a key functionality afforded by GIS. People: GIS technology has limited value without the people who manage and develop plans for applying it to real world problems. GIS user range from technical specialists who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work. The identification of GIS specialist's vs. end users is often critical to the proper implementation of GIS technology. This is what called 'brain ware' which is equally important as the Hardware and software. Brain ware refers to the purpose and objectives, and provides the reason and justification, for using GIS. Procedure: A successful GIS operates according to a well designed implementation plan and business rules, which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization.
For many years, though GIS has been considered to be too difficult, expensive, and proprietary. The advent of graphical user interface (GUI), powerful and affordable hardware and software, and public digital data has broadened the range of GIS application and brought GIS to mainstream use.
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2.2 Processes of GIS: Input data for GIS cover all aspects of capturing spatial data and the attribute data. The sources of spatial data are existing maps, aerial photographs, satellite imageries, field observations, and other sources (Fig. 8.4). The spatial data not in digital form are converted into standard digital form using digitizer or scanner for use in GIS. The digital spatial data in an acceptable format and the attribute data are stored in the computer memory and managed by DBMS which is a part of GIS, for analysis and producing the results in users-desired formats
Data Collection and Data Capture or Data Input
Data Storage and Data Retrieval or Data Management
Data Update and Data Manipulation
Data Query and Data Analysis
Data Presentation or Displaying
Fig. : Flow chart of the processes of GIS. Data collection: GIS data are collected by various methods and techniques. GIS data are collected from hardcopy maps, aerial photographs, satellite image, GPS, various reports & publications. Data storage and retrieval: The collected GIS data are stored into the computer and these data are used in GIS software for creating huge data storage. These data are saved in a specific space in computer from which the user can use those data as user’s wishes. By using these data, maps are represented with charts, tables, information’s and so on. The storage data can be transformed with other users and stored data can be copied into CD for selling or other purposes.
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Data Update/ Manipulation: It is an important step for GIS data processing. The saved data can be edited or changed or enlarged or purified for updating. The spatial & non-spatial data are represented in a same list for enlarging & purifying the data. All these processes have been done by GIS software. Data Analysis: After creation of a database in a GIS using any DBMS, the data is to be analyzed for specific purposes. The storage data are analyzed. These database of the computer helps to create different maps, graphs, charts, tables, diagrams etc. with different signs and colors for making easy understanding. There are a wide range of functions available for data analysis in most GIS packages, including measurement techniques, query on attributes on proximity analysis, overlay operations, and analysis of models of surfaces and networks. Data Presentation: The last stage of GIS data processing is data presentation. After completing data manipulation and analysis, GIS represents results into maps that is very attractive & information based.
2.3 Essential elements of GIS:
The key elements are a computer system, geo spatial data and users. A computer system for GIS consists of hardware, software and procedures designed to support the data capture, processing and analysis, modeling and display of geo spatial data.
Hardware & Software for Capture,Storage, Processing,Analysis, Display etc.
Maps, Aerial Photographs, Satellite, Images, Statistics Tables etc.
Design of Standards, Updating, Analysis and Implementation
Fig. 01: Key Components of GIS
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2.4 Principal Functions of GIS
The functions of GIS hardware and software can be divided into several basic groups:
Data acquisition, verification and editing
Updating and revising
Retrieval and output
Fig: Principal Functions of GIS Data Capture: Data used in GIS often come from many types, and are stored in different ways. A GIS provides tools and a method for the integration of different data into a format to be compared and analysed. Data sources are mainly obtained from manual digitization and scanning of aerial photographs, paper maps, and existing digital data sets. Remote-sensing satellite imagery and GPS are promising data input sources for GIS. Database Management and Update: After data are collected and integrated, the GIS must provide facilities, which can store and maintain data. Effective data management has many definitions but should include all of the following aspects: data security, data integrity, data storage and retrieval, and data maintenance abilities. Geographic Analysis: Data integration and conversion are only a part of the input phase of GIS. What is required next is the ability to interpret and to analyze the collected information quantitatively and qualitatively. For example, satellite image can assist an agricultural scientist to project crop yield per hectare for a particular region. For the same region, the scientist also has the rainfall data for the past six months collected through weather station observations. The scientists also have a map of the soils for the region which shows fertility and suitability for agriculture. These point data can be interpolated and what you get is a thematic map showing isohyets or contour lines of rainfall.
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Presenting Results: One of the most exciting aspects of GIS technology is the variety of different ways in which the information can be presented once it has been processed by GIS. Traditional methods of tabulating and graphing data can be supplemented by maps and three dimensional images. Visual communication is one of the most fascinating aspects of GIS technology and is available in a diverse range of output options. Data Capture an Introduction: The functionality of GIS relies on the quality of data available, which, in most developing countries, is either redundant or inaccurate. Although GIS are being used widely, effective and efficient means of data collection have yet to be systematically established. The true value of GIS can only be realized if the proper tools to collect spatial data and integrate them with attribute data are available. Manual Digitization: Manual Digitizing still is the most common method for entering maps into GIS. The map to be digitized is affixed to a digitizing table, and a pointing device (called the digitizing cursor or mouse) is used to trace the features of the map. These features can be boundary lines between mapping units, other linear features (rivers, roads, etc.) or point features (sampling points, rainfall stations, etc.) The digitizing table electronically encodes the position of the cursor with the precision of a fraction of a millimeter. The most common digitizing table uses a fine grid of wires, embedded in the table. The vertical wires will record the Ycoordinates, and the horizontal ones, the X-coordinates. The range of digitized coordinates depends upon the density of the wires (called digitizing resolution) and the settings of the digitizing software. A digitizing table is normally a rectangular area in the middle, separated from the outer boundary of the table by a small rim. Outside of this so-called active area of the digitizing table, no coordinates are recorded. The lower left corner of the active area will have the coordinates x = 0 and y = 0. Therefore, make sure that the (part of the) map that you want to digitize is always fixed within the active area. Scanning System: The second method of obtaining vector data is with the use of scanners. Scanning (or scan digitizing) provides a quicker means of data entry than manual digitizing. In scanning, a digital image of the map is produced by moving an electronic detector across the map surface. The output of a scanner is a digital raster image, consisting of a large number of individual cells ordered in rows and columns. For the Conversion to vector format, two types of raster image can be used.
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3.1 GIS Data and classification:
GIS Data Geographic data in digital form are representations of the real world. It describes real-world features and phenomena coded in specific ways in support of GIS and mapping applications using the computer. The digital geographic data must be organized as a geographic database. Roughly two-thirds of the total cost of implementing a GIS involves building the GIS database which should be accurate and has a significant impact on the usefulness of the GIS. Geographic data consists of spatial data and non-spatial data. The spatial data give information about the geometrical orientation, shape and size of a feature, and its relative position with respect to the position of other features. Spatial data is described by its x and y coordinates. The non-spatial data, also known as attribute data, are information about various attributes like length, area, population, acreage, etc. Normally the spatial and nonspatial data are stored separately in a GIS, and links are established between the two at the time of processing and analysis. The spatial data is normally available in analog form as maps but now the maps are also available directly in digital format. In GIS, both types of the spatial data are handled differently. The non-spatial data describe the attributes of a point, along a line, or in a polygon. In other words they describe what is at a point (e.g., a hospital), along a line (e.g., a canal), or in a polygon (e.g., a forest). The attributes of a soil category may be depth of soil, texture, type of erosion, or permeability. The non-spatial data, mostly available in tabular form, are also converted into digital format for use in GIS.
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Non-Spatial Data (Attribute Data) : Spatial Data a) Nominal b) Ordinal c) Numerical & d)Conditional.
Vector Data : Raster Data i. point, ii. line, iii. polygon.
Fig : Types of GIS Data Spatial Data Place base view of any place is called spatial data e.g. River, Canal, house, hill – mountain, cultivate land, vegetation etc. of any places. Generally spatial data of earth surface remain viewed in a certain place. In following shows a figure on the basis of spatial data. All GIS software has been designed to handle spatial data. Spatial data are characterized by
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information about position, connections with other features and details of non-spatial characteristics (Burrough, 1986), Spatial data is as a series of thematic layers. i. ii. Raster Data Vector Data
i.Vector data: A coordinate-based data model that represents geographic features as points, lines and polygons. Each point feature is represented as a single coordinate pair, while line and polygon features are represented as ordered lists of vertices. Attributes are associated with each feature, as opposed to a raster data model, which associates attributes with grid cells. Vector Data are three types i.e. point, line polygon.
o Points: Points are used to represent features that are too small to be represented as areas. An example is a postbox. o Lines: Lines are used to represent features that are linear in nature, for example roads or rivers. They can be used to represent linear features that do not exist in reality, such as administrative boundaries or international borders. o Polygon or Areas: Areas are represented by a closed set of lines and are used to define features such as fields, buildings or administrative areas. Area entities are often referred to as polygons. As with line features, some of these polygons exists on the ground, while others are imaginary.
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Two types of polygon can be identified: (a) Island polygon. (b) Adjacent polygon.
Fig.: Components to represent geography data
Fig.: Vector Data
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Raster data: A spatial data model that defines space as an array of equally sized cells arranged in rows and columns. Each cell contains an attribute value and location coordinates. Unlike vector structure, which stores coordinates explicitly, raster coordinates are contained in the ordering of the matrix. Groups of cells that share the same value represent geographic features.
3.2 GIS data sources and data acquisition method:
Reports and Publications SOURCES OF GIS DATA
Geographic Positioning System (GPS)
Fig. : Sources of GIS Data The data for GIS collected from different sources as shown in fig. are discussed below. Satellite Imagery Remote sensing data in the form of satellite imagery is an important element of the organization of any GIS database as it makes possible repetitive coverage of large areas. Satellite imagery can be used as a raster backdrop on vector GIS data. Satellite images can support numerous GIS applications including environmental impact analysis, site evaluation for large facilities, highway planning, development and monitoring of environmental baselines, emergency and disaster response, agriculture, and forestry. Satellite images are also useful for urban planning and management.
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In addition to image analysis, satellite images are used to generate thematic information resulting into thematic maps. Existing Maps Paper maps are the most important source of data for GIS. Maps of various scales, sizes, formats, and time periods showing different features are available for large portion of the Earth, and these are major sources of data for the GIS database. The information available on a paper map is converted into digital form by the process of digitization for use in GIS. The advanced countries like U.S.A. also have the digital maps, which can directly be used in G1S without going into the process of digitization.
Aerial Photographs and Digital Orthophotographs Aerial photograph y is the art of taking photograph of any feature, landscapes or phenomenon on the earth surface for the purpose of building maps with the help of a camera which may be mounted on any aerial platform or held in hand. Another major source of data for a GIS application is the aerial photographs. Aerial photographs rectified for relief displacement or radial distortions are known as orthophotos. An orthophoto is geometrically equivalent to a conventional line map, and represents planimetric features on the ground in their true orthographic positions. Due to this, orthophotos possess the advantage of line maps, such as, ability to make measurements of distances, angles, and areas. However, orthophotos unlike line maps also contain the images of an infinite number of ground objects, and therefore, most of the time they need conversion into theme maps. At present with the given computer power, its storage capacity, and speed, it has become possible to have digital orthophotos commercially. The digital orthophotos provide all information of a photograph, but at the same time allow the registration of vector maps used in GIS. The schematic representation of remote sensing processes and its subsequent use in Geographic Information System (GIS) environment. Attribute Data Attribute data for a GIS are mainly tabular data collected by sampling. The tabular data which are tables consisting of rows representing samples and columns representing parameter values can be incorporated into GIS as rational tables. Survey Data and Records
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Some survey data and records about rock types, soil types, elevation, population, and other features are collected by the related national agencies of a country and maintained in the form of maps and tables. These data can be incorporated into a GIS. Libraries: Libraries remain one of the best places to locate digital and paper sources. Often local public libraries and university libraries are among the best places to gain access to local sources. Other Sources Conventionally, terrain data can be obtained by field surveying using grid leveling. Stadia tachometry or other field surveying methods. These methods have been replaced by the new generation surveying instruments, such as electronic tachometer or total station and the Global Positioning System (GPS) for collecting location as well as attribute data. Another source of GIS data could be the internet/WWW. Almost all analog or digital data available for use in a GIS may have limitations, and pose problems while organizing the GIS database.
3.3 GIS Data Acquisition Method:
Data acquisition in GIS refers to all aspects of collecting spatial data from all available sources as discussed in Sec. 9.5, and converting them to a standard digital form. This requires tools such as interactive computer screen and mouse, digitizer, word processors and spreadsheet programs, scanners (in satellites or aircrafts for direct recording of data or for converting maps and photographic images), and devices necessary for reading data already written on magnetic media as tapes or CD-ROMs. Digital terrain data may be acquired by a variety of methods, depending on factors such as the location and the size of the area of interest, the purpose of terrain modeling, and the technical resources available. The ground survey methods are generally employed for largescale terrain modeling for site planning and design. At smaller scales covering larger geographic areas, aerial photographs or satellite images are most suited.
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Table: Geospatial Data Acquisition Methods Data Source 1) Map Methods Equipments Digitizer Cost Cheap
Analogue i)Manual digitizing ii) automatic scanning
Aerial i)Analytical photogrammetry ii)Digital photogrammetry
Analogue Stereoploter Digital work station Image scope
photo Very high
Satellite i)Visual interpretation
ii) Digital Image Image processing method processing system
3.4 GIS Data model:
A set of guidelines to convert the real world to the digitally and locally represented spatial object consisting of the attributes and geography. Spatial data models Digital geographic data represents real-world features and phenomena in numeric form coded in a specific way to support GIS and mapping applications using computer. To make the geographical data useful, it should be encoded in digital form, and organized as a digital geographic database that creates a perception of the real world similar to the perception created by the paper maps.The conventional paper map represents a general-purpose snapshot or static view of the real world at a given time whereas the digital geographic database allows a range of operations such as sorting, processing, analyzing, and visualizing the spatial data thereby allowing the data to be a dynamic, together with the necessary tools for interacting with the data to perform certain specific objectives.
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The ways of representing data are known as data models. The data model represents the linkages between the real-world domain of geographical data and the computer (or GIS representation of the features). The process of linkages involves (i) Identifying the spatial features from the real world that are of interest in the context to an application and choosing how to represent them in a conceptual model, (ii) Representing the conceptual model by an appropriate data model by choosing between raster or vector approach, and (iii) Selecting an appropriate spatial data structure to store the model within the computer. The spatial data structure, which is the core of the model, is the physical way in which entities are coded for the purpose of storage and manipulation. Real-world features can be represented as object and phenomena. While objects are discrete and definite, such as buildings, roads, cities, and forests, phenomena are distributed continuously over a large area, such as topography, population, temperature, rainfall, and noise levels. Consequently there can be two following distinct approaches of representing the real world in geographic database. (i) Object-based model (ii) Field-based model.
Fig. : Modeling approaches for the real world]
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Object-based Model In object-based model, the geographic space is treated to be filled by discrete and identifiable objects. An object which is a spatial feature, has identifiable boundaries, relevance to some intended application, and can be described by one or more characteristics known as attributes. The spatial objects may be classified as (i) Exact objects (ii) Inexact objects or fuzzy entities. Spatial objects are said to be exact objects if they represent discrete features such as buildings, roads, land parcels. The spatial objects, which have identifiable boundaries, but not well defined, are called inexact objects or fuzzy entities. The characteristics of the inexact objects change gradually across the assumed boundaries between neighbouring spatial objects. Landform features and natural resources belong mostly to this class of objects. Soil types, forest stands, wildlife habitats are some of the examples of inexact objects. Data in object-based model are obtained by field surveying methods or photogrammetric method, map, aerial photointerpretation, remote sensing, or map digitization. Depending on the nature of the objects and the geographical scale of recording, spatial objects are represented as graphical elements of points, lines, and areas (polygons). Field-based Model The field-based model treats geographic space as populated by one or more spatial phenomena of real-world features varying continuously over space with no obvious or specific extent. Data for spatial phenomena structured as fields, can be acquired either directly or indirectly by aerial photography, remote sensing, map scanning, and field measurements made at selected or sampled locations, such as topographic data for triangulated irregular networks (TIN). The data can also be generated using indirect data acquisition methods by applying mathematical functions, such as interpolation, reclassification, or resampling, to the measurements made at selected or sampled locations. Topographic data such as contours and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) are examples of data usually obtained by indirect methods of measurements. Spatial phenomena are represented as which can be thought of being made up of spatial data units in the form of either regular tessellations or irregular tessellations.
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At the database level, data in object-based spatial databases are mostly represented in the form of coordinate lists (i.e., vector lines), and the spatial database is generally called as the vector data model. A spatial database when structured on the field-based model, the basic spatial units are the different forms of tessellation by which phenomena are depicted. The most commonly used type of tessellation is a finite grid of square and rectangular cells, and thus, field-based databases are generally known as the raster data model.
Fig.: Representation of exact objects GIS Data Features: There are two data features in GIS: (i)Attributes data (non-spatial/thematic data) (ii) Spatial data Attribute data Model These characteristics can be quantitative and/or qualitative in nature. Attribute data is often referred to as tabular data. The coordinate location of a forestry stand would be spatial data, while the characteristics of that forestry stand, e.g. cover group, dominant species, crown closure, height, etc., would be attribute data. Other data types, in particular image and multimedia data, are becoming more prevalent with changing technology. Depending on the specific content of the data, image data may be considered either spatial, e.g. photographs, animation, movies, etc., or attribute, e.g. sound, descriptions, narration's, etc. Vector Data Model Positional data in the form of X,Y coordinates. Each feature has a coordinate or string of coordinates to represent a particular location within a specific spatial referencing system. Spatial objects are thus defined by points and lines, in a similar way to conventional paper maps and drawings. Examples of data in vector format include site plans, ordnance survey maps and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) drawings.
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The vector data model represents each feature as a row in a table, and feature shapes are defined by x,y locations in space (the GIS connects the dots to draw lines and outlines). Features can be discrete locations or events, lines, or polygons. This electric utility map uses points, lines, and polygons to represent buildings, streets, and electrical facilities. Locations such as the address of a customer or the spot a crime was committed are represented as points having a pair of geographic coordinates. Lines, such as streams or roads, are represented as a series of coordinate pairs. Polygons are defined by borders and are represented by closed polygons.
Fig.:Vector Data Model A vector structure can provide a flexible and accurate representation of an object due to the fine resolution obtainable with coordinate points. Vector structures also tend to incorporate the topology and other spatial relationships between the individual entities and are therefore ideally suited to representing linked networks such as pipe or road systems. It is very accurate for the measurement of areas or lengths and ideal where there is a requirement for cartographic-quality pen plots. Computer data storage is very economical but certain operations such as overlay analysis and proximity calculations have high computational requirements, which result either in slow operations or high hardware specification requirements. Manipulation and analysis of digital images, which are essentially raster, is not feasible. The secondary vector data structure that is common among GIS software is the computeraided drafting (CAD) data structure. This structure consists of listing elements, not features, defined by strings of vertices, to define geographic features, e.g. points, lines, or areas.
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There is considerable redundancy with this data model since the boundary segment between two polygons can be stored twice, once for each feature. The CAD structure emerged from the development of computer graphics systems without specific considerations of processing geographic features. Accordingly, since features, e.g. polygons, are selfcontained and independent, questions about the adjacency of features can be difficult to answer. The CAD vector model lacks the definition of spatial relationships between features that is defined by the topologic data model. Advantages: Data can be represented at its original resolution and form without generalization. It accurately represents true shape and size. Representing non-continuous data. Conserving disc space. Creating aesthetical map. Accurate geographic location of data is maintained. Disadvantages: The location of each vertex needs to be stored explicitly. For effective analysis, vector data must be converted into a topological structure. Spatial analysis and filtering within polygons is impossible.
Raster Data Model: In raster data model land cover are represented a single square cell, each cell have a value corresponding to its land cover type. General characteristics of raster data Model In raster datasets, each cell (which is also known as a pixel) has a value. The cell values represent the phenomenon portrayed by the raster dataset such as a category, magnitude, height, or spectral value. The category could be a land-use class such as grassland, forest, or road. A magnitude might represent gravity, noise pollution, or percent rainfall. Height (distance) could represent surface elevation above mean sea level, which can be used to derive slope, aspect, and watershed properties. Spectral values are used in satellite imagery and aerial photography to represent light reflectance and color.
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The area (or surface) represented by each cell consists of the same width and height and is an equal portion of the entire surface represented by the raster. For example, a raster representing elevation (that is, digital elevation model) may cover an area of 100 square kilometers. If there were 100 cells in this raster, each cell would represent one square kilometer of equal width and height (that is, 1 km x 1 km).The dimension of the cells can be as large or as small as needed to represent the surface conveyed by the raster dataset and the features within the surface, such as a square kilometer, square foot, or even a square centimeter. The cell size determines how coarse or fine the patterns or features in the raster will appear. The smaller the cell size, the smoother or more detailed the raster will be. However, the greater the number of cells, the longer it will take to process and it will increase the demand for storage space. If a cell size is too large, information may be lost or subtle patterns may be obscured. Advantages: The geographic location of each cell is implied by its position in the cell matrix. Accordingly, other than an origin point. Rapid computation. Representing multiple feature type. The inherent nature of raster maps, e.g. one attribute maps, is ideally suited for mathematical modeling and quantitative analysis. Disadvantages The cell size determines the resolution at which the data is represented.;
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It is especially difficult to adequately represent linear features depending on the cell resolution. Accordingly, network linkages are difficult to establish.
3.5 Database management system:
A Database Management System (DBMS) is a set of computer programs that controls the creation, maintenance, and the use of the database of an organization and its end users. It allows organizations to place control of organizationwide database development in the hands of Database Administrators (DBAs) and other specialist. DBMSes may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. A DBMS is a set of software programs that controls the organization, storage, management, and retrieval of data in a database. DBMS are categorized according to their data structures or types. It is a set of prewritten programs that are used to store, update and retrieve a Database. The DBMS accepts requests for data from the application program and instructs the operating system to transfer the appropriate data. When a DBMS is used, information systems can be changed much more easily as the organization's information requirements change. New categories of data can be added to the database without disruption to the existing system.
Database Management System Structure
naive users application programs
application programmers system calls
data manipulation language precompiler
data administrator database scheme
query processor database manager
data definition language compiler DBMS
application program object code
data files data dictionary C391-1, Introduction Korth and A. Silberschatz. Database System Concepts, McGraw-Hill, 1986. H.F.
Fig. Database Management System
Functions of DBMSs
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The functions of a DBMS can be summarized as: o File handling and file management o Adding, updating, and deleting records o Information extraction from data. o Maintenance of data security and integrity o Application building. o Specifying the database structure data definition language o Manipulation of the database query processing and query optimization o Integrity enforcement integrity constraints o Concurrent control multiple user environment o Crash recovery o Security and authorization. Types of DBMS A DMBS manages information that is organized using a database structure or model. This is analogous to the way in which spatial data are organized in a GIS according to a spatial data model (e.g., raster or vector). Although new forms of database structure are being developed all the time, there are three fundamental ways of organizing information that also reflect the logical models used to model real world structures as below: o Hierarchical database structure o Network database structure o Relational database structure. The object-oriented database structure is an emerging trend in GIS and a topic of current research. Of these four database structures, the relational database structure is most widely used. I) Hierarchical Database Structure A data may have a multi-layered data with a direct relationship between each layer, similar to a tree like structure. The relationship between two successive layers is known as parentchild or one to many relationship. For such type of data, hierarchical database provides a quick and convenient means of data access. Here each part of the hierarchy can be reached
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using a key or criterion, and that there is a good correlation between key and associated attributes. The above figure illustrates the concept of hierarchical database. Here a map M consist of two polygons I and II. Each polygon consists of lines, and each line has a pair of points. Advantage of hierarchical database: The main advantage of hierarchical database is that it is simple and provides easy access through keys defining the hierarchy. Further, it is easy to expand by adding more attribute and formulating new decision rules. The success of data retrieval in a hierarchical database depends upon the prior knowledge of structure of all possible queries. Disadvantages of hierarchical database: One of the biggest disadvantages of hierarchical database is the repetitive data. Referring to above Fig., it can be seen that each pair of points is repeated twice and that for line 13, the coordinates c and d are repeated four times. This is a simple wastage and causes large redundancy of data in case of large databases. In hierarchical structures, the access within the database is restricted to paths up and down the hierarchy levels.
ii) Network Data Structures Many a times, a single entity may have many attributes, and each attribute is linked to many entities. To accommodate these relationships, each piece of data can be associated with an explicit computer structure called pointer which directs it to all the other pieces of data to which it relates (Fig. 9.19). Here rather than being restricted to a branching tree structure,
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each individual data is linked directly without the existence of a parent-child relationship. Such a data structure is called Network data structures.
Fig. :Network data structures Sometimes in order to reduce both redundancy and linkage, a compact network structure known as ring pointer structures are used, so that each entity appears once. In Fig., each point is having many linkages or point. Fig. shows the ring pointer structure, where the flow is simplified.
Fig.: Ring pointer structure
iii) Relational Database Structure In relational database structure, data are organized in a series of two-dimensional tables, each of which contains records for one entity (Fig. 9.21). These tables are linked by common data known as key. It is possible to make query on individual or a group of tables. Each table contains data for one entity. In the first table, the entity is ‘landtitle’. In the second and third tables, the entities are ‘parcel’ and ‘owner’. The data are organized into rows and columns, with columns containing the attributes of the entity. Each column has a distinctive name, and here every entry in a single column must be drawn from the same
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domain. A domain may be all integer values, dates, phone, number, or a text). Within a table, the order of columns has no significance. These can be only one entry per cell, and each row must be distinctive to make possible use of entries in a row. The attribute values in the rows are called tuples. Network structures are useful when the relations or linkages are specified before hand. They avoid data redundancy and make good use of available data. Hence, they allow greater flexibility of search than hierarchical structures. The disadvantage of network structure is that for large databases, the number of pointers can become large, and can become a substantial part of the database. Further, these pointers have to be maintained every time a change to the database is made. Building and maintenance of pointer structures may be a considerable overhead for the database system. 3.6 Georeferencing: A referencing system is to locate a feature on the earth surface or two dimensional representation of this surface such as a map. There are three types of georeferencing. Georeferencing co-ordinate system Rectangular co-ordinate system Non-coordinate system 1. Georeferencing coordinate system: The geographic coordinate system is the only system that defines the true geographical coordinate in term of latitude and longitude. In this system of coordinates, the earth is defined by a reference surface using latitude and longitude. The value of latitude lies between 0⁰ to ±90⁰. .2.Rectengular coordinate system: Since most of spatial data available for use in GIS exist in two dimensional form, a referencing system that uses rectangular coordinates is most suited. This requires a map graticule or grid, placed on top of the map. The graticule is obtained by projecting the lines of latitude or longitude from our representation of the world as a globe on to a flat surface using a map projection. The simplest rectangular square grid is the most widely used coordinate system for small areas. For larger areas certain established cartographic projections such as the Universal Transverse Mercator Projection (UTM) are commonly used. This projection uses multiple cylinders that touch the globe at 6⁰ intervals of longitude and dividing the globe into 60 projection zones, avoiding the pole To avoid extreme
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distortions that occur in the polar areas, the projection zones are limited between 84⁰N to 80⁰S. .3.Non-coordinate system: In non-coordinate system, spatial coordinate system is done using descriptive codes rather than coordinates. Most widely used postal code which is appended to a postal address, is one of the examples of georeferencing using codes. This codes may be completely numeric, such as 267667(PIN Code in India) or alpha numeric such as DL3 6KT (Postcode in UK). This basis purpose of such codes is to increase the efficiency of mail sorting and delivery rather than to be an effective spatial referencing system for GIS. This system has the following advantages: (a) Provide coverage of all areas where people reside and work. (b)Individual codes do not refer to a single address. (c)Provide a degree of confidentiality for data released using this as referencing system.
The process of converting paper maps into digital files is called digitalization. Digitizing is the process of racing paper maps in to a computer format. Process of digitizing: When used a digitizing table, the paper map is carefully taped down on the table’s surface. This grid senses the position at the crosshair on a hand-held cursor. When the cursor button is depressed, the system records a point at the location in the GIS database. The operator also identifies the type of feature being digitized on this attribute. In this way map feature can be traced into the system. A process more commonly used today is to first digitize the entire paper map using a scanner. Light sensors in the scanner encode the map as a large array of dots. High resolution scanner can capture data as resolution as fine as 2000 dots must but maps and drawing a typically scanned at 100-100depi. The image of the map is then processed and displayed on the computer scanner. This raster map is then processed and displayed on the computer scanner. This raster map is then registered to the coordinate system of the GIS and the map features manually traced as vectoring. This is often called heads-up digitizing as opposed to table digitizing for various reasons. Vectoring software is available to help speed the process of converting raster map features vector format. This software work automatically. Further manual digitizing on screen is usually needed to complete the data entry process.
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3.8 DEM, DTM, TIN Digital Elevation Model DEM is digital representation of topographic surface with the elevation or ground height above any geodetic datum. A DEM is a digital model or 3-D representation of a terrain surface commonly for a planet (including earth), man and asteroid, created from terrain elevation data. DEM by which continuous surface as terrain surface can be represented. DEM is used to interpreted elevation at arbitrary location using limited number of 3-D terrain point. A DEM can be represented as a raster DEM is referred as secondary (compound) DEM. DEM’s are commonly built using remote sensing technique. But they may also be built from land surveying. The quality of DEM is a measure of how elevation is at each pixel (absolute accuracy) and how accurately is the morphology presented (relative accuracy). Several factors play an important role for quality of DEM derived product Terrain roughness (b)Sampling density Pixel size (d)Interpolation algorithm (e)Vertical algorithm (f)Terrain analysis algorithm characteristics of DEM Characteristics of DEM: A DEM can be described by three elements Block Profile Elevation point Block: A block is used to describe the physical extend of a DEM. Profile: A profile is a linear array of sampled elevation point Elevation point: Elevation point is three types; 1. Rectangular 2. First point along a profile 3. Corner point
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(d)A DEM is usually georeferenced either in geographic (latitude, longitude) or UTM (Universal Transverse interactions) (e) DEM data are comparatively simple (f)Spacing of the profile i expressed in terms of Arc second, Arc minute. (g)Spacing of the profile express in m when georeferenced in m UTM. Some image of DEM are given below:
A statistical representation of the continuous surface of the ground by a large number of selected points with known x, y, z co-ordinate system. DTM is to representation or extract topographic information from the DTM.DTM includes contour lines, profile, drainage system, slope, shade and shadow slope stability etc. Millar and Flamme was first used this word DTM in 1958. Some image of DTM are given below:
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Characteristics of DTM: 1. Slope and aspects: Slope: Ratio or gradient of vertical change over horizontal distance. Aspects: Azimuth that the surface slope faces. 2. Drainage network: Network: Spatial relation of nodes or points which are linked to each other. 3. Catchment area 4. Shading: Shade is defined as the reduction of reflection from the illuminate light due to the effect of the terrain relief. The shade is normally calculated as cosine of the angle between the illuminated light and the normal vector of the terrain surface, on the assumption of an ideal diffuse reflection surface. 5. Shadow: A shadow is an area directs light from a light source cannot reach due to the obstruction by an object.
TIN is a DEM with a network at randomly located at terrain features. The TIN which approximates with a set of non overlapping triangles is made of node and edges. TIN suitable for represents of complex terrain. It is easier to perform spatial
analysis. It is situated for specific application such as generation of shaded relief map The method of data acquisition the TIN approach the TIN data is collected more efficiently by terrain and map digitizing the elevation methods. Some image of TIN below:
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We prepared Bangladesh map showing the division boundary from a supplied map which is shown in next page.
Description of Bangladesh:
Bangladesh emerged as an independent and sovereign country on 16 December 1971 following a nine-month War of Liberation. Dhaka (previously spelt Dacca) is its capital. Official name People’s Republic of Bangladesh (Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh) Capital Dhaka. Government Parliamentary form of government, President is head of the State and47Prime Minister is head of Government. Geographical location: In south Asia, between 2034 to 2638 north latitude and 8801 to 9241 east longitude. Max)mu- extension is about 440 km in E-W direction and 760 km in NNW-SSE direction. Time; GMT +6.00 hours. Area and Boundaries Area: 147570 sq. km. Boundaries: West Bengal (India) on the west; West Bengal, ASSAM and Meghalaya (all the Indian state3) in the north; Indian states of Assam, TRIPURA and Mizoram together with Myanmar on the east; and BAY of BENGAL on the south.
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Map: Bangladesh political map
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Project two: Dhaka City
Dhaka, formerly Dacca, is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. It is located in the geographic center of the country in the great deltaic region of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Dhaka is served by the port of Narayanganj, located 16 km (10 mi) to the southeast. The city is within the monsoon climate zone, with an annual average temperature of 25 deg C (77 deg F) and monthly means varying between 18 deg C (64 deg F) in January and 29 deg C (84 deg F) in August. Nearly 80% of the annual average rainfall of 1,854 mm (73 in) occurs between May and September. Dhaka is located in one of the world's leading rice- and jute-growing regions. Its industries include textiles (jute, muslin, cotton) and food processing, especially rice milling. A variety of other consumer goods are also manufactured here. The Muslim influence is reflected in the more than 700 mosques and historic buildings found throughout the city. Dhaka is divided into an old city and the new city, and many residential and industrial communities. Dhaka was founded during the 10th century. It served as the Mogul capital of Bengal from 1608 to 1704 and was a trading center for British, French, and Dutch interests before coming under British rule in 1765. In 1905 it was again named the capital of Bengal, and in 1956 it became the capital of East Pakistan. The city suffered heavy damage during the Bangladesh war of independence (1971). The romanized spelling of the Bengali name was changed from Dacca to Dhaka in 1982.
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Map: Dhaka city map
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Project Three: Chittagong City
We prepared Chittagong City map by using Arc View GIS 3.3 software. Here we show the different feature by different color
. Description of Chittagong City: Chittagong is the second largest city in Bangladesh.The area of Chittagong City is 154 sqkm and population is about 50lakh. It is the Commercial Capital City of Bangladesh. The surrounding mountains and rivers make the city attractive. Karnaphuli River falls in Chittagong. The largest land port of the country, "Chittagong Port", situated in Chittagong. That's why Chittagong is the city for export and import. Most of the large industries of Bangladesh are situated in Chittagong. Chittagong, is an ideal vacation spot. Its green hills and forests, its broad sandy beaches and its fine cool climate always attract the holidaymakers. Described by the Chinese traveler poet, Huen Tsang (7th century A D) as "a sleeping beauty emerging from mists and water" and given the title of "Porto Grande" by the 16th both the descriptions even today. It combines the busy hum of an active seaport with the soothing quiet of a charming hill town. Chittagong is the country's chief port and is the main site for the establishment of heavy, medium and light industries. Bangladesh's only steel mill and oil refinery are also located in Chittagong.
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Map: Chittagong city map
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Project Four: South America
We prepared SouthAmerica map showing the boundary from a supplied map. Description of South America South America is the southern continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. South America was named in 1580 by cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a New World unknown to Europeans. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of the Earth's surface. As of 2005, its population was estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America
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Map: Map of South Asia
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The term GIS describes any information system that integrates, stores, edits, analyzes, shares, and displays geographic information for informing decision making. GIS is a relatively broad term that can refer to a number of technologies and processes, so it is attached to many operations, in engineering, planning, management, and analysis. Nowadays, GIS technologies have been applied to diverse fields to assist experts and professionals in analyzing various types of geospatial data and dealing with complex situations. No matter in ecology, agriculture, public health, tourism, or transportations, GIS plays an essential role to help people collect, analyze the related spatial data and display data in different formats.
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Longey,P.A;Goodchild,M.F and Maguire,D.J,(2005) Geographic information system and Science,Chichester, Wily Chandra, A.M & Ghosh, S.K (2009) Remote sensing and Geographic Information System, Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, PP.144-148. Bhatta,B.(2008) Remote sensing and GIS, Oxford university press, New Delhi. Internet 1. Burrough, P.A. and McDonnell, R.A. (1998) Principles of geographical information systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 327 pp. 2. Harvey, Francis(2008) A Primer of GIS, Fundamental geographic and cartographic concepts. The Guilford Press, 31 pp. 3. Berry, J.K. (1993) Beyond Mapping: Concepts, Algorithms and Issues in GIS. Fort Collins, CO: GIS World Books. 4. Bolstad, P. (2005) GIS Fundamentals: A first text on Geographic Information Systems, Second Edition. White Bear Lake, MN: Eider Press, 543 pp. 5. Chang, K. (2007) Introduction to Geographic Information System, 4th Edition. McGraw Hill. 6. Coulman, Ross (2001 - present) Numerous GIS White Papers 7. de Smith M J, Goodchild M F, Longley P A (2007) Geospatial analysis: A comprehensive guide to principles, techniques and software tools", 2nd edition, 8. Elangovan,K (2006)"GIS: Fundamentals, Applications and Implementations", New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi"208 pp. 9. Heywood, I., Cornelius, S., and Carver, S. (2006) An Introduction to Geographical Information Systems. Prentice Hall. 3rd edition. 10. Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J. and Rhind, D.W. (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science. Chichester: Wiley. 2nd edition. 11. Maguire, D.J., Goodchild M.F., Rhind D.W. (1997) "Geographic Information Systems: principles, and applications" Longman Scientific and Technical, Harlow. 12. Ott, T. and Swiaczny, F. (2001) Time-integrative GIS. Management and analysis of spatio-temporal data, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York: Springer. 13..Sajeevan G (2008) Latitude and longitude – A misunderstanding, Current Science: March 2008. Vol 94. No 5. 568 pp. 14. Sajeevan G (2006) Customise and empower, www.geospatialtoday.com: April 2006. 40 pp.
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