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LECTURE 1 (CHAPTER 1,2,3,4) 1.WHY RESEARCH: EXAMPLE 1 : Du pont: Managent support is directly related to employees commitment to the organization.

Example 2: Harley Davidson motorcycle: Fun loving, great outdoor, freedom. Example 3: Higher the goal, higher the performance. 2. SCOPE: for whom? Business, finance, production, marketing. Management, not for profit organization, government organization etc. on which? About organization, market, employee, economy, uncertainty, for what? Strategy development, 3. WHAT IS RESEARCH? The systematic and objective process of gathering, recording, and analyzing data for aid in making business decision. Basic research: expand the limit of knowledge Applied research: for making decision about a real life problem. Scientific method: systematic analysis and logical interpretation of empirical evidence. 4. MANAGERIAL VALUE OF BUSINESS RESEARCH: A. Identifying problems and opportunities B. Diagnosing and assessing problems or opportunities C. Selecting and implementing a course of action D. Evaluating the course of action Evaluation Research Performance monitoring research Total quality management 5. WHEN NEEDED AND HOW DETERMINED: A. time, B. Availability of data C. Nature of decision, D. Cost benefit analysis

INFORMATION SYSTEM AND KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Data, Information, Knowledge, knowledge management. 1. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: Process of creating an inclusive, comprehensive, easily accessible organizational memory which is often called the organizational intellectual property. 2. GLOAL INFORMATION SYSTEM: An organized collection of computer hardware and software, data, and personnel designed to capture store update manipulate analyze and immediately display information about worldwidw business activity. 3. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: A computer based system that helps decision makers confront problems through direct interaction with databases and analytical software. E.g customer relationship management (CRM) 4. DATABASE SYSTEM: A collection of raw data or information arranged in logical manner and organized in a form that can be stored and processed by a computer. A data warehouse is required to store data. We can use spread sheet to manipulate data. 5. SOFTWARE: Business intelligence software allows managers to combine and restructure databases, diagnose relationship, discover pattern, estimate variables and otherwise analyze various databases. 6. DATA ARCHIEVES 7. INTERNET: SOURCE OF DATA 8. INTRANET: WITHIN ORGANIZATION 9. INTERNET 2: www.internet2.edu

THERORY BUILDING The purpose of science is concerns the expansion of knowledge and the discovery of truth. Theory building is the means by which basic researchers hope to achieve this purpose, GOALS OF THEORY: Theories are nets cast to catch what we call the world: to expand, to explain, and to master it. We endeveour to make the mesh ever finer and finer. THE MEANING OF THEORY: A coherent set of general propositions used to explain the apparent relationship among certain observation phenomena. Theories allows generalization beyond individual facts or situations. CONCEPTS: A generalized idea about a class of reality that is the basic unit for theory development. LADDER OF ABSTRACTION FOR CONCEPTS: Vegetation, fruits, banana, reality. LEVEL OF ABSTRUCTIONS: Observation of objects, concepts, propositions, theories. PROPOSITIONS: A statement concerned with the relationship among concepts; an assertion of a universal connection between events that have certain properties. SIENTIFIC METHODS: The scientific method is a set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events, for analyzing empirical evidence, and for predicting events yet unknown. HYPOOTHESIS: An unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts or phenomena; a proposition that is empirically testable. VARIABLE: Anything that may assume different numerical values. TWO BASIC LEVEL OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD: A) Empirical : primarily concerned with the facts of the science as revealed by observation and experiments. B) The abstracts or theoretical aspects, on the other hand, consist in a serious attempt to understand the facts of the science, and to integrate them into a coherent, i.e a logical system. From these observation and integration are derived, directly or indirectly, the basic laws of the science. EXAMPLE OF A THEORY: VOLUNTARY JOB TURNOVER External and internal issues VARIFYING THERY: Theories are made to be tested. Maslows theory of hierarchy : physiological needs are met before esteem need.

Freuds theory: Unconscious emotional impulses are the basic influences on behaviour. The task of science is to determine if a given theoretical proposition is false or if there are inconsistencies between competing theories.

THE RESEARCH PROCESS DECISION MAKING: Process of resolving a problem or choosing among alternative opportunities. CERTAINTY, UNCERTAINTY, AMBIGUITY TYPES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH: 1) Exploratory 2) Descriptive 3) Causal EXPLORATORY: Initial research to conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem. DESCRIPTIVE: Research designed to describe characteristics of a population or a phenomenon. CAUSAL : Research conducted to identify cause and effect relationships among variables when the research problem has already been narrowly defined. Steps: establish the appropriate causal order or sequence if events. Measure the concomitant variation between the presumed cause and presumed effects Recognition of the presence or absence of alternative plausible explanations or causal factors. STAGES OF BUSINESS RESEARCH 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the problem planning a research design planning a sample collecting data

5. analyzing the data 6. formulating the conclusions and preparing the report FORWARD LINKAGE AND BACKWARD LINKAGE FLOWCHART OF THE RESEARCH PROCESS . . . . . . . . IMPORTANT PROBLEM DEFINITION 1. Problem definition: The indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions. To be efficient business research must have clear objectives and definite designs. 2. Exploratory research: To refine the problem 3. Secondary data: Books, journals, historical data 4. Primary data: gathered for the specific projects 5. Pilot study: small scale study 6. FGI: Focus group interview 7. Statement of objective SELECTION OF BASIC RESEARCH METHOD: 1. Planning the research design: A master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information. 2. Survey : Information is gathered from a sample of people 3. Experiments: Establish cause and effect relationship. Investigating one variable while manipulating one or two other variables. 4. Secondary data studies: sales of camera, sales of household 5. Observation techniques: Number of vehicle pass the proposed site of a gas stations, or mystery shoppers 6. Evaluating research design: No hard and fast rule. Individual technique or a combination of techniques. COLLECTING DATA ANALYZING AND DRAWING CONCLUSION: 1. Sampling: Probability and non probability sampling 2. Editing and coding 3. Analysis 4. Drawing conclusion and preparing report ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS

RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF THE RESPONDNTS 1. To be truthful 2. Privacy 3. Deception 4. Right to be informed RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF THE RESEARCHER 1. The purpose of research is research 2. objectivity 3. Misrepresentation of research 4. Protecting the right of confidentiality of both subjects and clients 5. Dissemination of faulty conclusions 6. Competing research proposals RIGHTS AND OBLIGATION OF SPONSORING CLIENTS 1. Ethics between buyer and seller 2. An open relationship with research suppliers 3. An open relationship with the interested parties 4. Privacy 5. Privacy on the internet 6. Commitment to research 7. Advocacy research

PROBLEM DEFINITION AND RESEARCH PROPOSAL NATURE OF BUSINESS PROBLEM: Certain, uncertain, ambiguous IMPORTANCE: 1. Right answer to a wrong question 2. asking the right question is very difficult 3. Coca colla example: New coke, Coca colla classic PROCESS 1. Ascertain the decision makers objective 2. Understand the background of the problem 3. Isolate and identify the problem rather than its symptoms 4. determine the unit of analysis 5. Determine the relevant variables 6. State the research question (hypothesis) and research objective EXPLORATORY RESEARCH AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: Ini9tial research to clarify and define the nature of a problem WHY EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: 1. Diagnosing a situation 2. Screening alternatives 3. Discovering new ideas CATEGORIES: 1. Experience survey 2. Secondary data analysis 3. Case study 4. Pilot study for qualitative analysis.. Focus group Interview, projective technique FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEW 1. Unstructured, free flowing interview 2. Advantage: Brief, Easy to execute, Quickly analyzed and Inexpensive 3. Specific Advantage: Synergy, Serendipity, Snowballing, Stimulation, Security, Spontaneity, Specialization, Scrutiny, Structure, Speed 4. Group composition: 6 to 10, Different focus group for different idea 5. Environment: Relaxed 6. Moderator: 7. Planning the focus group outline: Ice breaking question, open ended question, bottom line question 8. Technology: Video conferencing. Streaming media, Interactive media and online focus group. 9. Shortcoming PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE A technique where indirect question is asked to understand one belief. 1. word association, 2. Sentence completion 3. Third person technique and role playing 4. Thematic appreciation test 5. Depth Interview

SECONDARY DATA Secondary data are data collected or gathered by someone else prior to (and for purposes other than) the current needs of researcher. Advantage: Experience. Time Money Sometimes not possible to collect primary data

Disadvantage: Not for specific need Outdated Variation in definition of terms Different units of measurement Data Accuracy Objective: Facts finding Model Building Data Mining Classification Internal and Proprietary data Common external sources of Secondary data Books and periodicals Government Sources Regional Publication Media sources Commercial Sources: Market share data Demographic and Census update Consumer attitude and public opinion research Stock market source Other financial source

RESEARCH METHOD FOR COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA

CHAPTRER 9 : SURVEY RESEARCH Nature of Survey: Methods of collecting primary data Respondent, Sample Survey Survey Objective: What is happening, reasons for a certain business activity May be quantitative , or qualitative Advantage: survey provide quick, inexpensive, efficient and accurate means of assessing information, extremely valuable for managers, Now a days quite scientific and accurate. Diagram Of survey error: ERROR IN SURVEY RESEARCH Total error Random Sampling error Systematic Error: (non sampling error) Sample bias Respondent Error Nonresponse Error Response Bias: Deliberate Falsification Unconscious Misrepresentation Acquiescene Bias Extremity Bias Interviewer Bias Auspices Bias Social Desirability Bias Administrative Error: Data processing error Sample selection error Interviewer error Interviewer cheating

CLASSIFYING SURVEY RESEARCH METHOD

Structured and disguised questions Classifying survey on temporal basis:

Cross sectional study ask question to cross section of people Longitudinal study in different time to examine continuity of response Panel study with same panel over a time period

TQM Survey Implementing TQM : Commitment and Exploration Stage Benchmarking stage Initial quality improvement stage Continuous quality improvement

CHAPTER 10 SURVEY RESEARCH : BASIC METHODS OF COMMUNICATION WITH RESPONDENTS

Media used to communicate: Human interactive media; Face to face Electronic interactive media: Video conferencing Non Interactive Media: Questionnaire by mail Personal interviews Advantage Opportunity of feedback Probing complex Answers Length of interview Complete questionnaire Props and visual aid High participation Door to door interviews Intercept interview in malls and other high traffic areas

Disadvantage

No guaranteed anonymity Interviewer influence on respondents answer Differential interviewer technique may be a source of bias Cost Call back Global consideration

Telephone interviews

central location interviewing Computer assisted telephone interviewing Strength and weaknesses of telephone interview Speed Cost Absence of face to face Contacts Cooperation Callbacks Representative sample Lack of visual media Limited duration

Computerized, voice activated telephone interviews True/false, yes/no, like/dislike, for/against Global consideration: telephone norms Self administered questionnaire Mail questionnaire: Paper and pencil method Advantages and disadvantages Geographic flexibility: Reach well diverged location Cost: less costly than personal interview Respondent convenience Interviewers absence Standardized Question Time is money: if urgent , no Length of mail questionnaire Increasing response rates for mail survey: Response rate is problem Cover letter Money helps Interesting questions

Follow ups Preliminary Notification Survey sponsorship Other techniques Keying mail questionnaire with codes Global consideration Self administered questions: Other form of distribution Drop off method Fax survey E-Mail survey Internet survey Speed and cost effectiveness Visual appeal and interactivity Representative sample Accurate Real time data capture Call backs Personalized and flexible questioning Respondent anonymity Response rate Security concern Interactive kiosk survey Survey research that mixes modes Selecting the appropriate survey research design: No absolute answer Pretest: To decide whether questionnaire is ok. Ethical issues in Survey research: Privacy, right to be informed, confidentiality, honesty in collecting data, objectivity in reporting

CHAPTER 11, OBSERVATION METHOD

When Scientific:

serves a formulated research purpose Planned systematically Recorded systematically/ related to general proposition Validity and reliability

What is scientific observation: systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, object, and occurrences as they are witnessed. The nature of observation study: Visible observation Hidden observation Observation of human behavior Married men and single women work performance Toy manufacturer Supplementary Evidence Supplementary to Focus group interviews, role playing Direct observation Price competition, time required for a task, life style survey Errors: Observer bias, interpretation of observation Response latency, Scientifically contrived observation Observing social settings What should be observed? The participants The setting The purpose The social behavior Frequency and duration Participants observation: situation in which an observer gains firsthand knowledge by being in or around the social setting being investigated.

Observation of physical object

Content analysis: obtain data by observing and analyzing the content or message of advertisement, Mechanical Observation: Video tape, traffic counter, camera, other machines record behavior. Television monitoring, Monitoring website traffic Measuring physiological reaction Eye tracking monitors Pupilometers Psychogalvanometers Voice pitch analysis Optical Scanners and bar codes

EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

The nature of experiment: Dependent, Independent Variables, Causal relationship, Example: A unit priced experiments BASIC ISSUES IN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Manipulation of the independent variables Independent variable could be manipulated according to researchers wish Experimental treatment is alternative value of independent variables Independent variables are often treated as classificatory variable representing some classifiable or qualitative aspect of management strategy. Experimental and control group Experimental group: Music played in intercom to see the effect on productivity Control Group: The group without music Several experimental treatment: To understand functional relationship between music and productivity several experimental group or several experimental design could be used

More than one independent variable: Price change and advertisement effect on sales of a restaurant Selection and measurement of the dependent variable: Dependent variable is the criterion or standard against which the result is judged Pink grape juice: Sales volume Training: Turnover, absenteeism, morale Problem definition is important, Selection and assignment of test unit: Test unit are the subject or respondents whose response is Sample selection and random sampling error: May occur because of the procedures utilized to assign subject or test unit to either the experimental or the control group. Random sampling error: Potato chip co wants to know the effect of advertisement on groups. Researcher need to assign the subject carefully so that result is authentic. Otherwise random sampling error occurs. Randomisation: A device to ensure that the unknown nuisance is identified and thus helps to make sure that the subjects will produce same result in different condition. Matching: Matching the subjects on the basis of pertinent background information is another technique for controlling assignment error. Researcher have to make sure that the experimental group and control group has same characteristics. Otherwise experiments result will not be the same. Repeated measure: Same subject to all experiments solve the problem of subject differences. But cause other problem. Control over extraneous variable: Constant experimental error: Systemic error or non sampling error. In a training quality of trainer, timing of training could be source of constant error. Extraneous Variable: Tv commercial with additive in gasoline may be influenced by different other extraneous variables. Demand characteristics: Is the influence over the subject if it knows the researchers intention

Experimenter Bias Guinea pig effect Hawthorne plant in Illionois research on workers morale produce hawthorne effect of research i.e if subjects know that they are experimental group their performance will increase. How to reduce: Trained researcher, disguised experiment etc. Establishing Control: Consistency of condition Order of presentation bias could be controlled by Counterbalancing technique Blinding and double bind design where subjects and researcher do not know the actual product for example regular or diet coke or toothpaste. Problems controlling extraneous variable: Not always possible.

ETHICAL ISSUES IN EXPERIMENT Common ethical issues, Debriefing to avoid demand characteristics. Mental and physical harm to subject FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION IN EXPERIMENT Basic Vs. Factorial experimental Design: One or more than one independent variable Field and Laboratory experiments: Laboratory experiment has more control. Tachistoscope allows researcher to project different stimulus and measure the subjects attention in different condition. Field experiments; MaDonalds Experiments ISSUES OF EXPERIMENTAL VALIDITY Internal Validity: The observed result may differ for Six major extraneous variable: History Maturation Testing Instrumentation

Selection Mortality External Validity: Internal experiment must be valid in external condition Student Surrogate Trade offs CLASSIFICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Symbolism: X O R Quasi ExSymbolism: X O R Quasi Experimental Design: One shot (after only design): Car dealer example One group pretest post test design: Real estate training Static group design: Experimental group X O1 Control Group O2 Three good experimental design Pre test post test control group design R O1 X O2 R O3 O4 post test control group design R X O1 R O2 Solomon four group design R O1 X O2 R O3 O4 R X O5 R O6 X O1 O1 X O2

Compromise Experimental Design Time series experimental design: O1, O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 Complex experimental design Completely randomized design Randomized block design Factorial design Latin square design

Completely Randomized design: To control all extraneous variable,, ANOVA Randomizes Block design: To block a single most important extraneous variable, TRATIFIED SAMPLING Factorial Design: Test the effect of two or more treatment at various level Latin square design: Block out the effect of two or more confounding extraneous factor.