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History and Introduction to Hospital: The word "hospital" comes from the Latin "hospes" which refers to either

a visitor or the host whoreceives the visitor. From "hospes" came the Latin "hospitalia", an apartment for strangers orguests, and the Medieval Latin "hospitale" and the Old French "hospital." It crossed the Channel inthe 14th century and in England began a shift in the 15th century to mean a home for the elderly orinfirm or a home for the down-and-out. i Hospital is an institution or the organization for the treatment, care, and cures of the sick andwounded, for the study of disease, and for the training of physicians (teaching hospitals), nurses,and allied health care personnel. ii What is the importance of Hospital Management? The answer to this question is simply that supervisors and managers of hospitals must not onlyhave vocational, technical knowledge about hospitals and treatment, but also should have
knowledge about contemporary management and its functions and principles. The work module of any job is based on two pillars, namely technical work and management work.

What to be managed in Hospital? Like other organizations and institution hospitals or any healthcare facility passes through thefollowing stages or in other words they need the management of below sections for the smoothrunning of their organizations, but the hospitals are very complex in its nature. Operations (actions) Finance (money and resources), Personnel(human relations) Information(needed information for wise decisions) Time (your own and that of others) According to the Project Definition: A project is a sequence, set or series of unique, complex andconnected activities, having one goal or purpose to be completed with time frame, allocated budgetand according to its specification, now we can say the leading, controlling, organizing and planningof all these activities is called project management. Now we can say it easily, that a hospital or anyhealthcare facility is a project in its nature, therefore; applying the rule of project management willbe no far away from it. Each of these five elements mentioned, must be managed by any person, who has its own set of principles and guidelines to follow. For instance, when it comes to managing people, the teachingsof Industrial Psychology become pertinent. For operations, the teachings of OperationsManagement as a subject become important. So, in analyzing these five elements, it also becomesevident that the teachings of Financial Management, Information Management and TimeManagement, are also important for the other three elements. In a nutshell, for a hospital managerit is compulsory to have the sound knowledge of Operations Management, Financial Management,Information Management, Human Resources Management, Time Management andCommunication. For the lower level jobs at hospitals and healthcare facilities, the principles of Supervision canbecome a starting point for teaching or studying the principles of management. A person in one of the lowest level jobs found at employers must also plan, organize and control work, even if it is just to clean an office or do some washing in one of the departments of the hospital. Top Management members of the hospitals such as Chief Executive Officer, Financial Manageretc, must be able to plan, organize, control and lead the wards and departments with a focus onunderstanding and influencing the environment, setting the strategy and gaining commitment,planning, implementing and monitoring strategies and evaluating and improving performance. TheTop Management must therefore have high capabilities with regard to human relations inwards andoutwards, strategic planning, team building, leadership, and negotiation and performance management. Middle Management members must be able to plan, organize, control and lead departments andsections with a focus on assistance upwards for application of scientific methods and assistancedownwards for application of scientific methods. They must have the same capabilities as

SeniorManagers as well as Supervisory Managers and also be good at interviewing techniques, goalachievement, conflict handling tactics and project management. Supervisory Management members must also be able to plan, organize, control and lead sections,units and individuals with a focus on operations, finance, people, information and time. Lack of Management skills in employer or employees at every hierarchy level of the hospital orhealthcare facility can be detrimental. Lack of Management skills can lead to poor performance,lack of improvement, low profit, decisions making, disheartening of employees, lowerproductivity, and jeopardize your organization. Therefore; it is obligatory that hospital managers should have the updated and cotemporaryknowledge of Management. In below sections, you will read more about hospital management, thathow to manage hospitals or any healthcare facility in order to achieve the intended objectives tomeet the organizational goals.

Concept of Productivity in the context of hospital: As we are discussing regarding the concept of Productivity in the context of a hospital, so wemust know that every organization whether it is Profitable or non profitable, governmental ornon governmental needs and uses different resources, which is classified in many groups: Manpower/Labour/Task Force Material/ Raw Material Money/Cash/Budget Machinery/Equipment The effective and appropriate usage and utilization of the above mentioned factors or resourcesshows and determines the organizations effectiveness. For example if it is a profitableorganization, its benefits and advantages are increased, while in case of other organizations, itscosts are reduced and diminished, therefore the reliance on private sectors and donors orgovernment grants and aids or itself the fee for its services are diminished. iii The effective and valuable usage/utilization/consumption of the resources or assets is importantand significant for every organization or association, whether it is public or private. Hospitalsare not including in the row of except ness, they should be included. Actually, Health careorganizations or hospitals need to give more and more concentration and attentiveness to goodand better management and execution because of the shortage of resources. Usually the healthrelated organizations are short of resources, bearing in mind the demands for services placed on them.