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ALLOY DESIGN AS A MEANS TO COUNTER FAILURES IN MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE

ALLOYS

Alloys are made by combining elements in varying ratios


strength, hardness and other mechanical properties corrosion resistance electrical properties

Alloy% Design% Preven/ve% Alloy%Deign% Improving% Proper/es%

Func%on' Specica%on'
Geometric' Environment'Of' Opera%on' Flows'and' Currents' What'are'the' goals?'

PreASelec%on' Of'Material' Class'


Material'Types' that'apply'are' selected' Manufacturing' Method'may'be' iden%ed'too'

Discrimina%ng' Material' Selec%on'

Op%misa%on' In'Material' Selec%on'

FUNCTION SPECIFICATION

Constraints on the physical properties, often one sided Could involve properties that are not numerical such as machinability or surface appearance Problem may be over-constrained No existing material satises all specied parameters?

Intui&ve)ways)of) Material) Selec&on) First)best) material) Same)material) as)for)a)similar) part) Problem)solving) material) selec&on) Searching) material) selec&on)

ALLOY SELECTION

select base-line alloy

commercial alloy

Modify:

Composition Process

Rules help move in the correct direction, example for an Aluminum alloy:

Composition:

If an element with low atomic number is added then density will decrease If Mg is added then strength will increase

Microstructure:

If the aging process is done for a long time then equilibrium precipitates will form If equilibrium precipitates are present then they are usually incoherent If incoherent precipitates are present then they may form on the grain boundary If precipitates are on the grain boundary and strength is medium or high then elongation and fracture-toughness are low

NEGATIVE RULES
ALUMINUM ALLOYS SHOULD NOT BE USED WHEN:

If the service temperature exceeds 200C or if it exceeds 100C in combination with signicant mechanical loads. If the part is in contact with water or placed underground for a longer period of time without protection. In solutions with higher or lower pH, since the protective oxide layer is not intact. When thermal or electric insulation is required. When thermal expansion should be kept low. When strength requirements exceed 500MPa. When fatigue limit requirements exceed 230MPa. When low elastic deections are anticipated. When wear is expected to be critical.

EXAMPLE OF A PRE-SELECTION
Usage Requirements

Max use temp = 160C Good heat conductivity Corrosion resistance in household chemicals Non toxic Manufacturing Conventional Methods Available Availability Low Price Conventional Material

EXAMPLE OF A PRE-SELECTION
Usage Requirements

Aluminum Alloys

Max use temp = 160C Good heat conductivity Corrosion resistance in household chemicals Non toxic Manufacturing Conventional Methods Available Availability Low Price Conventional Material

Yes Yes Yes for Cu-free alloys Spinning, Deep Drawing Yes Yes

PRE-SELECTION EXAMPLE
Usage Requirements Max Use Temp (>50C) Yield Strength (>100 MPa) Elastic Modulus (>50 GPa) Corrosion in atmosphere Low Density Low Price Conventional Material Aluminum Alloys C-Steel C-Fibre Composite Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

Must be painted Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No No

COMBINATORIAL MATERIALS SCIENCE


Clearly testing each possible combination individually is going to take a long time! Designing and optimizing metallic alloys using combinatorial principles Rapid synthesis and evaluation of a large number of samples to the development of new engineering materials Develop techniques that can be used to fabricate an alloy specimen with a continuous distribution of binary and ternary alloy compositions across its surface spatially resolved probing techniques to characterize the structure, composition, and relevant properties of the library

SPECIFIC SCENARIOS, AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM


Corrosion Prevention High Temperature Applications Low Temperature Applications Fatigue

CORROSION PREVENTION

EXAMPLE

Structure comprising extrusions and plate in aluminium alloy 2014A Superior strength properties, but susceptible to atmospheric corrosion Signicant, and unacceptable, atmospheric corrosion on the structures after a relatively short service time

WHY?

Low temperature precipitation of CuAl2 occurs along the grain boundaries

Strength increases but corrosion resistance decreases

Galvanic situation created between Cu-rich zones (cathodic) and Cu-depleted zone (anodic) Susceptible to intergranular attack

REGION OF DAMAGE

Fig 1: Cu depleted region along the grain boundaries

SOLUTION

Cladding with a layer of commercially pure aluminium or a low magnesium-silicon alloy Protective anodising Switching to a different grade of aluminium alloy, with comparable properties but higher corrosion resistance, eg. 6xxx series alloy (6082)

MATERIAL SELECTION

Important where corrosion might be a problem-corrosive environments Corrosion resistance is important, but not the only factor Also strength, ductility, fabricability, availability, cost- compromise required Selection:

Need to understand type and amount of corrosion expected to occur, and to what level it is tolerable Selection based on corrosion resistance data-previous application or testing data

Major Considerations

Corrosion variables Main constituents and impurities (identity and amount) Temperature, pressure, pH, velocity or agitation Degree of aeration Estimated range of each variable

Type of application Compatibility of design with the corrosion characteristics of the material Function of part or equipment. Desired service life? Effect of environment and service conditions. Effect will different types of corrosion have on serviceability and seriousness of the problem

Experience Use of the material in similar/identical situation. Results? Any plant corrosion-test data Laboratory corrosion test data Available reports

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS

Stems from the tendency to form a passive layer on top of the base material

Reduces diffusion of corrosive elements

Base element itself may form passive layer; affected by alloying elements

Eg. Al alloys

Alloying element forms passive layer

Eg. Cr addition to Fe to make steels and stainless steels

Nature of alloying element and oxide lm decides extent of corrosion resistance

ISSUES TO BE AVOIDED

Depletion of protective alloying element by precipitation

Eg. depletion of Cr by precipitation of Cr23C6

Galvanic couples must be prevented, within the alloy and external contacts Presence of elements that make the alloy susceptible to attack by corrosive agents, especially chloride ions

Fe additions in Al alloys that are to be used in chloride/marine environments

ISSUES TO BE AVOIDED

Precipitation that causes corrosion:

Matrix is less noble with respect to the precipitate causing matrix to corrode

Eg. CuAl2 precipitates in Al-Cu alloys

Matrix is more noble with respect to precipitate, causing corrosion of precipitates, especially at grain boundaries (segregation)

Eg. AI-Mg alloys and Al-Zn-Mg base alloys with Mg2AI3 and MgZn2 intergranular precipitates, respectively

ALUMINUM

Pure Al has very good corrosion resistance due to passivation; Al spontaneously passivates Some alloying additions form harmful precipitates that aid corrosion Galvanic Corrosion (Al and steel contact) Prone to pitting and crevice corrosion, where corrosive (chloride) species compromise the integrity of the passive layer locally

Close-up of galvanic corrosion in an aluminium rail post (25 years use). The rectangular hollow prole was held in place by a carbon steel bolt. The contact surfaces between the steel and the aluminium were often wet and attack was aggravated by wintertime salting.

ALLOYING ADDITIONS

Main species affecting Al alloy properties: Cu, Mn, Si, Mg, Zn Less signicant: Fe, Cr, Ni, Ti, others

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ADDITIONS IN AL ALLOYS

Mg gives good overall corrosion resistance, but increases susceptibility to SCC Cu causes decrease in general and pitting corrosion resistance, but provides resistance to SCC Zn-increases susceptibility to SCC Fe (impurity) increases pitting corrosion, especially in aqueous chloride solutions C- impurity, bad, forms Al4C3, which decomposes in presence of moisture, can cause pitting H- impurity, bad, causes de-cohesion of grain boundaries during SCC

CONTRADICTION?

Cu is known to reduce the corrosion resistance of Al alloys Strength is lower with respect to Al-Mg alloys

Crack propagation is slower

Hence, although general corrosion resistance of these alloys is lower, the stress corrosion resistance is higher

CASE STUDY: RIVET FAILURE

Helicopter main rotor blades underwent severe corrosion attack and rivet heads were severed at shoulder in service Rivet failure due to stress corrosion cracking Rivets were not only corroded, but also brittle Rotor blades underwent extensive surface corrosion- aluminum oxide formation due to atmospheric corrosion

DAMAGE
Fig 1: Cracks emanating from the severely cold worked region of the rivet head shoulder radius (x200)

Fig 2: Severe corrosion attack on the surface of the propeller blade (x1)

CAUSE: MATERIAL FAULT

Material used for rivet heads was Al-5% Mg alloy (AG5), susceptible to SCC:

Under severe cold working conditions Under marine conditions

Riveting produced severe cold working in rivet-shank shoulder radius zone Helicopters ew in coastal areas, under marine conditions

SOLUTION

Riveting and marine atmosphere cannot be eliminated Change of material: AG5 to AU 4G (Al-4% Cu-1% Mg) Stabilizing/stress relief treatment of AG5 rivets to reduce susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS

HIGH TEMPERATURE APPLICATIONS


Major reason for failure : Creep Other issues with high temperature

Corrosion rate increases Increases diffusion rate Increased solubility in the material

CREEP:STAGES

CREEP: MECHANISM

Bulk diffusion (Nabarro-Herring creep) Climb Grain boundary diffusion (Coble creep) Thermally activated glide ie via cross-slip

CASE STUDY

Low alloy 2 Cr 1 Mo steels were used in the design of high temperatures reactors previously Properties improved substantially by addition of right amounts of Vanadium (V) and Colombium(Cb)-Kobe steel Now in ASME standards for materials in use for making High temperature de-sulphurization reactors ,Ammonia converters etc.

ISSUES WITH THE OLD

Hydrogen attack resistance limit on the Nelsons curve is nearly at Operating conditions of these vessels(454 C) Low Hydrogen embrittlement resistance Creep resistance was also just about sufcient and generally borderline

HIGH STRENGTH HELPS MINIMIZE THE REACTOR WEIGHT

The enhanced precipitation of carbides of V and Cb realizes higher strength compared with the existing 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel, leading to a reactor weight reduction of about 10%.

IMPROVED RESISTANCE TO HYDROGEN ATTACK AND HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

The precipitation of stable vanadium carbide and columbium carbonitride suppress the methanization reaction (hydrogen attack), and the trapping of the hydrogen in the steel by the ne vanadium carbide suppresses the hydrogen concentration at crack tips (hydrogen embrittlement).

HIGHER RESISTANCE TO DISBONDING OF STAINLESS STEEL WELD OVERLAY

The trapping of hydrogen in the steel by ne vanadium carbide suppresses the hydrogen concentration at the boundary of overlay and base-metal.

PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BETWEEN EXISTING STEEL AND IMPROVED STEEL


Conventional 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel (SA-336F22) Highest working temperature (ASME VIII, 482C Div.2 design) Hydrogen attack resistance limit (Nelson 454C Curve) Hydrogen embrittlement Overlay disbond limit 200 bar at 454C Modied 2 1/4Cr-1Mo-V steel 482C 510C Higher resistance than conventional steel 300 bar at 600C 300 bar at 600C vTr40+3vTr40 <=10C 585-760 MPa 199.8 MPa 100% 75%

Impact test temperature (Av. 40ft-lb/min. -30C 35ft-lb) Temper embrittlement (Step cool test) vTr40+3vTr40<=10C

515-690 MPa Tensile strength at room temperature Allowable design stress intensity (454C) Allowable design stress intensity (454C) 149.8 MPa Reactor weight comparison (Design temperature: 454C)

ISSUE WITH THE NEW

HED department at L&T noticed that Vanadium modied 214 Cr 1Mo 14 V steels having higher creep strength that was supplied suffered damage and had to be repaired due to nitride formation and minor cracking within 2-3 years of service. The main cause of this is believed to be Nitridation and study on this is an ongoing project.

DUCTILE TO BRITTLE TRANSITION

Low' Temperature'

Bri$le' Fracture'
Triaxial' State'Of' stress'

High'Strain' Rate'

STEPS INVOLVED
Disloca(on*pileup*at*obstacle*

Propoga(on*of* microcrack*across* obstacle*

Building*of*shear* stress*to*nucleate* microcrack*

COTTRELL THEORY FOR BRITTLE FAILURES


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DEPENDENCE ON TEMPERATURE

In BCC metals increases as temp falls Increasing strain rate increases Alloying affects all the parameters on LHS FCC and HCP metals have active slip systems at all temp At low temp BCC metals have limited active slip system

TOUGHNESS DEPENDENCE ON TEMPERATURE

WHAT IS DBT

Failure mode transforms from ductile to brittle Occurs abruptly at a critical temperature (Tc) Temperature depends on composition, microstructure and mechanical history Occurs predominantly in BCC metals Control of critical temperature is critical

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON TC OF STEELS


Largest increases in Tc by increasing C Increase of S & P increases Tc O increases Tc drastically Mo increases Tc (Mo has high k)

Si Increases Tc (increases D and Nitrogen increases Tc

Increase of Mn reduces Tc (reduces k and D) Nickel lowers Tc

CASE STUDY - TITANIC


Was the largest and most luxurious ship made Set sail from Southampton on April 10, 1912 Two days later hit an iceberg, hull damaged Six forward compartments ruptured Stern and bow separate Ship sinks in less than 160 minutes

STEEL COMPOSITION

Steel used made in acid open hearth furnace Steel was partially deoxidised (semikilled) The Si content was quite high even though it was only semikilled High C and P equivalents Very Low Mn:S ratio Longitudinal section Tc = 32 C Transverse Section Tc = 56 C

LIBERTY FLEET

The US Navy built 2,751 cargo ships under the liberty eet During World War II, there were nearly 1,500 instances of signicant brittle fractures Twelve ships broke in two without warning

MODERN SHIP STEELS (TC > 0 C)

LOW TEMPERATURE SHIP STEELS

American Bureau for Shipping has detailed standards for ship steels For very low temperature applications (polar icebreakers), addition of Ni and Nb are used Sometimes austenitic steels are used Tc can be as low as -196 C (A353, A553) Upto 36% Ni is used (A658)

FATIGUE PREVENTION

CAST STEELS

SAE 0030-NT SAE 0050A-NT C-Mn(NQT) Mn-Mo(NQT) AISI 8630(NQT)

CONCLUSIONS

Fatigue cracks initiated from the surface and at regions containing porosity and inclusions. Multicracks were often initiated in specimens subjected to smaller strain amplitudes The poor fatigue resistance at larger strain amplitudes for 8630 cast steel is attributed to excess microshrinkage in the room temperature specimens The room temperature fatigue strengths of the ve cast steels at 106 reversals ranged from 30 ksi (208 MPa) for 0030 steel to 53.7 ksi (370 MPa) for 8630 steel. The ve steel room temperature fatigue strengths were within 30 to 40 percent of the ultimate tensile strength. This range was 32 to 46 percent at -50F (-45C).

Low cycle fatigue concepts, which were principally developed and proven with wrought steels, are applicable to these ve cast steels and would appear to be quite realistically applicable for additional cast steels. The cyclic stress-strain curves and the cyclic yield strength at -50F (-45C) increased an average of about 10 percent compared to room temperature results except for 8630 steel which had substantial microshrinkage in the room temperature specimens. The increases were similar to increases found in Sy and Su from monotonic tests.

Low cycle fatigue behavior at -50F (-45C)was equal to or better than at room temperature for lives greater than 5x105 reversals;however,mixed behavior existed at shorter lives.The fatigue strengths at 106 reversals were from zero to 30 percent better at -50F (-45C). C-Mn and Mn-Mo cast steels had the least low temperature crack sensitivity while 8630 cast steel was the most sensitive to cracks at low temperature. 0030, C-Mn, Mn-Mo and 8630 cast steels are suitable for low climatic temperature conditions the three martensitic cast steels 8630, Mn-Mo and C-Mn had better fatigue resistance than the ferritic-pearlitic 0030 and 0050A cast steels.

CASE STUDY ON PRESSURE VESSELS


Objectives:

To help create an understanding of how material properties, costs of materials and of their fabrication,required product life,and product liability interact in different ways depending on the product. Prerequisites:

Student with some knowledge of fabricating processes and the signicance of such factors as fatigue,fracture toughness and environmental performance on material selection.

High pressure cylinders for the storage and transport of gases have been available in steel for over one hundred years and were widely used before aluminium became a viable engineering material. Aluminium and the aircraft industries have spurred each others growth since the time when they were both born at the beginning of the 20th century.

AIRCRAFT FUSELAGE

The cabin must be capable of withstanding the internal pressure in ight(0.6 kg/cm2)as well as loads transmitted by wings and undercarriage, but it must withstand many repetitions of these loads without catastrophic failure Despite the many alloys available to select from, the almost universal choice of aluminium alloy for pressure cabins is 2024-T3.This alloy is used for both skin and stringers. Although parts of the frame might include 2014-T6 for parts where both strength and fatigue resistance are required. Other parts where strength is the only important criteria can be made from 7075-T6.

HIGH PRESSURE GAS CYLINDERS


In general, aluminium cylinders are lighter than steel for sizes which can be lifted by an individual, say up to 20litre capacity Carbon Dioxide, Oxygen and Air are the gases most commonly packed good corrosion resistance and attractive appearance

Approximately 2.0 million aluminium high pressure gas cylinders are made each year and probably 90 % of them are made from one or two alloys and one process aluminium/magnesium/ silicon group i.e. 6351 (6082) and 6061 better deformation characteristics and better toughness, corrosion and stress corrosion resistance, as well as higher specic fatigue strength

BEVERAGE CANS

The easy opening end, which to date has only been possible with aluminium Although alloys very similar to that now used for the can-end (5182) were available when the development began, there have been necessary changes in composition and in the rolling sequence in the production of the end stock to provide a combination of strength and formability

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