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Laboratory #2 Homework 441G

Marica Rzvan-Mihai Toader Mihai-Silviu Vlaic Iuliana-Maria

Logarithmic amplifier
A log amplifier (logarithmic converter) is one for which the output voltage Vout is K times the natural log of the input voltage Vin This circuit outputs the negative log of the input. The first op-amp attempts to keep its input at ground, which means the current across the 1k resistor must be proportional to the input voltage. This current goes across a transistor, so the op-amp must keep its output voltage at a level which satisfies the Ebers-Moll equations, which means that eVout is proportional to the input current. This means that output voltage must be proportional to the log of the input current (and thus the input voltage). We consider the following circuit:


=> Where: - base-emittor voltage - thermal voltage - input voltage - output voltage - collectors current - leakage current We know the following terms: = 25 mV =5V = 48 nA R= 1k

Inserting them into the output voltage equation we will obtain ideal case).

= -0.288 V (in the

If we want to be sure that our circuit performance is high and the failures that occur during operation are minimum, we must implement a worst case situation scenario. Worst-case circuit analysis (WCCA or WCA) is a cost-effective means of screening a design to ensure with a high degree of confidence that potential defects and deficiencies are identified and eliminated PRIOR TO and DURING test, production, and delivery. It is a quantitative assessment of the equipment performance, accounting for manufacturing, environmental and aging effects. In addition to a circuit analysis, a WCCA often includes stress and derating analysis, Failure Modes and Effects Criticality (FMECA) and Reliability Prediction (MTBF). The specific objective is to verify that the design is robust enough to provide operation which meets the system performance specification over design life under worst-case conditions and tolerances (initial, aging, radiation, temperature, etc.). Stress and De rating Analysis is intended to increase reliability by providing sufficient margin compared to the allowable stress limits. This reduces overstress conditions that may induce failure, and reduces the rate of stress-induced parameter change over life. It determines the maximum applied stress to each component in the system. A worst case circuit analysis should be performed on all circuitry that is safety and financially critical. Worst case circuit analysis is an analysis technique which, by accounting for component variability, determines the circuit performance under a worst case scenario (under extreme environmental or operating conditions). Environmental conditions are defined as external stresses applied to each circuit component. It includes temperature, humidity or radiation. Operating conditions include external electrical inputs. Component quality level, interaction between parts, and drift due to component aging. In order to perform this analysis, we must implement our circuit in a program called Design Master and we will obtain the results for this situation. DESIGN MASTER features Based upon the Worst Case Analysis Plus (WCA+) methodology developed by Design/Analysis Consultants, Inc., Design Master (DM) is used for design validation, risk assessment, and optimization. Design Master: Solves design equations, including the combined effects of all variables: o Output includes minimum, average, typical, maximum, standard deviation, and Cpk (capability index) values. o Accounts for the effects of dependent variables to ensure that unrealistically pessimistic results are eliminated. o Accounts for the effects of dynamic (application) variables to avoid unrealistically optimistic results.

Generates the estimated probability distribution of the equation's range of results, and provides an estimate of the probability of occurrence for any out-of-specification results. Tabulates the normalized sensitivity of the equation to each of its variables. Calculates the optimum value for each variable. Generates graphs of the equation for each variable.
WORST CASE ANALYSIS Min/Average/Typical/Max Solutions PLUS Automatic Generation of Worst Case Formulas

RISK ASSESSMEN T Interactive Probability Histogram s Sensitivity of Each Variable

DESIGN OPTIMIZATIO N Optimum Value for Each Variable

Probability of Exceeding Specification Limits

Graphs for Each Variable

In the WorkSheet screen we will intorduce the parameters that are deduced using certain formulas: , and . Output voltage:

Base-emitter voltage:

Collectors current:

In the Variables screen we introduce the parameters that are known: R, Resistance: R

Input voltage:

Thermal voltage:

Leakage current:

After we compile the program we will obtain the analysis results for: Analysis for the output voltage:


Analysis for the base-emitter voltage:

Analysis for the collectors current:

Graph (Is, Vo)

Graph (R, Vo)

Graph (Vi,Vo)

Graph (Vth,Vo)

To conclude, after succesive parameter adjustments we have been able to obtain the individual sensitivities for each component so that the overall circuit sensitivitie fits within the acceptance limits.