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University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland: Matthew L. Terraciano Rebecca Olson David Norris Jietai Jing Miami University, Oxford, Ohio: Perry Rice James Clemens University of Auckland, New Zealand Howard J. Carmichael Work supported by: National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology

Cavity QED: Quantum electrodynamics for pedestrians (Haroche). No need to renormalize. Only one mode of the electromagnetic field: ATOM(S) + CAVITY MODE Perturbative: dissipation >> coupling (Purcell) Non Perturbative: dissipation << coupling (Sanchez Mondragon, Eberly) 5

Coupling:

d Ev g=

d depends on the radial and angular parts of the wavefunctions of the electrons. For the D2 lines in alkali (Rb) it is a few times a0 (el radio de Bohr radius) times the electric charge.

The field associated with a photon in a mode of the cavity with volume Veff is:

Ev =

2 0Veff

How large is the electric field of a photon in an optical cavity as those from Maryland, CalTech or Garching? Electric field in a wall plug! ~ 100 V/cm It is possible to measure it!

Jaynes-Cummings Model

How does a single atom interact with a single mode of the electromagnetic field?

1 + + + H = a z + c a a + g ( a + a ) 2

No interaction term:

g ,0

g ,0

ground state

e,0 , g ,1

1 ( e,0 g ,1 ) = 2

excited states

+

e,0 , g ,1

2g

g ,0

g ,0

Dissipative Processes

: Loss of a photon from the cavity due to imperfect mirrors. : Spontaneous emission from an atom inside the cavity to modes other than the cavity mode. Be careful about impedance matching! Dissipation is not always bad. Cavity loss allows us to look inside of the cavity to study the dynamics of the system. Can we use spontaneous emission in the same way?

ss = 0 , g + 1, g 2g

0, e +

2 pq

2

2, g

2 g2 q

1, e

= a , p = p( g , , ) and q = q( g , , )

A photodetection collapses the steady state into the following non-steady state from which the system evolves.

a ss collapse = 0 , g + pq 1, g 2 gq

0, e

) = 0 , g + [ f 1 ( ) 1, g + f 2 ( ) 0 , e ] + O ( 2 )

Field Atomic Polarization

g ( 2) ( ) = I (t ) I (t + ) I (t )

2

Gives the probability of detecting a photon at time t + given that one was detected at time t. This is a conditional measurement:

g ( 2 ) ( ) =

I ( ) I

Exchange of excitation:

Non-classical

antibunched

Cavity

cavity waist ~ 50 microns mirror separation ~ 2.2mm Transmission of mirrors = 15 ppm and 300 ppm 2 = 6.4 MHz Finesse = 10,000 birefringence: 1:104, separation of modes < 1 MHz

Magneto-optical trap of 85Rb atoms

N ~ 108 atoms. Loading time ~ 50 200 ms. Launched toward the cavity with a resonant push beam.

X 1 = Transmission: Y (1 + 2C ) 2

with atoms Normalized intracavity intensity without atoms

C = NC1 =

Ng 2

Experimental Schematic

LVIS

Atom beam

Drive the cavity with linearly () polarized light. Light emitted in orthogonal direction must come from a spontaneous emission. Separate the output into two polarizations to distinguish spontaneous emission from cavity drive.

The number of coincidences for a given gate time with the expected Poissonian results (black line).

If the steady state wave function is separable then we should be able to write the wave function as a product state:

SS = C A = (D0 0 + D1 1 + D2 2 ) (C g g + Ce e

If we let A1G = D1, A2g = D2, and A0e = Ce, then the following condition must be satisfied for a product state: A1e = D1CE = AOeA1g If this is not true There is entanglement!

The function, j(2)(), measures correlations between transmitted and fluorescent clicks.

a + (0) + ( ) ( )a(0) + ( ) ( ) c j ( 2 ) ( ) = = + a a + +

j ( 0) =

( 2)

A1e

2 2

a + + a a + a +

A1g A0 e

Continuous source of cold atoms ~ 1 atom in cavity at all times! Similar to MOT but with a retro optic in the vacuum with a hole for extracting a beam of atoms. Can be pulsed by plugging hole in retro optic with a MOT beam and unplugging after a MOT forms.

Conditional Average on Oscilloscope

Traditional Correlation Measurement

Measured Cross-Correlations

Recall that the concurrence is given by:

2 1g 2 0e ( 2) ( 2) 2

j(2)(0) can be extracted from the cross-correlation histogram, if we assume the mapping

is valid.

Con ~

where

A1g ( 0 e ) =

X 1g ( 0 e ) n0

n0 =

R1g ( 0 e ) 2n0

R is the flux of photons emitted from the cavity and n0 is the saturation photon number. 2

3g 2

Concurrence Measurements

Summary

have devised a unique way of observing spontaneous emission from our cavity QED system. We have correlated spontaneous emission photons with transmitted photons to measure entanglement.

We

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