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Parthenogenesis

The story of creation


The mystery of creation has many different variants, and how the universe came about is a matter of some speculation. People through the ages have offered all kinds of theories as to how this happened. New understandings centre around the big bang theory and the search for the sub atomic particle that is know as the 'god particle', which holds the key to how reactions between specific molecules have generated the first explosion of matter. This may hold the key to understanding the forces at work that produce the complex formations of the universe such as Saturn's moon Titus with underground oceans. However how this matter grows and in what formation it takes place is still very much misunderstood. You have to start with the workings of undetected forces interacting with each other resulting in the development of energy fields and generating darkness and light. In the beginning there was nothing. There were no stars, no planets, just empty space compounding everything. Then a tiny dots appeared and the magnetic forces started to fight against each other. This process repeated throughout the universe creating millions of little dots each interconnected and forming links between vast areas of space. These dots grew up into bigger and bigger dots, until the power of the light could be seen from light years away. As the stars moved slowly in a cosmic dance with each other, they generated an inner strength and the universe was established. Over millions of years the planets and moons emerged, each within their own orbit. This was the process of what was created. Where all this space came from and why it was done is not yet know, but it seems to be the natural order of the universe. What this process has become is the vast earth, teeming with people and all kinds of life. As humans developed we arrived at point of huge power and focus over creation, without being able to understand what was driving it. There was a need for a new way of thinking, seeing the earth was divided and on the brink of calamity. Each with their own solutions as what must be done. Looking back, many of the ancients were revealed to be in confusion, stuck in their preconceived values. What was needed was an understanding that reconciled each faction with the traits prescribed in their collective wisdom. At the centre of this was the conflict over religion. People were trapped in an ancient web of betrayal and rejection. Nobody prepared to look at the contributions great men and women have made to our understanding of human creation. As the very meaning of creation itself was in the balance. Would the power of mankind cause the stars to stop shining. Destroy everything in the universe and everything in it. What has life unleashed? But a spark was set among the people, miracles and signs were seen, and messengers were sent to guide the masses out of the darkness. The power of understanding together with the unforeseen forces of the universe battled those that would not accept the sacredness of human power. Other creatures battled to keep up as humans became a ever encroaching threat.

If one looks at creatures such as bees, plants and even ancient dinosaurs, you see different types of reproduction and fertilisation. Things that the human race has no understanding but to observe. The virgin queen bee, for example must establish a hive of her own offspring. Killing off other virgin queen bees to establish her dominance. The queen bee then mates with numerous drone bees to establish a new hive. There is usually only one queen bee, being quite different from the other bees. Bees have a different chromosome structure, and capable of reproducing in different ways. With most bees in the hive being the children of the queen bee. Some of them such as drone bees are only able mate once. This is just one example in the vast array of commutations of life as it is reproduced. When one looks at the DNA structure of different animals you see that each is designed to fit into a pacific pattern that is reproduced generation after generation. The constraints on the insects and birds, plants and dinosaurs are completely different to us. How the chromosomes are passed on through DNA is not consistent in different species, and can change and evolve. Unlike a bee, human DNA reflects different strands of their parents and are unique to each individual. DNA has even been known to change over time. In a bee, chromosomes have a single cell structure, meaning one set of chromosomes per cell. In humans it is more complex, with a complete set of chromosomes from both the mother and father in each individual. Plants, reptiles and others have have different combinations varying from species to species. The chromosomes make up a cell, the number of chromosomes in a cell are fundamental to the basic living organism, some being unicellular like bacteria, others multicellular like plants and animals. Within this variety is the many different patterns and reproduction rituals of each living entity. For some species reproduction does not take place inside the womb, but externally. A process that is similar to artificial insemination. For the ancient Egyptians this was expressed in the belief that there was no female scarab beetle, and that the male was able reproduce itself. However it is actually a process of artificial insemination.

Now there are examples, in diverse species among certain creatures, that have been known to reproduce without the need of a male partner. This is known as Parthenogenesis or 'virgin birth' in Greek. It can occur naturally in some plants and animals such as scorpions, lizards, bees, wasps and even birds. What is interesting is that when this happens the DNA of the new off spring can be exactly the same as the mother. The most common example is in plants in a process called

Apomixis, where a new plant can grow out of a cut stem. But other species reproduce exclusively in this way, such as tiny mites called Bdelloidea, which appear to have been doing this for millions of years. Not all mites do this. There are no male Bdelloidea and the creatures are highly resistant to radiation. At a certain seasons under the right conditions the cells, having laid dormant for years, are able to spring to life and grow rapidly. They add to their DNA by absorbing the DNA around it. What is interesting is that they continue to reproduce even in a dormant state. These are simple celled creatures with less complex chromosome structure. And so have less obstacles to cell generation. In order for a more substantial living creature to reproduce it must receive mix of two single cells, one from the mother and one from the father to form a new double cell. In humans and most other mammals, males and females have distinct cell structures. Males having two chromosomes XY, and females have two unique XX chromosomes. This means the cell is made up of similar chromosomes in females but a males has two distinct chromosomes. In birds and reptiles the structure has a different path to cell development. In these creatures there have been known examples of parthenogenesis. A recent example is a boa constrictor in 2010 which was recorded to have had 22 female offspring through a process of 'asexual' reproduction without being in laboratory conditions. Because of the lack of male chromosomes, all the children of the offspring will be female. Lacking the necessary male genes. There have been no recorded examples in mammals, and it theory could only produce a female offspring. Some creatures have more complex cell structures with as many as 12 chromosomes in a single cell. This is common in plants such as the Celosia Argentea or other creatures such as the Uganda clawed frog. This structure often leads to a sterile form of reproduction and parthenogenesis. This is a part of on going research into cloning, which have produced interesting, if controversial, results. Such as the female mouse named Kaguya in Japan in 2004. By taking out two chromosomes out a normal cell and replacing it with DNA using the cells from the mother female mouse, were able to create a fatherless brood of mice from just DNA. In humans this process is not used to clone a person but rather in the hopes of treating disease such as alzheimer's. With the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep by using DNA being placed in a new embryo and then planting the cell inside the womb. It has been shown that by manipulating the process of cell development, very similar DNA structure can be achieved. This has been done in a number of species. How far this creation of artificial life can be taken is yet to be determined. For example can a person eat an animal that has been cloned? When one thinks that this process happens quite naturally in reptiles and plants and other species with out specifically mixing DNA confounds science and leeds one to re-examine how we perceive the whole process of creation. Without fully identifying this we could risk destroying life itself. The earth is powerless to prevent this miss understanding unless we look back at what was achieved by the teachers of mankind. Something that is dismissed by modern science, who prefer to reject these profound understandings as spiritual influence and irrelevant. For example when you look at DNA and how to reproduce it, you see that the more similar the better. The Egyptians knew this and shrunk the gene pool down to a very low diversity, thereby creating a unique kind of Parthenogenesis. Something natural in their ecological environment but quite foreign to other cultures. The gene pool being passed on to each generation was so similar that

it could be seen as a form of cloning. This is were we need to take another look at the cult of Jesus which arose out of ancient Egypt, as its natural off spiring. The 'virgin birth' occurred when the cult was at it's hight. Wether one believes in miraculous conception or not, the contribution to human and scientific endeavour can not be ignored. And some time in the future could be proved possible. As people spread across the earth in more and more distant lands from their own, the question as to how we relate to each other and what kind of evolutionary make up future generations will have is dependant on what we choose to do. And our understanding of natural selection. If we do finally uncover the path to this knowledge, it would cause us to fundamentally re-examine the story of Jesus. Each culture and peoples have contributed in different ways to human development, in the Americas you get completely different examples of evolutionary and cultural diversity. The reality was that most of these unique peoples were driven to extinction by the arrival of foreigners. The genetic map of many people such as the those that lived in Baja California show a diversity of peoples all with unique DNA traits. Some now lost forever. Yet even in the americas there have been found stories of children being born of virgins. The story of Quetzalcoatl is the best example. He was a very important deity in many cultures including the Maya. To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was depicted as feathered serpent that represented the movements of the heavens. It is also said that he killed himself out of guilt after being tricked into marrying his sister. He was seen as central to the story of the creation of mankind as well as the cycles of the sun. There are many other examples of 'virgin birth' throughout the cultures of the world, ranging from Buddhist, Egyptian, Hindu and Zoroaster religions. One examples are tales found in Japan, such as the story of Kintaro. His mother was said to of conceived him by a thunder clap sent from the red dragon of mount Ashigara. Kintaro was extremely strong and was able to talk to animals. It was also said that the Persian and Armenian deity Zoroaster's mother was a virgin. His legacy was later transferred to Greek and Roman gods such as Attis. They were well aware of this concept before Jesus. These ancient myths, found throughout the world are pointing to the true understanding of creation. Unless we grasp these links between myth and science we will be powerless to understand the universal development of natural phenomenon. The stories and actions of past generations show humanity the keys to our place in the universe. Now with advances in technology and being able to see the world from above, we have been given new insight into what actually causes the process to take place. To me it seems improbable that the birth of stars and planets would be any different from life on earth. The mysteries as to how and why this happens are slowly being revealed for the first time. There are very concrete mathematical processes that are involved. But to achieve the successful and spectacular beauty that life can generate in all it's wonders is a matter that many scientists fail to grasp. Ultimately what part we as humans will play in the unfolding of the grand scheme of creation will depend on those that uncover the secrets of what is behind the will of the perfect wonders of the universe to exist. Each developing in different ways, yet part of a complex reaction to the conditions of their own specific potential.

The Celosia Argentea flower and the Uganda clawed frog, examples of dodecaploid polyploid, meaning twelve sets of chromosomes in each cell. Humans have two.

Saturn's moon Titan