Need for alternative fuel Industrial growth over the past century has seen an ever-increasing demand on the earth’s fossil fuel resources such as coal & oil .These fuels have been favoured due to their ease of extraction & cost-effective conversion into usable energy. However recent discussion into the effects of fossil fuels on the environment have encouraged investigation into renewable energy sources as a way of alleviating negative environmental effects & their existing nature.

Reasons for low utilization of biomass Biomass is comparable to solar energy in one respect that it occurs in a highly diffused form, scattered throughout the country. Just as concentrating solar energy at one point is difficult to collect & transport the relatively light biomass from its point of origin to a centrally located processing facility. Although it is stated above that the biomass either in the form of agro-waste or in the form of dry grass had no commercial value, it still needs to be collected & transported by somebody to the processing facility just a few Km away, cost about Rs.1000/ton. In addition to the above expense, one should not expect a farmer to surrender this agro-waste to a processing plant without any payment. Because villagers are seen to use biomass, as a free of cost material for a variety of purposes, even the so-called experts make the mistake of considering plant biomass as a ‘no-cost’ raw material for industrial scale processing operations too. This lack of awareness of the ground realities has done more harm than good to cause of biomass energy.


What is BAGASSE? Sugarcane is a seasonally-grown food and feed crop, the processing of which creates bagasse, a low-cost biomass material, as its by-product. Bagasse is a commodity that is readily available for use—in 1992, 610 million tons of bagasse was produced worldwide. It is suitable for production of energy, ethanol, animal feeds, paper products, composite board, and building materials; and it is a feed stock for fluidized-bed production of a range of chemicals.

Selection of ‘Bagasse as an alternative fuel’ Biomass is a readily available renewable resource that has been used throughout the past as a source of heat energy by means of combustion. In recent there has been increased research into the feasibility of converting biomass such as bagasse into other form of usable energy. Bagasse is comprised of lingo cellulosic residues & is a by-product of many agricultural activities. Bagasse is essentially the fibrous waste left after the sugarcane has been extracted for crystallizing into sugar. The fraction of bagasse obtained from raw cane crushed is approximately 20% - 30%. Previously, bagasse was burned as a means of solid waste disposal. However, as the cost of fuel oil, natural gas & electricity increased after the energy crisis in 1970, special attention was paid to alternative fuels in an efficient way. Consequently, conception of bagasse combustion changed & it has come to be regarded as biomass fuel rather than refuse. The actual tendency is to use bagasse as fuel, especially for cogeneration of electric power & steam, to increase its contribution to the country’s energy supply. This report will investigate that food waste recycling rate just was 1% & how the sugar industry is using the principles of cleaner production to minimize waste from the cane milling process by using the energy stored in bagasse to power the process & in many cases add green energy to the main electricity grid. It

will also investigate the economical & environmental effects of other options available to process the bagasse into usable products such as FUEL.

Renewable energy program Govt. of INDIA 1. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) was set up by the Ministry of Energy in 1987 to provide assistance to manufacturers &users of renewable energy system. 2. In 1992, the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) was established as a department in the Ministry of Energy. 3. The Ministry implements the Integrated Rural Energy Program transferred to it from the Planning Commission. 4. A National Program on Biogas Development is a major Program of Ministry.

Waste collected (% by weight)

others 9% Industry waste 51%

food waste 40%

Industry waste

food waste



Physical properties 1. White & light green. 2. It is odorless. 3. The typical specific weight is 250 Kg/m3. 4. The main content: - 45% moisture, 50% cellulose - (27.9% hemicellulose, 9.8% lignin & 11.3% cell contents) & 6% others. 5. Energy content: - 19400 KJ/Kg dry ash free.

Chemical properties The percentage distribution by dry wt. of major elements composing the bagasse is present in the below table. Components % by wt (dry basis) C 49 H 6.5 O 42.7 N 0.2 S 0.1 Ash 1.5

Chemical formula Estimation of the chemical formula of bagasse:1. The percentage distribution of the elements with & without the water contained. Give: - !00 Kg bagasse based on 45% of moisture content. Component Weight in Kg (without water) Weight in Kg (with water) C 27 27 H 3.6 8.5 O 23.5 63.5 N 0.11 0.11 S 0.055 0.055 Ash 0.735 0.735


2. Computering the molar composition of the elements neglecting the ash component. Components Atomic weight Moles (without water) Moles (with water) C 12 2.25 2.25 H 1 3.6 8.5 O 16 1.47 3.97 N 14 0.008 0.008 S 32 0.002 0.002

3. Setting up the computation table to determine the normalized mole ratio. Components Moles ratio (without water) Moles ratio (with water) C 1125 1125 H 1800 4250 O 735 1985 N 4 4 S 1 1

4. Approximate chemical formula of bagasse. Without water: With water :C1125H1800O735N4S C1125H4250O1985N4S

Bagasses are the fibrous residue of the cane stalks after crushing & consist mainly of cellulose, pentosans & lignin. Its final composition after milling depends on method of harvesting as well as age & type of cane. On average it is assumed to have 50% moisture, 47.7% fiber & 2.3% soluble solids. The Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of dry ash free bagasse is 19400 KJ/ Kg while bagasse with 50% moisture content has GCV of 9600 KJ/Kg & Net Calorific Value (NCV) of 7600 KJ/Kg. GCV is also know as the Higher Heat Value(HHV) & the NCV as the Lower Heat Value(LHV) it assumes that water formed by combustion & water of the fuel constitution remains in vapour form. In industrial practice it is not practicable to reduce the temperature of the combustion products below dew point


to condense the moisture present & recover its latent heat, thus the latent heat of the vapour is not available for heating purposes & must be subtracted from the HCV.


Dry matter productivity of some selected agricultural crop (1)

CROP Wheat Rice Corn Barley Oats Rye Soybean Sugarcane

DRY MATTER YEILD 4.4 8.4 8.4 4.2 4.0 3.4 5.7 49.4

Sugarcane bagasse has been reported to contain 48% cellulose. It thus implies that the total world production of 233.942 million tons of bagasse from 15,895 hectares would yield 112.29 million tons of cellulose. These data indicate that based on per unit of land area sugarcane is the most productive cellulose producing crop. The majority of bagasse produced in small or large scale factories is generally used as fuel in the same factory where it is produced. It has been estimated that 10-15% of the bagasse from any sugar mill could be made available for feeding animals, using the rest as fuel for factory furnaces. Most of the sugar mills burn bagasse to generate steam & electricity. One ton of bagasse when burned is equal in fuel value to one barrel of fuel oil.


Sugar industries scenario in INDIA Sugar industry is the second largest industry after textile in India. India also stands among the first five countries of sugar production in the world. The annual turnover of the sugar industry is around 5500 crores of rupees and the total investment is around 3500 crores of rupees. It also employs directly or indirectly of about 1.75 crores people in India. Crushing capacity of sugar mills vary from about 1500-5000 tonnes per day, while that of the 'Khandasari' Mills vary from 20-200 tonnes per day.

The process of sugar production involves following steps. 1. Cleaning of canes. 2. Milling of canes. 3. Extraction of juice 4. Concentration of juice 5. Removal of impurities by addition of calcium phosphate, lime and double carbonization or double sulphination. 6. Concentration of juice to syrup by evaporation. 7. Crystallization. 8. Separation of sugar through centrifuge i.e. by centrifugation of crystals. 9. Final packaging and handling of sugar.

Sugar cane synthesis the maximum solar residue and energy into biomass like sugar, cellulose, lignin and pentosans.


Profile of Indian sugar Industry Year 1950-51 1955-56 1960-61 1970-71 1975-76 1980-81 1985-86 1991-92 No of Mills 138 143 143 216 253 314 341 392 Sugar production in lakh tons 11.34 18.92 30.28 37.46 42.62 51.16 70.16 134.64 Consumption of Sugar in lakh tons 10.98 19.73 21.13 40.27 36.87 49.70 70.59 106.26

The sugar companies comes under the Board of Industrial & Financial Reconstruction (BIFR)(6). As per the information provided by the BIFR as on 30-06-2003 , 44 companies involving 76 sugar mills are registered with BIFR . The state-wise break up is as follows Sr. no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. STATE Andhra Pradesh Bihar Kerala Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total No. of Sugar Mills 3 4 1 5 3 4 1 2 1 8 43 1 76


A.) Improvement of the calorific value of bagasse (7)

(1.) Using flue gas drying The existing sugar surplus and an acute energy shortage in India have prompted the examination of co-generation possibility using available surplus bagasse, and ways of saving more bagasse for off-season co-generation. Out of 20% condensation loss in the boiler efficiency, 14% of the loss is due to the moisture in bagasse, which is around 50%. Reducing the bagasse moisture would help to increase the calorific value of bagasse, resulting in an increase in the quantity of bagasse saved. This reduction in bagasse moisture could be achieved in two ways: 1. by mechanically increasing the pressure on the mill rollers. 2. by using various sources of energy and equipment to dry the bagasse.

An energy efficient way to reduce the bagasse moisture is to use the heat from the flue gas. Over the years, rotary dryers, flash dryers, swirl burner system and other means of drying bagasse were tried with varying degree of success. After looking at the various options available, the Andhra Sugars Ltd. installed an induced draft flash dryer at the Sugar Unit - I during the 1999 / 2000 season and had achieved substantial bagasse moisture reduction, bagasse saving and an increase in boiler efficiency. Based on the data and experience gathered, a forced draft flash dryer was commissioned during the 2000/2001 season at the Sugar Unit - II. The operation of this dryer had been smooth since its


commissioning and had resulted in substantial bagasse moisture reduction, bagasse saving and boiler efficiency increase. The installation of bagasse dryers at the two Sugar Units resulted in bagasse saving that had enabled co-generation for four months during the off-season and increased the energy generated from 12.5 to 16.4 million units per year.

(2.)Through the implementation of modified Java method mill setting The “Java method” of mill settings was known since before the World War II and it experienced good results for mill performances. To obtain good overall extraction several conditions are specified by the “Java method”, e.g.: 1. Operate the mills at a very low rotation (2.5–1.5 rpm, gradually decreased from the ultimate to the ensuing mills). 2. The actual fibre loadings should be as low as possible (gradually increased to the ensuing mills). 3. The top roller lifts should be limited precisely as calculated.

With steam turbines the mill rotations will be higher and approximately the same throughout the tandem; and consequently also the fibre loadings. When MILL MATERIAL BALANCE is used as base for the mill settings calculation, which modifies the method with the inclusion of the same average value of fibre loadings throughout the tandem; the main objective of the Java method could be achieved although steam turbines are used as the drives. The said MMB calculation defined the flow of material (mass and volumes) to and from each of the mill in the tandem individually; therefore the result could be used as base and reference for individual setting of the mills. Bases for calculation are quantity and quality of cane to be crushed, quantity of mixed juice and imbibition water, and the dimensions of all the rollers


in use, the average analysis of the extracted juices and the last mill bagasse analysis. Numerous calculations are required to complete a comprehensive MMB, but with the use of a computer simulation it becomes simple and easy. Beside the extractions it could also simulate the last mill bagasse for low moisture content even when a higher imbibition rate is applied. This means an improvement of the net caloric value of bagasse as fuel for the boilers could be projected (by formula: NCV = 4250 – 10 s – 48 w). An example of last mill bagasse produced by a tandem of 5 mills with steam turbine drives is compared here.

Average bagasse analysis during campaign (mills were set without MMB): Moisture = 50.23% Caloric value = 1818 kcal/kg.

Average bagasse analysis when mills were set based Moisture = 48.30% Caloric value = 1920 kcal/kg.

It is concluded that with the proper mill settings based strictly on MMB (modified Java method) the caloric value of bagasse will certainly increase and the total bagasse consumed as fuel for the boilers for process requirement will be reduced and additional excess bagasse will be obtained that could be used for other purposes. The potential for power generation from bagasse alone is estimated about 4,000 MW. In view of its tremendous potential in power production, the Government launched a National Program on Bagasse-based co-generation in 1994. At that time, only 3 sugar mills in Tamil Nadu had the capacity to export about 5 MW of

electrical power to the grid. As of now, 16 sugar mills based on bagasse have been exporting surplus power to the extent of 56 MW. A sugar mill can produce surplus power of 150 kWh per MT cane, under ideal conditions. Study of a co-generation plant in the south of India shows that price realization varies from US Cents 5 to 6 per kWh. Also, during the crushing season, they utilize bagasse and lignite in the ratio of 90:10 whilst during offseason the ratio works out to 40:60.

Some of the concerns of bagasse-based co-generation plants are related to: 1. Optimum boiler / turbine configuration 2. Round-the-year operation offering firm tie-up for power 3. Alternate fuels 4. Energy efficient sugar processing 5. Efficient bagasse storage, handling and retrieval system 6. Effective grid interface systems

B.)Biological treatment and storage method for wet bagasse for year round biomass supply (10). Successful industrial operations need year-round supplies of the seasonallyproduced and harvested bagasse. The harvesting season for sugarcane is approximately six months. Industries operate a 300 tpd bagasse particleboard plant, a year-round operation that requires over 54,000 dry tons (equivalent to over 120,000 tons wet) of bagasse stockpiled on an ongoing basis. The collection, transportation, and storage of this seasonal product for year-round use present a difficult problem in bagasse utilization. A biological treatment, “FERLAB” has been developed which quickly ferments the soluble residual sugars and other low molecular weight extractable, while it maintains low bale temperatures and reduces long-term fermentation losses in storage. The FERLAB treatment was combined with a self-ventilating

piling method of wet-baled bagasse to reduce fermentation losses and bagasse moisture contents. To test the treatment, six 100-ton bagasse bale piles were constructed. Bale temperatures, fermentation losses, and moisture contents were monitored for four and one-half months. Ventilation of baled bagasse piles reduced moisture content from 55% to 25%. The FERLAB treatment reduced dry matter losses during storage. The FERLAB process consists of a proprietary mixture of thermophilic microbes. A schematic of the process is shown in Fig below. Chemical analyses of the wet and conventionally pre-dried stored bagasse showed that the FERLAB-treated bagasse had 66% lower extractive contents and significantly higher relative alpha cellulose and lignin contents, which suggests reduced acid hydrolysis of higher molecular weight cellulose and lignin during storage. The FERLAB/wet self-ventilating bagasse storage provided easier handling and lower transportation costs (drying reduced the weights). Reduced moisture content increased the Btu content of mill-run bagasse from 3,130 Btu/lb to 5,586 Btu/lb. The stored bagasse at 25% moisture content can provide not only yearround boiler fuel, but also raw material for an air-fluidized-bed reactor system to produce low Btu gasses and chars, tar/oils which can be used as a substitute for phenol in adhesives and other chemicals. Bagasse also can be stored for yearround methanol production. These bio energy products reduce the storage problems and transportation costs unique to biomass fuels. The FERLAB/wet self ventilating storage is an alternate to current wet storage.


Schematic of the FERLAB treatment for biological drying of bagasse (10).


Bagasse as an Alternative Fuel to Coal for Industrial Uses Introduction The usage of coal as a fuel in industries results in the generation of gaseous emissions. The total coal reserves (as on 1-1-1998) have been assessed by Ministry of Coal (MOC) at 206.24 billion tonnes but bulk of these (87%) reserves are non-coking coals of inferior grade. The Ministry of Environment & Forests (MOEF) has imposed restrictions on the usage of non-coking coal with high ash contents in view of huge fly ash generation. The need of the hour in today’s world is to globally phase-out coal as a fuel source. Since the deficit of coal consumption over its availability is expected to continue and much of the available coal is of inferior grade and likely to find restricted use in the future due to the MOEF regulations, it would be desirable to choose a suitable fuel to substitute coal. The alternate fuel should have advantages in terms of utility, financial savings, less pollution loads etc. The various substitute materials currently being utilized are fuel oil, locally available cheaper agro-residues such as bagasse, husk, briquettes, wood etc. Bagasse is a by-product/waste in the sugar industry. Its use as a fuel is restricted because of its low Calorific Value (CV). Theoretically the thermal efficiency of bagasse can be improved when mixed with waste oil in the optimum ratio of 4:1. This optimum ratio was arrived at such that, the prescribed minimum stack height (30m) attached to the boiler is not altered. The present study is oriented towards: • Exploring the feasibility of using bagasse as an alternate fuel to coal and its comparison vis-à-vis coal with respect to both technical and economical aspects

• Incorporating provision for any future changes in the inputs used for cost analysis

Problem Formulation and Results Ministry of Coal (MOC) has classified the non-coking coal into A, B, C, D, E and F grades based on its useful CV. The useful CV in Kcal/kg according to the MOC classification is defined by the formula: 8900 – 138(% ash content +% moisture content) In the case of coal having a moisture less than 2% and a volatile content less than 19%, the useful CV shall be the value arrived at as above reduced by 150 Kcal/kg for each reduction in volatile content below 19% fraction pro-rata .

Pollutant emissions The emission rates of coal and bagasse are found out for direct firing of these fuels such that, the stack height for the emission do not exceed the stipulated minimum stack height 30 m . The assumptions made in the calculation of pollutant emissions are: 1. No pollution control equipment is needed for the minimum stack height of 30m. 2. Fly ash generation from bagasse is 0.081 kg per each kg of bagasse fired while that of the coal is 75% of coal ash content. 3. The only emissions generated and discharged through the stack are due to the fuel firing.

With the above assumptions, the minimum fuel inputs are back calculated and are given in Table below. The three types of coal selected from literature with ash and moisture contents 43.12% & 3.84%, 34.38% & 6.04% and 25.19% & 6.0 % respectively are designated as C1, C2, & C3 types for the purpose of present study. As per the MOC classification of non-coking coals, the above-designated

C1 & C2 types of coals come under the category of F grade while C3 type coal comes under D grade.

Table: Particulate emissions from coal and bagasse Fuel Bagasse C1 type Coal C2 type Coal C3 type Coal QPE (KPH) 35 35 35 35 Bagasse used (KPH) 432 ---Coal used (KPH) -108 135 185

QPE = Quantity of Particulate Emissions; KPH = Kilograms per hour

Steam generation The characteristics and the CV of bagasse and optimum BWO mix are collected from literature. The expected steam generation is found out using the net CV of optimum BWO mix, bagasse alone and for coal respectively and given in Table below. This data is utilized in understanding the economics of the options considered in the present study.

Table: Steam generation from fuels Fuel Bagasse Optimum BWO mix (4:1) C1 type Coal C2 type Coal C3 type Coal Calorific Value (kJ/kg) 8,021 14,924 18,426 20,970 23,669 Steam generation (kg/kg) 3.12 5.80 7.18 8.16 9.21


Economics The economic returns involved in the alternative usage of optimum BWO as fuel for coal and/or bagasse alone are compared. The utilization cost of steam from the fuels attempted for the study is calculated @ 2.5 US $ or Rs. 108.60 per 1000 kg of steam and is shown in Table-3. The purchase costs of bagasse, D-, & F-grade coals are taken as Rs. 150 per 1000 kg, Rs. 594 and Rs. 415

respectively. Using this information, the Net Utility Value (NUV) of the fuels attempted is calculated as the difference of its steam utility value (SUV) and purchase costs.

Table: Net utility value of various fuels Fuel Bagasse Optimum BWO mix (4:1) C1 type Coal C2 type Coal C3 type Coal QOF (KPH) 432 346 108 135 185 PC (Rs.) 64.80 51.90 44.82 56.03 110.00 SUV (Rs.) 338.83 629.88 779.75 886.18 1000.21 NUV Rs.(SUV-PC) 274.03 577.98 734.93 830.15 890.21

QOF: Quantity of Fuel; PC: Purchase Cost; SUV: Steam Utility value.

Analysis Results & Discussion Considering the above results, the monthly saving/expenditure on the attempted fuel for the user is calculated with the assumption of 21 working hours a day and 30 working days per month. The results are: 1. The usage of optimum BWO mix as fuel in place of bagasse result in a net saving of Rs. 1.915 lakhs per month or Rs. 22.98 lakhs per annum. 2. The financial loss to the user due to the non-usage of bagasse as fuel is Rs. 1.726 lakhs per month or Rs. 20.716 lakhs per annum.


3. If the user purchases C1 grade coal despite the availability of bagasse, the net expenditure incurred is Rs. 2.904 lakhs per month or Rs. 34.85 lakhs per annum.

This is under the assumption that, the available bagasse is not used as a fuel. Though the BWO mix is slightly expensive when compared even with C1 type coal, its usage is strongly recommended as an alternative to coal in view of increasing demand for coal and its limited availability of its limited resources. In addition, the need of the hour is to globally phase out the usage of coal as a fuel resource.


The reactor operates at a pressure of 2 MPa and feed rate of 90 dry tonne bagasse per day. It consists of a refractory-lined fluidized bed which utilizes alumina beads as the inert bed media. Air and steam are fed into the reactor through separate distributors in order to control temperature and gas composition. Airflow is typically maintained at approximately 30% of that required for complete combustion. Steam for the process is supplied by the sugar mill’s bagasse-fired boiler. A plug-screw feeder is used to sufficiently increase the bagasse density so as to seal the feed system against the pressure of the gasifier. The plug exiting the screw feeder falls onto a water-cooled shredding auger which breaks up the plug and conveys the bagasse into the reactor. Raw gas exiting the top of the reactor passes through a refractory-lined cyclone to remove entrained, unreacted char and ash particles. In the operations reported here, the process stream is dropped from reactor pressure to near ambient conditions before entering a product gas flare where it is combusted and vented to atmosphere. The process operated in an air-blown mode, with no steam added, at a nominal reactor temperature and pressure of 840°C and 300 KPa, respectively. Bagasse from the factory at ~50% moisture was dried to ~25% wet basis. Wet fuel feed rate to the reactor was approximately 1.1 t/ hr. An average gas composition determined over the period of operation was 4% H2, 10% CO, 18% CO2, 3.3% CH4, ~1% C2’s and higher hydrocarbons, and the balance N2. The higher heating value of the gas was 3.7 MJ m3. Carbon conversion efficiency was estimated to be ~96%. Resulting in an additional 60 hours of operation. Testing using air and steam was carried out at a reactor temperature and pressure of 860°C and 500 KPa. Wet fuel feed rate was

1.6 t/hr with a reduced moisture content of 17%. Steam addition resulted in improved gas quality and higher heating value. Composition was determined as 8.5% H2, 12% CO, 18% CO2, 7% CH4, ~1% C2s and higher hydrocarbons, and the balance N2 with a higher heating value of 5.8 MJ m3(10). Process schematic of bagasse gasifier (10).

Fouling Of Boiler (10) Boilers fired with fuels having high levels of potassium or sodium (alkali metals), particularly in the presence of chlorine and sulfur, are susceptible to fouling and slagging. Sugarcane leaves and tops are expected to contain much higher levels of alkali compounds than bagasse; therefore using such fuels might cause significant problems in bagasse boilers.


A rough gauge of fouling potential is the amount of potassium and sodium compounds per unit of fuel energy; e.g., kilograms of Na2O and K2O per GJ. The figure below plots concentrations of total alkali compounds (expressed as K2O and Na2O), sulfur (as SO3), and chlorine per unit fuel energy, for four different biomass feedstock sugarcane bagasse produced by milling; diffusion; unprocessed banagrass (a cultivar of elephantgrass); and processed (chopped and leached) banagrass, along with an estimate of each fuel’s potential to cause fouling. Whereas bagasse contains relatively low- to- moderate levels of alkali compounds (~0.05 to 0.15 kg per GJ), sulfur, and chlorine, and normally does not promote excessive fouling in boilers, unprocessed banagrass contains very high levels of alkali compounds (~0.7 kg per GJ), sulfur, and chlorine, and is anticipated to readily foul boilers.

Concentration of total alkali, sulfur, & chlorine for four different biomass fuels & fuel fouling/slagging potential (10).


USING BAGASSE AS FUEL Introduction (8) The designs referred to as ‘fuel cell’ and ‘horseshoe’ boilers were those typically used for bagasse combustion. In these boilers, bagasse is gravity-fed through chutes and burned as a pile. Nowadays, bagasse is burned in spreader stoker boilers, replacing the combustors that use pile type approaches, and improving combustion efficiency. Furthermore, the use of additional heat transfer surfaces, as air heaters, economizers, etc. allows for a reduction of the stack temperature below 200oC. With these improvements, efficiency of the boilers can be increased up to 70%. Special attention has been paid to the optimization of stoichiometric ratio as well as the stack gases temperature, for their influence on the principal heat losses and, consequently, on the overall efficiency of the boiler.

Boiler and fuel characteristics The experiments were carried out in three RETAL boilers shows a detailed sketch of the main thermal surfaces of these facilities. The total height and depth of the boiler are 10.6 and 10.92 m, respectively, and the width (not shown in the figure) is 8 m. Summarizing the main characteristics, a nominal steam power of 45 t/h is achieved for an approximate bagasse consumption of 22 t/h; with a pressure and temperature of the superheated steam of 1.9 MPa and 320 8C, respectively. Bagasse fed to these boilers enters the furnace through five fuel chutes and is spread mechanically. The major part of the bagasse characterized by small and light pieces, burns in suspension. Simultaneously, large pieces of fuel are spread in a thin even bed on a stationary grate. An average ultimate (dry) analysis of the fuel used in the tests gave a 46.27% (in weight) of carbon, 6.4% of hydrogen,

Sketch of a RETAL bagasse-boiler (8)

43.33% of oxygen, 0% of nitrogen, 0% of sulfur, and 4% of ash. The moisture content of the bagasse ranged from 48 to 52% for all the analyzed samples.

Operational test procedure

More than 60 tests were performed, attending the ASME recommendations for solid and liquid fuels. Each test comprised three stages, namely: preparation, measurements, and laboratory analysis. According to the standard procedures, one should wait at least 24 h after startup of the boiler and 2 h after cleaning of the bottom ash, the ash hopper located in the U-turn of the flue gas duct and the heat transfer surfaces before starting a test. The boiler should reach, and maintain, a steady state for at least 8 h before starting the test. The fuel chute and the stationary grate must also be cleaned 1 h before starting, and the speed of rotation of the spreader stokers fixed. Some trays have to be placed in the proper locations for refuse collection, and the fly ash wet scrubber has to be cleaned as well. Boiler measurements and laboratory analyses are performed along the following 9 hours. The first four hours are dedicated to measure all the boiler parameters every 15 minutes. Every half hour, stack gas composition (O2, CO, and CO2) is determined and bagasse samples collected for the determination of their moisture and ash contents. The furnace temperature is also measured every 15 min using water-cooled suction pyrometers. The sampling and measurement locations are shown in fig. Laboratory work begins with refuse collection from all the different locations (ash bottom, ash hopper and web scrubber). In the following five hours, moisture and ash contents of the bagasse and solid samples from the fly ash hoppers, wet scrubber, and bottom ash hopper are analyzed. When all the data are assembled, a statistical analysis determines the mean and standard deviation for each parameter. If a steady state has not been achieved in the boiler, the test must be rejected.


As it is well-known, the overall efficiency of a boiler can be calculated using both direct and indirect methodologies. The direct measurement of the bagasse consumption is always subjected to many error sources. For this reason, in the present study, efficiency has been calculated using the indirect methodology. In general, this method relates the efficiency (η) of the boiler with the different heat losses through the equation η(%) = 100 - ∑ qi where ∑qi = q2 + q3 + q4 + q5: In this equation, q2 represents the exhaust gases heat loss, q3 and q4 are the chemical and fixed carbon loss, respectively, and q5 the conduction heat loss from the external walls of the boiler. To quantify the heat losses, the following equations are used [2]:

Here, Ieg and Iea are the exhaust gases and external air enthalpy, respectively, αb the stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler, QP l the bagasse heating value (as received), ∆HCC the carbon heat of combustion, ∆HCOC the CO heat of combustion, AP the ash contents of bagasse from ultimate analysis (as received) and RCO/f is the rate of kilograms of CO produced during the combustion of one kilogram of fuel. The stoichiometric ratio, α = ma/f/moa/f is defined as the ratio of the actual air-to-fuel mole number ratio (ma/f) to the theoretical one (moa/f) for the same


experimental conditions. In turn, the actual air-to-fuel mole number ratio (ma/f ) is defined as the theoretical number of moles of air plus the extra moles due to excess air needed to achieve the complete combustion of one mole of bagasse (in moleair/molefuel). In order to more accurately reproduce the physical influence of the different parameters and heat losses in the statistical models, two stoichiometric ratios have been defined, namely: stoichiometric ratio at the furnace, αf; and stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler, αb. It should be pointed out that in the case of αb; the amount of surrounding air in-leakage into the boiler due to non-air tightness, ∆α; is also included in the total air mole number. Ai refers to Afa; Aah and Aba; which correspond to ash percentages in the fly ash, ash hopper and bottom ash, respectively, obtained through laboratory analysis combusting and weighting the different samples of refuse collected in a special oven following the methodology of ASME. In the same way, ai refers to the ratios of ash in the fly ash, afa; ash hoppers, aah; and bottom ash, aba with respect to the total ash in the fuel, in kgash in refuse/kgash in fuel. From a mass balance of ash in the boiler, considering Gi as the refuse collected per time unit in the different locations in fly ash, Gfa; ash hopper, Gah; and bottom ash, Gba; respectively, in kgrefuse/s, the following equation can be written

the different ash ratios ai; in fly ash, afa; ash hoppers, aah; and bottom ash, aba; are defined by

and hence

To calculate the conduction heat loss, q5; from the external wall to the surrounding area, the total heat lost (including radiation) has to be considered. In


Eq. (5),λT is the total heat transfer coefficient in kW/(m2°C), F is the total heat transfer area of the external wall in m2, ti and tea are the external wall and external air temperature (K), respectively. It has to be noted that in Eq. (5), the fuel consumption, B; has to be included for dimensional homogeneity. The unknown fuel consumption in Eqs. (4) and (5) is calculated by an iterative procedure.

Waste heat recovery scheme Over the years, the boiler has been redesigned, mostly by modifying its combustion systems according to the changes in fuel type. Attention has been paid to heat losses respect to the exhaust gas, because they can reach up to 30% of the total energy in the fuel. To obtain the optimal value for the exhaust gases temperature, it is necessary to use additional heat transfer surfaces such as an economizer, air heater, bagasse dryer, or some combination of them. However, the addition of new elements increases the investment and operating costs of the boiler and hence, the importance of establishing the optimal stack temperature. To solve this problem, a minimum total cost (Z) has to be found through the equation

where i is the type of recuperative heat transfer surface (furnace water-walls, super heater, generating tubes, air heater, economizer, and bagasse dryer); Pi the annual cost of 1 m2 of the surface i ($/(m2 yr)); Fi the heat transfer area of surface i (m2), Pef the equivalent fuel-oil cost ($ s/(yr kg)) and Bef the equivalent fuel-oil consumption (kg/s). This fuel-oil equivalence means the amount of commercial fuel oil with an average heating power (QP ef ) of 41,868 kJ/kg (and its price at the oil market), needed to yield the same energy as the total bagasse consumed to produce a given steam power. Once the efficiency is determined using the indirect method, the total bagasse consumption, B; is calculated by


where Dsh is the measured steam power in t/h and Ish and Ie consumption Bef is determined by


are the superheated

steam and the fed water enthalpy, respectively. The equivalent fuel-oil

Using the common methodology to calculate the minimum value of a function, the equation obtained to determine the optimal stack temperature, considering all the heat transfer surfaces is

In this equation, T is the stack temperature; P and F define, respectively, the cost and area for all thermal surfaces considered. Subscript w indicates furnace waterwalls; sh super heater, gt generating tubes; AH the air heater; ec the economizer, and bd the bagasse dryer.


Bagasse heating value determination In general, bagasse has a broad range of heating values, extending from 6500 to 9150 kJ/kg (as received). Due to the importance of this parameter in the determination of the efficiency of a boiler, it was carefully determined using a calorimeter on more than 1000 samples collected during the tests. Results yielded an average heating value for the bagasse of 7738 +/- 100 kJ/kg, as received. However, in most sugar mills, it is not possible to carry out such a determination in their laboratories. An alternative method has been considered, calculating the heating value using the well-known equation [2]

taking into account the general chemical composition, but considering bagasse moisture and ash contents from the samples measured in the laboratory tests. The above equation provides a means for quickly determining the heating value of bagasse (as received) with a high confidence level, good accuracy, and avoiding the more difficult and time consuming experimental measurements. In contrast to the ultimate fuel analysis, bagasse moisture and ash contents are relatively easy to measure and are accessible to every sugar mill.

Optimization of boiler operation The determination of the bagasse moisture and ash contents need to be performed only once during the test. The analysis of exhaust gas composition is measured at the beginning and at the end of the test. To carry out the boiler optimization for different operational regimes, experimental measurements have been obtained from the full tests according to the ASME procedure. As a consequence of the experimental results, some important simplifications on both the fixed carbon loss, q4; and conduction heat loss, q5; are considered. From the experimental tests, it is concluded that q5 shows only a strong dependence on steam power. For this reason, a simplified equation relating q5 with the steam power commonly used in this type of boilers was considered, namely

Considering the physical influence of the fixed carbon loss (q4) on the remaining heat losses (q2 and q3), it must be the first of all the heat losses to be evaluated in the efficiency calculation. For the terms inside the brackets in Eq. (4),


experimental measurements during the tests performed demonstrated the validity of the following inequality

which means that the terms corresponding to ash hopper and bottom ash can be neglected when compared to the fly ash one. The terms [100 – Ai] in Eqs. (4) and (15) are, by definition, the unburned fuel (carbon) for the refuse collected in the different locations. Having in mind that q4 is expressed as an unburned loss, it is convenient at this moment to introduce the relation Cuf = [100 - Afa] as the unburned carbon in the fly ash. For this reason, Eq. (4) can be rewritten as

the last parameter, Teg; is needed to calculate the exhaust gases enthalpy in Eq. (2). The influence of the stoichiometric ratio in the furnace (αf) and steam power (Dsh) on the unburned carbon in the fly ash, Cuf; has been plotted. As can be seen, the unburned carbon increases with increasing steam power and decreases with increasing stoichiometric ratio in the furnace. As steam power is raised at a constant stoichiometric ratio, both the amount of bagasse fed and the combustion air flow rate increase, since the air volumetric flow rate per unit weight of bagasse is fixed. This, in turn, increases the average gas velocity in the furnace and the fraction of fuel that burns in suspension, rather than in the bed on the stationary grate. The shorter residence time available for combustion in suspension results in an increased unburned carbon carryover and poorer combustion performance. Therefore, when steam power and bagasse consumption are increased, a higher stoichiometric ratio in the furnace is needed to achieve the same carbon conversion (Cuf): Taking into account all the experimental data, a statistical model is fitted


reproducing the experimental dependence of Cuf on both the stoichiometric ratio at the furnace, αf ; and the steam power, Dsh: In this equation Dsh has units of t/h. Once q4 is calculated, q3 and q2 can also be evaluated. To determine the chemical carbon heat loss (q3); the parameter RCO/f needs to be calculated by the equation

µ CO/C being the CO-to-C molecular weight ratio. CP and SP are the carbon and sulfur contents of bagasse from ultimate analysis.

Performance of the unburned carbon in fly ash vs. stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the furnace (αf) for different values of steam power.


The statistical model relating carbon monoxide, expressed as a fraction of the total carbon oxides, to both αf and Dsh; is

It is important to note that the physical parameters measured in the tests are the O2, CO and CO2 concentration in the exhaust gases, which are used to calculate the stoichiometric ratio, αb; at the exit of the boiler applying the equation [2]

where O2; CO and CO2 are the stack gases composition analysis. This equation is obtained using the combustion reactions as a function of the mole number, However, Eqs. (17) and (18) are correlated to the stoichiometric ratio at the furnace exit,αf ; because of the physical dependence of both Cuf and CO on αf rather than on αb: These two stoichiometric ratios are closely related throughout the air in-leakage, ∆α; by

Air in-leakage, ∆α; represents the leakage of surrounding air, due to non-air tightness, into the boiler and can be calculated by

where ∆αnom is the air in-leakage at the nominal steam power (Dnom sh = 45 t/h). This parameter, ∆αnom; was previously determined for all boilers tested and yielded a roughly constant value of 0.2. Finally, to calculate the exhaust gases heat loss, q2; the exhaust gas enthalpy, Ib; needs to be known. This enthalpy depends on the stack temperature, Teg. Relating Teg to αf and Dsh; the following equation is obtained.


Even when the dependence of Teg on Dsh is weak, it is noteworthy that the stack temperature is raised as the steam power decrease. When the steam power is decreased for a constant stoichiometric ratio at the furnace, combustion air flow rate also decreases, reducing the average gas velocity in the furnace as well as the heat transfer in the waste heat recovering scheme. As a result, a higher exhaust gases temperature is measured at the exit of the boiler. If the set of Eqs. (17), (18) and (22) is introduced into the methodology to calculate the heat losses q4; q3 and q2; their individual contributions to the overall boiler efficiency can be analyzed. This influence is shown in Fig. 5(a), (b) and (c) for three different levels of stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler, αb : 1.45, 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, considering a fixed constant bagasse moisture of 50% and an ash content of 4% (dry). In all these figures, the stoichiometric ratio at the furnace exit, αf ; has also being included. The evolution of αf as a function of steam power derived from Eqs. (20) and (21) and its dependence on the level of the stoichiometric ratio at the boiler exit, αb; can be easily verified. Comparing the three figures, it is evidenced that, as the stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler increases, the heat losses have different behavior; the exhaust gases heat loss, q2; undergoes a significant rise, while q3 and q4 decrease. Even though Eqs. (17), (18) and (22) are valid for Dsh of 20 t/h, it can be seen that for low stoichiometric ratios, Fig. 5(a), (αb =1:45); experimental data is only available for steam flows above 30 t/h. On the other hand, as can be observed in this figure, at higher steam powers, q5 decreases, as predicted by Eq. (14). As the total heat transfer area is a fixed value (for each boiler) and the external wall temperature is roughly constant irrespective of the steam power, then the total heat lost to the surroundings (in kW) is nearly constant as well. However, as an increase in the steam power is

related to higher fuel consumption, a reduction in the conduction heat loss is finally achieved, according to the behavior also predicted by Eq. (5). All these features are summarized, where the overall efficiency, η; is plotted as a function of the stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler and the steam power, demonstrating the global effect of heat losses on boiler efficiency (Eq. (1)). Data for only four values of the stoichiometric ratio are displayed, for clarity. It is concluded that the highest efficiency is reached for a steam power value in the vicinity of the nominal one, 45 t/h and for low values of αb (1.45). This result is supported by the fact that the largest heat loss in these boilers is that corresponding to the exhaust gases, q2. However, again for this value of αb; a decrease of the steam power below 30 t/h, causes the unstable combustion regime described before, which finally results in flame extinction. On the contrary, for αb of 1.5 and 1.6, a nearly flat behavior of the efficiency with respect to the steam power is reached, for the whole range, with values quite close to those achieved for the lowest stoichiometric ratio, αb. It is for this reason that, including in the analysis the results obtained for all the boilers tested, the optimal value of the stoichiometric ratio at the exit of the boiler, αb; has been determined to range from 1.5 to 1.55, which allows for a full coverage of the whole range of steam powers. It should also be noted that, prior to this experimental research, engineers and boiler operators used to run the boilers at higher stoichiometric ratio values at the exit of the boiler, even exceeding 1.8, loosing a large amount of thermal energy resulting in a lower efficiency.


Calculated heat losses (q2, q3, q4, q5) vs. steam power for three levels of stoichiometric ratio at the exit of boiler (αb): a) 1.45, b) 1.5, & c) 1.8.


Optimization of heat recovery scheme Boiler design optimization is a very complex problem, requiring some assumptions to simplify its mathematical treatment. In this study, to optimize the waste heat recovery scheme, the speed of the flue gas, steam, water and air flow are supposed to have their optimal values for all the heat transfer surfaces studied. At the same time, the furnace exit gas temperature is kept constant at 900 8C and the steam power is fixed at the nominal value of 45 t/h. It is also necessary to consider the specific heat at the exit of the boiler and its average value at the different heat transfer surfaces to be independent of the stack temperature. The heat transfer coefficients should also be considered as independent of the optimized temperature. To solve Eqs. (9) and (12), a thermal analysis of all the heat transfer surfaces in the boiler was first performed followed by a coupled mathematical and graphical analysis.

where subscript 1 means hot gas and 2 refers to the cold fluid (water, steam or air). A summary of the heat transfer coefficients for the different surfaces studied is presented in Table 1. Note that for the bagasse dryer, the volumetric heat transfer coefficient is given in kW/ (m3 K).

Heat transfer coefficients used for the different surfaces studied Generating tubes k(kW/(m2K) 0.041 Air heater 0.014 Economizer 0.057 Super heater 0.054 Bagasse dryer 0.1014

A typical value for the stack temperature for boilers that burn common fuel oils and coal ranges between 150 and 300 °C to avoid acid corrosion. However, sulfur contents in bagasse are negligible, yielding a low dew point temperature for the exhaust gases, around 60 °C, based on experimental determinations. Therefore,

keeping the external pipe temperature in the last equipment over 70 °C (or the stack temperature over 80 °C) the problem of acid deposition is avoided Teg; varies between 80 and 100 °C for all the cases analyzed, except when a bagasse dryer is taken into account. The optimal stack temperature is slightly higher than 60°C; which is permissible when the last recuperative piece of equipment is the bagasse dryer, because acid deposition on the previous heat transfer surface (in this case the economizer) will never occur. The optimal value for bagasse moisture, W; is near 41% when a bagasse dryer is taken into account.


TO PRODUCE BIO OIL FUEL FOR POWER GENERATION Introduction It is a well-established fact that combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas for power generation is a significant contributor to global warming. On the other hand biomass has long been identified as an alternate sustainable source of renewable energy. However, power generation using a solid fuel has had significant limitations with respect to materials handling requirements and efficient energy conversion. Converting biomass fuel into a liquid addresses these issues and makes possible the use of higher efficiency combined cycle systems for power generation. ‘Fast pyrolysis’ technology is a unique process that converts solid biomass waste materials, such as bagasse, into a relatively clean burning liquid fuel called BioOil that is also carbon dioxide and greenhouse gas (GHG) neutral. The nearest term commercial application for BioOil is as clean fuel for generating power and heat from small stationary diesel engines, gas turbines and boilers.

Fast Pyrolysis of biomass Fast Pyrolysis (more accurately defined as thermolysis) is a process in which biomass material, such as bagasse, is rapidly heated to high temperatures in the absence of air (specifically oxygen). The bagasse decomposes into a combination of solid char, gas, vapors and aerosols. When cooled, most volatiles condense to a liquid referred to as ‘BioOil’. The remaining gases comprise a medium calorific value non condensable gas. BioOil is a liquid mixture of oxygenated compounds containing various chemical functional groups, such as carbonyl, carboxyl and phenolic. BioOil is

made up of the following constituents: 20-25% water, 25-30% water insoluble pyrolytic lignin, 5-12% organic acids, 5-10% non-polar hydrocarbons, 5-10% anhydrosugars and 10-25% other oxygenated compounds. In this particular fast pyrolysis process, biomass feedstock is introduced into a thermolysis reactor having a bed of inert material, such as sand, with a height to width ratio greater than one. The biomass is shredded to sufficiently small dimensions so that its size does not limit significantly the production of the liquid product fraction. Simultaneous introduction of pre-heated, non-oxidizing gas at sufficient linear velocity performs two principal functions: firstly, as a medium for fluidizing the hot sand bed and secondly, to cause automatic elutriation of the product char from the fluidized bed reactor. The process includes removing the elutriated char particles from the effluent reactor stream and rapidly quenching the gas, aerosols and vapors to produce a high conversion yield of liquid BioOil. For maximum yield of liquid, the thermolysis reaction must take place within a period of a few seconds at temperatures ranging from 450°C to 500°C. The products must then be quenched as soon as possible to prevent cracking of the newly produced BioOil.

BIO THERM Flow sheet


Fast Pyrolysis heat and mass balance Feedstock for the fast Pyrolysis process can be any biomass waste material i.e. bagasse. To maximize yield and minimize process development risk, DynaMotive has focused near term BioOil production from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation includes drying the feedstock to less than 10% moisture content to minimize the water content in the BioOil and then grinding the feed to small particles to ensure rapid heat transfer rates in the reactor. When processing bagasse feed stocks, the conversion yield to liquid BioOil, solid char and non-condensable gas is approximately 62%, 26% and 12% by weight, respectively, on an as fed basis. The heat required for thermolysis is the total heat that must be delivered to the reactor to provide all the sensible, radiation and reaction heat for the process to proceed to completion. The heat of reaction for the fast Pyrolysis process is marginally endothermic. When operating the pilot plant using prepared feedstock, the total heat requirement to produce BioOil at a 62% yield rate (including radiation and exhaust gas losses) is approximately 2.5 MJ per kilogram of BioOil produced. The net heat required from an external fuel source, such as natural gas, is only 1.0 MJ per kilogram of BioOil produced. This applies when the non-condensable gases produced in the process are directly injected into the reactor burner. This represents approximately 5% of the total calorific value of the BioOil being produced.

Bio Oil Analysis BioOil is a dark brown liquid that is free flowing. It has a pungent smoky odor. BioOil contains several hundred different chemicals with a wide-ranging molecular weight distribution. The following Table below lists the properties of BioOil produced by the BioThermä pilot plant, derived from bagasse biomass feed stocks.


Table: DynaMotive BioOil Properties Biomass Feedstock Moisture wt% Ash Content wt% Bagasse 2.1 2.9

BioOil Properties pH Water Content wt% Lignin Content wt% Solids Content wt% Ash Content wt% Density kg/L Calorific Value MJ/kg Kinematic Viscosity cSt @20°C cSt @80°C 2.6 20.8 23.5 < 0.10 < 0.02 1.20 15.4 57 4.0

The density of BioOil is high, approximately 1.2 kg/liter. On a volumetric basis BioOil has 55% of the energy content of diesel oil and 40% on a weight basis. The solids entrained in the BioOil principally contain fine char particles that are not removed by the cyclones. As can be seen, the solids in the BioOil have been reduced significantly to levels of approximately 0.1% by weight. The ash content in these solids ranges from 2% to 20%, depending on the ash content in the feedstock.


Table: BioOil Composition Biomass Feedstock BioOil Concentrations wt% Water Lignin Glyoxal Hydroxyacetaldehyde Levoglucosan Formaldehyde Formic acid Acetic acid Acetol Market Competitiveness In the proprietary DynaMotive process, BioOil and char are commercial products and the non-condensable gases are recycled back into the process. No waste is produced in the DynaMotive process. The overall simplicity of the technology gives DynaMotive significant competitive advantages over other Pyrolysis technologies in terms of capital and operating costs. DynaMotive process also produces higher quality fuel and higher yields of BioOil compared to competing technologies. DynaMotive’s target cost for BioOil production is $5 per gigajoule (GJ) based on a 400 tonne per day (tpd) commercial plant. The earliest and most appropriate market application for BioOil is as a clean fuel to produce “green power” and heat in boilers, kilns, gas turbines and diesel engines. DynaMotive is also developing higher value fuel and chemicals applications for BioOil including ethanol blended fuels, diesel/BioOil emulsions and catalytic upgrading of BioOil to synthesis gas, which can be converted to synthetic transport fuels and bio methanol for use in hydrogen fuel cells. Bagasse

20.8 23.5 2.2 10.2 3.0 3.4 5.7 6.6 5.8


Bio Oil Application as a Fuel in Gas Turbine Engines As a clean fuel, BioOil has a number of advantages over fossil fuels: 1. CO2 / Greenhouse Gas Neutral – because BioOil is derived from biomass (organic waste), it is considered to be greenhouse gas neutral and can generate carbon dioxide credits. 2. No SOx Emissions – As biomass does not contain sulfur, BioOil produces virtually no SOx emissions and, therefore, would not be subjected to SOx taxes. 3. Low NOx – BioOil fuels generate more than 50% lower NOx emissions than diesel oil in gas turbines. 4. Renewable and Locally Produced – BioOil can be produced in countries where there are large volumes of organic waste.

As BioOil has unique properties as a fuel, it requires special consideration and design modifications. Some of these properties are presented and are compared to those of diesel fuel.

Table: Typical Properties of BioOil Compared to Diesel Fuel Calorific Value MJ/kg Kinematic Viscosity Acidity pH Water wt% Solids wt% Ash wt% Alkali (Na + K) ppm BioOil 15-20 3–9 @ 80°C 2.3 - 3.3 20 – 25 <0.1 <0.02 5 - 100 Diesel 42.0 2–4 @ 20°C 5 0.05 v% 0.05 v% 0.01 <1

A first generation fuel system and combustion system were designed and tested, demonstrating the capability to operate a 2.5 MW industrial gas turbine on


BioOil. These tests not only revealed the feasibility of operation but also demonstrated that similar performance could be achieved for BioOil and diesel. Although CO and particulate emissions were higher than diesel, testing revealed that NOx emissions were about half that from diesel fuel and the SO2 emissions levels were so low as to be undetectable by the instrumentation.

Pyrolysis Oil NOx Emission Reduction The engine being utilized for this program is the 2.5MW OGT2500 industrial gas turbine engine. The OGT2500 offers distinct technical advantages over other engines. Unlike aero-derivative engines, it has been designed as an industrial engine with durability being one of the main design criteria and not weight. In addition to its ruggedness, the distinct “silo” type combustion system allows for easy access and modifications to the entire combustion system, which is one of the critical systems for the adaptation of the engine to BioOil. Application of Pyrolysis Oil to Gas Turbine Operation.


BioOil has an energy density approximately half that of diesel fuel. Therefore, to meet the same energy input requirement, the flow rate must be double. This requires design changes to the fuel system to be able to control higher flow rates and also modify the fuel nozzle to accommodate this larger flow. This lower energy density also can affect combustion since physically there must be twice as much fuel in the combustion chamber as with diesel. Higher viscosity of the fuel reduces the efficiency of atomization, which is critical to complete combustion. Large droplets take too long to burn. Proper atomization is addressed in three ways. Firstly, the fuel system is designed to deliver a high-pressure flow since atomization is improved with larger pressure drops across the fuel nozzle. Secondly, the fuel is pre-heated to lower the viscosity to acceptable levels. Thirdly and most importantly, the fuel nozzle has been redesigned to improve spray characteristics. These design improvements are important for complete combustion and effectively reducing CO emissions. Due to its relatively low pH, material selection is also critical for all components wetted by BioOil. This does not require the use of exotic materials; however, it does eliminate some standard fuel system materials. Typically, 300 series stainless steels are acceptable metallic materials and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or fluorinated HDPE for polymers. Although looked at as a contaminant for diesel fuel, the water content in BioOil has some advantages. Firstly, it is helpful in reducing the viscosity, since it is a relatively low viscosity fluid. As well, it is a factor in lowering thermal NOx emissions. The solids content is a combination of ash and char fines which have carried-over to the liquid part of the BioOil. The effect of these solids is to cause sticking of close tolerance surfaces. They can result in particulate emissions because of the long residence time required to fully combust. It is important that the solids level in the BioOil is controlled to be less than 0.1 wt%.


The ash content in the fuel represents the material that cannot be combusted. Depending on the elements in the ash, it can result as a deposit on the hot gas path components that will reduce the turbine efficiency. This operational problem is a familiar one with the use of low-grade fuel oils that also have high ash content. The solution is a turbine wash system. This typically consists of two separate systems in which an abrasive medium is injected during operation to physically ‘scrub’ off the deposits. This allows turbine cleaning without any downtime. The second system is an offline process,, which injects a cleaning fluid and allows a soak period to loosen the deposits that are then removed when the engine is started. Due to the poor ignition characteristics of BioOil, one other key design requirement is a BioOil specific ignition system or process. To overcome this, the OGT2500 system starts on diesel fuel flowing through the primary channel in the fuel nozzle. Following a warm -up period, BioOil is fed into the secondary channel at an increasing rate while the diesel fuel flow is reduced until 100% BioOil flow is achieved. Converting biomass wastes produced from agriculture and forestry operations to a liquid BioOil, using DynaMotive’s fast Pyrolysis technology, has been demonstrated at the pilot plant level as a reliable and repeatable process. Test programs to demonstrate BioOil application as a fuel in gas turbine engines, diesel engines and boilers are underway with a host of engine manufacturers. To-date the results have been most encouraging.


Locomotives Compared to oil , coal or even wood , the calorific value of bagasse being very low & most locos have large auxillary tenders to carry it . Since it is so fibrous , much of the fuel passes from the fire box straight through the boiler tubes unburned & burns up in the air . Electricity generation(9) India, which accounts for around 85% of South Asian electricity generation, is facing serious power problems with current generation is about 30% below demand. New options have to meet the challenge and need to invest heavily in new electric generating capacity. Overall, Indian power demand is projected to increase to 1,192 billion-kilowatt hours (BkWh) in 2020, around three times the 378 BkWh consumed in 1996.

Net Electric Output Calculations for Combustion of Bagasse: Combining of all thermal efficiencies of equipment involved equates the total thermal efficiency for the total system: ηoverall= ηcomb * ηboil * ηgen Overall thermal efficiencies for the standard combustion steam cycle and integrated gas combined cycle technologies reported in were used in the following calculations: Net electric output =ηoverall * φfuel * LHVfuel * Pparasitic Where fuel = mass flow of entering fuel and Pparasitic = amount of electricity consumed by plant equipment

Parasitic electricity consumption was neglected due to lack of information on exact equipment parameters and for ease of calculation. However, for a true account of net electricity these should be included in the calculations. φ Fuel = 100 tonne bagasse per hour; LHV = 7600 kJ/kg Net electricity output = 7600 kJ/kg *0.35 *100 000 kg/hr *1 hr/3600 s = 73.89 MW.

Ethanol production (9) Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of sugars by yeast. The most commonly used yeasts come from the Saccharomyces and Zymomonas genii and use the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathway respectively. Glucose is bio-chemically converted to the intermediate pyruvic acid, the next step is non oxidative decarboxylation and acetaldehyde formation catalyzed by

decarboxylase. This is followed by acetaldehyde reduction catalyzed by dehydrogenase to form ethanol. The net chemical reaction is that of the following: C6H12 O6 2CH3CH2OH + 2CO2

The fermentation is carried out non-aseptically at 23 to 32°C. Antibiotics may be added to control possible contaminants. Because the overall reaction is exothermic, cooling is required. The fermentation can take on average 40 to 50 hours. Carbon dioxide is normally vented; if it is to be recovered the vent gas is scrubbed with water to remove entrained ethanol and then purified using activated carbon. The out-gassing of the carbon dioxide from the fermentor provides sufficient agitation for small tanks. Mechanical agitation may be added for large fermentation tanks. The Theoretical yield of ethanol from bagasse is stated as 111.5 US gallons per US ton of bagasse. Essentially, there are three basic steps in ethanol production from bagasse:


1. Feed preparation – involves the separation of cellulose and hemicellulose (sugar containing components) from the unwanted solid waste (lignin); 2. Fermentation – xylose and glucose from the hemicellulose and cellulose respectively are fermented by yeast (generally a species such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to generate ethanol. 3. Product finishing – centrifuging and distillation operations are used to separate the solid waste and broth from the ethanol product. The resultant product stream is usually a minimum of 95% ethanol.

There are two specific technologies used in the conversion of bagasse to ethanol: (1) two-stage dilute-acid process, and (2) enzyme-based process. Figure below shows the two-stage dilute-acid process flow diagram; this consists of four basic unit operations: first stage hydrolysis; second stage hydrolysis; ethanol fermentation; and product purification. Two-stage Dilute-acid Process Flow Diagram


Ethanol is currently the most commonly used fuel alternative throughout the world, used primarily as an octane booster to prevent early ignition and to extend gasoline. It also helps to prevent air pollution by acting as an oxygenate, reducing carbon monoxide and ozone. . Moreover, ethanol from product of the sugar industry by its use in the transport sector can also play a critical role in reducing GHGs. Ethanol can be used as a 10% gasoline blend in the automobiles without any modification to the engines. It can also be used as a diesel blend in stationery engines and automobiles along with an additive. India consumes nearly 6000 billion liters of gasoline and 42000 billion liters of diesel. Ethanol, which is currently, produced from molasses has the capacity to substitute more than 1000 million liters of gasoline per annum. To meet additional demand of ethanol other methods such as direct production from cane juice and bagasse can be explored.


India one of the leading sugarcane producers in the world realizing the potential of bagasse, a by-product of the sugar industry, for power generation, has come up with various programs and incentives to boost the sector. India produces nearly 40 million metric tonne (MMT) of bagasse, which is mostly used as a captive boiler fuel other than its minor use as a raw material in the paper industry. Sugar mills in the country especially in the private sector have invested in advanced cogeneration systems by employing high-pressure boilers and condensing cum extraction turbines. These sugar mills have been able to export power in the season as well as in the off-season by using bagasse or any other locally available biomass and to some extent coal. Off-season operation has been more lucrative by exporting power which otherwise earlier was non-existent except some operation and maintenance work. High technology has made these sugar mills efficient by improving the economic viability of the mills in terms of higher production of units of electricity per unit of bagasse.

Environmental benefits The sugar mills showing interest in cogeneration projects, it has benefited the environment by reducing the greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere in terms of the usage of biomass as fuel. Bagasse and other biomass, which are renewable, can play a major role in substituting fossil fuel for future power generation. There is a potential of 3500 MW bagasse based cogeneration potential and 16500 MW other biomass power potential in the country. A typical 2500 TCD sugar mill having a cogeneration potential of 22 MW exports nearly 0.3 million units of electricity in the season with a gross generating capacity of more than 150

million KWhs in a year and thus can offset nearly 0.166 million tonne of carbon dioxide. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) can be an effective tool in the sugar sector creating a major impact by the way of technological and financial transfer between India and developed countries and can help start the transition towards truly environmentally, economically and socially sustainable energy systems.


1. D.S Chahal. “Food, Feed & Fuel from Biomass”, reprint 1991, pp.23. 2. N.H.Ravindranath, K.Usha Rao, Bhaskar Natranjan. “Renewable Energy & Environment”, 2nd reprint 2001 pp.106, 242. 3. L.A Ekal, S.H Pawar. “Advances in renewable energy technologies”, 1st reprint pp.35, 194. 4. S.Rao, Dr. B.B.Parulekar. “Energy Technology”, 2nd edition, 1997. 5. G.D Rai. “Energy Resources”, 3rd edition, 1999. 6. 7. M.Narendranath & G.V.S. Prasada Rao. “Improvement of the calorific value of bagasse using flue gas drying”, & T.Sumohandoyo ,“by JAVA method mill setting”, www.greenbusinesscentre.com/casestudies/sugar/sugar-case%20study 8. Jorge Barroso, Felix Barreras, Hippolyte Amaveda, “On the optimization of boiler efficiency using bagasse as fuel”, www.fuelfirst.com 9. http://bioproducts-bioenergy.gov/pdfs/bcota/abstracts/30/z130.pdf 10. G.A.Grozdits. “Biological treatment & storage method for wet bagasse”, S.Turn. “Demonstration-Scale biomass gasification facility operates on bagasse”. International Cane Energy news, July 1997 Newsletter of the International Cane Energy Network.