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Bio 392: Study Guide for 2010 Mid-term

Chapter 1, 2, 7, 8, 23,35, 38
Chapter 1: The Science of Biology
Vocabulary: science, observation, data, inference, hypothesis, theory, fact, spontaneous generation, controlled experiment, independent (manipulated) variable, dependent (responding) variable, theory, biology, cell, sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction, metabolism, stimulus, homeostasis, evolution, metric system, microscope, compound light microscope, electron microscope Know or be able to: o Explain what science is o Describe a scientific experiment with all necessary components: -independent (manipulated) variable, dependent (responding) variable, control group, constant o Steps of the Scientific Method (in order) o Describe the work of Redi, Needham, Spallanzani and Pasteur -their contributions to the debate on spontaneous generation vs. biogenesis o Characteristics of living things -with examples given, pick out the characteristic demonstrated o The metric system -units used for measuring length, mass, and volume -how to convert among micro-, milli-, centi-, deci-, deka-, hecto-, kiloo The parts of a compound light microscope -the location and function of all parts

Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life

Vocabulary: atom, nucleus, proton, electron, neutron, element, ion, isotope, molecule, compound, covalent bond, ionic bond, van der Waals forces, cohesion, adhesion, mixture, solution, solute, solvent, suspension, acid, base, monomer, polymer, carbohydrate, monosaccharide, polysaccharide, lipid, nucleic acid, nucleotide, RNA, DNA, protein, amino acid, chemical reaction, reactant, product, activation energy, catalyst, enzyme, substrate Know or be able to: Sec 2-1 o Define matter o Identify the three main subatomic particles and describe their locations in an atom o Identify how many atoms go in each energy level o Distinguish between atomic number and mass number Know what these numbers tell you o Given a chemical formula (ex. H2O), identify the total number of atoms o Explain how all of the isotopes of an element are similar and how they are different o Explain what chemical compounds are o Distinguish between the two main types of chemical bonds: ionic and covalent

Sec 2-2

o o o o o o

Explain why water molecules are polar Explain what a hydrogen bond is Distinguish between adhesion and cohesion Differentiate between solutions and suspensions Explain what acidic solutions and basic solutions are Explain how the pH scale works Given pH values, tell whether something is acidic, basic, or neutral

Sec 2-3

o Define an organic compound o Describe the structures and functions of each group of organic compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Know the building blocks and examples for each group
Sec 2-4

o Explain how chemical reactions affect chemical bonds in compounds o Identify the reactants and the products in a chemical reaction o Describe how energy changes affect how easily a chemical reaction will occur Chemical reaction that release energy vs. chemical reactions that absorb energy o Explain what activation energy is o Explain how enzymes speed up chemical reactions o Explain why enzymes are important to living things o Explain the relationship among the following terms: catalyst, enzyme, substrate, active site

Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function

Vocabulary: cell theory, nucleus, eukaryote, prokaryote, organelle, cytoplasm, nuclear envelope, chromatin, chromosome, nucleolus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosome, vacuole, mitochondrion, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centriole, cell membrane, cell wall, phospholipids bilayer, concentration, diffusion, equilibrium, osmosis, isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, exocytosis Be able to: Sec 7-1 o Describe how the following people were involved in the cell history: Leeuwenhoek, Hooke, Schleiden, Schwann, Virchow o Identify the 3 components of the cell theory and explain what the cell theory is o Distinguish between a prokaryotes and eukaryotes Sec 7-2 o Label the parts of an animal cell and a plant cell o Identify the structure and function of all cell organelles o Identify the differences between plant cells and animal cells Sec 7-3 o Identify the main functions of the cell membrane and cell wall o Identify the 4 main components of the cell membrane and their functions o Identify and distinguish among the three types of passive transport

-diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion o Distinguish between passive and active transport -whether energy is needed or not -whether it goes from more to less or less to more o Explain what would happen to a cell in hypotonic, hypertonic, and isotonic solutions o Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis -endocytosis = how cell takes in large amounts of material -exocytosis = how cell releases large amounts of material o Distinguish between phagocytosis and pinocytosis (both = types of endocytosis) -phagocytosis = how cell takes in food -pinocytosis = how cell takes in liquid
Sec 7-4 o Skip this section

Chapter 8: Photosynthesis
Vocabulary: autotroph, heterotroph, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), photosynthesis, pigment, chlorophyll, thylakoid, photosystem, stroma, NADP+, light-dependent reactions, ATP synthase, Calvin cycle Be able to: Sec 8-1 o Distinguish between autotrophs and heterotrophs and provide examples of each o Identify the three main parts of ATP Given a diagram of ATP, be able to identify each part o Explain how energy is released from ATP o Distinguish among ATP, ADP, and AMP
Sec 8-2

o Explain what the experiments of van Helmont, Priestly, and Ingenhouz reveal about how plants grow. o Identify the reactants and products of photosynthesis Be familiar with the overall equation for photosynthesis o Define pigments o Explain how light works in terms of colors of light reflected and colors of light absorbed Explain why something appears to be a certain color o Identify what colors of light are absorbed by chlorophyll and what color of light is reflected.
Sec 8-3

o Identify the main components of a chloroplast Given a diagram of a chloroplast, identify the thylakoid, stroma, and granum Know in which part of the chloroplast, the photosystems are found o Identify where the light dependent reactions take place in the chloroplast o Identify the products of the light dependent reactions o Describe the steps of the light dependent reactions in order o Know that the light independent reactions is also called the Calvin cycle o Identify where the light independent reactions take place in the chloroplast o Identify the products of the light independent reactions

o Identify 3 factors that affect photosynthesis and explain how they affect photosynthesis

Chapter 23: Roots, Stems, and Leaves (only what we covered in class notes)
Vocabulary: root hair, cortex, endodermis, Casparian strip, mesophyll, stoma, guard cell, transpiration, adhesion, capillary action Be able to: Chapter 23 o Identify the 3 main organs of the plant and explain their functions Roots, stems, leaves o Identify the 4 main tissue systems of the plants and explain their functions o Distinguish among xylem and phloem in terms of their functions o Distinguish among primary growth and secondary growth. o Distinguish among a taproot and fibrous root o Explain what the endodermis is Explain the role of the Casparian strip (keeps water and mineral moving one-way) o Identify the process through which minerals from the soil move into roots o Explain how a stomata functions Identify what it lets enter and what it allows to leave Explain when it would be open and when it would be closed Explain what the guard cells do o Explain what capillary action is

Chapter 35: Nervous System

Vocabulary: specialized cell, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, muscle tissue, homeostasis, feedback inhibition, neuron, cell body, dendrite, axon, myelin sheath, threshold, synapse, neurotransmitter, meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, thalamus, hypothalamus, reflex, reflex arc, sensory receptor, stimulant, depressant, addiction Be able to: Sec 35-1 o Describe how the human body is organized -cell, tissue, organ, organ system o Distinguish among the four types of tissues Sec 35-2 o o o o Identify the functions of the nervous system Label the parts of a nerve cell (neuron) and identify their functions Explain the importance of the myelin sheath to the nerve Explain resting potential and action potential

o Explain what happens at a synapse Sec 35-3 o Identify the divisions of the nervous system o Distinguish between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system -based on their components and functions o Label each part of the brain and identify their functions o Describe the function of the spinal cord o Distinguish between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system o Explain how a reflex arc works Sec 35-4 o Distinguish among the various types of receptors -pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors o Explain how each of the senses works -seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching Sec 35-5 o Stimulants increase heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate. In addition, stimulants increase the release of neurotransmitters at some synapses in the brain. o Depressants slow down heart rate and breathing rate, lower blood pressure, relax muscles, and relieve tension. o Cocaine causes the sudden release of a neurotransmitter in the brain called dopamine. o Opiates mimic natural chemicals in the brain known as endorphins, which normally help to overcome sensations of pain. o Alcohol is a depressant that slows down the rate at which the central nervous system functions.

Chapter 38: Digestive and Excretory Systems

Vocabulary: Calorie, carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamin, mineral, amylase, esophagus, peristalsis, stomach, chyme, small intestine, pancreas, liver, villus, large intestine, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, nephron, filtration, glomerulus, Bowmans capsule, reabsorption, loop of Henle, urethra Know or be able to: Sec 38-1 o Explain how food provides energy o Distinguish between calories and Calories o Identify the 6 essential nutrients: water, carbs, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals Explain why they are needed for life in terms of their functions Sec 38-2 o Describe the function of the digestive system o Distinguish between chemical digestion and mechanical digestion o Identify the parts of the digestive system in a diagram

*Refer to Fig. 38-10 on p. 979 and Fig. 38-13 on p. 981* o Describe the functions of the parts of the digestive system o Explain the importance of villi in the small intestines o Identify digestive system disorders and their causes Sec 38-3 o Identify the functions of the kidneys o Identify the parts of the excretory system in a diagram *Refer to Fig. 38-17 on p. 986* o Describe the functions of the parts of the excretory system o Explain how blood is filtered o Explain how kidney function is controlled

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