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is paint? a liquid mixture, usually of a solid pigment in a liquid vehicle, used as a decorative or protective coating Why do we apply paint to surfaces? To protect against the effects of the elements To be more resistant to hard wear To make more attractive and to enhance value To clean surfaces more easily What are the components of paint? Pigments: Solid particles found in paint that are chosen based on their properties and characteristics : paint mixtures may contain more than one kind of pigment o Properties of Pigments: (1) Color (2) Texture Mainly dependent on the size, shape and the hardness of the particles (3) Hiding Power: the ability of paint to prevent any light from reaching the surface (4) Spreading Power: the area that can be covered by a given weight (5) Chemical Composition Must be such that they are not only perfectly stable---that is, able to stand exposure to the air without decomposition---but also inert, that is, not liable to react with any material with which they are likely to come in contact, either in the vehicle or on the surface on which they are spread (6) Durability: ability to stand the action of light and the atmosphere for prolonged periods

(7) Toxicity: freedom from harmful effects o There are two basic pigment types: (1) Inorganic Have mineral sources, like metals or rocks Can occur naturally or are manufactured (2) Organic Derived from vegetable or animal sources May be in recent form (bones, fatty oils, grease) or fossils o Preparation of Pigments (1) Precipitation: obtained when two or more substances in solution chemically combine to form a new product which is insoluble in the new product (2) Calcination: Roasting of materials at high temperatures (3) Combustion: Burning suitable materials then condensing fumes (4) Corrosion Only white lead is produced Dutch process (stack) o Natural Pigments by Levigation (1) Method of selective grinding The Kek Mill (2) Can be white or colored Binder: a liquid component used to hold the fine particles of pigments during drying and is capable of forming a film that will adhere to the surface : also known as a vehicle or media o Chiefly made of vegetable oils (ester class) and synthetic media o Undergoes polymerization: a change from a liquid having a relatively simple chemical structure to a hard solid film possessing a more complex chemical structure

Natural Resins (1) Substances produced by trees (2) Resin acid, resenes, resinols, essential oils o Synthetic Resins (1) From two or more non-resinous substances (2) Methods may vary but mainly there are 2 types Polymerized Condensates Direct Polymerization products Solvent: volatile liquids that reduce consistency or render the pigment and binder miscible with each other : transforms the pigment and binder into a workable consistency then evaporate after application : the odor attributed to paint as it dries is due to the evaporation of the solvent o Properties of a thinner: (1) Must act only on the media therefore leaving the pigment unaffected (2) Not too volatile (3) Must not leave any residue (4) Does not cause discoloration of the pigments Additives: most paints also have chemical additives of various kinds. o ceramic substances can be added to paints to improve their strength and durability o fluorescent pigments added to paints make it luminescent o additives in paint designed for outdoor use can help to make things waterproof and rustproof, protect against frost or sunlight, and keep them free of mold and mildew o

What are the different kinds of paint? Oil based Paints: paints used in pre-historic time : uses natural or synthetic resins or oils, most commonly linseed oil as a binder :has a stronger odor when drying and is typically more durable (can stand up to the elements) : some artists claim that oil-based paint is much richer in color than water-based paints o Marine Paint: paint that can withstand constant exposure or immersion in salt water Water based Paints: easy to use paint that can be washed away and mixed with water o Water color o Acrylic Paint: a fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion Masonry Paint: can be oil-based or water- based :a sealant that must be elastic, breathable and durable; essentially water proof Enamel Paint: paint with a hard, glossy, opaque finish. : can be oil-based or water- based : often fast-drying and some are heat-resistant : used for painting appliance and flooring Luminescent Paint: gives off visible light through fluorescence, phosphorescence (glow-in-the-dark), or radioluminescence (self-luminous)

What are the different problems one can encounter when working with paints? Blistering: small to medium-sized bubbles under the paint film o Causes: (1) Solvent vapor getting trapped under a layer of paint when the paint dries too fast (usually occurs when painting on a hot surface or in direct sunlight) (2) Painting on damp wood, which traps moisture in the paint film (3) Dew, rain, or high humidity after latex paint has dried (4) House moisture escaping through the walls due to improper ventilation Alligatoring: deep cracking on the surface of the paint resembling reptile skin o Causes: (1) Applying second coat of paint over a first coat that hasnt dried (2) Applying a second coat of paint over an incompatible type of paint (e.g. glossy paint over latex paint) (3) Oil-based paints cracking over time due to fluctuations in temperature and loss of elasticity caused by aging Checking: long, fairly evenly-spaced, shallow cracks o Causes: (1) Natural aging of layers of oil-based paint Efflorescence: salts in the brick or concrete painting surface dissolving in water and bubbling through the paint as the water evaporates, producing crusty white salt deposits o Causes: (1) Failure to remove prior efflorescence from painting surface before repainting it

(2) Heavy moisture escaping through walls from inside (3) Ground water penetration in basement walls (4) Painting before masonry material has been adequately cured or dried out (5) Cracks in the wall allowing water to enter Chalking: fine chalky powder formed by paint pigment released by paint binders which have been broken down by weather exposure o Causes: (1) Interior paint used for exterior surfaces (2) Painting on improperly-sealed porous surfaces (3) Low quality paint containing high levels of pigment extenders (4) Over-thinning paint Sagging or Running: visible dripping or drooping portions on paint surface o Causes: (1) Applying too much paint (2) Heavy painting strokes (3) Over-thinning paint (4) Application of paint in high humidity or low temperatures (5) Applying paint to a high-gloss surface without a primer (6) Improperly cleaned or prepared painting surface Mildew: fungus growing and feeding on paint film identified by grey, brown, green, or black spots o Causes: (1) Moisture, poor ventilation, and lack of sunlight (2) Painting over a layer of paint that has mildew (3) Not priming bare wood before printing

Peeling paint: caused by poor adhesion, exterior moisture, or interior moisture o Causes: (1) Poor Adhesion Improper preparation of painting surface (dirty, wet, or shiny) Substrate had poor adhesion prior to being repainted Applying oil-based paint on a wet surface Allowing blistering in paint to progress (2) Exterior Moisture Moisture getting behind paint film Painting on wet surface Faulty guttering or missing ventilation (3) Interior Moisture Painting in high-humidity areas Lack of proper ventilation for high-moisture areas

Main References:
Painters Craft Science by L.F.J. Tubb A Formulary of Paints and Other Coatings by Michael & Irene Ash Outlines of Paint Technology *Wth additional Internet resources