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Explanation: This tool is designed for teachers to collect informal data on students that may or may not have

a diagnosis of autism, pdd-nos, or aspergers. It can be used in a proactive way to prevent undesired behaviors from occurring, or in a reactive manner to diminish undesired behaviors. The ultimate goal of this tool is to help teachers in the data collection process, diminish undesired behaviors and improve time on-task for students. Finally, this tool provides a number of suggestions for addressing behaviors.

Generalized Tips: 1. Provide organized sensory breaks as needed- This should be something organizing and purposeful for the student. IF the student returns from the break more agitated, then the sensory break did not serve the intended purpose of helping increase on task behavior. Sensory breaks can include sharpening pencils, carrying something (preferably heavy, which is more organizing for his/her central nervous system) to the office, or something else of that nature. After successful breaks are utilized, attempt to reduce the number of breaks so that the student is able to increase his/her stamina in the classroom setting. Make certain that the student is not using sensory breaks to avoid completing classroom work. Breaks, though needed, still need to be viewed as a reward given by a classroom teacher. Establish yourself as an authority over the classroom- Children with autistic spectrum disorders often lack the ability to distinguish between authority figures and other students, which often causes disruptive behaviors as the ASD student lacks the social filters necessary to distinguish between roles of students and staff. Clearly defined roles eliminate any gray area, and firmly established rules and routines will create a more stable environment and therefore increase on-task behaviors.

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3. Use of paraprofessional support- Encourage paraprofessionals to give nonverbal or picture prompts to increase on task behavior. In other words, urge the paraprofessional to minimize the talking, first, so as not to distract classroom setting, and also, to encourage ASD students response to nonverbal or silent cues. Sign language can be an excellent tool for nonverbal prompting. Invite paraprofessional staff to always consider fading necessary prompts so as to increase independence of student in classroom setting. 4. Extraneous verbal and visual information- When an ASD student becomes agitated; less is always more in terms of language and visual distraction. ASD children typically lack the ability to filter out insignificant visual and auditory information, and when they become agitated, it is helpful to use as little lan-

guage as possible in redirecting them. Language is processed in a different part of their brain, so where a lengthy explanation for a typically developing student is often welcomed, less language can often be better for students with ASD.

Behavior Lack of Work Completion

Solution Pair an incentive with the task, such as 5 minutes of extra computer time, or something else that the student considers a reward for successful completion of work. Clearly identify role of student within group context, as well as roles of other students involved. This can include making eye contact when talking or listening, perspective taking (recognizing that other students in the group might have different thoughts or opinions)

Inability/Unwillingness to Co-regulate or keep in pace with other students in group work setting, standing in line, or other activities involving peers

Repetitive Behaviors- Hand-flapping, hop- Replace the undesired behavior with someping, staring at spinning objects for exthing socially appropriate. Develop a nontended periods of time verbal prompt to help the student recognize and replace undesired behavior. Refusal to complete tasks required of stu- Pain an incentive with the task, but also redents in general education setting iterate that refusing an adult direction is not an option. Echolalic Behaviors- this is often referred to as scripting but done in a manner that is inconsistent or inappropriate for group activity First, you could replace the undesired behavior with something socially appropriate. Develop a nonverbal prompt to help the student recognize and replace undesired behavior. Provide an organized sensory break as needed. A second option is allowing a certain amount of echolalia following successful completion of work.

Imitating- Student struggles with imitating Clearly define and provide appropriate or picking up on social cues from other models for imitation and allow for repeated children practice of peer modeling.

Setting or Context in Which Behavior Solutions Occurs Transitions- Student struggles with transitions between activities; escalates when time is up and student is unable to complete task New- Struggles with new or novel tasks or activities when introduced Give warning acknowledging the amount of time left and clearly define what the student should be doing while waiting to move on to the next activity Give the student advanced warning, visual schedule, or something else that will prepare for change in routine. ASD students get very anxious about change, which can prevent them from learning new material or staying on task.

Unstructured Time- Student struggles dur- Give a tangible amount of academic and ing unstructured time or activities such as behavioral expectations such as writing at journal writing, reading, or free time least 5 sentences, reading a specific number of pages or for a specified amount of time. During free choice time, give a list a options from which to choose. Change in Routine Give the student advanced warning, visual schedule, or something else that will prepare for change in routine. ASD students get very anxious about change, which can prevent them from learning new material or staying on tasks. Essentially telling them what they can expect will minimize frustration and subsequent behaviors.

Unfinished Work Unable to leave unfinished work and move on to another task

Group Work Unable to work collaboratively with peers

Bathroom- Unwilling to line up for bathroom breaks

Provide the student with a specific time later during the day when he or she will be able to complete the task, and possibly reward student with added incentive such as extra computer time for not completing his/her work. This might sound strange, but leaving things undone is very difficult for students on the autism spectrum. Clearly define expectations of individuals in the group, and make certain the student knows his or her own role, as well as the expected roles of other students in the group. Students with ASD often dont understand why they should line up to go to the restroom if they personally do not need a bathroom break. In that situation, change their objective to simply lining up, possibly washing their hands, and provide them with something to do, such as flash cards, while waiting for peers.