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CHAPTER- 1 1.

INTRODUCTION
In the broadest sense of the world, unmanned systems are a group of military systems, their common characteristic being the fact that there is no human operated aboard. They may be mobile or stationary. They include categories of Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUWV), Unattended Munitions, and unattended Ground Sensors. Missiles, rockets and their sub munitions, and artillery are not considered unmanned systems.

The unmanned ground vehicle is a powered, mobile, ground conveyance that does not have a human aboard. It can be operated in one or more modes of control (autonomous, semi- autonomous, tele-operation, remote control). It can be expendable or recoverable. It can have lethal or nonlethal mission modules.

Functions of Unmanned Ground Vehicle: Remote Controlled by operator via line-of-sight and via forwardlooking camera and sensors. Auto Navigation Detect obstacles and avoid them. Navigate and see depression in known terrain without losing stability. Navigate tight passages (water, bushes, concrete wall, etc) by sensing environment. Choose navigation options through a local intelligent path planner. Know its pose and navigate day/night in all-weather condition. Know position within a perimeter with respect to other items in the environment.
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Behavior Perform patrol continuously without human intervention. Pass through and coordinate access to a constricted portal. Monitor potential threats at a strategic observation point. Listen and communicate with intruder. Collaboration Execute missions with other UGVs. Re plan missions based on the loss or addition of team members. Reason and reactively plan in continuously changing environment. Autonomously navigate, patrol and protect a known perimeter with collaboration.

History of Unmanned Ground Vehicle:

The development of autonomous robots began as an interesting application domain for artificial intelligence researches in the late 1960s. The first major mobile robot development effort was SHAKEY developed in the late 1960s to serve as a test bed for DARPA-founded artificial intelligence. SHAKEY was a wheeled platform equipped with steerable TV camera, ultrasonic range finder, and touch sensors, connected via an RF link its mainframe computer that performed navigation and exploration tasks. The SHAKEY system could accept English sentence commands from the terminal operator, directing the robot to push large wooden blocks around in its lab environment world. The action routines took care of simple moving, turning, and route planning. The programs could make and execute plans to achieve goals given to it by a user.
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Fig-1.1

The SHAKEY program reemerged in the early1980s as the DARPA Autonomous Land Vehicle (ALV).3 Under DARPAs Strategic Computing (SC) Program. The Autonomous Land Vehicle was built on a Standard manufacturing eight-wheel hydrostatically-driven all-terrain vehicle capable of speeds of up to 45 mph on the highway and up to 18 mph on rough terrain. The ALV could carry six full racks of electronic equipment in dustfree air conditioned comfort, providing power from its 12-kW diesel power unit. The initial sensor suite consisted of a color video camera and a laser scanner from the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan. The ALV
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Programs focus was moved in early 1988 away from integrated demonstrations of military applications and toward the support of specific scientific experiments for off-road navigation. The Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition (RSTA) application has long drawn the attention of UGV developers, since a UGV solution for RSTA would provide a battlefield commander with a direct sensing capability on the battlefield and even behind enemy lines, without endangering human personnel. Two RSTA-oriented UGV projects were undertaken at the Naval Ocean Systems Center (NOSC) in the early1980s: the Ground Surveillance Robot (GSR) at NOSC San Diego, and the Advanced Tele-operator Technology (ATT) Tele-Operated Dune Buggy at NOSC Hawaii.4The Ground Surveillance Robot project explored the development of a modular, flexible distributed architecture for the integration and control of complex robotic systems, using a fully actuated 7ton M-114 armored personnel carrier as the test bed host vehicle. With an array of fixed and steerable ultrasonic sensors and a distributed blackboard architecture implemented on multiple PCs, the vehicle successfully demonstrated autonomous following of both a lead vehicle and a walking human in1986 before funding limitations terminated its development. The Advanced Tele-operator Technology Tele-Operated Dune Buggy, on the other hand, concentrated exclusively on tele-operator control methodology and on advanced, spatially-correspondent multi-sensory human/machine interfaces. With a Chenowth dune buggy as a test bed vehicle, the Advanced Tele-operator Technology project successfully demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing a remotely operated ground vehicle to transit complex natural terrain and of remotely operating vehicle-mounted weapons systems. In addition, the Advanced Tele-operator Technology
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effort demonstrated the efficacy of stereo head-coupled visual display systems, binaural audio feedback, and isomorphic vehicle controls for highspeed remote vehicle operations.

Fig 1.2

The success of the Advanced Tele-operator Technology and Ground Surveillance Robot vehicles led the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Tactical Warfare Programs/Land Warfare (OUSD/TWP/LW) in 1985 to initiate the Ground/Air Tele-Robotic Systems (GATERS) program, under Marine Corps management and with NOSC serving as the developing laboratory. The thrust of the GATERS program was to develop a TeleOperated Vehicle (TOV) to support the test and evaluation of UGV product concepts by prospective military users of UGVs. The TOV system consisted of a remote vehicle and an operator control station, connected by fiber optic cable to provide high bandwidth secure non-line-of-sight communications
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for distances up to30 km. The TOV remote vehicle was a HMMWV, and up to three TOV control stations were housed in a shelter mounted on the back of another HMMWV. Building on the dune buggy experience, the TOV operator was provided with stereo head-coupled visual displays, binaural audio and driving controls isomorphic to those found in an actual HMMWV. A RSTA package (video and FLIR cameras and an active laser range finder/designator) was mounted on a pan/tilt unit atop a scissors lift that could be raised up to 15 feet off the ground. High level control architecture was implemented to integrate the functionality of the system. Successful demonstrations of the TOV began at Camp Pendleton in May 1988, including long range RSTA, high-speed cross country transit, detection of chemical agents, and remote firing of a 50-caliber machine gun. The weapon could be manually controlled with the joystick in response to video from this camera, or slaved to the more sophisticated electro-optical sensors of the Surveillance Module. One of the remote HMMWVs had a Hellfire missile launcher instead of a Surveillance Module, the idea being that one platform looked and designated while the other did the shooting. Meanwhile, all the humans could be up to15 kilometers away, which is important in chemical or biological warfare scenarios. These successful demonstrations led to the formulation of the Tele-operated Mobile Anti-Armor Platform (TMAP) program, and prototype systems were procured in1987/1988 from Grumman and Martin Marietta. Both systems were joystick-controlled via fiber optic link, the operator navigating via the returned TV image.

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY


We have referred to the following journals, 1. The journal Experiences in Developing a Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle for First Responders published in NAIT (Northern

Alberta Institute of Technology) by professors Mark Archibald, David Carpenter and Daniel Racette, was based on an historical account of the strategies developed and the challenges experienced by the Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) Robotics Research Team as they developed a prototype unmanned ground vehicle for use by Police, Fire and Rescue Services. Development of performance characteristics for the vehicle, driven by operational experience and needs of end users in the Edmonton Police Service (EPS) and the local RCMP division were described. Discussion continued with consideration of performance, complexity and cost tradeoffs associated with various electromechanical drive systems, arriving at the selection and implementation of a chain-free multi-motor drive system. The paper described those developments and outcomes in detail. Deployment of a wide-angle camera via an off the shelf 2.5 m extending mast system were briefly introduced. The paper concludes with discussion of near term development goals for that project.

2.

Research on U.G.V were done in Fraunhofer Institute for

Intelligent Analysis and Information System (IAIS) and University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg, St. Augustin, Germany .proffesors Hartmut surmann, Dirk Holz , Sebastian Blumenthal , Thorsten linder , Peter Molotor operated and Viatcheslav Tretyakov published the journal TeleInspection and Surveillance with Unmanned

Visual

Ground and Aerial VehiclesThis paper introduced a robotic system named UGAV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) consisting of two semi-autonomous robot platforms, an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) and an Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAV). The paper focused on three topics of the inspection with the combined UGV and UAV : (A) tele-operated control by means of cell or smart phones with a new concept of automatic configuration of the smart phone for the vehicles control capabilities, (B) the camera and vision system with the focus to real time feature extraction e.g. for the tracking of t(C) the architecture and hardware of the UAV. 3. The journal Elementary Mechanical Analysis of Obstacle Crossing for Wheeled Vehicles published by professors Matthew D.Berkemeier, Eric Paulson, and Travis Groethe describes a model of a wheeled ugv in an elementary manner to determine the effect of obstacle height on makor design parameters, such and wheel size, wheelbase, and center of mass height. The parer consider both static and dynamic modeling approaches and find that consideration of dynamics allows for more freedom in parameter choice.

4. The journal Design and Simulation Research on a New Type of Suspension for Lunar Rover by CHEN Bai-Chao, WANG Rong-ben, YANG Lu, JIN Li-sheng, GUO Lie proposed a new type of suspension for lunar rover. The suspension was mainly constructed by a positive quadrilateral levers mechanism and a negative quadrilateral levers mechanism. The suspension was designed based on following factors: climbing up obstacles, adapting terrain, traveling smoothly, and distributing equally the load of cap to wheels. In that article, firstly the structure of the new suspension was described, secondly the kinematics of the levers was analyzed, and the relational equations of the suspension levers were established, so the distortion capability of the suspension was known. In order to test the capability of suspension, they designed a prototype rover with the new suspension and took a test for climbing obstacles, and the result indicated that the prototype rover with the new type of suspension had excellent capabilities to climb up obstacles with keeping cab smooth. Based on the shortcoming found in test, they optimized levers mechanism and then established the rover models with the new type of suspension system.

CHAPTER-3 SPECIFICATION AND CALCULATION

3.1 SPECIFICATION OF THE VEHICLE:

Weight of the vehicle Maximum weight of payload which the vehicle can carry Speed range of the vehicle Steering mechanism No of wheels used Tractive effort generation Braking system Main tool

: 40kg

: 20 kg : 1 km/hr 20km/hr : By relative motion of wheels. :4 : 4 wheel drive : cam actuated by motor : surveillance by 360 rotatable camera.

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3.2 CALCULATION

3.2.1 Power Required for Motor:

Total load

= Pay load + weight of the vehicle = (20 + 40) kg = 60 kg

Diameter of the wheel

= 300 mm

Coefficient of friction ()

= 0.5

Tractive effort

= (Total load) (Coefficient of friction) = 60 kg 0.5 = 30 kg = 300 N

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Torque

= Load perpendicular distance = 300N0.15m = 45 N-m

Speed Required

= 20 km/hr. = 333.33 m/min

Distance Travelled in one revolution = = (diameter of the wheel) 0.3m

= 0.94 m Required RPM

= 333.33 / 0.94 = 355 RPM

Overall Power required (P) = (2NT) / 60 = 1600 watts Power required for individual motor = 1600 watts / 4(no of motor used) = 400 watts

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3.2.2 BRAKING CALCULATION: Braking energy Initial kinetic energy Final kinetic energy Energy lost = Loss of kinetic energy of vehicle. = Energy at maximum speed of the vehicle. =0 =(Initial Final) kinetic energy =1 / 2 mvmax2 - 0 Work done by brake Ft d N t {By law of conservation of Energy} : Energy lost m vmax2 Substituting the values 1605.52 t - Time period of brake. Deceleration (d) = 0.3 g g - Acceleration Due to Gravity = 0.39.8 = 2.94 m/s2 t = v/d v Velocity of the vehicle, m/s d Deceleration, m/s2 t= 5.5 / 2.94 t= 1.9 s
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= (Ft d N t) - Tangential force - Diameter - rpm - Time period of brake.

= work done by braking system = (Ft d N t) = Ft 5103 350t

{Substituting the value of t in main equation Ft} = 90.06 N

Fig 3.1

1. The angle of contact of the frictional surface to the shaft is more than 60 and

2. The line of action of tangential braking force is offset by a distance a above the hinged joint of braking lever then by resolving the forces and taking moments about the point o (Rn x) l p x = (p l) + (Ft a) Rn Normal reaction force due to application

of brake - Length of braking lever, m - Load required for braking, N - Distance from hinged joint to center of

frictional surface, m
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a = (4

- Offset distance, m sin ) / (2 + sin 2 ) -actual coefficient of friction - 0.3 -altered coefficient of friction - Angle of contact

= (40.3sin 90) / ( + sin 180) = 0.38 = (Ft / ) = (p l) + (Ft a) = 90.06 N = 0.115 m = 0.18 m = 0.0172 m

Rn (Ft x) / Ft x l a

Substituting the value in main equation (90.06 0.115) / (0.38) = (P 0.18) + (90.06 0.0172)

Hence,

Braking Load (P) = 142.8 N

{Braking load required for each wheel} = P/4 (no of wheels) = 142.8 / 4 = 35.7 N

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3.2.3 WEIGHT CALCULATION: Weight of frame = 0.970 kg / m Total Length of frame = (0.7 + 0.7 + 0.41 + 0.41) = 2.22 m Therefore weight = 0.97 2.22 = 2.15 kg

Weight of Battery = 1.5 8 (No of batteries used) = 12 kg Weight of Motor = 1.1 4 (No of motors used) = 4.4 kg Weight of Sheet Metal Volume of sheet metal Volume of sheet metal = Length Breadth Thickness = 0.9 0.5 0.005 = 0.00225 m3 Density of aluminium = 2700 kg / m3

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Therefore Weight

= Volume Density = 0.00225 2700

Weight of Wheel

= 6.075 kg = 2 4 (no of wheels) = 8 kg

Weight of Transmission Shaft = Volume Density Volume d l = (( / 4) d2) l) -Diameter of Shaft, m - Length of Shaft, m = 7830 kg / m3 = {(( / 4) d2) l density} (No of shafts) = / 4 0.022 0.11 7830 4 = 1.1 kg Weight of L-Clamp Volume Density Volume = Length Breadth Thickness = 0.125 0.02 0.003 = 0.0000075 m3
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Density of M.S

Density

= 7830 kg / m3 = 0.0000075 7830

Therefore Weight Weight of braking motor

= 0.0587 27 (no of L-Clamps) = 1.58 k = 0.3 4 (no of motors) = 1.2 kg

Weight of braking lever Volume Density Volume = Length Breadth Thickness =0.185 0.005 0.005 = 0.00000463 m3 Density Therefore = 7830 kg / m3 = 0.00000463 7830 4 (no of levers) = 0.145 kg Weight of body = 1.5 kg Weight Of camera = 0.3 kg

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Miscellaneous Weight = {Weight of (Lock nut + Nut and Bolts + sensors + Allen Keys + Battery and Camera casing} = 2 kg

3.2.3.1 WEIGHT CALCULATION TABLE:

S.NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TOTAL WEIGHT

PARTS Frame Battery Motor Sheet metal Wheel Transmission Shaft L-Clamp Braking Motor Braking Lever Body Camera Miscellaneous Weight

WEIGHT (kg) 2.15 12 4.4 6.075 8 1.1 1.58 1.2 0.145 1.5 0.3 2 41.28

Table 1.1

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3.2.4 SHAFT CALCULATION:

Power Transmitted by shaft Power N T max

= 400W = (2 N T max) / (60) - rpm - Torque

RPM of shaft

= 350

T max

= (40060) / (260) = 10.9110 3 N-mm

T max

=/16 d3 - Allowable shear stress of M.S = 200 N/mm2 d - Diameter of the Shaft = 20mm

T max Equating the value of T max

= /16 203

= 10.91103 = /16 203


actual

= 6.95 N/ mm2
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(Multiplying with factor of safety (2) Since


actual

= 13.9 N/mm2

is less than allowable shear stress the design is safe.

SHAFT SUBJECTED TO BENDING ONLY: Bending Moment (M) W L =WL - Load - Length = 150150 = 22500 N-mm Bending Moment (M) b = (/32) b d3 - Tensile Stress = 400Mpa = 400 N/mm2 Equating the values of moments 22500
Actual

= /32 203 =28.66N/mm2

Multiplying with factor of safety (2) = 57.32 N/mm2 Since actual bending stress is less than tensile strength of mild steel the design is safe.

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SHAFT SUBJECTED TO COMBINED TWISTING AND BENDING: Max shear stress theory: Te Te M T = (T2+M2) - Equivalent Torque - Bending Moment - Torque = (10.91103)2 + (22.5103)2) = 25 103 Nmm Equating Value of Torque 25103 Actual Multiplying with factor of safety 2 = /16 203 =15.92 = 31.85N/mm2

Since combined stresses is less than shear strength of mild steel the design is safe by Max shear stress theory. NORMAL STRESS THEORY: Equivalent Bending moment (Mt) = (M + (M2 + T2)) = (M + T e) Te M - Equivalent Torque , Nmm - Bending Moment, Nmm = (22.5+25) 103 Nmm

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Mt (Equating the values of bending moment ) 23.75103


actual

=23.75103 N-mm

= (/32)

203

= 30.25 N/mm2 =60.5 N/mm2

Multiplying with factor of safety (2)

Since combined stresses are less than yield strength of mild steel the design is safe by normal stress theory. 3.3.5 STRENGTH OF SHEET METAL: Load acting on sheet metal = weight of battery = 12 kg =120 N Considering the sheet metal as simply supported beam Bending stress M Z =M/Z - Bending moment, Nmm - Section modulus, mm3 M= ((W L2) / 8) W L -Load per Unit Area, N/mm2 - Load acting span, mm

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W=120N/ (160125) =6 10-3 N/mm2 L M =160 mm = {((610-3) 1602) / 8} =19.2 Nmm Z b d = (b d2) / 6 - Width of the beam, mm - Thickness of the beam, mm b = 125 mm d = 5 mm Z= (12552) / 6 = 520.83mm3 Substituting the value of M and Z in the main equation = 19.2 / 520.83 = .0369 N/mm2 = 36905 N/m2 Modulus of elasticity of aluminium is 0.579 105 N/mm2 Since the bending stress formed due to the load is less than modulus of elasticity of aluminium the design is safe.
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3.4 MATERIAL PROPERTIES: 3.4.1 Carbon steel casting subjected to pressure and high temperature Chemical composition %: C 0.25 Si 0.6 Mn 0.7 S 0.05 P 0.05

Yield Strength Ultimate tensile strength Elongation Impact Value (charpy)

210 N/mm2 420 N/mm2 20% 25 Nm

3.4.2 Aluminium Alloy HS 1060 H12: Chemical composition: Si=0.25%, Fe=0.35%, Al = 99.6% min Yield strength Tensile Strength Modulus of Elasticity - 28 Mpa - 69 Mpa - 57 Gpa

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CHAPTER- 4 STRESS ANALYSIS


4.1 PROCEDURE: The anlysis report is done using ANSYS 11.0 Initially set the working directory performance and then select structural. GOTO PREPROCESSOR

Element Type

Add/Edit/Delete

Select, Solid Quad 4 Node 42

Option

K3

Plane Stress with Thickness

Close

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Real Constrain

Add/Edit/Delete

Thickness 2D

Close Material Properties Material Mode

Structural

Linear

Elastic

Isotropic (2105, 0.32)

Close Modeling Create

Area
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By center and corner [x=0, y=0, w=500, h=900, t=5]

Ok

Operate

Boolean

Area

Ok

Meshing

Mesh Tool

Area set

Pick area (element size=4


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Ok

Mesh

Pick surface

Apply Solution Defined load

Apply

Displacement

On lines

Pick lines

Apply

All DOF

Ok

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Pressure

On lines

Apply

F= 7.5 N

Ok

Solution

Solve

Current LS

Ok

General Post Processor

Read Result

Last set

Plot Result

Contour Plot

Nodal solution

Stress

Von miss stress

Ok
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4.1.1 STRESS ANALYSIS REPORT:

Since the stress formed from the analysis is less than the yield strength of aluminium, hence the design is safe.

Fig 4.1
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4.1.2 STRESS ANALYSIS OF SHAFT:

Since the maximum shear stress formed from the analysis is less than the modulus of elasticity of mild steel, hence the design is safe.

Fig 4.2

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CHAPTER- 5 PARTS DESCRIPTION AND SUB-ASSEMBLIES

5.1

FRAME ASSEMBLY

5.2

GEARED BRUSHLESS DC-MOTOR ASSEMBLY

5.3

BATTERY ASSEMBLY

5.4

WHEEL ASSEMBLY

5.5

BRAKE ASSEMBLY

5.6

CAMERA ASSEMBLY

5.7

BODY ASSEMBLY

5.8

MICROCONTROLLER

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5.1 FRAME ASSEMBLY: Frame is made up of aluminium alloy. Aluminium is used because of its less weight.

There are 4 frames used. The 4 frames are joined using 4 Lclamps with the help of bolts and nuts.

The frame is fixed with clamps and bolts rather than welding because clamping is stronger when compared to welding. Moreover welding an aluminium material is more costly.

5.1.1 FRAME

Fig 5.1.1
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5.1.2 CLAMP:

Fig 5.1.2
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5.1.3 SHEET METAL:

The sheet metal is clamped above the frame using screws. The sheet metal is used to hold the following parts

Geared motor Batteries Microcontroller Camera

The thickness of the sheet metal used is 5 mm. With the help of Ansys 11.0 it is been proved that 5 mm thickness sheet is capable of holding all the mentioned things.

There are many holes in the sheet metal for holding the motors batteries etc. The mountings of the batteries, motors etc are done by assuming the center of gravity at the center.

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Fig 5.1.3
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5.1.4 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE:

The four frames are arranged in a rectangular manner and are fastened by L-clamps and bolts and nuts. The sheet metal is placed over the frame and fastened by bolts and nuts.

5.1.4.1 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.1.4
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5.2 GEARED BRUSHLESS DC-MOTORS-ASSEMBLY

There are 4 brushless DC geared motors used. The motors are the prime movers. They give the movement to the wheels and hence mobility of the vehicle is taken care by the motors. The following are the ratings of the motors used, 24 volts 16.66 amperes Gear reduction ratio is 8:1 5.2.1 GEAR BOX:

Fig 5.2.1
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5.2.2 BRUSHLESS DC-MOTOR:

Fig 5.2.2
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5.2.3 CLAMP:

Fig 5.2.3
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5.2.4 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.2.4
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5.3 BATTERY-ASSEMBLY:

Battery is the main power house of the UGV. This supplies the required power for the functioning of motors, sensors, camera etc. The battery used is lead acid batteries. They are 8 in numbers. The batteries are divided into 2 groups consisting 4 batteries each. These batteries are held in a casing. The specifications of the batteries are, Weight of the batteries Voltage Ampere - 12Kg - 12v - 7 amps/ hr

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5.3.1 BATTERY:

Fig 5.3.1
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5.3.2 BATTERY CASING:

Fig 5.3.2
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5.3.3 CLAMP:

Fig 5.3.3
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5.3.4 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: Four batteries are arranged in order and are placed inside the casing compactly. The casing is welded with l-clamp. This assembly is in turn fastened through the sheet metal by nut and bolts. A similar setup is done for another four batteries on the other half of the vehicle with the same distance from the center in order to retain the C.G at center. 5.3.4.1 EXPLODED VIEW

Fig 5.3.4
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5.4 WHEEL ASSEMBLY:

There are 4 wheels used. They are the most essential part of the vehicle as they help the UGV to move to places. The wheels used here are meant for normal terrain. The wheels are made up of n-butyl rubber. The specifications of the wheels are, Diameter of the wheel is 300mm The hub diameter is 24mm The width of the wheel is 93.5 mm The weight of the wheels- 2 kg

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5.4.1 RIM:

Fig 5.4.1
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5.4.2 TYRE:

Fig 5.4.2
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5.4.3 TRANSMISSION SHAFT AND LOCK-NUT:

The shaft is used to transmit power from geared motor to the wheels and also provides rigidity to the vehicle by withstanding all the loads. The material used for shaft is mild steel. The diameter of the shaft is 20 mm. The length of the shaft is 110 mm. Weight of the shaft is 0.25 kg. The lock nuts are used at the end of the shaft to ensure that the wheel remains intact to the shaft and do not run-off from the vehicle. 5.4.3.1 TRANSMISSION SHAFT:

Fig 5.4.3
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5.4.3.2 LOCK-NUT:

Fig 5.4.4
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5.4.4 FLANGE COUPLING:

There are 4 flange couplings used. They are used to transfer power from the motor shaft to the wheels. The diameter of the male flange is 10 mm and the diameter of the female flange is 20 mm.

5.4.4.1 MALE FLANGE:

Fig 5.4.5

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5.4.4.2 FEMALE FLANGE:

Fig 5.4.6
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5.4.5 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: The tyre is mounted over the rim. The one end of the shaft passes through the hub and other end passes through the coupling. The shaft of the gear box and the power transmission shaft is connected by flange coupling.

The lock nut is placed at the outer end of hub over the shaft.

5.4.5.1 EXPLODED VIEW

Fig 5.7
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5.5 BRAKE ASSEMBLY:

Braking is to stop the movement of the wheel. Braking set up consists of a lever which is hinged on one side and another side is free to move. The free side is moved by cam which is activated by a stepper motor. The lining material used is leather. The braking action is given to the shaft.

5.5.1 BRAKE LEVER-1

Fig 5.5.1
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5.5.2 BRAKE LEVER-2:

Fig 5.5.2

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5.5.3 STEPPER MOTOR:

Fig 5.5.3 5.5.4 CAM:

Fig 5.5.4
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5.5.5 CLAMP-1

Fig 5.5.5 5.5.6 CLAMP-2:

Fig 5.5.6
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5.5.7 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: The stepper motor is fastened to one l-clamp and brake lever is hinged to another l-clamp. The cam is then fixed to shaft of the stepper motor and positioned in such a way that is above the brake lever. 5.5.7.1 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.5.7
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5.6 CAMERA ASSEMBLY: Camera is used for surveillance purpose. The cameras are placed above the body. The camera is capable of rotating 360. The stepper motor is kept under the camera for the rotation of the camera. The camera is shielded with covers. For the free rotation of the camera bearing is used. The range of the camera used is 2 Km.

5.6.1 CAMERA:

Fig 5.6.1

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5.6.2 SENSORS:

Sensors are used for measurement of position, acceleration, speed of the vehicle. The different types of sensors used in this UGV are position , proximity and acceleration sensors. Position sensors are used to determine the position of the object. These can be either linear or angular. Different types of position sensors are i) Linear variable displacement transducer ii) Hall effect sensor

Proximity sensors are used to detect the presence of an object. They are classified into i) Non-contact type ii) Contact type. In this UGV non- contact type proximity sensors are used. The different types of non-contact sensors are i) Optical encoders ii) Eddy current proximity sensor. Velocity and acceleration sensors are used to monitor linear and angular velocity and acceleration and detect motion.

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5.6.2.1 SENSOR CASING:

Fig 5.6.2
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5.6.3 SHAFT CONNECTOR AND BEARING:

The connector is used to transmit motion from stepper motor to the camera. The bearing ensure that the load is distributed to the body and only the motion is rotary motion is transmitted to the camera. It also helps the camera to rotate without friction. 5.6.3.1 SHAFT CONNECTOR:

Fig 5.6.3
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5.6.3.2 BEARING:

Fig 5.6.4

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5.6.4 STEPPER MOTOR:

Fig 5.6.5
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5.6.5 CLAMP-1:

Fig 5.6.6

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5.6.6 CLAMP-4

Fig 5.6.7
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5.6.7 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: The stepper motor is attached to the l-clamp at the bottom end The bearing is placed over the L-clamp above which the camera is mounted The connector is mounted over the bearing and its shafts are connected to the camera and the motor. The L-clamp is attached to the sheet metal by bolts and nuts. 5.6.7.1 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.6.8
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5.7 BODY-ASSEMBLY: The body covers the geared motors, batteries, micro controllers from environmental effects thus protecting them. The body is designed in such a way that the vehicle has a good aesthetic look. The body also holds the room space for the camera and the sensors. The body can be fabricated using injection molding and the super finishing can be provided by surface grinding. The main idea of using plastic is to reduce the weight of the vehicle. 5.7.1 BODY:

Fig 5.7.1
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5.7.2 DOOR, PARTITION PLATES AND ANTENNA: Those are used for placing object inside the body and conceal it. Partition plates provide the room space for pay load and restrict its movements with its confined area. Antenna enhances the efficiency of signal transmission.

5.7.2.1 DOOR:

Fig 5.7.2
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5.7.3 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: The body is fastened with the vehicle by Allen keys. The side doors are fixed to the body by hinged joint. The antenna is screwed to the body at the top. The plates are attached to the sheet metal by l-clamp.

5.7.3.1 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.7.3

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5.8 MICROCONTROLLERS: The microcontroller forms the base for wireless tele-operation.It is heart of the vehicle and controls all its operation. Long range signal transmission and reception is done with the help of Zigbe module. Data being sent is processed and necessary action is done by the microcontroller. It also provides the feedback to the base station.

5.8.1 SUB-ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE:

Studs are fixed to the sheet metal. The circuit board and the microcontroller are placed over the studs.

Fig 5.8
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5.9 BOLTS AND NUTS:

The M8 and M4 bolts and nuts are used to fasten various parts with one another.

Sub-assembly Frame-Assembly Motor-Assembly Battery-assembly Wheel-Assembly Brake-Assembly CameraAssembly

Bolt and Nut M8 M8 M8 M8 M 8 and M 4 M8 and M4

Bolt length 20 mm 18 mm 42 mm 18 mm 42 and 18 mm 20 and 18 mm

Quantity 8 24 4 16 8 and 16 6 and 4

Tab 1.2

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5.9.1 BOLT:

Fig 5.

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5.10 MAJOR ASSEMBLY PROCEDURE: The sub-assemblies are carried out in the following order 1. Frame assembly 2. Motor assembly 3. Wheel assembly 4. Battery assembly 5. Brake assembly 6. Camera assembly 7. Micro controller 8. Body assembly Then motor assembly is fixed to the sheet metal of the frame assembly by l clamps, bolt and nuts. The wheel assembly is then fixed to the motor assembly by fastening the lock nut at one end and fastening the bolts and nuts of flange coupling at the other end Then battery assembly is fixed to the sheet metal by l clamps, bolt and nuts. Then the brake assembly is fixed by proper positioning of brake lever. The friction lining of the lever must be positioned just above the shaft of gear box and center line from shaft and brake lining must be collinear Then micro controller assembly is fixed to sheet metal the frame assembly by positioning the studs Then camera assembly is fixed to the sheet metal by l clamps, bolt and nuts. The camera casing alone is initially removed to provide space for body to be fixed.
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Now the body assembly is fixed by fastening the allen key and at last the camera is fixed 5.11 UGV-BILL OF MATERIALS:

Fig 5.11
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5.12 EXPLODED VIEW:

Fig 5.12
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5.13 UNMANNED GROUNG VEHICLE:

Fig 5.13

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CHAPTER-6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

6.1 CONCLUSION:

With the advancement in science and technology Robotics has taken a giant leap towards the benefit of mankind. With its help various types of sophisticated equipment are being made to aid in various fields viz, medicine, engineering etc.

The large scale manufacture and induction of this vehicle into the armed forces will be very beneficial for the country in terms of security. These Vehicles are used to replace humans in hazardous situations. Since it is a Radio Controlled vehicle it can be controlled from far of places, which can be very useful during war situations in saving life and property. These vehicles could be used in any kind of terrain and in the future these vehicles would decide its own combat strategy. It can be used in difficult terrain and for highly complicated security operations without any loss of human lives.

The CVRD has also started research on this type of vehicle and plan to finish the project by 2020. The project will be an initiative at the college level for developing such Combat Vehicles.

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6.2 FUTURE SCOPE: The vehicle can be made to move in very rough terrain by incorporating suspension system. If the efficiency of the suspension system is large then the vehicle would be able to with stand heavy impact loads. An robotic arm attached to the vehicle will largely extend its capability. Proper incorporation of epicyclical gear train at the wheel will make the UGV to climb steps .A feedback controller loop will make the vehicle to communicate with us and working capacity and efficiency of the vehicle will be greatly improved. If a gun is mounted over it for payload will make the UGV as a combat vehicle apart from its surveillance capabilities.

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CHAPTER-7 7. REFERENCES

[1]

Newton, Steeds and Garet, Motor Vehicles , Butterworth Publishers,1989

[2]

Bhandari, V.B., Design of Machine Elements, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Ltd., 1994. A.G, Mechanism and Machine Theory Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2007. Ferdinand P Been, Russell Johnson,j.r. & John J Dewole mechanics of materials,Tata Mcgraw Hill publishing Co Ltd, NewDelhi,2006 Williams D Callister, Material Science and Engineering Wiley India Pvt Ltd, Revised Indian edition 2007. PSG Design data book Machi Drawing by N.D Bhatt and V.M Panchal.

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6] [7]

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