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**FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
**

________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

LECTURER: PROF. DANG DUC TRONG

VO A. KHOA–NGUYEN T. HOAI–DANG P. NHAT

TRAN T. HUNG–LE T. NHAN

FUNCTIONS

OF

ONE COMPLEX VARIABLE

FUNCTIONS OF ONE COMPLEX VARIABLE

VO ANH KHOA - NGUYEN THANH HOAI - DANG PHUOC NHAT - TRAN

THE HUNG - LE THANH NHAN

February 15, 2012

Vo Anh Khoa - Nguyen Thanh Hoai - Dang Phuoc Nhat

Tran The Hung - Le Thanh Nhan

Vietnam National University

Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) University of Science

Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science

227 Nguyen Van Cu Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City

Vietnam

2

PREFACE

This book is intended as our English essay for students who study in university. In speciﬁc,

the essay consists of some exercises which are chosen and solved by us; and these exercises is

taken from A. David Wunsch, Complex Variables with Applications, 3rd ed. To read this essay,

the readers need some knowledges of Functions of One Complex Variable (such as second - year

students or higher), but if the reader is a student in high school, still he or she can reads some

exercises which is shown in chapter I. Then, we submit an essay to our tutor who is Prof. Dang

Duc Trong, that is also our lecturer.

Remark. We will present the following chapters :

1. Chapter 1 : Complex Number.

2. Chapter 2 : The Complex Function and Its Derivative.

3. Chapter 3 : The Basic Transcendental Functions.

4. Chapter 4 : Integration in the Complex Plane.

5. Chapter 5 : Inﬁnite Series Involving a Complex Variable.

6. Chapter 6 : Residues and Their Use in Integration.

Acknowledgement. We thank the collaborators for all their helps. These include :

Name University

Mai Thanh Nhat Truong HCMC University of Science

Tran Hong Tai HCMC University of Science

Vu Tran Minh Khuong HCMC University of Science

Ngo Thanh Ha HCMC University of Science

The reader can ﬁnd and download our “Functions of One Complex Variable” at :

http://anhkhoavo1210.wordpress.com/

And if you have any questions of feedback, please feel free to contact us at :

hambienphuck10@gmail.com

Note. Although this essay is free on sharing, we do not accept an arbitrary case

that relates to the copyright of it.

3

Bibliography

[1] A. David Wunsch (University of Massachusetts Lowell), Complex Variables with Applica-

tions, 3rd ed, 2005.

[2] Dau The Cap (Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy), Ham Bien Phuc & Phep Tinh

Toan Tu, 2006.

[3] Terence Tao (University of California Los Angeles), Lecture Note of Complex Analysis.

[4] Dang Duc Trong - Dinh Ngoc Thanh - Pham Hoang Quan (Ho Chi Minh City University

of Science), Giao trinh Giai Tich 2, 2008.

4

Contents

PREFACE 3

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS 7

1.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.2 MORE PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX NUMBERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

1.3 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND THE ARGAND PLANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

1.4 INTEGER AND FRACTIONAL POWERS OF A COMPLEX NUMBER . . . . 27

1.5 POINTS, SETS, LOCI, AND REGIONS IN THE COMPLEX PLANE . . . . . . 39

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE 41

2.1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

2.2 LIMITS AND CONTINUITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

2.3 THE COMPLEX DERIVATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

2.4 THE DERIVATIVE AND ANALYTICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

2.5 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS 74

3.1 THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

3.2 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

3.3 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

3.4 THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

3.5 ANALYTICITY OF THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

3.6 COMPLEX EXPONENTIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

3.7 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC AND HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . 105

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE 109

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO LINE INTEGRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

4.2 COMPLEX LINE INTEGRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.3 CONTOUR INTEGRATION AND GREEN’S THEOREM . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

4.4 PATH INDEPENDENCE, INDEFINITE INTEGRALS, FUNDAMENTAL THE-

OREM OF CALCULUS IN THE COMPLEX PLANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

4.5 THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA AND ITS EXTENSION . . . . . . . . 124

4.6 SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA . . . . . . 127

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE 131

5.1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF REAL SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

5.2 COMPLEX SEQUENCES AND CONVERGENCE OF COMPLEX SERIES . . 135

5.3 UNIFORM CONVERGENCE OF SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

5

Contents

5.4 POWER SERIES AND TAYLOR SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

5.5 TECHNIQUES FOR OBTAINING TAYLOR SERIES EXPANSIONS . . . . . . 155

5.6 LAURENT SERIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION 169

6.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESIDUES . . . . . . . . . . . 169

6.2 ISOLATED SINGULARITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

6.3 FINDING THE RESIDUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

6.4 EVALUATION OF REAL INTEGRALS WITH RESIDUE CALCULUS I . . . . 180

6.5 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183

6.6 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

6

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In this section, we show the exercise 10, 11, 20, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 32; and we note that E,

P mean the exercise, the page which are numbered respectively. We aslo call that 1, · are

respectively the symbols of real part and imaginary part of the complex number.

Exercise 1.1. (E. 10 P. 7)

An infinite decimal such as e = 2.718281... is an irrational number since there is no repetitive

pattern in the successive digits. However, an infinite decimal such a 23.232323... is a rational

number. Because the digits do repeat in a cyclical manner, we can write this number as the

ration of two integers, as the following steps will show.

First we rewrite the number as 23 (1.010101...) = 23

_

1 + 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ...

_

.

1. Recall from your knowledge of infinite geometric series that

1

1 −r

= 1 + r + r

2

+ ..., where

r is a real number such that −1 < r < 1.

Sum the series

_

1 + 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ...

¸

.

2. Use the result of part (a) to show that 23.232323... equals

2300

99

. Verify this wit a divison

on a pocket calculator.

3. Using the same technique, express 376.376376... as a ration of integers.

Solution.

1. For the inﬁnite geometric series, we can choose r = 10

−2

. Hence, we evaluate sum of the

following series.

1 + 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ... =

1

1 −10

−2

=

100

99

2. In a similar fashion, we have

23.232323... = 23 (1.010101...)

= 23

_

1 + 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ...

_

=

2300

99

7

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

3. By choosing r = 10

−3

, we have

_

1 + 10

−3

+ 10

−6

+ ...

¸

=

1

1 −10

−3

=

1000

999

Thus, we apply the above expression for expressing 376.376376...

376.376376... = 376 (1.001001...)

= 376

_

1 + 10

−3

+ 10

−6

+ ...

_

= 376.

1000

999

=

376000

999

Exercise 1.2. (E. 11 P. 7)

Recall from your knowledge of inﬁnite geometric series that

1

1 −r

= 1 +r +r

2

+..., where r is

a real number such that −1 < r < 1.

1. Using the method of this, express 3.04040404 . . . as the ratio of integers.

2. Using the above method show that .9999... is identical to 1. If you have any doubt about

this, try to ﬁnd a number between .9999... and 1.

Solution.

1. We observe that

3.04040404... = 3 (1.01010101...) + 0.01010101...

= 3

_

1 + 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ...

_

+ 10

−2

+ 10

−4

+ 10

−6

+ ...

We choose r = 10

−2

for inﬁnite geometric series, so the above equality is equivalent to

3.

1

1 −10

−2

+

1

1 −10

−2

−1 =

301

99

2. Using a similar fashion, we consider

8

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

0.9999... = 9 (0.1111...)

= 9

_

10

−1

+ 10

−2

+ 10

−3

+ 10

−4

+ ...

_

= 9

_

1

1 −10

−1

−1

_

= 1

Completing the proof by using r = 10

−1

.

Exercise 1.3. (E. 20 P. 8)

In the following exercise, perform the operations and express the result in the form a+ib, where

a and b are real.

(x + iy) (u −iv) (x −iy) (u + iv)

where x, y, u, v are real.

Solution.

We use the commutative rule to simplify this expression.

(x + iy)(u −iv)(x −iy)(u + iv) = (x + iy)(x −iy)(u −iv)(u + iv)

=

_

x

2

−ixy + iyx −i

2

y

2

_ _

u

2

−iuv + ivu −i

2

v

2

_

= (x

2

+ y

2

)(u

2

+ v

2

)

Exercise 1.4. (E. 21 P. 8)

Review the following binomial theorem.

(a + b)

n

=

n

k=0

a

n−k

b

k

n!

(n −k)!k!

where n ≥ 0, a and b are complex numbers.

1. Use this theorem to ﬁnd a sum to represent (1 + iy)

n

, where n is a positive integer.

2. Use your above results to ﬁnd the real and imaginary parts of (1 + i2)

5

.

Solution.

1. For n is a positive integer, we can extend the expression (1 + iy)

n

.

(1 + iy)

n

=

n

k=0

(iy)

k

n!

k! (n −k)!

2. By applying the above results, we have

9

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

(1 + 2i)

5

=

n

k=0

(2i)

k

5!

k!(5 −k)!

= 5!

_

1 +

2i

4!

+

4i

2

2!3!

+

8i

3

3!2!

+

16i

4

4!

+

32i

5

5!

_

= 1 + 10i −40 −80i + 80 + 32i

= 41 −38i

So that, real part is 41 and imaginary part is −38.

Exercise 1.5. (E. 22, E. 23 P. 9)

Let z

1

= x

1

+ iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+ iy

2

be complex numbers, where the subscripted x and y are

real. Show that

1. 1(z

1

z

2

) = 1(z

1

) 1(z

2

) −·(z

1

) ·(z

2

)

2. ·(z

1

z

2

) = 1(z

1

) ·(z

2

) +·(z

1

) 1(z

2

)

Solution.

1. Let z

1

= x

1

+ iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+ iy

2

be complex numbers with 1(z

1

) = x

1

, 1(z

2

) =

x

2

, ·(z

1

) = y

1

and ·(z

2

) = y

2

respectively. We have

z

1

z

2

= x

1

x

2

−y

1

y

2

+ i(x

1

y

2

+ x

2

y

1

)

Hence,

1(z

1

z

2

) = x

1

x

2

−y

1

y

2

= 1(z

1

)1(z

2

) −·(z

1

)·(z

2

)

The exercise is completely shown.

2. Let z

1

= x

1

+iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+iy

2

be complex number again. We have 1(z

1

) = x

1

, ·(z

1

) =

y

1

, 1(z

2

) = x

2

, ·(z

2

) = y

2

. Then we review z

1

z

2

= x

1

x

2

−y

1

y

2

+ i(x

1

y

2

+ x

2

y

1

). We will

obtain

·(z

1

z

2

) = x

1

y

2

+ x

2

y

1

= 1(z

1

) ·(z

2

) +·(z

1

) 1(z

2

)

, as desired.

10

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.6. (E. 29, E. 30, E. 32 P. 9)

For the following equations, x and y are real numbers. Solve for x and y. Begin by equating

the real parts on each side of the equation, and then the imaginary parts, thus obtaining two

real equations. Obtain all possible solutions.

1. e

x

2

+y

2

+ i2y = e

−2xy

+ i

2. Log(x + y) + iy = 1 + ixy

3. cos x + i sin x = cosh(y −1) + ixy

Solution.

1. By equating the real part of the left side to the real part on the right, and similarly for

imaginary parts, we get a set of equations

_

_

_

e

x

2

+y

2

= e

−2xy

2y = 1

This is equivalent to

_

¸

_

¸

_

_

x +

1

2

_

2

= 0

y =

1

2

So we have (x, y) =

_

−

1

2

;

1

2

_

as a unique root.

2. According to (1), we obtain a set of equations

_

_

_

Log (x + y) = 1

y = xy

In the second equation, we can derive x = 1 or y = 0.

By using ﬁrst equation, we have y = e−1 for the case x = 1, and x = e for the case y = 0.

Hence, we investigate (x, y) = ¦(1; e −1) ; (e; 0)¦ as the needed roots.

3. As a similar method, we have

_

_

_

cos x = cosh (y −1)

sin x = xy

We remember a formula

cosh u =

e

u

+ e

−u

2

By using AM-GM inequality, we obtain cosh u ≥ 1 for all u. And we also know that

cos v ≤ 1 for all v. Hence

cos x ≤ 1 ≤ cosh (y −1)

Thus that set of equations is equivalent to

11

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

cos x = 1

cosh (y −1) = 1

sin x = 1

Then, we ﬁnd a root which is (0; 1).

12

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.2 MORE PROPERTIES OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

We have the exercise 3, 6, 12, 14, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24 in this section.

Exercise 1.7. (E. 3, E. 6 P. 12)

We showed in this section material that z

1

+ z

2

= z

1

+z

2

, where z

1

= x

1

+iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+iy

2

.

Follow a similar argument, to show the following.

1.

_

1

z

1

_

=

1

z

1

2. 1(z

1

z

2

) = 1(z

1

z

2

)

Solution.

1. Where z

1

= x

1

+ iy

1

is a complex number, we consider the following expression.

1

z

1

=

1

x

1

+ iy

1

=

x

1

−iy

1

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

We derive the left side which is equivalent to

_

1

z

1

_

=

_

x

1

−iy

1

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

_

=

x

1

−iy

1

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

=

x

1

+ iy

1

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

=

1

z

1

Hence, we prove (1) completely.

2. In Exercise 1.5 (E. 22 P. 9), we already have 1(z

1

z

2

) = x

1

x

2

−y

1

y

2

. Then, we also derive

z

1

z

2

= x

1

x

2

− y

1

y

2

+ i (x

1

y

2

+ x

2

y

1

) by using z

1

= x

1

− iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

− iy

2

where

x

1

, x

2

, y

1

, y

2

are real numbers.

At this point, we can understand why the proof is completed as desired.

Exercise 1.8. (E. 12, E. 14 P. 12)

Compute the numerical values of the following expressions. Give the answers in the form a +ib

where a and b are real.

1. 2i +

3 −4i

1 + 2i

2.

_

4 −4i

2 + 2i

_

7

+

_

4 + 4i

2 −2i

_

7

Solution.

13

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1. For evaluating this expression, we can simplify the fraction

3 −4i

1 + 2i

. We have

3 −4i

1 + 2i

=

(3 −4i) (1 −2i)

(1 + 2i) (1 −2i)

=

3 −6i −4i + 8i

2

1 −4i

2

=

−5 −10i

5

At this point, it is easy to compute this expression. For concretness let us write

2i +

3 −4i

1 + 2i

= −1

2. For calculating this expression, we can break it into smaller parts. In speciﬁc, we get

•

_

4 −4i

2 + 2i

_

7

=

_

0 −16i

8

_

7

= −2

7

i

•

_

4 + 4i

2 −2i

_

7

=

_

0 + 16i

8

_

7

= 2

7

i

So the sum of expression equals 0.

Exercise 1.9. (E. 18, E. 19, E. 21 P. 13)

Let z

1

, z

2

and z

3

be three arbitrary complex numbers. Which of the following equations are

true in general?

1. i (z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) = i (z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

)

2. 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

) = 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

)

3. 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

) = ·(iz

1

z

2

z

3

)

Solution.

1. The equation i(z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) = i(z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) is not true in general.

For concreteness let us choose z

1

= z

2

= 0;z

3

= i, we have

_

_

_

i(z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) = −1

i(z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) = 1

We can see i(z

1

+ z

2

+ z

3

) = −i(z

1

+z

2

+z

3

) is true for any z

1

, z

2

, z

3

. If the readers have

any doubt about this, try to ﬁnd a distinct equation.

2. This equation is true in general. According to Exercise 1.7 (E. 6 P. 12), we have 1

_

k

1

k

2

_

=

1

_

k

1

k

2

_

, with k

1

, k

2

are two arbitrary complex numbers.

14

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Hence,

1(z

1

z

2

z

3

) = 1[z

1

(z

2

z

3

)]

= 1[z

1

(z

2

z

3

)]

= 1

_

z

1

(z

2

z

3

)

_

= 1[z

1

(z

2

z

3

)]

= 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

)

3. In general, we assert this which is true. In details, we know that 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

) = 1(z

1

z

2

z

3

)

by applying the above exercise. Then, we put z

1

z

2

z

3

= z

4

because they are also a complex

number. So this equation is equivalent to

1z

4

= ·(iz

4

)

At this point, we can use properties of complex numbers. For concretness let we write

_

¸

_

¸

_

1z

4

=

z

4

+ z

4

2

·(iz

4

) =

iz

4

−iz

4

2i

We note that iz

4

= −z

4

, hence the event 1z

4

= ·(iz

4

) that is really true.

Exercise 1.10. (E. 22 P. 13)

Consider this problem : (3

2

+5

2

)(2

2

+7

2

) = (p

2

+q

2

). Our unknowns p and q are assumed to be

nonnegative integers. This problem has two sets of solution : p = 29, q = 31 and p = 41, q = 11,

as reader can verify. We derive here a general solution to problems of the following type : we

are given k, l, m, n which are nonnegative integers. We seek two sets of nonnegative integers p

and q such that (p

2

+q

2

) = (k

2

+l

2

)(m

2

+n

2

). It is not obvious that there are integers solutions,

but complex will prove that there are.

1. Note that by factoring we have (p+iq)(p−iq) = (k +il)(k −il)(m+in)(m−in). Explain

why if (p + iq) = (k + il)(m + in) is satisﬁed, then (p − iq) = (k − il)(m− in) is also.

With this hint, show that we can take p = [km−nl[ and q = lm+kn as solutions to our

problem.

2. Rearrange the equation for (p + iq)(p − iq) given in (1) to show that we can also take

p = km + nl and q = [lm−kn[ as a solution to our problem.

3. Using the results of parts (1) and (2), verify the values for p and q given at the start of

the problem. In addition, solve the following problem for two sets of values for p and q :

(p

2

+ q

2

) = (122)(53).

Solution.

1. If (p+iq) = (k+il)(m+in) is satisﬁed, then we have (p+iq)(p−iq) = (k+il)(m+in)(p−iq).

15

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

For the case (k + il)(m + in) = 0, this means p + iq = 0 or p = q = 0. But we already

have p, q which are nonnegative numberss. So this case does not happen.

Hence, if we want (p + iq)(p − iq) = (k + il)(k − il)(m + in)(m − in) to occur, then

(p −iq) = (k −il)(m−in).

Take p = [km−nl[ and q = lm + kn, we can see that p

2

+ q

2

=

_

k

2

+ l

2

_ _

m

2

+ n

2

_

. We

thus complete this proof.

2. At this time, we look at (p + iq) (p −iq) = (k + il) (m−in) (m + in) (k −il). So if

(p + iq) = (k + il) (m−in) is satisﬁed, then (p −iq) = (m + in) (k −il).

We can prove that if (p + iq) = (k + il) (m−in) is occur, we need take p = km + nl

and q = [lm−kn[. Hence, we verify this values of p, q, we also see that p

2

+ q

2

=

_

k

2

+ l

2

_ _

m

2

+ n

2

_

.

We prove the exercise successfully.

3. Now we need to check with the solution : p

2

+ q

2

= (122) (53) to ﬁnd out whether these

above results are true. We ﬁrst divide 122 into sum of 11

2

and 1

2

, and break 53 into sum

of 7

2

and 2

2

. So we have p

2

+ q

2

=

_

11

2

+ 1

2

_ _

7

2

+ 2

2

_

.

Then we use the formula in part (1) with k = 11, l = 1, m = 7 and n = 2, they are already

nonnegative integers so let take p = [km−ln[ = 75 and q = kn + lm = 29. For formula

in part (2), we have p = km + nl = 79 and q = [lm−kn[ = [−15[ = 15.

The readers can verify two p and q of each others.

Exercise 1.11. (E. 24 P. 13)

In Haminton’s formulation two complex numbers (a, b) and (c, d) are said to be equal if and only

if a = c and b = d. These are necessary and sufficient conditions. In dealing with fractions we

are to making a comparable statement in asserting their equality. Consider

p

q

and

r

s

, where the

numerators and denominators are complex numbers. Find the necessary and sufficient conditons

for these fractions to be equal.

Solution.

With a

1

, a

2

, b

1

, b

2

are real numbers, we can build four complex numbers which is formed

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

p = a

1

+ ib

1

q = a

2

+ ib

2

r = c

1

+ id

1

s = c

2

+ id

2

But we must note that if we want to have the fractions

p

q

and

r

s

, then we need both denom-

inators are defined as the initial conditions. It means a

2

2

+ b

2

2

,= 0 and c

2

2

+ d

2

2

,= 0.

We consider two fractions and try to simplify these if we can.

16

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

p

q

=

a

1

+ ib

1

a

2

+ ib

2

=

(a

1

+ ib

1

) (a

2

−ib

2

)

(a

2

+ ib

2

) (a

2

−ib

2

)

=

(a

1

a

2

+ b

1

b

2

) + i (a

2

b

1

−a

1

b

2

)

a

2

2

+ b

2

2

In a similar fashion, we also reduce the following fraction.

r

s

=

c

1

+ id

1

c

2

+ id

2

=

(c

1

+ id

1

) (c

2

−id

2

)

(c

2

+ id

2

) (c

2

−id

2

)

=

(c

1

c

2

+ d

1

d

2

) + i (c

2

d

1

−c

1

d

2

)

c

2

2

+ d

2

2

At this point, we can apply Hamilton’s formulation for these fractions. In details,

p

q

and

r

s

are said to be equal if and only if

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

a

1

a

2

+ b

1

b

2

a

2

2

+ b

2

2

=

c

1

c

2

+ d

1

d

2

c

2

2

+ d

2

2

a

2

b

1

−a

1

b

2

a

2

2

+ b

2

2

=

c

2

d

1

−c

1

d

2

c

2

2

+ d

2

2

with the above initial conditions.

17

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.3 COMPLEX NUMBERS AND THE ARGAND PLANE

We present the exercise 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 35, 38, 39, 41, 43, 44, 45. And in this section,

we have a convention cisθ which is equivalent to cos θ + i sin θ.

Exercise 1.12. (E. 7, E. 8 P. 26)

Find the modulus of each of the following complex expressions :

1.

(1 + i)

5

(2 + 3i)

5

2.

(1 −i)

n

(2 + 2i)

n

, n > 0 is an integer.

Solution.

1. We have

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(1 + i)

5

(2 + 3i)

5

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

[1 + i[

5

[2 + 3i[

5

We evaluate the modulus of numerator and denominator.

• [1 + i[

5

=

_√

2

_

5

• [2 + 3i[

5

=

_√

13

_

5

So the consistent result is

4

169

_

2

13

.

2. We have to compute the denominator and the numerator respectively after having the

diﬀerent form of expression.

¸

¸

¸

¸

(1 −i)

n

(2 + 2i)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

[1 −i[

n

[2 + 2i[

n

Analyzing [2 + 2i[

n

= 8

n

2

and [1 −i[

n

= 2

n

2

, we have the following fraction

[1 −i[

n

[2 + 2i[

n

=

2

n

2

8

n

2

=

1

2

n

, n > 0 is an integer.

So this is the result of the exercise.

Exercise 1.13. (E. 10 P. 26)

Find two complex numbers that are conjugates of each other. The magnitude of their sum is 1

and the sum of their magnitudes is 2.

Solution.

We derive that z

1

and z

2

are two complex numbers that are conjugates of each other, with

z

1

= a + ib, z

2

= a −bi, where a, b are real numbers.

18

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Therefore, we get a set of equations.

_

_

_

[z

1

+ z

2

[ = 1

[z

1

[ +[z

2

[ = 2

Because of [z

1

+ z

2

[ =

_

(a + a)

2

+ (b −b)

2

and [z

1

[ + [z

2

[ =

√

a

2

+ b

2

+

√

a

2

+ b

2

, a set of

equations is equivalent to

_

_

_

√

2a

2

= 1

√

a

2

+ b

2

= 1

Thus, we have 4 pairs complex numbers.

(a, b) =

__

1

√

2

;

1

√

2

_

,

_

−

1

√

2

; −

1

√

2

_

,

_

−

1

√

2

;

1

√

2

_

,

_

1

√

2

; −

1

√

2

__

So we can choose

_

¸

_

¸

_

z

1

=

1

√

2

+ i

1

√

2

z

2

=

1

√

2

−i

1

√

2

as the answer.

Exercise 1.14. (E. 11 P. 26)

Find two complex numbers that are conjugates to each other. The magnitude of their sum is a

and the sum of their magnitude is

1

2

, where 0 < a < 1. Answer in terms of a.

Solution.

We set z

1

= x

1

+iy

1

, z

2

= x

1

−iy

1

where x

1

, y

1

are real numbers, because z

1

, z

2

are conjugates

to each other as the exercise says.

And we have these complex numbers satisﬁed by two initial conditions, namely

_

_

_

[z

1

+ z

2

[ = a

[z

1

[ +[z

2

[ =

1

a

, where 0 < a < 1.

We also have [z

1

+ z

2

[ = 2 [x

1

[ and [z

1

[ +[z

2

[ = 2

_

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

. Hence, the above set of equation

is equivalent to

_

_

_

2 [x

1

[ = a

2

_

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

=

1

a

At this point, we can solve this set of equations to derive the roots by using a < 1. And we

see that the exercise only suggests ﬁnding two complex numbers, so we can choose

_

¸

_

¸

_

x

1

=

a

2

y

1

=

1

2

_

1

a

2

−a

2

19

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

as a result.

Hence,

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

z

1

=

a

2

+

1

2

i

_

1

a

2

−a

2

z

2

=

a

2

−

1

2

i

_

1

a

2

−a

2

Exercise 1.15. (E. 12 P. 26)

Find two complex numbers whose product is 2 and whose difference is i.

Solution.

In a similar way of Exercise 1.14 (E. 11 P. 26), we build z

1

= x

1

+ iy

1

, z

2

= x

1

− iy

1

where

x

1

, y

1

are real numbers.

The initial conditions is known as two informations of this exercise : z

1

z

2

= 2 and z

1

−z

2

= i

because we can take z

1

− z

2

> 0. In details, we also write these to become a set of equations

with x

1

, y

1

variables.

_

_

_

x

2

1

+ y

2

1

= 2

2iy

1

= i

At this point, we can solve this set of equations easily. Thus we have the following result.

_

¸

_

¸

_

z

1

=

√

7

2

+

1

2

i

z

2

=

√

7

2

−

1

2

i

Exercise 1.16. (E. 13, E. 17 P. 26)

The following vectors represent complex numbers. State these numbers in the form a + ib.

1. The vector beginning at (−1, −3) and terminating at (1, 4).

2. The vector of length

3

2

beginning at the origin and ending, in the ﬁrst quadrant, on the

circle (x −1)

2

+ y

2

= 1.

Solution.

1. We show the vector in Figure 1 which is called

− →

a .

20

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Figure 1.

Hence, we have

− →

a = (1; 4) −(−1; −3) = (2; 7). Then the consistent form is 2 + 7i.

2. We see that the vector of length is known as its magnitude, so we have

_

x

2

+ y

2

=

3

2

.

Then, we can create a set of equations.

_

_

_

_

x

2

+ y

2

=

3

2

(x −1)

2

+ y

2

= 1

By solving this set and noticing the ﬁrst quadrant of circle, we obtain the consistent form

is z =

9

8

+ i

3

√

7

8

.

We can see it in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

21

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.17. (E. 35 P. 27)

Reduce the following expression to the form rcisθ, giving only the principal value of the angle.

A =

(−1 −i) cis

_

π

4

_

_√

3 + i

_

2

Solution.

We consider the numerator and denominator of expression A, and we can present these into

trigonometric forms.

_

_

_

−1 −i = −

√

2cis

_

π

4

_

_√

3 + i

_

2

= 2cis

_

π

6

_

Thus, expression A is equivalent to

A =

−

√

2cis

_

π

4

_

cis

_

π

4

_

2cis

_

π

6

_

=

−

√

2

2

cis

_

π

2

_

cis

_

π

6

_

=

−

√

2

2

cis

_

π

3

_

Exercise 1.18. (E. 38 P. 27)

1. Let z

1

and z

2

be complex numbers. By replacing z

2

with −z

2

in the inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≤

[z

1

[ +[z

2

[, show that

[z

1

−z

2

[ ≤ [z

1

[ +[z

2

[

Interpret this result with the aid of triangle.

2. What must be the relationship between z

1

and z

2

in order to have the equality hold in

part (1) ?

Solution.

1. Using inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≤ [z

1

[ + [z

2

[ and replacing z

2

with −z

2

in this, we have −z

2

which is also a complex number. Hence,

[z

1

−z

2

[ = [z

1

+ (−z

2

)[ ≤ [z

1

[ +[−z

2

[

The readers can verify [z

2

[ = [−z

2

[ easily, so that we obtain the completed proof.

This inequality can be explain explicitly in Figure 3.

22

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Figure 3.

2. The equality hold in part (1) if only if z

1

= −z

2

, namely

_

_

_

cos (arg z

1

) = −cos (arg z

2

)

sin (arg z

1

) = −sin (arg z

2

)

For the ﬁrst equation, we can deduce that arg z

1

= π −arg z

2

+ k2π or arg z

1

= arg z

2

−

π + k2π, for all k is an integer. In a similar way, for the second equation, we derive that

arg z

1

= −arg z

2

+ k2π or arg z

1

= π + arg z

2

+ k2π, for all k is an integer.

Finally, we have arg z

1

= π + arg z

2

+ k2π for all k is an integer.

Exercise 1.19. (E. 39 P. 27)

Let z

1

and z

2

be complex numbers. Show that

[z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

1

[ −[z

2

[ ≥ 0 if [z

1

[ ≥ [z

2

[

[z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

2

[ −[z

1

[ ≥ 0 if [z

2

[ ≥ [z

1

[

Explain why both formulas can be reduced to the single expression

[z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [[z

1

[ −[z

2

[[

Solution.

In a similar way of Exercise 1.18 (E. 38 P. 27), we still use inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≤ [z

1

[ + [z

2

[

and try to get some distinct patterns to prove the inequalities of this exercise. We look at the

following technique.

[z

1

[ = [z

1

+ z

2

+ (−z

2

)[

At this point, we have [z

1

+ z

2

+ (−z

2

)[ ≤ [z

1

+ z

2

[ +[−z

2

[. It is easy to see that [−z

2

[ = [z

2

[.

Thus we prove [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

1

[ −[z

2

[ for all z

1

, z

2

are complex numbers, so if [z

1

[ ≥ [z

2

[, we can

deduce an equality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

1

[ −[z

2

[ ≥ 0.

23

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Hence, we also show the inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

2

[ − [z

1

[ for all z

1

, z

2

are complex numbers

by using the same technique.

[z

2

[ = [z

2

+ z

1

+ (−z

1

)[ ≤ [z

1

+ z

2

[ +[z

1

[

So we can derive an equality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [z

2

[ −[z

1

[ ≥ 0 if [z

2

[ ≥ [z

1

[.

Because an inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≥ [[z

1

[ −[z

2

[[ can divide into two cases. These cases are really

two inequalities which is shown in this exercise. Hence, the proof is completed.

Exercise 1.20. (E. 41 P. 28)

1. By considering the expression (p −q)

2

, where p and q are nonnegative real numbers, show

that p + q ≤

√

2

_

p

2

+ q

2

.

2. Use the preceding result to show that for any complex number z we have [1z[ + [·z[ ≤

√

2 [z[.

Solution.

1. We consider the expression (p −q)

2

, where p and q are nonnegative real numbers. We

have this expression which interpolates an inequality

(p + q)

2

≤ 2

_

p

2

+ q

2

_

Thus we can complete this proof because of square roots.

2. For any complex number z, we put z = x+iy, where x and y are real numbers. The proof

is equivalent to

[x[ +[y[ ≤

√

2 [x + iy[

We see that [x + iy[ =

_

x

2

+ y

2

, so this proof becomes part (1) which is shown.

Exercise 1.21. (E. 43 P. 28)

1. By considering the product of 1 + ia and 1 + ib, and the argument of each factor, where

a and b are real numbers. Show that

arctan(a) + arctan(b) = arctan

_

a + b

1 −ab

_

2. Use the preceding formula to prove that

π = 4

_

arctan

_

1

2

_

+ arctan

_

1

3

__

3. Extend the technique used in (1) to ﬁnd a formula for arctan(a) + arctan(b) + arctan(c).

Solution.

1. Let z

1

be 1 + ia and z

2

be 1 + ib, where a, b are real numbers. We get

z

1

z

2

= 1 −ab + i(a + b)

24

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

By using these knowledges : arg z

1

+ arg z

2

= arg (z

1

z

2

), arg z

1

= arctan a, arg z

2

=

arctan b and arg (z

1

z

2

) = arctan

_

a + b

1 −ab

_

, we can derive

arctan a + arctan b = arctan

_

a + b

1 −ab

_

, as desired.

2. Applying the above result, we take a =

1

2

and b =

1

3

. Hence,

arctan

1

2

+ arctan

1

3

= arctan (1)

=

π

4

So we prove (2) completely.

3. By the same the technique used in (1), we can ﬁnd that

arctan a + arctan b + arctan c = arctan

a + b + c −abc

1 −ab −bc −ca

where a, b, c are real numbers.

If the readers have any doubt about the above result, try to prove it in a similar interpo-

lation.

Exercise 1.22. (E. 44 P. 28)

1. Consider the inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[

2

≤ [z

1

[

2

+ [z

2

[

2

+ 2 [z

1

[ [z

2

[. Prove this expression by

algebraic means (no triangles).

2. Observe that [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

+ 2 [z

1

[ [z

2

[ = ([z

1

[ +[z

2

[)

2

. Show that the inequality proved in

part (1) leads to the triangle inequality [z

1

+ z

2

[ ≤ [z

1

[ +[z

2

[.

Solution.

1. By using the formula of modulus of one complex number, we have

[z

1

+ z

2

[

2

= (z

1

+ z

2

) (z

1

+ z

2

)

= (z

1

+ z

2

) (z

1

+ z

2

)

= [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

+ z

1

z

2

+ z

1

z

2

Then we notice that z

1

z

2

+ z

1

z

2

= 21(z

1

z

2

) ≤ 2 [z

1

z

2

[. Hence, the above expression is

less than or equal to [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

+ 2 [z

1

z

2

[. Next, we also notice that [z

1

z

2

[ is equivalent

to [z

1

[ [z

2

[.

At this point, we have the successful proof.

25

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

2. According to part (1), we get

[z

1

+ z

2

[

2

≤ [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

+ 2 [z

1

[ [z

2

[

, for all z

1

, z

2

are complex numbers.

By using the initial condition that is

[z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

+ 2 [z

1

[ [z

2

[ = ([z

1

[ +[z

2

[)

2

, we derive that

[z

1

+ z

2

[

2

≤ ([z

1

[ +[z

2

[)

2

And this inequality is equivalent to

[z

1

+ z

2

[ ≤ [z

1

[ +[z

2

[

because the modulus of one complex number is already nonnegative real number. Hence,

the proof is completed.

Exercise 1.23. (E. 45 P. 28)

Beginning with the product (z

1

−z

2

) (z

1

−z

2

), show that

[z

1

−z

2

[

2

= [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

−21(z

1

z

2

)

Solution.

Beginning with the product (z

1

−z

2

) (z

1

−z

2

), for all z

1

= x

1

+iy

1

and z

2

= x

2

+iy

2

, where

x

1

, x

2

, y

1

, y

2

are real numbers. We have

[z

1

−z

2

[

2

= (z

1

−z

2

) (z

1

−z

2

)

= [x

1

−x

2

+ i (y

1

−y

2

)] [x

1

−x

2

+ i (−y

1

+ y

2

)]

= x

2

1

+ x

2

2

−2x

1

x

2

+ y

2

1

+ y

2

2

−2y

1

y

2

= [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

−2 (x

1

x

2

+ y

1

y

2

)

At this point, we get z

1

z

2

= x

1

x

2

+y

1

y

2

+i (−x

1

y

2

+ y

1

x

2

), so 1(z

1

z

2

) is exactly x

1

x

2

+y

1

y

2

.

Therefore, we obtain what we need to prove.

[z

1

−z

2

[

2

= [z

1

[

2

+[z

2

[

2

−21(z

1

z

2

)

26

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.4 INTEGER AND FRACTIONAL POWERS OF A COMPLEX

NUMBER

We choose the exercise 7, 8, 9, 20, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35 for illustrational section.

Exercise 1.24. (E. 7 P. 35)

1. Using DeMoivre’s theorem, the binomial formula, and an obvious trigonometric identity,

show that for integer n,

cos nθ = 1

n

k=0

_

cos

n−k

θ

_

_

√

1 −cos

2

θ

_

k

i

k

n!

(n −k)!k!

2. Show that the preceding expression can be written as

cos nθ =

n/2

m=0

(cos θ)

n−2m

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

m

(−1)

m

n!

(n −2m)! (2m)!

, if n is even,

cos nθ =

(n−1)/2

m=0

(cos θ)

n−2m

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

m

(−1)

m

n!

(n −2m)! (2m)!

, if n is odd.

Solution.

1. We can change the right side for using the binomial formula.

1

n

k=0

_

cos

n−k

θ

__

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

k

i

k

n!

(n −k)!k!

= 1

n

k=0

(cos θ)

n−k

(i [sin θ[)

k

n!

(n −k)!k!

= 1(cos θ + i [sin θ[)

n

For the case sin θ ≥ 0, the above expression is equivalent to

1(cos θ + i sin θ)

n

= 1(cos nθ + i sin nθ) = cos nθ

For the case sin θ < 0, we obtain

1(cos θ −i sin θ)

n

= 1[cos (−θ) + i sin (−θ)]

n

= cos (−nθ)

= cos nθ

The proof is completed by using DeMoivre’s theorem.

2. If n is even, we put n = 2p, where p is integer. Hence that ﬁrst proof is equivalent to

27

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

cos 2pθ =

p

m=0

(cos θ)

2p−2m

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

m

(−1)

m

(2p)!

(2p −2m)! (2m)!

=

p

m=0

(cos θ)

2p−2m

_

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

2m

(i)

2m

(2p)!

(2p −2m)! (2m)!

= 1

2p

k=0

_

cos

2p−k

θ

__

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

k

i

k

(2p)!

(2p −k)!k!

This is proved in part (1), so the ﬁrst proof is completely true.

In a similar fashion, if n is odd, we put n = 2q + 1, where q is integer. Thus the second

proof is equivalent to

cos (2q + 1) θ =

q

m=0

(cos θ)

2q+1−2m

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

m

(−1)

m

(2q + 1)!

(2q + 1 −2m)! (2m)!

=

q

m=0

(cos θ)

2q+1−2m

_

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

2m

(i)

2m

(2q + 1)!

(2q + 1 −2m)! (2m)!

= 1

2q+1

k=0

_

cos

2q+1−k

θ

__

_

1 −cos

2

θ

_

k

i

k

(2q + 1)!

(2q + 1 −k)!k!

This is shown in part (1), hence the second proof is exact.

Exercise 1.25. (E. 8 P. 36)

Prove that

_

1 + i tan θ

1 −i tan θ

_

n

=

1 + i tan nθ

1 −i tan nθ

where n is any integer.

Solution.

For n is an arbitrary integer and an angle of θ that tan θ is deﬁned. We have

_

1 + i tan θ

1 −i tan θ

_

n

=

(cos θ + i sin θ)

n

(cos θ −i sin θ)

n

=

cos nθ + i sin nθ

cos nθ −i sin nθ

=

1 + i tan nθ

1 −i tan nθ

Completing the proof by using DeMoivre’s theorem.

28

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.26. (E. 9, E. 20 P.36)

Express the following in the form a +ib. Give all values and make a polar plot of the points or

the vectors that represent your results.

1. (9i)

1

2

2. (1 + i)

−5

4

Solution.

1. We put z = i, then we can derive the trigonometric form of z. This means z = cis

_

π

2

_

easily. Applying the formula z

1

m

=

m

√

rcis

_

θ

m

+

2kπ

m

_

, k = 0, m−1, with z = rcis (θ),

we have

(9i)

1

2

= 3

_

cos

_

π

2

_

+ i sin

_

π

2

__1

2

= 3

_

cos

_

π

4

+ kπ

_

+ i sin

_

π

4

+ kπ

__

, k = 0, 1.

Expressed as decimals, these answers become approximately

2.121 +i2.121 , k = 0

−2.121 −i2.121 , k = 1

Vectors representing the roots are plotted in Figure 4. We can see that they are spaced π

or 180

◦

apart.

Figure 4.

29

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

2. We put z = 1 + i and ﬁrst compute r =

√

2 and argument of z which we call θ, equals

π

4

by evaluating tan θ = 1.

Therefore, we have a following trigonometric form of z.

z =

√

2

_

cos

π

4

+ i sin

π

4

_

And then, our result is

z

−5

4

=

_

√

2

_−5

4

_

cos

_

−

5π

16

−

5kπ

2

_

+ i sin

_

−

5π

16

−

5kπ

2

__

=

_

√

2

_−5

4

_

cos

_

−

5π

16

−

kπ

2

_

+ i sin

_

−

5π

16

−

kπ

2

__

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3.

Expressed as decimals, these answers become approximately

0.360 − i0.539 , k = 0

−0.539 − i0.360 , k = 1

−0.360 + i0.539 , k = 2

0.539 + i0.360 , k = 3

Vectors representing the roots are plotted in Figure 5. We can see that they are spaced

π

2

or 90

◦

apart.

Figure 5.

30

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.27. (E. 27 P. 36)

1. Show that z

n+1

−1 = (z −1)

_

z

n

+ z

n−1

+ ... + z + 1

_

, where n ≥ 0 is an integer annd z

is any complex number.

The preceding implies that

z

n+1

−1

z −1

= z

n

+ z

n−1

+ ... + z+1 for z ,= 1

which the reader should recognize as the sum of a geometric series.

2. Use the preceding result to find and plot all solutions of z

4

+ z

3

+ z

2

+ z + 1 = 0.

Solution.

1. We prove it by mathematical induction :

For the case n = 0, the expression says

z −1 = (z −1) 1

This assertion is really true. Given the artiﬁciality of these assumptions, we may be

happier if the base case for n = 1 is also given.

For the case n = 1, the expression says

z

2

−1 = (z −1) (z + 1)

It is easy to see that the above assertion is true. Thus we have the base cases for our

induction.

For the induction step we assume that

z

k+1

−1 = (z −1)

_

z

k

+ z

k−1

+ ... + z + 1

_

and show that

z

k+2

−1 = (z −1)

_

z

k+1

+ z

k

+ ... + z + 1

_

We consider the left side z

k+2

− 1 which can be analyse the sum of (z −1) z

k+1

and

z

k+1

−1. Hence,

(z −1) z

k+1

+

_

z

k+1

−1

_

= (z −1) z

k+1

+ (z −1)

_

z

k

+ z

k−1

+ ... + z + 1

_

= (z −1)

_

z

k+1

+ z

k

+ z

k−1

+ ... + z + 1

_

At this point, we can have completely the proof.

2. By using the result of part (1), we can solve this equation. Moreover, we might present

these roots by plotting of trigonometric forms. This equation is equivalent to

z

5

−1

z −1

= 0

31

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Hence, we derive the roots because of z ,= 1.

z

5

= cos

π

2

+ i sin

π

2

Applying the DeMoivre’s theorem, we thus have

z = cos

_

π

10

+

k2π

5

_

+ i sin

_

π

10

+

k2π

5

_

, k = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

Expressed as decimals, these answers become approximately

z

0

= cos

π

10

+ i sin

π

10

= 0.951 + i0.309

z

1

= cos

_

π

10

+

2π

5

_

+ i sin

_

π

10

+

2π

5

_

= i

z

2

= cos

_

π

10

+

4π

5

_

+ i sin

_

π

10

+

4π

5

_

= −0.951 + i0.309

z

3

= cos

_

π

10

+

6π

5

_

+ i sin

_

π

10

+

6π

5

_

= −0.587 −i0.809

z

4

= cos

_

π

10

+

8π

5

_

+ i sin

_

π

10

+

8π

5

_

= 0.587 −i0.809

Then, according to the suggestion, we will plot all the above roots. The readers can see

it in Figure 6.

Figure 6.

32

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.28. (E. 28 P. 37)

1. If z = rcisθ, show that the sum of the values of z

1

n

is given by

n−1

k=0

n

√

r

_

cis

θ

n

__

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

where n ≥ 2 is an integer.

2. Show that the sum of the values of z

1

n

is zero. Do this by rewriting the preceding problem

in Exercise 1.26 (E. 27 P. 36), but with n−1 used in place of n, and employing the formula

of part (1).

Solution.

1. If z = rcisθ, we use the formula of z

1

n

, where n ≥ 2 is an integer.

z

1

n

=

n

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

n

+

2kπ

n

_

+ i sin

_

θ

n

+

2kπ

n

__

, k ∈ N, k = 0, n −1.

For the case k = 0, this formula says

z

1

n

=

n

√

r

_

cos

θ

n

+ i sin

θ

n

_

=

n

√

rcis

_

θ

n

_

For the case k = 1, this formula says

z

1

n

=

n

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

n

+

2π

n

_

+ i sin

_

θ

n

+

2π

n

__

=

n

√

rcis

_

θ

n

_

cis

_

2π

n

_

For the case k = 2, this formula also says

z

1

n

=

n

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

n

+

4π

n

_

+ i sin

_

θ

n

+

4π

n

__

=

n

√

rcis

_

θ

n

_

cis

_

4π

n

_

In a similar fashion, for the case k = n −1, we obtain

z

1

n

=

n

√

rcis

_

θ

n

_

cis

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

33

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Hence, the sum of the values of z

1

n

, which is called S, is created by the following expression.

S =

n

√

rcis

_

θ

n

__

1 + cis

_

2π

n

_

+ cis

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + cis

_

2 (n −1) π

n

__

=

n−1

k=0

n

√

r

_

cis

θ

n

__

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

, as desired.

2. We get the following formula

z

n

−1

z −1

=

n−1

k=0

z

k

, where n ≥ 0 is an integer and z is any complex number.

Thus we can choose z = cis

_

2π

n

_

, where n ≥ 2 is an integer. The above expression

becomes

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

n

−1

cis

_

2π

n

_

−1

=

n−1

k=0

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

Because of

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

n

− 1 = cis2π − 1 = 0, we can completely prove that the sum of

the values of z

1

n

is zero.

Exercise 1.29. (E. 29 P. 37)

1. Suppose a complex number is given in the form z = rcisθ. Recalling the indentities

sin

_

θ

2

_

= ±

¸

1

2

−

_

1

2

_

cos θ and cos

_

θ

2

_

= ±

¸

1

2

+

_

1

2

_

cos θ, show that

z

1

2

= ±

√

r

_

_

1 + cos θ

2

+ i

_

1 −cos θ

2

_

for 0 ≤ θ ≤ π.

2. Explain why the preceding formula is invalid for −π < θ < 0, and ﬁnd the corresponding

correct formula for this interval.

3. Use the formulas derived in (1) and (2) to ﬁnd the square roots of 2cis

_

π

6

_

and 2cis

_

−

π

6

_

,

respectively.

Solution.

1. Using the form z = rcisθ, we have

34

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

z

1

2

=

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

2

+ kπ

_

+ i sin

_

θ

2

+ kπ

__

, k = 0, 1. For 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, we see that if we take k = 0, the above expression is equivalent

to

z

1

2

=

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

2

_

+ i sin

_

θ

2

__

=

√

r

_

_

1 + cos θ

2

+ i

_

1 −cos θ

2

_

And for the case k = 1, we get

z

1

2

=

√

r

_

cos

_

θ

2

+ π

_

+ i sin

_

θ

2

+ π

__

= −

√

r

_

_

1 + cos θ

2

+ i

_

1 −cos θ

2

_

Then we prove part (1) completely.

2. For −π < θ < 0 because of principal argument. We observe that cos

_

θ

2

_

and sin

_

θ

2

_

are negative numbers, we obtain

z

1

2

= ±

√

r

_

_

1 + cos α

2

−i

_

1 −cos α

2

_

So this formula is not the above formula of part (1). Hence we ﬁnd out the corresponding

correct formula for this interval.

3. Applying the formula of part (1), the square roots of 2cis

_

π

6

_

equals

±

√

2

_

_

_

_

¸

¸

¸

_

1 + cos

π

6

2

+ i

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −cos

π

6

2

_

_

_

_

= ±

__

√

3 + 1

_

+ i

_

√

3 −1

__

And using the formula of part (2), the square roots of 2cis

_

−

π

6

_

is ±

__√

3 −1

_

−i

_√

3 + 1

_¸

.

35

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.30. (E. 34 P. 38)

Use the formula for the sum of a geometric series in Exercise 27 and DeMoivre’s theorem to

derive the following formulas for 0 <θ < 2π :

1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + + cos nθ =

cos

_

nθ

2

_

sin

_

(n + 1) θ

2

_

sin

_

θ

2

_

sin θ + sin 2θ + sin 3θ + + sin nθ =

sin

_

nθ

2

_

sin

_

(n + 1) θ

2

_

sin

_

θ

2

_

Solution.

By using DeMoivre’s theorem, we can have

n

k=0

cos kθ + i

_

n

k=0

sin kθ

_

= 1 + (cisθ) + (cis2θ)

2

+ + (cisnθ)

n

According to the formula z

n+1

−1 = (z −1)

_

z

n

+ z

n−1

+ + z + 1

_

, where n is an nonneg-

ative integer and z is any complex number, we have

36

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1 + (cisθ) + (cis2θ)

2

+ + (cisnθ)

n

=

(cisθ)

n+1

−1

cisθ −1

=

cos [(n + 1) θ] + i sin [(n + 1) θ] −1

cos θ + i sin θ −1

=

(cos θ −1 −i sin θ) ¦cos [(n + 1) θ] −1 + i sin [(n + 1) θ]¦

(cos θ −1 + i sin θ) (cos θ −1 −i sin θ)

=

(cos θ −1) ¦cos [(n + 1) θ] −1¦ + sin θ sin [(n + 1) θ]

2 (1 −cos θ)

+i

(cos θ −1) sin [(n + 1) θ] −sin θ ¦cos [(n + 1) θ] −1¦

2 (1 −cos θ)

=

cos [nθ] −cos θ −cos [(n + 1) θ] + 1

4 sin

2

θ

2

+i

sin (nθ) −sin [(n + 1) θ] + sin θ

4 sin

2

θ

2

=

2 sin

__

2n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

+ 2 sin

2

θ

2

4 sin

2

θ

2

+i

2 sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

−2 cos

__

2n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

4 sin

2

θ

2

=

cos

_

n

2

θ

_

sin

__

n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

+ i

sin

nθ

2

sin

__

n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

Using the homogeneous method, we can deduce that

1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + + cos nθ =

cos

_

n

2

θ

_

sin

__

n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

sin θ + sin 2θ + sin 3θ + + sin nθ =

sin

nθ

2

sin

__

n + 1

2

_

θ

_

sin

θ

2

, as desired.

37

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Exercise 1.31. (E. 35 P. 38)

If n is an integer greater than or equal to 2, prove that

cos

_

2π

n

_

+ cos

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + cos

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

= −1

and that

sin

_

2π

n

_

+ sin

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + sin

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

= 0

Solution.

For n is an integer greater than or equal to 2, we have this sum in Exercise 1.28 (E. 28 P. 37)

n−1

k=0

n

√

r

_

cis

θ

n

__

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

=

n−1

k=0

z

1

n

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

By choosing z = 1, the above formula becomes

n−1

k=0

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

.

And then, using general DeMoivre’s theorem, we get

n−1

k=0

_

cis

_

2π

n

__

k

=

n−1

k=0

cis

_

2kπ

n

_

= cos 0 + cos

_

2π

n

_

+ cos

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + cos

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

+i

_

sin 0 + sin

_

2π

n

_

+ sin

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + sin

_

2 (n −1) π

n

__

Using again the result of Exercise 1.28 (E. 28 P. 37), this says that the above sum is zero,

namely

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

cos 0 + cos

_

2π

n

_

+ cos

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + cos

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

= 0

sin 0 + sin

_

2π

n

_

+ sin

_

4π

n

_

+ ... + sin

_

2 (n −1) π

n

_

= 0

We note that cos 0 = 1 and sin 0 = 0, we thus have the proof successfully.

38

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

1.5 POINTS, SETS, LOCI, AND REGIONS IN THE COMPLEX

PLANE

We call the exercise 12, 31 as the presentation.

Exercise 1.32. (E. 12 P. 46)

Find the points on the circle [z −1 −i[ = 1 that have the nearest and furthest linear distance

to the point z = −1 + i0. In addition, state what these two distances are.

Solution.

We put z = x + iy, where x, y are real numbers. Since [z −1 −i[ = 1, we have

1 = [x + iy −1 −i[

1 = [(x −1) + i (y −1)[

1 = (x −1)

2

+ (y −1)

2

We then consider the above equation, we have center of there circle which is called I and has

the coordinate I (1, 1). And the modulus of radius equals 1.

Put A(−1, 0), we obtain that the equation of line AB is y =

1

2

x +

1

2

. Thus, by replacing this

into expression (x −1)

2

+ (y −1)

2

= 1, we get that the left side is equivalent to

(x −1)

2

+ (y −1)

2

= (x −1)

2

+

_

1

2

x +

1

2

−1

_

2

= (x −1)

2

+

1

4

(x −1)

2

=

5

4

(x −1)

2

Then, we can deduce x = 1 +

2

√

5

or x = 1 −

2

√

5

. And we call K

1

_

1 +

2

√

5

, 1 +

1

√

5

_

;

K

2

_

1 −

2

√

5

, 1 −

1

√

5

_

are the points which is recently found.

It is easy too see that

AK

1

=

¸

_

2 + 2

√

5

_

2

+

_

1 +

1

√

5

_

2

> AK

2

=

¸

_

2 −2

√

5

_

2

+

_

1 +

1

√

5

_

2

So we have the conclusions :

K

2

is the point on the circle [z −1 −i[ = 1 that have the nearest linear distance to the point

z = −1 + 0i,

K

1

is the point on the circle [z −1 −i[ = 1 that have the furthest linear distance to the point

z = −1 + 0i.

Exercise 1.33. (E. 31 P. 47)

Is a boundary point of a set necessarily an accumulation point of that set?

39

1 COMPLEX NUMBERS

Solution.

We display 2 deﬁnitions of a boundary point and an accumulation point.

• u is a boundary point of set D if it is a limit point of D and E¸D.

• u is an accumulation of D if for all r > 0 : (B (u; r) ¸ ¦u¦) ∩ D ,= ∅.

In Z space, given A = [0; 1], we can see that 0 is a boundary point of this set but is not an

accumulation point.

40

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS

DERIVATIVE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

For the introduction, we have some exercises which are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 24, 27.

Exercise 2.1. (E. 2, E. 4 P. 53)

Suppose z = x + iy. Let f (z) =

(z −i) (z −2)

(z

2

+ 1) cos x

. State where in the following domains this

functions fails to be deﬁned.

1. [z[ < 1.1

2.

¸

¸

¸z −(1 + i)

π

2

¸

¸

¸ <

π

2

Solution.

1. It is easy to observe that f (z) is deﬁned when its denominator is not equal to 0. It means

z ,= ±i and z ,=

π

2

+ kπ + iy for k is an integer. So that z = ±i, z =

π

2

+ kπ + iy make

this function fail to be deﬁned basically. Then we see that z = ±i belong in inequality

[z[ < 1.1 but z =

π

2

+ kπ + iy are not here for all k is an integer.

Hence, this function is not deﬁned at two points z = ±i.

2. We simplify the modulus of z −(1 + i)

π

2

which equals

_

_

x −

π

2

_

2

+

_

y −

π

2

_

2

. Thus we

have the coordinate of origin of this circle that is

_

π

2

;

π

2

_

and the radius of domain is aslo

π

2

. We have both points z = ±i which are not in inequality

¸

¸

¸z −(1 + i)

π

2

¸

¸

¸ <

π

2

. For the

only case k = 0, we have a point

_

π

2

; y

_

that belongs in this inequality. Then we can

deduce y satisfying 0 < y < π.

Hence, f (z) is not deﬁned on line x =

π

2

, 0 < y < π.

Exercise 2.2. (E. 6, E. 8 P. 53)

For each of the following functions, ﬁnd f (1 + 2i) in the form a+ib. If the function is undeﬁned

at 1 + 2i, state this fact.

1.

1

zz −5

2.

z

cos x + i sin y

Solution.

41

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

1. With z = 1 + 2i, we have zz = [z[

2

= 5. So that the fraction

1

zz −5

is not deﬁned. That

means the function is undeﬁned at 1 + 2i.

Thus we cannot ﬁnd f (1 + 2i).

2. In this function, we can get a condition of denominator that is cos x ,= 0 and sin y ,= 0.

So the function is deﬁned at 1 + 2i. Then f (1 + 2i) becomes

f (1 + 2i) =

1 + 2i

cos 1 + i sin 2

=

cos 1 + 2 sin 2 + i (2 cos 1 −sin 2)

cos

2

1 + sin

2

2

Exercise 2.3. (E. 10, E. 13 P. 54)

Write the following functions of z in the form u(x, y) + iv (x, y), where u(x, y) and v (x, y) are

explicit real functions of x and y.

1.

1

z

+ i

2. ¯ z

3

+ ¯ z

Solution.

1. We put z = x + iy, where x, y are real numbers. We can call f (z) for this function and

ﬁnd u(x, y) and v (x, y) by simplifying it. For concreteness let us write

f (z) =

1

z

+ i

=

1

x + iy

+ i

=

x −iy

x

2

+ y

2

+ i

=

x

x

2

+ y

2

+ i

_

1 +

−y

x

2

+ y

2

_

We deduce the following result.

_

_

_

u(x, y) =

x

x

2

+y

2

v (x, y) = 1 +

−y

x

2

+y

2

2. In a similar pattern, we also reduce this function.

42

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

f (z) = ¯ z

3

+ ¯ z

= (x −iy)

3

+ x −iy

= x

3

−3x

2

iy −3xy

2

+ iy

3

+ x −iy

= x

3

−3xy

2

+ x + i

_

y

3

−3x

2

y −y

_

Hence, we get

_

_

_

u(x, y) = x

3

−3xy

2

+ x

v (x, y) = y

3

−3x

2

y −y

Exercise 2.4. (E. 15, E. 17 P. 55)

Rewrite the following functions in terms of z and if necessary z as well as constants. Thus x

and y must not appear in your answer. Simplify your answer as much as possible.

1.

1

x

+

1

iy

2. x +

x

x

2

+ y

2

+ iy +

iy

x

2

+ y

2

Solution.

1. Using the following formula

_

¸

_

¸

_

x =

z + z

2

y =

1

i

z −z

2

we can reduce a function of part (1). Moreover, we have no need of existent condition.

1

x

+

1

iy

=

2

z + z

+

2

z −z

=

2z −2z + 2z + 2z

z

2

−z

2

=

4z

z

2

−z

2

2. In a similar way, we can apply the above method to simplify a function. But we note that

a denominator is exactly [z[. Hence, we have a distinct way as a solution.

x +

x

x

2

+ y

2

+ iy +

iy

x

2

+ y

2

= (x + iy) +

x + iy

x

2

+ y

2

= z +

z

[z[

2

43

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Furthermore, we remember a formula of magnitude of one complex number that is [z[ =

√

zz. So we obtain that expression is equivalent to

z +

1

z

This is a result which we ﬁnd.

Exercise 2.5. (E. 19, E. 21 P. 55)

For each of the following functions, tabulate the value of the function for these values of z :

1, 1 + i, i, , −1 + i, −1. Indicate graphically the correspondence between values of w and values

of z.

1. w =

i

z

2. w = z

3

Solution.

1. In the following table and in Figure 1, we have investigated a few points in the case of

w = f (z) =

i

z

.

z w =

i

z

A = 1 A

= i

B = 1 + i B

=

i + 1

2

C = i C

= 1

D = −1 + i D

=

1 −i

2

E = −1 E

= −i

Then, we show the Figure 1 to clarify the exercise.

44

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

z-plane

w-plane

Figure 1.

2. In the following table and in Figure 1, we have interpolated a few points in the case of

w = f (z) = z

3

.

z w = z

3

A = 1 A

= 1

B = 1 + i B

= −2 + 2i

C = i C

= −i

D = −1 + i D

= 2 + 2i

E = −1 E

= −1

Next, we present the Figure 1 to clarify the exercise.

45

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

z-plane

w-plane

Figure 1.

Exercise 2.6. (E. 24 P. 55)

Let f (z) =

1

z + i

. Find the following.

f

_

1

f (z)

_

Solution.

46

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

By considering f (z), we must have the initial condition which makes f (z)’s existence. But

in this exercise, this can be omitted. So we have

f

_

1

f (z)

_

=

1

1

f (z)

+ i

=

f (z)

if (z) + 1

=

1

z + i

i

z + i

+ 1

=

1

z + 2i

, as a result.

Exercise 2.7. (E. 27 P. 55)

Using MATLAB obtain three-dimensional plots of the function f (z) =

1

z −

3

2

i

and allow z to

assume values over a grid in the region of the complex plane deﬁned by −1 ≤ x ≤ 1, −1 ≤ y ≤ 1.

Solution.

In this exercise, we present three kinds of three-dimensional plots. These are plots of modulus,

real part and imaginary part of f (z). Hence, we will respectively show these plots with the

corresponding scripts which are typed in MATLAB.

1. Plot of Modulus of f (z) :

>> x = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> y = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> [x , y] = meshgrid(x , y);

>> z = x + i*y;

>> w = 1./(z - 1.5*i);

>> surfc(x , y , abs(w))

47

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Figure 1.

2. Plot of Real Part of f (z) :

>> x = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> y = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> [x , y] = meshgrid(x , y);

>> z = x + i*y;

>> w = 1./(z - 1.5*i);

>> surfc(x , y , real(w))

48

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Figure 1.

3. Plot of Imaginary Part of f (z) :

>> x = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> y = -1 : 0.2 : 1;

>> [x , y] = meshgrid(x , y);

>> z = x + i*y;

>> w = 1./(z - 1.5*i);

>> surfc(x , y , imag(w))

49

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Figure 1.

50

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

2.2 LIMITS AND CONTINUITY

This is an important section, so we show the exercise 5, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 because

we think that these are so necessary for solutions.

Exercise 2.8. (E. 5 P. 62)

Assuming the continuity of the functions f (z) = z and f (z) = c, where c is any constant. Prove

the continuity of the following function in the domain indicated. Take z = x + iy.

z

4

+

1 + i

z

2

+ 3z + 2

, all z ,= −1, −2.

Solution.

In this exercise, we can break the function into smaller parts. We then determine two functions

which is deﬁned for all z ,= −1, −2.

_

_

_

h(z) = z

4

g (z) =

1 + i

z

2

+ 3z + 2

We must notice that for any z ,= −1, −2, we can write down a denominator of g (z) which is

(z + 1) (z + 2). Of course, this denominator is continuous function. By applying respectively

theorem of products and quotient of continuous functions, we gain h(z) that is continuous

function. Thus applying theorem of sums of continuous functions, we can derive that h(z)+g (z)

is continuous function.

Completing the proof by using theorem of continuous functions.

Exercise 2.9. (E. 10 P. 62)

Prove that the following function is continuous at z = i.

f (z) =

_

_

_

z −i

z

2

−3iz −2

, z ,= i

i , z = i

Solution.

Because f (i) is deﬁned, we must determine lim

z→i

z −i

z

2

−3iz −2

. For all z ,= i, we have a

denominator of f (z) which is equivalent to (z −i) (z −2i). Moreover, we can state that

lim

z→i

z −i

z

2

−3iz −2

= lim

z→i

z −i

(z −i) (z −2i)

= lim

z→i

1

z −2i

From this we might conclude that f (z) is a continuous function because of lim

z→i

f (z) = f (i) =

i.

Hence, we have the completed proof.

51

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.10. (E. 11 P. 62)

1. Consider the function f (z) =

z

2

−5z + 6

z

2

−4

deﬁned for z ,= ±2. How should this function

be deﬁned at z = 2 so that f (z) is continuous at z = 2 ?

2. Consider the function f (z) =

z

4

+ 10z

2

+ 9

z

2

−4iz −3

deﬁned for z ,= 3i and z ,= i. How should

this function be deﬁned at z = 3i and z = i so that f (z) is continuous everywhere ?

Solution.

1. Consider this function f (z), we note that we can simplify it because of factoring numerator

and denominator.

f (z) =

z

2

−5z + 6

z

2

−4

=

(z −2) (z −3)

(z −2) (z + 2)

=

z −3

z + 2

This function does not belong to one of ﬁrst conditions. This is z ,= 2 because the

expression z − 2 is cancelled. Hence this function is really deﬁned at z = 2. Moreover,

the following conditions are both satisﬁed easily : f (2) is deﬁned; lim

z→2

f (z) exists and

lim

z→2

f (z) = f (2). According to deﬁnition of continuity of the complex function, we assert

f (z) is continuous at z = 2.

2. In a similar way, it is easy to reduce this function, which is not deﬁned at z ,= 3i and

z ,= i, to deﬁne for these points.

f (z) =

z

4

+ 10z

2

+ 9

z

2

−4iz −3

=

_

z

2

+ 9

_ _

z

2

+ 1

_

(z −3i) (z −i)

=

(z −3i) (z + 3i) (z −i) (z + i)

(z −3i) (z −i)

= (z + 3i) (z + i)

At this point, we can observe that f (z) is continuous everywhere. In details, if we take

an arbitrary complex number z

0

, we obtain explicitly that both conditions of continuity

of the comlex function are satisﬁed.

52

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.11. (E. 12 P. 62)

In this problem we prove rigorously, using the deﬁnition of the limit at inﬁnity, that

lim

z→∞

z

1 + z

= 1

1. Explain why, given ε > 0, we must ﬁnd a function r (ε) such that

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z + 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε for all

[z[ > r.

2. Using one of the triangle inequalities, show that the preceding inequality is satisﬁed if we

take r > 1 +

1

ε

.

Solution.

1. We present the following deﬁnition of the limit at inﬁnity :

If for every real number ε > 0 there exists a real number r (ε) > 0 such that

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z + 1

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε

for all [z[ > r (ε).

If we have lim

z→∞

z

1 + z

= 1 ﬁrstly, we can say the above deﬁnition. But if we need prove

lim

z→∞

z

1 + z

= 1 as the mention of this exercise, we must alter the phrase “for every” into

“given” and the phrase “there exists” into “ﬁnd”, to see some works need to be make the

proof. For concretness let us write down

Given real number ε > 0, ﬁnd a real number r (ε) > 0 such that

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z + 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε

for all [z[ > r (ε).

2. If we take r (ε) > 1+

1

ε

, we obtain [z[ > 1+

1

ε

. We need verify that this r (ε) is used in this

proof, which is either true or false. It means that the inequality

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z + 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε is satisﬁed.

In explicit, we have the triangle inequality [z + 1[ ≥ [z[ − 1; so if we want to have the

inequality

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z + 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε, then we must have the inequality

1

[z[ −1

< ε or [z[ > 1 +

1

ε

. This

fact is true because this inequality obtained.

Hence, we prove successfully that the preceding inequality is satisﬁed if we take r (ε) >

1 +

1

ε

.

Exercise 2.12. (E. 14 P. 63)

1. Knowing that f (z) = z

2

is everywhere continuous. Explain why the real function xy is

everywhere continuous.

2. Explain why the function g (x, y) = xy + i (x + y) is everywhere continuous.

Solution.

53

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

1. The form of z must be x+iy, where x, y are real numbers. Thus we have z

2

= x

2

−y

2

+i2xy.

Because f (z) = z

2

is everywhere continuous and 2xy is an imaginary of this function, the

real function v (x, y) = 2xy is obviously everywhere continuous. Hence it is explicit to end

the explaination.

2. The continuity of complex function belongs to the continuity of both parts of that complex

function. We have that xy is really a continuous function. We observe that function x+y

is also a continuous function because it does not belong to an arbitrary condition. Thus

the function g (x, y) must be continuous everywhere.

Exercise 2.13. (E. 15 P. 63)

Show by ﬁnding an example, that the sum of two functions, neither of which possesses a limit

at a point z

0

, can have a limit at this point.

Solution.

Firstly, we take z

0

= 1 for the following example. Then, we will choose two functions which

have no a limit at z

0

= 1, witth assuming existent condition of denominator. These are

_

¸

_

¸

_

g (z) =

z

z

2

+ z −2

h(z) =

−1

z

2

+ z −2

The reader can see easily these limits at z

0

= 1 that do not exist by factoring these denomi-

nators. But the function f (z) = g (z)+h(z) can have a limit exactly at z

0

= 1. For concretness

let us write

lim

z→1

z −1

(z −1) (z + 2)

= lim

z→1

1

z + 2

=

1

3

Finally, we show the exercise by ﬁnding an example.

Exercise 2.14. (E. 16 P. 63)

Show by ﬁnding an example, that the product of two functions, neither of which possesses a

limit at a point z

0

, can have a limit at this point.

Solution.

In a similar fashion, for the exercise 2.13 (E. 15 P. 63), we show that the product of two

functions, neither of which possesses a limit at a point z

0

, can have a limit at that point by

ﬁnding an example. This fact is not only true for the sum of two functions, but also the product

of two functions.

At this time, we take z

0

= 0, and choose g (z) =

[z[

z

; h(z) =

[z[

z

with z ,= 0 as the initial

condition. Although [z[ is really a real number and is not relate to limit of the considering

functions, its eﬀect is important for our proof. In details, we consider

lim

z→0

g (z) h(z) = lim

z→0

[z[

2

zz

= 1

54

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

We see that the limit of this product exists and is always equal to 1. But it is easy to show

that g (z) and h(z) have no limit at z

0

= 0.

Then, we prove this exercise completely.

Exercise 2.15. (E. 17 P. 63)

Show that, in general, if g (z) has a limit as z tends to z

0

but h(z) does not have such a limit,

then f (z) = g (z) + h(z) does not have a limit as z tends to z

0

either.

Solution.

By showing mathematically, we must present the deﬁnition of limit and unlimitedness at a

point z

0

. We need analyse the assumption and conclusion in this needful proof. And we consider

three deﬁnitions of three clauses respectively.

• “g (z) has a limit as z tends to z

0

”

Let g

0

be a complex constant.

If for every real number ε > 0 there exists a real number δ (ε) > 0 such that [g (z) −g

0

[ < ε,

for all z satisfying 0 < [z −z

0

[ < δ (ε).

• For the clause “h(z) does not have such a limit”, we must negate the deﬁnition of limit.

Let h

0

be a complex constant.

There exists a real number ε

1

> 0, for every real number δ

1

(z, ε

1

) > 0, have one z which

is satisﬁed 0 < [z −z

0

[ < δ

1

(z, ε

1

), such that [h(z) −h

0

[ ≥ ε

1

.

• We also negate the deﬁnition of limit for the conclusion “f (z) = g (z) + h(z) does not

have a limit as z tends to z

0

”.

Let f

0

= g

0

+ h

0

be a complex constant.

We need ﬁnd a real number ε

2

> 0, for every given real number δ

2

(z, ε

2

) > 0, have one z

which is satisﬁed 0 < [z −z

0

[ < δ

2

(z, ε

2

), such that [f (z) −f

0

[ ≥ ε

2

.

We look at the inequality [f (z) −f

0

[ ≥ ε

2

and do not forget that f (z) = g (z) + h(z) and

f

0

= g

0

+h

0

. We deduce that [h(z) −h

0

−[g

0

−g (z)][ ≥ ε

2

. If we want to have this inequality,

we must have the inequality [h(z) −h

0

[−[g (z) −g

0

[ ≥ ε

2

because of [h(z) −h

0

−[g

0

−g (z)][ ≥

[h(z) −h

0

[ −[g (z) −g

0

[. According to the ﬁrst and the second clauses, we have [h(z) −h

0

[ −

[g (z) −g

0

[ > ε

1

− ε. Hence, we can take ε =

ε

2

2

, ε

1

= 2ε

2

and δ (ε) = δ

1

(z, ε

1

) = δ

2

(z, ε

2

) to

clarify the proof.

55

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.16. (E. 18 P. 63)

This problem deals with functions of a complex variable having a limit of inﬁnity (or ∞). We

say that lim

z→z

0

f (z) = ∞ if, given p > 0, there exists a δ > 0 such that [f (z)[ > ρ for all

0 < [z −z

0

[ < δ. In other words, one can make the magnitude of f (z) exceed any preassigned

positive real number ρ if one remains anywhere within a deleted neighborhood of z

0

. The radius

of this neighborhood, δ, typically depends on ρ and shrinks as ρ increases.

1. Using this deﬁnition, show that lim

z→0

1

z

= ∞. What should we takes as δ?

2. Repeat the previous problem, but use the function

1

(z −i)

2

as z → i.

3. Consult a textbook on real calculus concerning the subject of inﬁnite limits and explain

why one does not say that lim

x→0

1

x

= ∞. What is the correct statement? Contrast this to

the result in (1).

4. The deﬁnition used above and in parts (1) and (2) cannot be used for functions whose

limits at inﬁnity are inﬁnite. Here we modify the deﬁnition as follows : We say that

lim

z→∞

f (z) = ∞ if, given ρ > 0, there exists r > 0 such that [f (z)[ > ρ for all r < [z[. In

other words, one can make the magnitude of f (z) exceed any preassigned positive real

number ρ if one is at any point at least a distance r from the origin. Using this deﬁnition,

show that lim

z→∞

z

2

= ∞. How should we choose r?

Solution.

1. To show lim

z→0

1

z

= ∞, according to the deﬁnition, it says that :

Given p > 0, we must ﬁnd a δ

p

> 0 such that

1

[z[

> p, for all 0 < [z[ < δ

p

.

At this point, we observe that inequality 0 < [z[ < δ

p

can be conclude a distinct form

1

[z[

>

1

δ

p

. This fact is the same as

1

[z[

> p if we compare these. Hence, the δ

p

, which we

need ﬁnd, is obviously p.

Thus the proof is completed by choosing δ

p

= p.

2. We still use the above deﬁnition for proving lim

z→i

1

(z −i)

2

= ∞. We have the following

clause

Given p > 0, we must ﬁnd a δ

p

> 0 such that

1

[z −i[

2

> p, for all 0 < [z −i[ < δ

p

.

If we unchange this clause to see the similarities, we cannot ﬁnd out δ

p

. We note that

0 < [z −i[ < δ

p

can modify into 0 < [z −i[

2

< δ

2

p

. Then if we put γ

p

= δ

2

p

> 0 and

[z −i[

2

=

¸

¸

¸(z −i)

2

¸

¸

¸ = [w(z)[, we will see clearly that the clause is really the deﬁnition.

For concretness let us write again

Given p > 0, we must ﬁnd a γ

p

> 0 such that

1

[w(z)[

> p, for all 0 < [w(z)[ < γ

p

.

At this point, we only prove this clause in a same way of part (1).

56

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

2.3 THE COMPLEX DERIVATIVE

In this section, we present exercise 3, 12, 14, 18, 19 for examples.

Exercise 2.17. (E. 3 P. 70)

Assume that f (z) = z is not diﬀerentiable. Obtain this conclusion by using the deﬁnition of

the derivative of a function of a complex variable and show that this results in your having to

evaluate lim

∆z→0

2 arg (∆z). Why does this limit not exist?

Solution.

By using the deﬁnition of the derivative of a function of a complex variable, we take an

arbitrary point z

0

= x

0

+ iy

0

, where x

0

, y

0

are real numbers. We have f (z

0

) = x

0

− iy

0

and

with ∆z = ∆x + i∆y, then f (z

0

+ ∆z) = (x

0

+ ∆x) −i (y

0

+ ∆y). Thus

f

(z

0

) = lim

∆z→0

f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)

∆z

= lim

∆x,∆y→0

(x

0

+ ∆x) −i (y

0

+ ∆y) −∆x + i∆y

∆x + i∆y

= lim

∆x,∆y→0

∆x −i∆y

∆x + i∆y

We put g (∆x, ∆y) =

∆x −i∆y

∆x + i∆y

, we must prove this limit which does not exist. In explicit,

we can ﬁnd two sequences which are also approach to 0, to prove that. For all n is an integer,

we take two sequences a

n

=

_

1

n

; 0

_

and b

n

=

_

0;

1

n

_

. At inﬁnity, they approach to (0; 0) but

g (a

n

) = 1 diﬀers from g (b

n

) = −1. Thus these mean that lim

∆x,∆y→0

g (∆x, ∆y) is does exist.

Hence, f (z) is not diﬀerentiable.

In a similar fashion, with ∆z = ∆x + i∆y, we can see that arg (∆z) =

∆y

∆x

. Hence,

lim

∆x,∆y→0

2 arg (∆z) = lim

∆x,∆y→0

2

∆y

∆x

Then we put h(∆x, ∆y) = 2

∆y

∆x

and choose two sequences c

n

=

_

1

n

;

1

n

_

and d

n

=

_

1

n

; −

1

n

_

for all n is an integer. They also approach to (0; 0) at inﬁnity but h(c

n

) = 2 diﬀers from

h(d

n

) = −2. Thus this limit does not exist.

Exercise 2.18. (E. 12, E. 14 P. 70)

For what values of the complex variable z do the following functions have derivatives?

1. e

x

+ ie

2y

2. (x −1)

2

+ iy

2

+ z

2

Solution.

1. It is easy to know that u(x, y) = e

x

and v (x, y) = e

2y

. So we consider

57

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

∂u

∂x

= e

x

∂u

∂y

= 0

∂v

∂x

= 0

∂v

∂y

= 2e

2y

as a test. And then we see that the Cauchy-Riemann equations is satisﬁed if only if

e

x

= 2e

2y

since u(x, y) , v (x, y) are continuous in R.

Hence, if this function want to have derivate, the form of z must be log 2 + 2 log y + iy.

2. By using z = x + iy, we can simplify this function as follows

(x −1)

2

+ iy

2

+ z

2

= (x −1)

2

+ iy

2

+ (x + iy)

2

= (x −1)

2

+ x

2

−y

2

+ i

_

y

2

+ 2xy

_

Then, we have u(x, y) = (x −1)

2

+ x

2

− y

2

and v (x, y) = y

2

+ 2xy. At this point, we

derive

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

∂u

∂x

= 4x −2

∂u

∂y

= −2y

∂v

∂x

= 2y

∂v

∂y

= 2y + 2x

In a similar fashion, if this function want to have the derivate, we need 4x −2 = 2y +2x.

From this we can say that the form of z must be y + 1 + iy.

Exercise 2.19. (E. 18 P. 70)

Let f (z) = u(x, y) + iv (x, y). Assume that the second derivative f

**(z) exists. Show that
**

f

(z) =

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+ i

∂

2

v

∂x

2

and

f

(z) = −

∂

2

u

∂y

2

−i

∂

2

v

∂y

2

Solution.

We showed that

f

(z) =

∂u

∂x

+ i

∂v

∂x

and

58

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

f

(z) =

∂v

∂y

−i

∂u

∂y

as the exercise. So in the ﬁrst expression, we take the second derivate for x variable and for

y variable in second expression. We thus assert that

f

(z) =

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+ i

∂

2

v

∂x

2

and

f

(z) = −

∂

2

u

∂y

2

−i

∂

2

v

∂y

2

since the second derivative f

(z) exists.

Hence, the proof is completed.

Exercise 2.20. (E. 19 P. 70)

Show that if f

(z

0

) exists, then f (z) must be continuous at z

0

.

Solution.

The existence of f

(z

0

) means that f (z) has a derivate at point z

0

. The deﬁnition says that

this is deﬁned by the following expression, provided the limit exists

f

(z

0

) = lim

∆z→0

f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)

∆z

At this point, if we desire that f (z) is contiunous at z

0

, we need prove

lim

z→z

0

f (z) = f (z

0

)

If we put z = z

0

+∆z in the above expression and turn the right side to the left side because

of deﬁnement of lim

z→z

0

f (z

0

), it becomes

lim

∆z→0

[f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)] = 0

, as the consistent proof.

Next, we consider this consistent proof which can be break into products of two limit. For

concretness let us write

lim

∆z→0

[f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)] = lim

∆z→0

f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)

∆z

∆z

= lim

∆z→0

f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)

∆z

lim

∆z→0

∆z

,∆z approachs to 0 but equals 0, that means ∆z ,= 0. And it is easy to see that lim

∆z→0

∆z = 0,

we can derive the consistent proof because of the existence of lim

∆z→0

f (z

0

+ ∆z) −f (z

0

)

∆z

.

Therefore, we can end this proof successfully.

59

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

2.4 THE DERIVATIVE AND ANALYTICITY

We have exercise 2, 3, 9, 10, 11, 23 as the practice.

Exercise 2.21. (E. 2 P. 77)

1. Find the derivative of f (z) =

1

z

+(x −1)

2

+ixy at any points where the derivative exists.

Give the numerial value.

2. Where is this function analytic ?

Solution.

1. We have f(z) =

x −iy

x

2

+ y

2

+(x −1)

2

+ixy (z ,= 0, it means that x, y don’t equal to zero at

the same time)

f(x, y) = u(x, y) + iv(x, y) with u(x, y) =

x

x

2

+ y

2

+ (x −1)

2

and v(x, y) = xy −

y

x

2

+ y

2

We use Cauchy-Riemann equations to ﬁnd this f(z)’s derivative

∂u

∂x

= 2(x −1) +

x

2

+ y

2

−2x

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

= 2(x −1) +

y

2

−x

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

∂v

∂y

= x −

x

2

+ y

2

−2y

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

= x −

x

2

−y

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

Let

∂u

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) =

∂v

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

) and we have 2(x

0

−1) +

y

2

0

−x

2

0

(x

2

0

+ y

2

0

)

2

= x

0

−

x

2

0

−y

2

0

(x

2

0

+ y

2

0

)

2

Thus x

0

= 1

The second equations are

_

_

_

∂u

∂y

=

−2xy

(x

2

+y

2

)

2

−

∂v

∂x

= −y −

2xy

(x

2

+y

2

)

2

By equality of these equations, we get y

0

= 0. So f (z) is derivative at z = 1 and

f

(1) = −1.

2. Because f (z) is only derivative at one point, f (z) is nowhere analytic.

Exercise 2.22. (E. 3 P. 77)

1. Where is the function f (z) = z

3

+ z

2

+ 1 analytic ?

2. Find an expression for f

**(z) and give the derivative at 1 + i.
**

Solution.

1. Let z be x + iy for all x, y in R, we have

f (z) = u(x, y) + iv (x, y)

60

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

with u(x, y) = x

3

−3xy

2

+ x

2

−y

2

and v (x, y) = −y

3

+ 3x

2

y + 2xy

Then we examine that f is statisﬁes Cauchy-Riemann equations. Indeed, we see that

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

= 3x

2

−3y

2

+ 2x =

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

= −6xy −2y = −

∂v

∂x

So this function is analytic everywhere.

2. We can get f

(z) = 3z

2

+ 2z easily because of similarity of real number. And then

f

(1 + i) = 3 (1 + i)

2

+ 2 (1 + i)

= 8i + 2

Exercise 2.23. (E. 9, E. 10 P. 77)

Use L’Hopital’s Rule to establish these limits :

1.

(z −i) +

_

z

2

+ 1

_

z

2

−3iz −2

as z → i.

2.

_

z

3

+ i

_

(z

2

+ 1) z

as z → i.

Solution.

1. We set g(z) = z −i +

_

z

2

+ 1

_

and h(z) = z

2

−3iz −2

We can easily see that g(i) = h(i) = 0 as z = i and g(z), h(z) are diﬀerentiable at z = i

(the reader can verify that). Moreover h

**(i) = −i ,= 0 so we can use L’Hopital’s rule to
**

solve this limit

We have g

(z) = 1 + 2z and h

(z) = 2z −3i

Thus lim

z→i

(z −i) + (z

2

+ 1)

z

2

−3iz −2

= lim

z→i

1 + 2z

2z −3i

= −

1 + 2i

i

= i −2

2. Like that exercise above, we set g(z) = z

3

+ i and h(z) =

_

z

2

+ 1

_

z. Of course g(i) =

h(i) = 0

g(z) and h(z) are diﬀerentiable and h

**(i) = −2 ,= 0, therefore we can use L’Hopital’s rule
**

lim

z→i

z

3

+ 1

(z

2

+ 1)z

= lim

z→i

3z

2

3z

2

+ 1

=

−3

−2

=

3

2

Exercise 2.24. (E. 11 P. 77)

If g (z) has a derivative at z

0

and h(z) does not have a derivative at z

0

, explain why g (z)+h(z)

cannot have a derivative at z

0

.

Solution.

61

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

We can put g (z) = u(x, y) +iv (x, y) and h(z) = m(x, y) +in(x, y) to show the assumption

explicitly. With z

0

= (x

0

, y

0

), because of derivation of g (z), we have Cauchy-Riemann equations

at point z

0

.

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) =

∂v

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

)

∂v

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) = −

∂u

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

)

And for the function h(z), it does not have a derivative at z

0

; this means one of Cauchy-

Riemann equations is not satisﬁed at least. We thus choose the following expression for illus-

tration.

∂m

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) ,=

∂n

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

)

Then, we see that

∂m

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) +

∂u

∂x

(x

0

, y

0

) ,=

∂n

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

) +

∂v

∂y

(x

0

, y

0

)

We note that if we take g (z) +h(z) = u(x, y) +m(x, y) +i [v (x, y) + n(x, y)], it is easily to

deduce the sum of these functions cannot have a derivative at z

0

by the above fact.

62

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.25. (E. 23 P. 79)

Polar form of the Cauchy-Riemann equations.

1. Suppose, for the analytic function f (z) = u(x, y) + iv (x, y), that we express x

and y in terms of the polar variables r and θ, where x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ

_

r =

_

x

2

+ y

2

, θ = arctan

y

x

_

. Then f (z) = u(r, θ) + iv (r, θ). We want to rewrite the

Cauchy-Riemann equations entirely in the polar variables. From the chain rule for partial

diﬀerentiation, we have

∂u

∂x

=

_

∂u

∂r

_

θ

_

∂r

∂x

_

y

+

_

∂u

∂θ

_

r

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

Give the corresponding expressions for

∂u

∂y

,

∂v

∂x

,

∂v

∂y

.

2. Show that

_

∂r

∂x

_

y

= cos θ and

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

=

−sin θ

r

and ﬁnd corresponding expressions for

_

∂r

∂y

_

x

and

_

∂θ

∂y

_

x

. Use these four expressions

in the equations for

∂u

∂x

,

∂u

∂y

,

∂v

∂x

and

∂v

∂y

found in part (1). Show that u and v satisfy the

equations

∂h

∂x

=

∂h

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂h

∂θ

sin θ and

∂h

∂y

=

∂h

∂r

sin θ +

1

r

∂h

∂θ

cos θ

where h can equal u or v.

3. Rewrite the Cauchy-Riemann equations using the two equations from part (2) of this

exercise. Multiply the ﬁrst Cauchy-Riemann equation by cos θ, multiply the second by

sin θ, and add to show that

∂u

∂r

=

1

r

∂v

∂θ

.

Now multiply the ﬁrst Cauchy-Riemann equation by −sin θ, the second by cos θ, and add

to show that

∂v

∂r

=

−1

r

∂u

∂θ

.

These are the polar form of the Cauchy-Riemann equations. If the ﬁrst partial derivatives

of u and v are continuous at some point whose polar coordinates are r, θ (r ,= 0), then the

polar form of the Cauchy-Riemann equations provide a necessary and suﬃcient condition

for the existence of the derivative at this point.

4. Use equation f

(z

0

) =

_

∂u

∂x

+ i

∂v

∂x

_

x

0

,y

0

and the Cauchy-Riemann equations in polar

form to show that if the derivative of f (r, θ) exists, it can be found from

f

(z) =

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

[cos θ −i sin θ] or from f

(z) =

_

∂u

∂θ

+ i

∂v

∂θ

_ _

−i

r

_

[cos θ −i sin θ]

Solution.

63

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

1. The exercise has already given us

∂u

∂x

=

_

∂u

∂r

_

θ

_

∂r

∂x

_

y

+

_

∂u

∂θ

_

r

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

so

∂u

∂y

,

∂v

∂x

,

∂v

∂y

are just the same expression as above, using Cauchy-Riemann equations

we have

∂u

∂y

=

_

∂u

∂r

_

θ

_

∂r

∂y

_

x

+

_

∂u

∂θ

_

r

_

∂θ

∂y

_

x

∂v

∂x

=

_

∂v

∂r

_

θ

_

∂r

∂x

_

y

+

_

∂v

∂θ

_

r

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

∂v

∂y

=

_

∂v

∂r

_

θ

_

∂r

∂y

_

x

+

_

∂u

∂θ

_

r

_

∂θ

∂y

_

x

2. We get r =

_

x

2

+ y

2

and tan θ =

y

x

so that

_

∂r

∂x

_

y

=

x

_

x

2

+ y

2

= cos θ

To solve

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

, ﬁrst we have to compute (tan θ)

=

θ

cos

2

θ

. Then we obtain

_

∂θ

∂x

_

y

=

−y

x

2

cos

2

θ

=

−y

x

2

1

1 +

y

2

x

2

=

−sin θ

r

Let h be u, we replace

∂r

∂x

,

∂θ

∂x

with these above and see that

∂h

∂x

=

∂h

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂h

∂θ

sin θ

Hence, we can do the same for the others.

3. Using the above part, we have

∂u

∂x

=

∂u

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂u

∂θ

sin θ

∂v

∂y

=

∂v

∂r

sin θ +

1

r

∂v

∂θ

cos θ

We multiply them to cos θ and let them equal as Cauchy-Riemann ﬁrst equation. It means

64

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

∂u

∂x

cos θ =

∂v

∂y

cos θ

Express this and then

∂u

∂r

cos

2

θ −

1

r

∂u

∂θ

sin θ cos θ =

∂v

∂r

sin θ cos θ +

1

r

∂v

∂θ

cos

2

θ

We do the same with Cauchy-Riemann second equation but we multiply them to sin θ

instead of cos θ and express them too. We obtain

∂v

∂r

cos θ sin θ −

1

r

∂v

∂θ

sin

2

θ = −

∂v

∂r

sin

2

θ −

1

r

∂u

∂θ

cos θ sin θ

The next is adddition of these two expression to each other and simpliﬁcation of them.

Thus

∂u

∂r

cos

2

θ −

1

r

∂v

∂θ

sin

2

θ =

1

r

∂v

∂θ

cos

2

θ −−

∂v

∂r

sin

2

θ

Because of sin

2

θ + cos

2

θ = 1, we deduce that

∂u

∂r

=

1

r

∂v

∂θ

Hence we prove this part successfully, the reader can do the others.

4. We need to prove

f

(z) =

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

(cos θ −i sin θ)

And we have

f

(z) =

∂u

∂x

+ i

∂v

∂x

We use part (b) to express

∂u

∂x

,

∂v

∂x

. Hence,

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

=

∂u

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂u

∂θ

sin θ (1)

∂v

∂x

=

∂v

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂v

∂θ

sin θ (2)

Then, we replace (1) and (2) into f’(z).

∂u

∂r

cos θ−

1

r

∂u

∂θ

sin θ+i

_

∂v

∂r

cos θ −

1

r

∂v

∂θ

sin θ

_

= cos θ

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

−

1

r

sin θ

_

∂u

∂θ

+ i

∂v

∂θ

_

We are now using part (c) to simplify above equation

65

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

cos θ

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

−

1

r

sin θ

_

−r

∂v

∂r

+ ri

∂u

∂r

_

Note that i

2

= −1, so we can deduce that

cos θ

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

−

1

r

sin θ

_

−r

∂v

∂r

+ ri

∂u

∂r

_

= cos θ

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

−i sin θ

_

i

∂v

∂r

+

∂u

∂r

_

=

_

∂u

∂r

+ i

∂v

∂r

_

(cos θ −i sin θ)

We prove the exercise for the ﬁrst feedback, and in the second, the reader can show

similarly.

66

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

2.5 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS

The reader can see some exercises we will show such as 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 18, 20.

Exercise 2.26. (E. 1 P. 85)

Where in the complex plane will the function φ(x, y) = x

2

−y

4

satisfy Laplace’s equation? Why

isn’t this a harmonic function?

Solution.

Take (x

0

, y

0

) is a point of function, we will ﬁnd this point such that φ(x

0

, y

0

) satisﬁes Laplace’s

equation.

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

(x

0

, y

0

) +

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

(x

0

, y

0

) = 0

This is equivalent to

_

¸

_

¸

_

x

0

∈ R

y

0

=

±1

√

6

Because the domain of function which satisﬁes Laplace’s equation is a subset of R

2

. Thus it

is not a harmonic function.

Exercise 2.27. (E. 2 P. 86)

Where in the complex plane will the function φ(x, y) = sin(xy) satisfy Laplace’s equation? Why

isn’t this a harmonic function?

Solution.

We have φ(x, y) = sin (xy), let take the first derivative and second derivative of φ(x, y)

•

∂φ

∂x

= y cos (xy) and then

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

= −y

2

sin (xy)

•

∂φ

∂y

= xcos (xy)so that

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

= −x

2

sin (xy)

Hence we obtain

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

= −

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

sin (xy)

Dealing with the equation

_

x

2

+ y

2

_

sin (xy) = 0. we have the result is sin (xy) = 0 or x

2

+y

2

=

0. Then we can derive the roots below

_

¸

_

¸

_

y

0

=

kπ

x

0

, x

0

,= 0

y

0

= 0, x

0

= 0

Therefore, φis not harmonic on its domain but harmonic on (0, 0) and

_

x

0

,

kπ

x

0

_

when x

0

,= 0.

67

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.28. (E. 3 P. 86)

Consider the function φ(x, y) = e

ky

sin(mx). Assuming this function is harmonic throughout

the complex plane, what must be he relationship between the real constants k and m? Assume

that m ,= 0.

Solution.

This is a harmonic function then we can display Laplace’s equation there.

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

= 0

It is equivalent to

−m

2

e

ky

sin(mx) + k

2

e

ky

sin(mx) = 0

So we can derive that k

2

= m

2

.

Exercise 2.29. (E. 6 P. 86)

Putting z = x + iy. Show that 1

_

z

3

_

is harmonic in any domain.

Solution.

Factoring out z

3

, we obtain

z

3

= x

3

−3xy

2

+ i

_

3x

2

y −y

3

_

Thus 1

_

z

3

_

= x

3

−3xy

2

. We will examine this function whether or not satisfying Laplace’s

equation.

∂

2

∂x

2

_

x

3

−3xy

2

_

+

∂

2

∂y

2

_

x

3

−3xy

2

_

= 6x −6x = 0

Hence, it is harmonic in any domain.

Exercise 2.30. (E. 7 P. 86)

Find two values of k such that cos x

_

e

y

+ e

ky

¸

is harmonic.

Solution.

We put u(x, y) = cos x

_

e

y

+ e

ky

¸

is harmonic function. Then we get

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

= 0

It means that

−

_

e

y

+ e

ky

_

cos x +

_

e

y

+ k

2

e

ky

_

cos x = 0

After solving the above equation, we have k = ±1.

Exercise 2.31. (E. 8 P. 86)

If g(x)

_

e

2y

−e

−2y

¸

is harmonic, g(0) = 0, g

(0) = 1, ﬁnd g(x).

68

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Solution.

Like the above exercise, we put u(x, y) = g(x)

_

e

2y

−e

−2y

¸

is harmonic function and get

Laplace’s equation.

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

= 0

This is equivalent to

_

e

2y

−e

−2y

¸

g

(x) + 4g(x)

_

e

2y

−e

−2y

¸

= 0

Then we need to solve the following equation

g

(x) + 4g(x) = 0

We can have general root is g(x) = C

1

cos 2x + C

2

sin 2x.

Exercise 2.32. (E. 9 P. 86)

1. Consider φ(x, y) = x

3

y−y

3

x+y

2

−x

2

+x. Show that this can be the part or the imaginary

part of an analytic function.

2. Assuming the preceding is the real part of an analytic function, ﬁnd the imaginary part.

3. Assuming that φ(x, y) is the imaginary part of an analytic function, ﬁnd the real part.

4. If φ(x, y) + iv(x, y) is an analytic function and if u(x, y) + iφ(x, y) is also analytic where

φ(x, y) is an arbitrary harmonic function, prove that, neglecting constants, u(x, y) and

v(x, y) must be negatives of each other.

Solution.

1. With φ(x, y) = x

3

y −y

3

x +y

2

−x

2

+x, we prove this can be real part or imaginary part

of an analytic function by proving this satisfy Laplace’s equation.

•

∂φ

∂x

= 3x

2

y −y

3

−2x + 1 so

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

= 6xy −2

•

∂φ

∂y

= x

3

−3y

2

x + 2y so

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

= −6xy + 2

Let

∂

2

φ

∂x

2

+

∂

2

φ

∂y

2

= 6xy −2 −6xy + 2 = 0

Thus φ(x, y)satisfy Laplace’s equation. Hence it is harmonic, therefore φ(x, y)can be real

part or imaginary part of an analytic function.

2. Assuming φ(x, y) is the real part of an analytic function, we need to find the imaginary

part v (x, y) of this function.

By applying Cauchy-Riemann equations

•

∂φ

∂x

=

∂v

∂y

so

∂v

∂y

= 3x

2

y −y

3

−2x + 1

• v =

3

2

x

2

y

2

−

y

4

4

−2xy + y + C

(x)

69

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

The second equation is −x

3

+ 3xy

2

−2y .

Hence C

(x) = −x

3

, it means that C (x) = −

x

4

4

+ C.

Thus v (x, y) =

3

2

x

2

y

2

−

y

4

4

−2xy + y +−

x

4

4

+ C

3. As the same of part (b), let φ(x, y) be the imaginary part of an anlytic function and we

find u(x, y) is the real part of this function

We found u(x, y) = −v (x, y) which we found in part (b)

4. We have f = u + iφ analytic so we deduce that

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

=

∂φ

∂y

∂u

∂y

= −

∂φ

∂x

As the same g = φ + iv analytic so we derive that

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂φ

∂x

=

∂v

∂y

∂φ

∂y

= −

∂v

∂x

By transforming these, we have

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

= −

∂v

∂x

∂u

∂y

= −

∂v

∂y

By neglecting constants, we see that u(x, y) = −v (x, y) so we have what we need to prove.

Exercise 2.33. (E. 11 P. 86)

Find the harmonic conjugate of e

x

cos y + e

y

cos x + xy.

Solution.

Putting u the harmonic conjugate of v(x, y) = e

x

cos y + e

y

cos x + xy, we need to apply

Cauchy-Riemann equations :

_

_

_

∂u

∂x

=

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

= −

∂v

∂x

We have

∂u

∂x

= e

x

cos y−e

y

sin x+y. Then we can deduce that v = e

x

sin y−e

y

sin x+

y

2

2

+C(x).

Hence, we obtain that

∂v

∂x

= e

x

sin y −e

y

cos x + C

(x)

But we can see that

∂u

∂y

= −e

x

sin y + e

x

cos x + x

Thus C

(x) = x. It means that C(x) =

x

2

2

+ C. Then the harmonic conjugate is e

x

sin y −

e

y

sin x +

y

2

2

+

x

2

2

+ C.

70

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.34. (E. 13 P. 86)

Show, if u(x, y) and v(x, y) are harmonic functions, that u+v must be a harmonic function but

that uv need not be a harmonic function.

Solution.

We get u, v are harmonic functions. That means

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

= 0

∂

2

v

∂x

2

+

∂

2

v

∂y

2

= 0

If u + v is harmonic, then need to show

∂

2

(u + v)

∂x

2

+

∂

2

(u + v)

∂y

2

= 0

This is equivalent to

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+

∂

2

v

∂x

2

+

∂

2

u

∂y

2

+

∂

2

v

∂y

2

= 0

This can be derived from Cauchy-Riemann equations above.

But if (uv) is harmonic, then we need to prove

∂

2

(uv)

∂x

2

+

∂

2

(uv)

∂y

2

= 0

We can see that

∂

2

(uv)

∂x

2

= v

∂

2

u

∂x

2

+ u

∂

2

v

∂x

2

+ 2

∂v

∂x

∂u

∂x

∂

2

(uv)

∂y

2

= v

∂

2

u

∂y

2

+ u

∂

2

v

∂y

2

+ 2

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

Then by using Cauchy-Riemann equations above, we get only that

∂

2

(uv)

∂x

2

+

∂

2

(uv)

∂y

2

= 2

_

∂v

∂x

∂u

∂x

+

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

_

It is not really equal to 0. Hence, we complete the proof.

Exercise 2.35. (E. 18 P. 86)

Show that f(z) = e

x

cos y + ie

x

sin y = u + iv is entire.

Solution.

Examining Cauchy-Riemann equations, we obtain

∂u

∂x

−

∂v

∂y

= e

x

cos y −e

x

cos y = 0

∂u

∂y

+

∂v

∂x

= −e

x

sin y + e

x

sin y = 0

Because it is analytic throughout ﬁnite z-plane, it is entire function.

71

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

Exercise 2.36. (E. 20 P. 87)

1. Let x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ, where r and θ are the usual polar coordinate variables.

Let f(z) = u(r, θ) + iv(r, θ) be a function that is analytic in some domain that does not

include z = 0. An assumed continuity of second partial derivatives to show that in this

domain u and v satisfy the diﬀerential equation

∂

2

φ

∂r

2

+

1

r

2

∂

2

φ

∂θ

2

+

1

r

∂φ

∂r

= 0

This is Laplace’s equation in the polar variables r and θ.

2. Show that u(r, θ) = r

2

cos 2θ is a harmonic function.

3. Find v(r, θ), the harmonic conjugate of u(r, θ), and show that it too satisﬁes Laplace’s

equation everywhere.

Solution.

1. By using the polar coordinate variables, we have the form of the Cauchy-Riemann equa-

tions is now

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂r

=

1

r

∂v

∂θ

∂v

∂r

= −

1

r

∂u

∂θ

In the system of equations, we deduce that

∂

2

u

∂r

2

=

−1

r

2

∂v

∂θ

+

1

r

∂

2

v

∂θ∂r

∂

2

u

∂θ

2

= −r

∂

2

v

∂r∂θ

Hence,

∂

2

u

∂r

2

+

1

r

2

∂

2

u

∂θ

2

+

1

r

∂u

∂r

=

−1

r

2

∂v

∂θ

+

1

r

∂

2

v

∂θ∂r

−

1

r

∂

2

v

∂r∂θ

+

1

r

2

∂v

∂θ

= 0

It is the same for case of v.

2. We see that u has continuity of second partial derivatives in the given domain. Thus we

can easily show that it is harmonic function by applying equation above.

3. Using the Cauchy-Riemann equations above, we have

∂v

∂θ

= r

∂u

∂r

= 2r

2

cos 2θ

Then we deduce that v = r

2

sin 2θ + C(r). Hence

72

2 THE COMPLEX FUNCTION AND ITS DERIVATIVE

∂v

∂r

= 2r sin 2θ + C

(r)

But we note that

−1

r

∂u

∂θ

= 2r sin 2θ, then C

**(r) = 0. It means that C(r) = C. So that
**

v = r

2

sin 2θ + C.

Thus it too satisﬁes Laplace’s equation everywhere.

73

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL

FUNCTIONS

3.1 THE EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION

The reader can see some exercises below such as 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25,

26.

Exercise 3.1. (E. 2, E. 3, E. 4, E. 5, E. 6 P. 106)

Express each of the following in the form a + ib where a and b are real numbers. If the result

is multivalued, be sure to state all the values.

1. e

1/2+2i

2. e

1/2−2i

3. e

−i

4. e

1/2+2i

e

−1/2−2i

5. e

(−i)

7

Solution.

It is easy for the reader or even the beginners. Indeed, we only need to get the brief solutions.

1. e

1

2

+2i

= e

1

2

(cos 2 + i sin 2) = e

1

2

cos 2 + ie

1

2

sin 2

2. e

1

2

−2i

= e

1

2

(cos 2 −i sin 2)

3. e

−i

= cos (−1) + i sin (−1)

4. e

1

2

+2i

e

−

1

2

−2i

= e

1

2

+2i−

1

2

−2i

= e

0

= 1

5. e

(−i)

7

= e

(−i)

6

(−i)

= e

i

= e

0

(cos 1 −i sin 1)

Exercise 3.2. (E. 13 P. 106)

Find all solution of e

z

= e by equating corresponding parts (reals and imaginaries) on bith sides

of the equation.

Solution.

We have

74

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

e

x+iy

= e

x

cos y + ie

x

sin y

e

1+i0

= e + i0

So e

x

cos y + ie

x

sin y = e + i0 and we can deduce that

_

_

_

e

x

cos y = e

e

x

sin y = 0

Then we take x = 1 and notice that cos x = 1 and sin x = 0 which mean tan y = 0. Thus

y = kπwhere k ∈ Z

Exercise 3.3. (E. 14, E. 15, E. 16 P. 106)

Recalling that an analytic functionn of an analytic function is analytic, state the domain of

analyticity of each the following functions. Find the real and imaginary parts u(x; y) and v (x; y)

of the function, show that these satisfy the Cauchy-Riemann equations and find f

(x) in term

of z.

1. f (z) = e

iz

2. e

1/z

3. e

e

z

Solution.

1. Let z = x + iy. We have

f (z) = e

iz

= e

i(x+iy)

= e

ix−y

= e

−y

(cos x + i sin x) = e

−y

cos x + ie

−y

sin x

Thus

u(x; y) = e

−y

cos x

v (x; y) = e

−y

sin y

Check the Cauchy-Riemann equations

∂u

∂x

= −e

−y

sin x =

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

= −e

−y

cos y = −

∂v

∂x

Thus f (z) analytic everywhere

75

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

f

(z) = ie

iz

2. We have

e

1

z

= e

x−iy

x

2

+y

2

= e

x

x

2

+y

2

_

cos

y

x

2

+ y

2

+ i sin

y

x

2

+ y

2

_

_

_

_

u(x; y) = e

x

x

2

+y

2

cos

y

x

2

+y

2

v (x; y) = e

x

x

2

+y

2

sin

y

x

2

+y

2

We compute some following derivative and consider the Cauchy-Riemann equations

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

∂u

∂x

=

−x

2

+ y

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

.e

x

x

2

+y

2

. cos

2xy

(x

2

+ y

2

)

+

2xy

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

.e

x

x

2

+y

2

. sin

y

x

2

+ y

2

=

∂v

∂y

∂u

∂y

=

−2xy

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

.e

x

x

2

+y

2

. cos

2xy

(x

2

+ y

2

)

+

−x

2

+ y

2

(x

2

+ y

2

)

2

.e

x

x

2

+y

2

. sin

y

x

2

+ y

2

=

−∂v

∂x

Thus f (z) = e

1

z

is an analytic function, so we can compute f

(z) is term of z

f

(z) = −

1

z

2

e

1

z

3. In a similar way, we obtain

e

e

z

= e

e

x

(cos y+i sin y)

= e

e

x

cos y

[cos (e

x

sin y) + i sin (e

x

sin y)]

Then we set

u(x, y) = e

e

x

cos y

cos (e

x

sin y)

v (x, y) = e

e

x

cos y

sin (e

x

sin y)

We will use Cauchy-Riemann equations to examine its analytic domain

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂u

∂x

= e

x

e

e

x

cos y

cos (y) cos (e

x

sin y) −e

e

x

cos y

sin (e

x

sin y) e

x

sin y

∂u

∂y

= −e

x

e

e

x

cos y

sin (y) cos (e

x

sin y) −e

e

x

cos y

sin (e

x

sin y) e

x

cos y

_

¸

_

¸

_

∂v

∂x

= e

x

e

e

x

cos y

cos (y) sin (e

x

sin y) + e

e

x

cos y

cos (e

x

sin y) e

x

sin y

∂v

∂y

= −e

x

e

e

x

cos y

sin (y) sin (e

x

sin y) + e

e

x

cos y

cos (e

x

sin y) e

x

cos y

From the following equations we can see that f (z) satisfy Cauchy-Riemann equations on

entire Z plane. So f (z) is an entire function.

Thus we have f

(z) = e

z

e

e

z

76

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.4. (E. 19 P. 106)

Consider the indentity e

(z

1

+z

2

)

= e

z

1

e

z

2

, which we proved somewhat tediously in this section.

Here is an elegant the proof which relies on our knowing that

de

z

dz

= e

z

and e

0

= 1.

1. Taking a as a constant, show that

d (e

z

e

a−z

)

dz

= 0 by using the usual formula for the

derivative of a product, as well as the derivative of e

z

, and the chain rule. Note that you

cannot combine the exponents, as this has not been justified.

2. Since e

z

e

a−z

has just been shown to bae a constant, which we will call k, evaluate k in

terms of a by using the fact that e

0

= 1.

3. Using e

z

e

a−z

= k as well as k found above, and z = z

1

, a = z

1

+ z

2

, show that e

z

1

+z

2

=

e

z

1

.e

z

2

.

Solution.

1. We have

d (e

z

e

a−z

)

dz

= e

z

.e

a−z

+

_

e

a−z

_

.e

z

= e

z

.e

a−z

+ e

z

_

−e

a−z

_

= 0

2. Because of e

z

.e

a−z

= k where k is a constant, we obtain

e

z

e

a

e

z

= k then k = e

a

.

3. We see the equations below

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

e

a

= k

z = z

1

a = z

1

+ z

2

And notice that k = e

z

e

a−z

is equivalent to e

z

1

.e

z

1

+z

2

−z

1

= e

z

1

+z

2

, hence e

z

1

e

z

2

= e

z

1

+z

2

.

Exercise 3.5. (E. 22, E. 23 P. 106)

For the following closed bounded regions, R, where does the given [f (z)[ achieve its maximum

and minimum values, and what are these values?

1. R is [z −1 −i[ ≤ 2 and f (z) = e

z

2. R is [z[ ≤ 1 and f (z) = e

(z

2

)

Solution.

1. We have

77

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

[f (z)[ = [e

z

[ = e

x

And,

[z −1 −i[ ≤ 2

is the circle (inside and on the bounded as well) centered 1 + i with radius 2.

So [f (z)[has maximum and minimum when [e

z

[ = e

x

has too that mean x is maximum

and minimum.

From the region R we can see that x achieve maximum when x = 3, y = 1 and minimum

when x = −1, y = 1. So that

max [f (z)[ = e

3

min [f (z)[ = e

−1

2. We have

e

(z

2

)

= e

(x+iy)

2

= e

x

2

−y

2

e

2xyi

= e

x

2

−y

2

(cos 2xy + i sin 2xy)

¸

¸

¸e

(z

2

)

¸

¸

¸ =

¸

¸

¸e

x

2

−y

2

(cos 2xy + i sin 2xy) = e

x

2

−y

2

¸

¸

¸

And f (z) has maximum value of e

x

2

−y

2

when x

2

has maximum and y

2

has minimum which

mean x = ±1, y = 0. Thus max [f (z)[ = e.

Similarly, f (z) has minimum value of e

x

2

−y

2

when x

2

has minimum and y

2

has maximum

which mean x = 0, y = ±1. Hence, min [f (z)[ = e

−1

.

78

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.6. (E. 25 P. 107)

The absolute magnitude of the expression:

P (ψ) = 1 + e

iψ

+ e

2iψ

+ . . . + e

i(N−1)ψ

=

N−1

n=0

e

inψ

is of interest in many problems involving radiation from N identical physical elements (e.g.,

antennas, loudspeakers). Here ψ is real quantity that depends on the separation of the element

and the position of an observer of the radiation. [P[ can tell us the strength of the radiation

observed.

1. Using the formula for the sum of finite geometric series (see Exercise 27, section 1.4), show

that

[P (ψ)[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

sin

_

Nψ

2

_

sin

_

ψ

2

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2. Find lim

ψ→0

[P (ψ)[

Solution.

1. Use the formular P (ψ) = 1 + e

iψ

+ e

2iψ

+ . . . + e

i(N−1)ψ

=

_

e

iψ

_

N

−1

e

iψ

−1

We obtain

[P (ψ)[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

e

iψ

_

N

−1

e

iψ

−1

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

_

e

iψ

_

N

−1

¸

¸

¸

[e

iψ

−1[

=

[cos (Nψ) −1 + i sin (Nψ)[

[cos (ψ) −1 + i sin (ψ)[

=

_

2 −2 cos (Nψ)

√

2 −2 cos ψ

=

_

4 sin

2 Nψ

2

_

4 sin

2 ψ

2

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

sin

Nψ

2

sin

ψ

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

2. We get e

iM0

= e

0

= 1 for all M ∈ N. Hence,

79

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

lim

→ψ

[P (ψ)[ = lim

ψ→0

¸

¸

¸1 + e

iψ

+ e

i2ψ

+ . . . + e

i(N−1)ψ

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸1 + e

i.0

+ e

i.2.0

+ . . . + e

i.(N−1).0

¸

¸

¸

= [1 + 1 + 1 + . . . + 1[ = N

Exercise 3.7. (E. 26 P. 107)

Let z = re

iθ

, where r and θ are the usual polar variables.

Show that 1

_

1 + z

1 −z

_

=

1 −r

2

1 + r

2

−2r cos θ

. Why must this function satisfy Eq. (2.5-14) through-

out any domain not containing z = 1.

Solution.

We have

1 + z

1 −z

=

1 + re

iθ

1 −re

iθ

=

1 + r (cos θ + i sin θ)

1 −r (cos θ + i sin θ)

=

1 + r cos θ + ir sin θ

1 −r cos θ −ir sin θ

=

(1 + r cos θ + ir cos θ) (1 −r cos θ + ir sin θ)

(1 −r cos θ)

2

+ r

2

sin

2

θ

=

1 −r

2

+ i2r sin θ

1 + r

2

−2r cos θ

Hence, we easily see that

1

_

1 + z

1 −z

_

=

1 −r

2

1 + r

2

−2r cos θ

Because we can easily prove that

1 + z

1 −z

is analytic on the Z plane except z = 1 so when it is

analytic, its real and imaginary part must be harmonic so 1

_

1 + z

1 −z

_

must satisfy equation.

80

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.2 TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

The next are exercises 5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30.

Exercise 3.8. (E. 5, E. 9, E. 10 P. 112)

Using Eqs. (3.2-9) and (3.2-10), ﬁnd the numerical values of the following in the form a + ib,

where a and b are real numbers. If there is more than one numerical value, state all of them.

1. sin

_

i

1/2

_

2. tan

_

i arg

_

1 +

√

3i

__

3. arg (tan i)

Solution.

This exercise is basic for the beginner. We have 3 brief solutions there.

1. sin

_

i

1

2

_

= sin

_

√

2

2

+ i

√

2

2

_

= sin

_

√

2

2

_

cosh

_

√

2

2

_

+ i cos

_

√

2

2

_

sinh

_

√

2

2

_

2. tan

_

i arg

_

1 + i

√

3

__

= tan

_

i

_

π

3

+ k2π

__

=

sin

_

i

_

π

3

+ k2π

__

cos

_

i

_

π

3

+ k2π

__ =

i sinh

_

π

3

+ k2π

_

cosh

_

π

3

+ k2π

_

3. arg (tan i) = arg

_

sin i

cos i

_

= arg

_

sin 0 cosh 1 + i cos 0 sinh 1

cos 0 cosh 1 −i sin 0 sinh 1

_

= arg

_

¸

¸

_

i

(e

2

−1)

2

_

e

2

+ 1

_

2

_

¸

¸

_

= arg

_

i

_

e

2

−1

_

e

2

+ 1

_

=

π

2

+ k2π

Exercise 3.9. (E. 12 P. 112)

Prove the identity sin

2

z + cos

2

z = 1 by the following two methods

1. Use the definitions of sine and cosine contained in Eq.(3.2-5) and (3.2-6).

2. Use cos

2

z + sin

2

z=(cos z + i sin z) (cos z −i sin z) as well as Euler’s identity generalized

to complex z.

Solution.

1. From the equation 3.2-5, we can get

sin

2

z =

_

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

_

2

=

e

2iz

+ e

−2iz

−2

−4

And the equation 3.2-6 is that

cos

2

z =

_

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

_

2

=

e

2iz

+ e

−2iz

+ 2

4

We take a sum of sin

2

z and cos

2

z is

81

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

cos

2

z + sin

2

z =

2 + 2

4

= 1

2. It is easy to see that

cos

2

z + sin

2

z = (cos z + i sin z) (cos z −i sin z)

= e

iz

.e

−iz

= e

0

= 1.

Exercise 3.10. (E. 13, E. 14, E. 15 P. 112)

Using the deﬁnitions of the sine and cosine, Eqs. (3.2-5) and (3.2-6), prove the following.

1.

d

dz

sin z = cos z and

d

dz

cos z = −sin z

2. cos

2

z =

1

2

+

1

2

cos 2z

3. sin (z + 2π) = sin z and cos (z + 2π) = cos z

Solution.

1. We will solve them directly.

d

dz

(sin z) =

d

dz

_

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

_

1

2i

_

d

dz

_

e

iz

_

−

d

dz

_

e

−iz

_

_

1

2i

_

ie

iz

−(−i) e

−iz

_

1

2

_

e

iz

+ e

−iz

_

= cos z

d

dz

(cos z) =

d

dz

_

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

_

=

1

2

_

d

dz

_

e

iz

_

+

d

dz

_

e

−iz

_

_

=

1

2i

_

−e

iz

−(−1) e

−iz

_

= −

1

2i

_

e

iz

−e

−iz

_

= sin z

2. The next is similar.

82

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

cos

2

z =

_

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

_

2

=

e

i2z

+ e

−i2z

+ 2

4

=

1

2

+

1

2

cos 2z

3. Furthermore, we obtain

sin (z + 2π) =

e

i(z+2π)

−e

−i(z+2π)

2i

=

e

iz

e

i2π

−e

−iz

e

−i2π

2i

=

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

= sin z

cos (z + 2π) =

e

i(z+2π)

+ e

−i(z+2π)

2

=

e

iz

e

i2π

+ e

−iz

e

−i2π

2

=

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

= cos z

Exercise 3.11. (E. 16, E. 17 P. 112)

1. Show that the equation sin z = 0 has solutions in the complex z−plane only where z = nπ

and n = 0, ±1, ±2, . . . Thus like cos z; sin z has zeros only on the real axis.

2. Show that sin z −cos z = 0 has solution only for real values of z. What are the solution?

Solution.

1. From the equation 3.2-5, we have

sin z =

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

Hence,

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

= 0

Simplify this and we get e

2iz

= 1. Thus the solution of sin z = 0 is 2z = k2π where k ∈ Z,

so that z = kπ.

83

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

We can see that this solution is real so sin z only has zeros on the real axis.

In a similar fashion, we can get the solution of cos z = 0 which are z =

π

2

+ mπ where

m ∈ Z. Then cos z also has zeros only on the real axis.

2. From the equations 3.2-5 and 3.2-6, we have cos z =

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

and sin z =

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

.

Take a subtraction, we see that

sin z −cos z =

e

iz

−e

−iz

2i

−

e

iz

+ e

−iz

2

=

e

iz

(1 −i) −e

−iz

(1 + i)

2i

Let sin z −cos z = 0 which means

e

iz

(1 −i) −e

−iz

(1 + i)

2i

= 0

Transform this and we get

√

2

_

e

i

z−

π

4

−e

i

π

4

−z

_

= 0

Hence the solutions of this equation are 2z−

π

2

= k2π where k ∈ Z. Then We get z =

π

4

+kπ

where k ∈ Z.

The reader can see that these solutions are real values so sin z − cos z = 0 has solution

only for real values of z and its solutions are z =

π

4

+ kπ where k ∈ Z

Exercise 3.12. (E. 25, E. 26, E. 27, E. 28 P. 112)

1. Show that [cos z[ =

_

sinh

2

y + cos

2

x

2. Show that [sin z[ =

_

sinh

2

y + sin

2

x

3. Show that [sin z[

2

+[cos z[

2

= sinh

2

y + cosh

2

y

4. Show that

tan z =

sin 2x + i sinh 2y

cos 2x + cosh 2y

Solution.

84

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

[cos z[ = [cos xcosh y −i sin xsinh y[

=

_

[cos xcosh y]

2

+ [sin xsinh y]

2

=

_

cos

2

x

_

1 + sinh

2

y

¸

+ [1 −cos

2

x] sinh

2

y

=

_

cos

2

x + cos

2

xsinh

2

y + sinh

2

y −cos

2

xsinh

2

y

=

_

cos

2

x + sinh

2

y

[sin z[ =

_

sin

2

x. cosh

2

y + cos

2

x. sinh

2

y

=

_

sin

2

x.

_

1 + sinh

2

y

_

+ cos

2

x. sinh

2

y

=

_

sin

2

x + sinh

2

y

[sin z[

2

+[cos z[

2

= sinh

2

y + cos

2

x + sinh

2

y + sin

2

x

= 2 sinh

2

y + 1

= 2 sinh

2

y + cosh

2

y −sinh

2

y

= sinh

2

y + cosh

2

y

tan z =

sin z

cos z

=

sin (x + iy)

cos (x + iy)

=

sin xcosh y + i cos xsinh y

cos xcosh y −i sin xsinh y

=

(sin xcosh y + i cos xsinh y) (cos xcosh y + i sin xsinh y)

cos

2

xcosh

2

y + sin

2

xsinh

2

y

We have

cos

2

xcosh

2

y + sin

2

xsinh

2

y = cos

2

xcos

2

(iy) −sin

2

xsin

2

(iy)

=

(1 + cos 2x) (1 + cos (2iy)) −(1 −cos 2x) (1 −cos (2iy))

4

=

cos 2x + cos (2iy)

2

=

cos 2x + cosh (2iy)

2

Then

(sin xcosh y + i cos xsinh y) (cos xcosh y + i sin xsinh y) =

1

2

sin 2x

_

cosh

2

y −sinh

2

y

_

+ i sinh y. cosh y

_

sin

2

x + cos

2

x

_

=

1

2

sin 2x + i sinh y. cosh y

=

1

2

sin 2x + sin (iy) . cos (iy)

=

1

2

(sin 2x + i sinh 2y)

85

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

So that

tan z =

sin 2x + i sinh 2y

cos 2x + cosh 2y

Exercise 3.13. (E. 29, E. 30 P. 113)

1. Show that

cot z =

sin 2x −i sinh 2y

cosh 2y −cos 2x

2. Since sin z = sin xcosh y +i cos xsinh y and [sinh y[ ≤ cosh y, show that [sinh y[ ≤ [sin z[ ≤

[cosh y[

3. Derive a comparable double inequality for [cos z[.

Solution.

1. We have

cot z =

cos z

sin z

=

cos (x + iy)

sin (x + iy)

=

cos xcosh y −i sin xsinh y

sin xcos y + i cos xsinh y

=

(cos xcosh y −i sin xsinh y) (sin xcos y −i cos xsinh y)

sin

2

xcos

2

y + cos

2

xsinh

2

y

At this time, we do this is the same as exercise 28. Then we can complete the solution.

2. We get the inequality below.

[sin z[ =

_

sin

2

x + sinh

2

y ≥

_

sinh

2

y ≥ [sinh y[

And

[sin z[ =

_

sin

2

xcosh

2

y + cos

2

xsinh

2

y ≤

_

sin

2

xcosh

2

y + cos

2

cosh

2

y ≤ cosh

2

y

Thus

[sinh y[ ≤ [sin z[ ≤ [cosh y[

3. We obtain that

[cos z[ =

_

cos

2

x + sinh

2

y ≥

_

sinh

2

y = [sinh y[

86

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

And

[cos z[ =

_

cos

2

x + cosh

2

y −1 =

_

cosh

2

y −sin

2

x ≤

_

cosh

2

y = [cosh y[

So a comparable double inequality is [sinh y[ ≤ [cos z[ ≤ [cosh y[

87

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.3 HYPERBOLIC FUNCTIONS

We show the solutions of exercises 1, 2, 5, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19.

Exercise 3.14. (E. 1, E. 2, E. 5 P. 114)

Use Equations. (3.3-1) and (3.3-2) to prove the following

1. sinh z = sinh x. cos y + i cosh x. sin y

2. cosh z = cosh x. cos y + i sinh x. sin y

3. sinh (iθ) = i sin θ and cosh (iθ) = cos θ. Thus the hyperbolic sine of a pure imaginary

number is a pure imaginary number while the hyperbolic cosine of a pure imaginary

number is a real number.

Solution.

1. We have

sinh z =

e

z

−e

−z

2

=

e

x+iy

−e

−x−iy

2

=

e

x

(cos y + i sin y) −e

−x

(cos y −i sin y)

2

= cos y.

_

e

x

−e

−x

2

_

+ i sin y.

_

e

x

+ e

−x

2

_

= cos y. sinh x + i sin y. cosh x

2. We get

cosh z =

e

z

+ e

−z

2

=

e

x+iy

+ e

−x−iy

2

=

e

x

(cos y + i sin y) + e

−x

(cos y −i sin y)

2

= cos y.

_

e

x

+ e

−x

2

_

+ i sin y.

_

e

x

−e

−x

2

_

= cos y. cosh x + i sin y. sinh x

3. From exercises 1, 2, we subtitute z = iθ and notice that sinh 0 = 0 and cosh 0 = 1.

sinh iθ = cos θ. sinh 0 + i sin θ. cosh 0 = i sin θ

cosh iθ = cos θ. cosh 0 + i sin θ. sinh 0 = cos θ

Thus the hyperbolic sine of a pure imaginary number is a pure imaginary number while

the hyperbolic cosine of a pure imaginary number is a real number.

88

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.15. (E. 10, E. 11 P. 114)

Find the numerical value of the following derivatives.

1.

d

dz

sinh (sin z) at z = i

2.

d

dz

sin (sinh z) at z = i

Solution.

1. We see that

d

dz

sinh (sin z) = cosh (sin z) . cos z

Then with z = i and the aid of Exercise 5,

cosh (sin i) . cos i = cosh (i sinh 1) . cos i

= cosh (sinh 1) . cosh 1 = 2.44

2. In a similar way, we consider

d

dz

sin (sinh z) = cos (sinh z) . cosh z

Then with z = i and the aid of Exercise 5 plus equation 3.2-12,

cos (sinh i) . cosh i = cos (i sin 1) .cos1

= cosh (sin 1) . cos 1 = 0.7431

Exercise 3.16. (E. 12 P. 114)

Consider the equation sinh (x + iy) = 0. Use equation 3.3-6 to equate the real and imaginary

parts of sinh z to zero. Show that this pair of equations can be satisﬁed if and only if z = inπ

where n ∈ Z . Thus the zeros of all sinh z all lie along the imaginary axis in the z-plane.

Solution.

In equation 3.3-6, we have sinh z = sinh x. cos y + i cosh x. sin y

Then let sinh x. cos y + i cosh x. sin y = 0, this means sinh x. cos y = 0 and cosh x. sin y = 0

The solutions are x = 0 and y = nπ where n ∈ Z

Hence z = inπ where n ∈ Z

Thus the zeros of all sinh z all lie along the imaginary axis in the z-plane.

89

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.17. (E. 18, E. 19 P. 115)

Show that

1. [sinh z[

2

= sinh

2

x + sin

2

y

2. [cosh z[

2

= sinh

2

x + cos

2

y = cosh

2

x −sin

2

y

Solution.

1. By using equation 3.3-6, we obtain

[sinh z[

2

= [sinh x. cos y + i cosh x. sin y[

2

= sinh

2

x. cos

2

y + cosh

2

x. sin

2

y

= sinh

2

x. cos

2

y +

_

1 + sinh

2

x

_

sin

2

y

= sinh

2

x.

_

cos

2

y + sin

2

y

_

+ sin

2

y

Hence we get [sinh z[

2

= sinh

2

x + sin

2

y

2. Use equation 3.3-7, we solve respectively.

[cosh z[

2

= [cosh x. cos y + i sinh x. sin y[

2

= cosh

2

x. cos

2

y + sinh

2

x. sin

2

y

=

_

1 + sinh

2

x

_

. cos

2

y + sinh

2

x. sin

2

y

= cos

2

y + sinh

2

x.

_

cos

2

y + sin

2

y

_

= sinh

2

x + cos

2

y

But notice that

cosh

2

x. cos

2

y + sinh

2

x. sin

2

y = cosh

2

x.

_

1 −sin

2

y

_

+

_

cosh

2

x −1

_

. sin

2

y

= cosh

2

x −cosh

2

x. sin

2

y + cosh

2

x. sin

2

y −sin

2

y

= cosh

2

x −sin

2

y

Thus we get

[cosh z[

2

= sinh

2

x + cos

2

y = cosh

2

x −sin

2

y

90

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.4 THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION

The reader can see some exercises as examples such as 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 18, 19, 23, 24, 26.

Exercise 3.18. (E. 8, E. 9, E. 10 P. 119)

Find all values of the logarithm of each of the following numbers and state in each case the

principal value. Put answers in the form a + ib.

1. e

log(i sinh 1)

2. e

e

i

3. Log (Logi)

Solution.

1. We deduce that

log z = log e

log(i sinh 1)

= log (i sinh 1)

= log [sinh 1 (0 + i)]

= log

_

sinh 1

_

cos

π

2

+ i sin

π

2

__

= Log (sinh 1) + i

_

π

2

+ k2π

_

, k ∈ Z

Then we set θ =

π

2

+ k2π and get

Logz = Log (sinh 1) + i

π

2

2. We have

log

_

e

e

i

_

= log

_

e

cos 1+i sin 1

_

= log

_

e

cos 1

(cos (sin 1) + i sin (sin 1))

¸

= Log

_

e

cos 1

_

+ i [arccos (cos (sin 1)) + k2π] , k ∈ Z

The principal value is Log

_

e

cos 1

_

+ i arccos (cos (sin 1)) when k = 0.

3. We get

log Log (Logi) = log Log

_

i

π

2

_

= log

_

Log

π

2

+ i arcsin

π

2

_

= Log

_

Log

2

π

2

+ arcsin

2

π

2

+ i (1 + k2π)

91

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

The principal value is Log

_

Log

2

π

2

+ arcsin

2

π

2

+ i1 when k = 0.

Exercise 3.19. (E. 11 P. 119)

For what values of z is the equation Logz = Logz true?

Solution.

We have equation 3.4-5

Logz = Log [z[ + arg z

Log¯ z = Log [¯ z[ + arg ¯ z = Log [z[ −arg z

Log¯ z = Log [¯ z[ −arg ¯ z = Log [z[ + arg z

The question is Logz = Log¯ z, it means that

Log [z[ + arg z = Log [¯ z[ −arg ¯ z

This is equivalent to

arg z = −arg ¯ z

With z = x + iy, x ,= 0, we see that

arg

y

x

= −arg

_

−

y

x

_

Then we obtain the fact that

y

x

=

y

x

.

Thus, the solution of equation for z ∈ R with 1z ,= 0.

Exercise 3.20. (E. 13 P. 119)

Give solutions to the following equations in Cartesian form.

(Logz)

2

+ Logz = −1

Solution.

From the equation above, we see that

(Logz)

2

+ Logz + 1 = 0

We have ∆ = 3i

2

, so that

_

¸

_

¸

_

Logz =

−1 + i

√

3

2

Logz =

−1 −i

√

3

2

92

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.21. (E. 18, E. 19 P. 119)

Use logarithm to ﬁnd all solutions of the following equations.

1. (e

z

−1)

2

= e

z

2. (e

z

−1)

3

= 1

Solution.

1. The equation given is equivalent to

(e

z

)

2

−3e

z

+ 1 = 0

Then we can derive the roots below.

_

¸

_

e

z

=

3 +

√

5

2

e

z

=

3 −

√

5

2

From these roots, we take logarithm both sides to get

_

¸

_

z = log

3 +

√

5

2

+ il2π

z = log

3 −

√

5

2

+ ik2π

where k, l ∈ Z.

2. Because the case e

z

= 0 is discarded, the equation becomes

e

z

= 2

It is very easy to deal with by taking logarithm both sides, so we obtain

z = Log2 + ik2π, k ∈ Z

Exercise 3.22. (E. 23, E. 24 P. 119)

Prove that if θ is real, then

1. 1

_

log

_

1 + e

iθ

_¸

= Log

¸

¸

¸2 cos

π

2

¸

¸

¸ if e

iθ

,= −1

2. 1

_

log

_

re

iθ

−1

_¸

=

1

2

Log

_

1 −2r cos θ + r

2

_

if r ≥ 0, re

iθ

,= 1

Solution.

1. We have

93

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

1 + e

iθ

= cos θ + i sin θ + cos 0 + i sin 0

= cos θ + cos 0 + i (sin θ + sin 0)

= 2 cos

θ

2

cos

θ

2

+ i2 sin

θ

2

cos

θ

2

= 2 cos

θ

2

_

cos

θ

2

+ i sin

θ

2

_

So that, we conclude

log

_

1 + e

iθ

_

= Log

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 cos

θ

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ i

_

θ

2

+ k2π

_

where k ∈ Z

Hence,

1

_

log

_

1 + e

iθ

__

= Log

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 cos

θ

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

2. We have

e

iθ

= cos θ + i sin θ

Then taking logarithm both sides, we see that

log (r cos θ −1 + ir sin θ) = Log

_

r

2

cos

2

θ + 1 −2r cos θ + r

2

sin

2

θ + i

_

arcsin

r sin θ

_

r

2

cos

2

θ + 1 −2r cos θ + r

2

sin

2

θ

+ k2π

_

= Log

_

r

2

+ 1 −2r cos θ + i

_

arcsin

r sin θ

√

r

2

+ 1 −2 cos θ

+ k2π

_

=

1

2

Log

_

r

2

+ 1 −2r cos θ

_

+ i

_

arcsin

r sin θ

√

r

2

+ 1 −2 cos θ

+ k2π

_

Hence, we get the proof completely.

1

_

log

_

re

iθ

−1

_¸

=

1

2

Log

_

1 −2r cos θ + r

2

_

, r ≥ 0, re

iθ

,= 1

Exercise 3.23. (E. 26 P.119)

Consider the identity log z

n

= nlog z, where n is an integer, which is valid for appropriate

choices of the logarithms on each side of the equation. Let z = 1 + i and n = 5.

1. Find values of log z

n

and log z that satisfy nlog z = log z

n

2. For the given z and n is nLogz = Logz

n

satisﬁed?

3. Suppose n = 2 and z is unchanged. Is nLogz = Logz

n

then satisﬁed?

94

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Solution.

1. By letting the condition above, we have

log (1 + i)

5

= 5 log (1 + i)

We see that

log (1 + i) = log

√

2 + i

_

π

4

+ k2π

_

Then

log (1 + i)

5

= 5 log

√

2 + 5i

_

π

4

+ k2π

_

, k ∈ Z

2. Take k = 0, we obtain

Log (1 + i)

5

= Log

√

2

5

+ 5i

_

π

4

_

It means that

5Log (1 + i) = 5

_

log

√

2 + i

π

4

_

= 5 log

√

2 + i5

π

4

Thus, with n = 5, z = 1 + i then we get Log (1 + i)

5

= 5Log (1 + i)

3. We still analyse like the above.

Log (1 + i)

2

= log 2 + i

π

2

2Log (1 + i) = 2

_

log

√

2 + i

π

4

_

= log 2 + i

π

2

Thus, with n = 2, z = 1 + i, we obtain Log (1 + i)

2

= 2Log (1 + i)

95

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.5 ANALYTICITY OF THE LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION

We consider the exercises 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12.

Exercise 3.24. (E. 2 P. 126)

Suppose that: f (z) = log z = Logr + iθ, 0 ≤ θ < 2π

1. Find the largest domain of analyticity of this function.

2. Find the numerical value of f

_

−e

2

_

3. Explain why we cannot determine f

_

e

2

_

within the domain of analyticity.

Solution.

1. f (z) is discontinuous at origin z = 0, since log 0 not identified. θ discontinuous at the

point on the positive real axis. Because the point on the positive real axis value θ = 0,

while points located in quadrant-four while

lim

θ→0

θ = 2π

Cut branches located in the plane xy, so f (z) is a branch of logarithm analytic in the

domain D as follows

D = C ¸ ¦z : ·z = 0, 1z ≥ 0¦

2. We consider the function f

_

−e

2

_

= log

_

−e

2

_

and have −e

2

= e

2

e

iπ

. So we take logarithm

both sides as follows

log

_

−e

2

_

= log

_

e

2

e

iπ

_

= Log

_

e

2

_

+ i (π + k2π) , k ∈ Z

Then, because of 0 ≤ θ = π + k2π < 2π, we choose k = 0, it means θ = π.

Hence,

log

_

e

2

_

= 2Loge + iπ

3. We have

log

_

e

2

_

= Log

_

e

2

_

+ i (0 + k2π) , k ∈ Z

When we choose k = 0, at that point ,log

_

e

2

_

is (2; 0) located on the positive real axis in

the plane xy, in which the function is not analytic. Therefore, we can not define f

_

e

2

_

in

the analytic domain.

96

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.25. (E. 3, E. 4, E. 6 P. 126)

Consider a branch of log z analytic in the domain created with the branch cut x = 0, y ≥ 0. If

for this branch, log (−1) = −iπ, find the following:

1. log (1)

2. log (−ie)

3. log

_

−

√

3 + i

_

Solution.

1. Using the equation 3.4-2 along with the definition of branch cut and we achieve

log (1) = log

_

e

i0

_

= Log1 + i (0 + 2kπ) , k ∈ Z

We need to find θ, consider that

−

3π

2

< θ = 0 + k2π <

π

2

So θ = 0

Thus, we obtain

log 1 = Log1 + i0 = 0

2. Using the equation 3.4-2 along with the definition of branch cut and we achieve

arg (−ie) = −π +

π

2

= −

π

2

Hence,

log (−ie) = log e + i

_

−

π

2

_

= 1 −

iπ

2

3. Using the equation 3.4-2 along with the definition of branch cut and we achieve

log

_

−

√

3 + i

_

= log

_

2e

i5π

6

_

= i

_

5π

6

+ k2π

_

, k ∈ Z

We find θ from the inequality below.

−

3π

2

< θ =

5π

6

+ k2π <

π

2

97

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

So θ = −

7π

6

.

Thus

log

_

−

√

3 + i

_

= Log2 + i

_

−

7π

6

_

Exercise 3.26. (E. 8, E. 10 P. 127)

Consider a branch of log z analytic in the domain created with the branch cut x = −y, x ≥ 0.

If, for this branch , log (1) = −2πi, find the following.

1. log (i)

2. log (−ie)

Solution.

1. We see that x = −y and x > 0 is the branch cut so −

9π

4

< θ < −

π

4

Using this branch cut and we get the value of θ

arg z = −2π +

π

2

= −

3π

2

log i = log [i[ −i

3π

2

= i

_

−

3π

2

−2π

_

2. We consider that x = −y and x > 0 is the branch cut so −

9π

4

< θ < −

π

4

Using this branch cut and we get the value of θ

log (−ie) −log

_

e.e

i(−

π

2

)

_

= Loge + i

_

−

π

2

+ k2π

_

, k ∈ Z

We ﬁnd k from θ

−

9π

4

< θ = −

π

2

+ k2π < −

π

4

, k ∈ Z

So we have θ = −

π

2

, k = 0.

Thus

log (−ie) = 1 −

π

2

i

98

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Exercise 3.27. (E. 12 P. 127)

1. Show that −Logz = Log

1

z

is valid throughout the domain of analyticity of Logz.

2. Find a nonprincipal branch of log z such that −log z = log

1

z

is not satisfied somewhere

in your domain of analyticity of log z. Prove your result.

Solution.

1. We have log z = log [z[ + i arg where −π < arg z < π

Now, if arg z lies between –π and π, we can take arg

1

z

= −arg z

And we will get −π < arg

1

z

< π

Thus,

log

1

z

= log

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ i arg z

= −log [z[ −i arg z

Or we can say that

−log z = log

1

z

2. We obtain that log i =

iπ

2

log

1

i

= log (−i) = i

3π

2

And note that

log i ,= log

1

i

99

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.6 COMPLEX EXPONENTIALS

We go together to solve exercises 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 20, 24, 25.

Exercise 3.28. (E. 8, E. 9, E. 10 P. 132)

Find all values of the following in the form a + ib and state the principal value.

1. (Logi)

π/2

2. (1 + i tan i)

√

2

Solution.

1. We have

Logi = Log

_

cos

π

2

+ i sin

π

2

_

= Log1 + i

π

2

+ k2π

= i

π

2

+ k2π

=

π

2

_

cos

π

2

+ i sin

π

2

_

+ k2π

Thus

log (Logi) = Log

π

2

+ i

_

π

2

+ 2kπ

_

Moreover, we get

e

π

2

Log

π

2

_

cos

_

π

2

4

+ kπ

2

_

+ i

_

π

2

4

+ kπ

2

__

When k = 0, the principal value is

(Logi)

π

2

= e

π

2

Log

π

2

+

π

2

4

= e

π

2

Log

π

2

_

cos

π

2

4

+ i sin

π

2

4

_

2. We have

(1 + i tan 1)

√

2

= e

√

2. log(1+i tan 1)

We see the exponent here and make some changes

log (1 + i tan 1) = Log

_

1 + tan

2

1 + i arccos

1

√

1 + tan

2

1

= Log

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

cos 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

+ i (1 + 2kπ)

100

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

Hence,

e

√

2 log(1+i tan 1)

= e

√

2(Log[

1

cos 1

[+i(1+k2π))

=

_

1

cos 1

_

√

2

.e

(

√

2+2

√

2kπ)i

And the principal value is

_

1

cos 1

_

√

2

.e

√

2i

Exercise 3.29. (E. 11 P. 132)

Show that all possible values of z

i

are real if [z[ = e

nπ

, where n is any integer.

Solution.

We have

z

i

= e

i log z

= e

i(log|z|+i(θ+k2π))

= e

i log|z|−(θ+k2π)

With [z[ = e

nπ

, the equality above is equivalent to

e

i log e

nπ

.e

−(θ+k2π)

= e

inπ

.e

−(θ+k2π)

= cos (nπ) .e

−(θk2π)

∈ R, ∀n ∈ N

Exercise 3.30. (E. 13 P. 132)

Using Eq. (3.1-5) of Eq. (3.1-7) and the deﬁnition in Eq. (3.6-1), prove that for any complex

values α, β and z, we have the following.

The values of z

α

z

β

are identical to the values of z

α+β

.

Solution.

From the equation 3.6-1, we have

z

α

= e

αlog z

z

β

= e

β log z

Then we multiply them side by side, we get

101

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

z

α

z

β

= e

αlog z

e

β log z

= e

αlog z+β log z

= e

(α+β) log z

= z

α+β

Exercise 3.31. (E. 16, E. 18 P. 132)

Using the principal branch of the function, evaluate the following.

1. f

(i) if f (z) = z

2+i

2. f

(−8i) if f (z) = z

1/3+i

Solution.

1. We must get the derivative of this function, but we can change the form before.

f (z) = z

2+i

= e

(2+i)Logz

f

(z) =

_

e

(2+i)Logz

_

=

2 + i

z

e

(2+i)Logz

With z = i, we have

f

(i) =

2 + i

i

e

(2+i)Logi

=

2 + i

i

e

(2+i)i

π

2

=

2 + i

i

e

−

π

2

+iπ

2. In exercise above, we can use

f

(z) =

_

e

(2+i)Logz

_

=

2 + i

z

e

(2+i)Logz

f

(−8i) =

_

−1 + i

1

3

_

e

(

1

3

+i)Log(−8i)

8

Then we evaluate them respectively.

Log (−8i) = Log8 −i

π

2

_

1

3

+ i

_

Log (−8i) = Log2 +

π

2

+ i

_

Log8 −

π

6

_

102

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

So that, we conclude

f

(−8i) =

(−3 + i)

24

e

Log2+

π

2

cis

_

Log8 −

π

6

_

=

1

12

(−3 + i) e

π

2

cis

_

Log8 −

π

6

_

Exercise 3.32. (E. 19, E. 20 P. 132)

Let f (z) = z

z

, where the principal branch is used. Evaluate the following.

1. f

(z)

2. f

(i)

Solution.

We need to ﬁnd the derivative now.

f

(z) =

d

dz

z

z

=

d

dz

e

z. log z

= (log z + 1) e

z. log z

= (log z + 1) .z

z

So take z = i here, we obtain

f

(i) = (log i + 1) e

i log i

=

_

iπ

2

+ 1

_

e

i

iπ

2

=

_

iπ

2

+ 1

_

e

−

π

2

Exercise 3.33. (E. 21, E. 24, E. 25 P. 132)

1. Let f (z) = z

sin z

, where the principal branch is used. Find f

(i).

2. Let f (z) = 10

z

3

. This function is evaluated such that f

**(z) is real when z = 1. Find
**

f

**(1 + i). Where in the complex plane is f (z) analytic?
**

3. Let f (z) = 10

e

z

. This function is evaluated such that [f (iπ/2)[ = e

−2π

. Find f

(z) and

f

(iπ/2).

Solution.

1. We still use old method above to get the derivative.

103

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

f (z) = z

sin z

= e

sin zLogz

f

(z) =

_

e

sin zLogz

_

=

_

cos zLogz +

sin z

z

_

e

sin zLogz

, z ,= 0

With z = i, we have

f

(i) =

_

cos iLogi +

sin i

i

_

e

sin iLogi

=

_

i

π

2

cos i −i sin i

_

e

i

π

2

sin i

2. Like the exercise above, we get

f

(z) =

d

dz

_

e

z

3

. log 10

_

= 3z

2

log 10.e

z

3

. log 10

= 3z

2

log 10.f (z)

With z = 1 + i, then we deduce that

f

(1 + i) = 3 log 10. (1 + i)

2

.10

(1+i)

3

= 3 log 10.2i.10

2i−2

And notice that f (z)analytic when z ,= 0.

3. In a similar fashion, we change the form of the function

f (z) = 10

(e

z

)

= e

e

z

log 10

So that the derivative is

f

(z) =

_

10

(e

z

)

_

= e

(Log10+i2π)e

z

(Log10 + i2π) e

z

With z =

iπ

2

, the result we need is

f

_

iπ

2

_

= 0.00464 −i0.0116

104

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

3.7 INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC AND HYPERBOLIC

FUNCTIONS

In this section, we have exercise 2, 4, 7, 8, 16, 17.

Exercise 3.34. (E. 2 P. 137)

1. Show that if we diﬀerentiate a branch of arccos z, we obtain

d

dz

arccos z =

−1

(1 −z

2

)

1/2

2. Obtain

d

dz

arcsin z =

d

dz

_

−i log

_

zi +

_

1 −z

2

_

1/2

__

=

1

(1 −z

2

)

1/2

by noting that

z

2

= sin

2

w = 1 −cos

2

w = 1 −

_

dz

dw

_

2

can be solved for dw/dz.

3. Obtain

d

dz

sinh

−1

z =

1

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

directly from sinh

−1

z = log

_

z +

_

z

2

+ 1

_

1/2

_

; obtain it also by a procedure similar to

part (2) of this exercise.

Solution.

1. We need to ﬁnd the inverse function of cosine from the equation z = cos w. We have

z = cos w =

e

iw

+ e

−iw

2

And then we put y = e

iw

, the equation above becomes y

2

− 2zy + 1 = 0, so the root is

y = z + i

√

1 −z

2

. It means that

w = −i log

_

z + i

_

1 −z

2

_

Hence,

arccos z = −i log

_

z + i

_

1 −z

2

_

Then, the derivative is

105

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

d

dz

arccos z =

d

dz

_

−i log

_

z + i

_

1 −z

2

__

=

−1

(1 −z

2

)

1/2

2. In a similar fashion, from the given equality, we deduce that

_

dz

dw

_

2

= z

2

−1

Next, we inverse both sides to see the proof needed.

3. We have

z

2

= sinh

2

w = −1 + cosh

2

w

This is equivalent to

z

2

= −1 +

_

dz

dw

_

2

Thus we see that

dw

dz

=

1

(z

2

+ 1)

1/2

Exercise 3.35. (E. 4, E. 7, E. 8 P. 137)

Find all solutions to the following equations.

1. cos w = 3

2. sinh w = i

√

2

3. cosh

2

w = −1

Solution.

1. Because of the exercise above, we obtain

w = arccos 3 = i log

_

3 −2

√

2

_

+ k2π

2. We have

sinh

−1

z = log

_

z +

_

z

2

+ 1

_

So that from this, we obtain

106

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

w = sinh

−1

_

i

√

2

_

= log

_

i

√

2 +

_

_

i

√

2

_

2

+ 1

_

= log

_

i

√

2 + i

_

Hence,

w = log

_

√

2 + 1

_

+ i

_

π

2

+ k2π

_

3. We see the formular below.

cosh w =

1

2

_

e

w

+ e

−w

_

Then we square both sides and get the equation, it means that

1

4

_

e

2w

+ e

−2w

+ 2

_

= −1

We easily solve this equation and obtain the root is e

−2w

= 1. Hence,

w = ikπ

Exercise 3.36. (E. 16 P. 137)

Show that tanh

−1

_

e

iθ

_

=

1

2

log

_

i cot

_

θ

2

__

.

Solution.

We start with the left side.

tanh

−1

_

e

iθ

_

=

1

2

log

_

1 + e

iθ

1 −e

iθ

_

=

1

2

log

_

e

−iθ

2

+ e

iθ

2

e

−iθ

2

−e

iθ

2

_

Moreover, we have

cot

_

θ

2

_

= i

e

−iθ

2

+ e

iθ

2

e

iθ

2

−e

−iθ

2

or we can say that

e

−iθ

2

+ e

iθ

2

e

−iθ

2

−e

iθ

2

= i cot

_

θ

2

_

107

3 THE BASIC TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS

So that we can complete the proof here.

Exercise 3.37. (E. 17 P. 137)

Find a formula similar to the one above for tan

−1

_

e

iθ

_

.

Solution.

We have a formula below.

tan

−1

_

e

iθ

_

=

i

2

log

_

i + e

iθ

i −e

iθ

_

Also, we can observe that

i + e

iθ

i −e

iθ

=

_

i + e

iθ

_

2

−1 −e

2iθ

= −

_

−1 + e

2iθ

1 + e

2iθ

+

2ie

iθ

1 + e

2iθ

_

= −

_

e

iθ

−e

−iθ

e

iθ

+ e

−iθ

+

2i

e

iθ

+ e

−iθ

_

= −i

sin θ + 1

cos θ

So that we obtain the proof by replacing the equality above into a formula of tanh

−1

_

e

iθ

_

.

108

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO LINE INTEGRATION

We can evaluate exercises 2, 3, 6, 7 to get some examples.

Exercise 4.1. (E. 2, E. 3 P. 160)

Let C be that portion of the curve y = x

2

lying between (0, 0) and (1, 1). Let F (x, y) = x+y+1.

Evaluate these integrals along C.

1.

ˆ

1,1

0,0

F (x, y) dx

2.

ˆ

1,1

0,0

F (x, y) dy

Solution.

1. Along the path of integration, y changes with x. The equation of the contour of integration

y = x

2

can be used to express y as a function of x in the preceding integrand. Thus

ˆ

1,1

0,0

F (x, y) dx =

ˆ

1,1

0,0

_

x + x

2

+ 1

_

dx

=

x

2

2

+

x

3

3

+ x

¸

¸

¸

¸

x=1

x=0

=

11

6

2. To change this to a conventional integral, we may regard x as a function of y along C.

Since y = x

2

and x ≥ 0 on the path of integration, we obtain x =

√

y. Hence

ˆ

1,1

0,0

F (x, y) dy =

ˆ

1,1

0,0

(

√

y + y + 1) dy =

13

6

Exercise 4.2. (E. 6 P. 160)

Let C be that portion of the curve x

2

+ y

2

= 1 lying in the ﬁrst quadrant. Let F (x, y) = x

2

y.

Evaluate the integral along C.

ˆ

1,0

0,1

F (x, y) ds

Solution.

Because of portion of the curve x

2

+y

2

= 1 lying in the ﬁrst quadrant, we will use parametric

representation to solve this problem. Indeed, we put

109

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

_

_

_

x = r cos θ

y = r sin θ

, r ≤ 1, θ ∈

_

0;

π

2

_

Then it is easy to get the following integral

ˆ π

2

0

ˆ

1

0

r

3

cos

2

θ sin θrdrdθ =

ˆ π

2

0

cos

2

θ sin θdθ

ˆ

1

0

r

4

dr

=

_

−

cos

3

θ

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

π

2

0

__

r

5

5

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

0

_

=

1

15

Exercise 4.3. (E. 7 P. 160)

Show that

ˆ

0,1

0,−1

ydx =

−π

2

.The integration is along that portion of the circle x

2

+y

2

= 1 lying

in the half plane x ≥ 0. Be sure to consider signs in taking square roots.

Solution.

Because the integration is along that portion of the circle x

2

+y

2

= 1 lying in the half plane

x ≥ 0 so we put

_

_

_

x = cos t

y = sin t

_

−π

2

≤ t ≤

π

2

_

Therefore we have dx = −sin tdt.

Thus we consider the integration is

ˆ

0,1

0,−1

ydx =

ˆ π

2

−

π

2

sin t (−sin t) dt

=

1

2

ˆ π

2

−

π

2

(cos 2t −1) dt

= −

π

2

110

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.2 COMPLEX LINE INTEGRATION

We will write down some exercises there such as 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17.

Exercise 4.4. (E. 4, E. 5, E. 6 P. 170)

Evaluate

ˆ

1

i

¯ zdz along the contour C, where C is

1. the straight line segment lying along x + y = 1.

2. the parabola y = (1 −x)

2

.

3. the portion of the circle x

2

+ y

2

= 1 in the ﬁrst quadrant.

Solution.

1. Now we put

_

_

_

x = t

y = 1 −t

where 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

And we notice that dz = (1 −i) dt. Then by replacing all above, we get

ˆ

1

i

¯ zdz =

ˆ

1

0

(t + (t −1) i) (1 −i) dt

=

ˆ

1

0

(2t −1 −i) dt

= −i

2. Like a method of exercise above, by setting up

_

_

_

x = t

y = (1 −t)

2

with 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

We obtain dz = [1 −2 (1 −t) i] dt

Hence, the result is

ˆ

1

i

¯ zdz =

ˆ

1

0

_

t −(t −1)

2

i

_

[1 −2 (1 −t) i] dt

=

ˆ

1

0

_

t + 2 (t −1)

3

+

_

t

2

−1

_

i

_

dt

=

−2

3

i

3. Here the change of variables is give by

_

_

_

x = cos t

y = sin t

_

0 ≤ t ≤

π

2

_

So we get z = cos t + i sin t. This deduce that dz = (−sin t + i cos t) dt.

Thus the result is

111

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

I =

ˆ π

2

0

(cos t −i sin t) (−sin t + i cos t) dt

= i

ˆ π

2

0

dt

= i

π

2

Exercise 4.5. (E. 7 P. 171)

Evaluate

ˆ

e

z

dz

1. from z = 0 to z = 1 along the line y = 0;

2. from z = 1 to z = 1 + i along the line x = 1;

3. from z = 1 +i to z = 0 along the line y = x. Verify that the sum of your three answers is

zero.

Solution.

1. From z = 0 to z = 1 along the line y = 0, we take x = t and y = 0, so z (t) = t and

dz = dt.

This intergral becomes

ˆ

1,0

0,0

e

z

dz =

ˆ

1

0

e

t

dt

= e −1

2. From z = 1 to z = 1 + i along the line x = 1, this time we set x = 1 and y = t so

z = x + iy = 1 + it. Therefore, we get dz = idt.

Now the result is

ˆ

1,0

1,1

e

z

dz =

ˆ

1

0

ie

1+it

dt

= ie

ˆ

1

0

e

it

dt

= e

i+1

−e

3. From z = 1 + i to z = 0 along the line y = x, by taking x = y = t and z = t (1 + i), we

obtain dz = (1 + i) dt.

The intergral becomes

112

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

ˆ

0,0

1,1

e

z

dz =

ˆ

0

1

e

t(1+i)

(1 + i) dt

= 1 −e

1+i

Note that when we sum three answers, the result is e −1 + e

i+1

−e + 1 −e

1+i

= 0.

Exercise 4.6. (E. 8 P. 171)

The function z(t) = e

it

= cos t +i sin t can provide a useful parametric representation of circular

arcs. If t ranges from 0 to 2π we have a representation of the whole unit circle, while if t goes

from α to β we generate an arc extending from e

iα

to e

iβ

on the unit circle. Use this parametric

technique to perform the following intergrations.

1.

ˆ

−1

1

1

z

dz along [z[ = 1, upper half plane.

2.

ˆ

i

1

¯ z

4

dz along [z[ = 1, ﬁrst quadrant.

Solution.

By letting z (t) = cos t + i sin t above, we deduce that dz = (−sin t + i cos t) dt. So we will

apply this result to solve 2 problems.

1. Because of upper half plane, it is easy to obtain that

ˆ

1

−1

1

z

dz =

ˆ

π

0

(cos t −i sin t) (−sin t + i cos t) dt

=

ˆ

π

0

idt

= πi

2. And for the ﬁrst quadrant, it follows that

ˆ

i

1

¯ z

4

dz =

ˆ π

2

0

(cos t −i sin t)

4

(−sin t + i cos t) dt

=

ˆ π

2

0

(cos 4t −i sin 4t) (−sin t + i cos t) dt

=

ˆ π

2

0

(sin 3t + i cos 3t) dt

=

1

3

+ i

1

3

113

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

Exercise 4.7. (E. 13 P. 171)

1. Find a parametric representation of the shorter of the two arcs lying along lying along

(x −1)

2

+ (y −1)

2

= 1 that connects z = 1 with z = i.

Hint: See discussion preceding Exercises 8-10 above, where parametization of a circle

discussed.

2. Find

ˆ

i

1

zdz along the arc of (a), using the parametrization you have found.

Solution.

1. The parametization of a circle (x −1)

2

+ (y −1)

2

= 1 that connects z = 1 with z = i is

_

_

_

x = 1 + cos t

y = 1 + sin t

_

−π ≤ t ≤

−π

2

_

2. From the above, we have z = 1 + cos t + i (1 + sin t)

And then the following is

dz = (−sin t + i cos t) dt

Thus we replace all to get the result.

ˆ

i

1

zdz =

ˆ −π

2

−π

[1 + cos t −i (1 + sin t)] (−sin t + i cos t) dt

= i

_

2 −

π

2

_

Exercise 4.8. (E. 14 P. 171)

Consider I =

ˆ

2+i

0+i0

e

z

2

dz taken along the line x = 2y. Without actually doing the integration,

show that [I[ ≤

√

5e

3

.

Solution.

We need to ﬁnd M that is

¸

¸

¸e

z

2

¸

¸

¸ ≤ M, so M = max

_

e

x

2

−y

2

_

when x : 0 → 2 and y : 0 → 1.

Thus we have M = e

3

.

Next, we must ﬁnd L. Because this path in this exercise is a line so the length of it is

L =

_

(2 −0)

2

+ (1 −0)

2

=

√

5.

Finally, we have the result [I[ ≤ ML = e

3

√

5

Hence, we complete the proof.

114

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

Exercise 4.9. (E. 17 P. 171)

1. Let g (t) be a complex function of the real variable t. Express

ˆ

b

a

g (t) dt as the limit of a

sum. Show that for b > a we have

¸

¸

¸

¸

ˆ

b

a

g (t) dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

ˆ

b

a

[g (t)[ dt

2. Use the equation above to prove that

¸

¸

¸

¸

ˆ

1

0

√

te

it

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

2

3

Solution.

1. We express the integral that

ˆ

b

a

g (t) dt = lim

n→∞

n

k=1

[u(x(t

k

) , y (t

k

)) + iv (x(t

k

) , y (t

k

))] [∆x(t

k

) + i∆y (t

k

)]

Then we have the inequality

¸

¸

¸

¸

ˆ

b

a

g (t) dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ lim

n→∞

n

k=1

[u(x(t

k

) , y (t

k

)) + iv (x(t

k

) , y (t

k

))[ [∆x(t

k

) + i∆y (t

k

)]

≤

ˆ

b

a

[g (t)[ dt

2. By using the equation above, we can complete the proof easily. Indeed, we consider

¸

¸

¸

¸

ˆ

1

0

√

te

it

dt

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

ˆ

1

0

¸

¸

¸

√

te

it

¸

¸

¸ dt

=

ˆ

1

0

√

tdt =

2

3

115

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.3 CONTOUR INTEGRATION AND GREEN’S THEOREM

In this section, the examples is exercises 1, 2, 12, 13, 16, 18.

Exercise 4.10. (E. 1 P. 180)

1. Let C be an arbitrary simple closed contour. Use Green’s theorem to find a simple inter-

pretation of the line integral

1

2

‰

C

(−ydx + xdy) .

2. Consider

‰

C

[cos ydx + sin xdy] performed around the square with corners at

(0, 0) , (1, 0) , (0, 1) , (1, 1). Evaluate this integral by doing an equivalent integral over the

area enclosed by the square.

3. Suppose you know the area enclosed by a simple closed contour C. Show with the aid of

Green’s theorem that you can easily evaluate

‰

C

¯ zdz around C.

Solution.

1. Applying Green’s theorem, we have

1

2

‰

C

(−ydx + xdy) =

1

2

¨

R

(1 + 1) dxdy

= [R[

2.

‰

C

[cos ydx + sin xdy] =

¨

R

_

∂ (sin x)

∂x

−

∂ (cos y)

∂y

_

dxdy

=

ˆ

1

0

ˆ

1

0

(cos x + sin y) dxdy

= sin 1 −cos 1 + 1

3. Put z = x + iy, so ¯ z = x −iy and applying Green’s theorem for

‰

C

¯ zdz, we get

116

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

‰

C

¯ zdz =

‰

C

(x −iy) (dx + idy)

=

‰

C

(x −iy) dx + (y + ix) dy

=

¨

R

_

∂ (y + ix)

∂x

−

∂ (x −iy)

∂y

_

dxdy

= 2i

¨

R

dxdy

= 2i [R[

Exercise 4.11. (E. 2 P. 180)

To which of the following integral is the Cauchy-Goursat theorem directly applicable?

‰

|z|=1

sin z

z + 2i

dz

Solution.

By setting up z = x + iy, this integral becomes

‰

|x+iy|=1

sin (x + iy)

x + iy + 2i

(dx + idy)

Let f (x, y) =

sin (x + iy)

x + iy + 2i

, we note that the function f (x, y) do not define at the point

(0, −2), but (0, −2) / ∈ D with D =

_

(x, y) [x

2

+ y

2

≤ 1

_

Therefore, f is analytic and we can deduce that the integral is the Cauchy-Goursat theorem

directly applicable.

Exercise 4.12. (E. 12, E. 13 P. 180)

Prove the following result by means of Cauchy-Gorsat theorem. Begin with

‰

e

z

dz per-formed

around [z[ = 1. Use the parametric representation z = e

iθ

, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. Separate your equation

into real and imaginary parts.

1.

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[cos (sin θ + θ)] dθ = 0

2.

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[sin (sin θ + θ)] dθ = 0

Solution.

By using the parametric representation z = e

iθ

, we have dz = ie

iθ

dθ. Hence,

117

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

‰

e

z

dz =

ˆ

2π

0

e

e

iθ

ie

iθ

dθ

= i

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ+i sin θ

(cos θ + i sin θ)dθ

=

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[cos (sin θ) + i sin (sin θ)] (−sin θ + i cos θ)dθ

= −

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[sin (sin θ + θ)] dθ + i

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[cos (sin θ + θ)] dθ

According to Cauchy-Gorsat theorem

‰

e

z

dz = 0 performed around [z[ = 1. Therefore,

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[sin (sin θ + θ)] dθ = 0

ˆ

2π

0

e

cos θ

[cos (sin θ + θ)] dθ = 0

Exercise 4.13. (E. 16 P. 181)

Show that for real a, where [a[ > 1, we have

ˆ

2π

0

1 −a cos θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ = 0

Solution.

We consider the integral

‰

1

z −a

dz, where the integral is taken around the unit circle. Now

we use the parametric representation like exercise 12, 13 above. Indeed, if we put z = e

iθ

, we

will have dz = ie

iθ

dθ. Hence,

‰

1

z −a

dz =

ˆ

2π

0

ie

iθ

dθ

e

iθ

−a

=

ˆ

2π

0

i (cos θ + i sin θ) (cos θ −a −i sin θ)

(cos θ −a)

2

+ sin

2

θ

dθ

=

ˆ

2π

0

a sin θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ + i

ˆ

2π

0

1 −a cos θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ

According to Cauchy-Gorsat theorem

‰

1

z −a

z = 0 performed around [z[ = 1. Therefore, we

get the proof completely.

118

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

Exercise 4.14. (E. 18 P. 181)

Evaluate the following integral. The contour is the square centered at the origin with corners

at ±(2 ±2i) (C

1

) . The result contained in the previous problem as well as the principle of

deformation of contours will be useful.

‰

C

1

dz

z −i

Solution.

We let f (z) =

1

z −i

and consider (C

2

) : [z[ =

3

2

. Since a function f (z) is a analytic not only

on C

1

and C

2

but also all points lying between C

1

and C

2

so

‰

C

1

f (z) dz =

‰

C

2

f (z) dz

According to the following equation, with z

0

an arbitrary complex constant,

‰

|z−z

0

|=r

(z −z

0

)

n

dz =

_

_

_

0, n ,= −1

2πi, n = −1

where the contour of integration is a circle centered at z

0

.

We have

‰

C

2

f (z) dz = 2πi

Thus this means that

‰

C

1

dz

z −i

= 2πi

119

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.4 PATH INDEPENDENCE, INDEFINITE INTEGRALS,

FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF CALCULUS IN THE

COMPLEX PLANE

In this section, we have some exercises to deal with, these are exercise 2, 3, 5, 7, 8.

Exercise 4.15. (E. 2, E. 3, E. 5, E. 7 P. 190)

Use theorem (Integration of Functions that are the Derivatives of Analtyic Functions) to evaluate

the following integrals along the curve y =

√

x.

1.

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

iz

dz

2.

4+2i

ˆ

0

_

1 + z

2

_

dz

3.

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

z

sinh zdz

4.

4+2i

ˆ

1+i

z

z

2

−1

dz

Solution.

1. With

d

_

e

iz

_

dz

= ie

iz

, we can compute this integral as follows.

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

iz

dz = −i

4+2i

ˆ

0

ie

iz

dz

= −i. e

iz

¸

¸

4+2i

0

= −i

_

e

−2+4i

−1

_

= i −ie

−2+4i

2. With

d

_

z +

z

3

3

_

dz

= 1 + z

2

, we can evaluate this integral.

120

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4+2i

ˆ

0

_

1 + z

2

_

dz =

_

z +

z

3

3

_¸

¸

¸

¸

4+2i

0

= 4 + 2i +

(4 + 2i)

3

3

= 4 + 2i +

16 + 88i

3

=

28 + 94i

3

3. With

d

_

e

2z

−2z

_

dz

= 2e

2z

−2, like two exercises above, we have

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

z

sinh zdz =

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

z

e

z

−e

−z

2

dz

=

4+2i

ˆ

0

e

2z

−1

2

dz

=

1

4

4+2i

ˆ

0

_

2e

2z

−2

_

dz

=

1

4

_

e

2z

−2z

_¸

¸

4+2i

0

=

1

4

_

e

8+4i

−9 −4i

_

4. With

d

_

Log

¸

¸

z

2

−1

¸

¸

_

dz

=

d1

z

2

−1

, we obtain

4+2i

ˆ

1+i

z

z

2

−1

dz =

1

2

4+2i

ˆ

1+i

2z

z

2

−1

dz

=

1

2

4+2i

ˆ

1+i

d

_

z

2

−1

_

z

2

−1

=

1

2

_

Log

¸

¸

z

2

−1

¸

¸

_¸

¸

4+2i

1+i

=

1

2

_

Log

¸

¸

¸(4 + 2i)

2

−1

¸

¸

¸ −Log

¸

¸

¸(1 + i)

2

−1

¸

¸

¸

_

=

1

2

(Log [11 + 16i[ −Log [2i −1[)

=

1

2

Log

¸

¸

¸

¸

11 + 16i

−1 + 2i

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

1

2

Log

¸

¸

¸

¸

21 −38i

5

¸

¸

¸

¸

121

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

Exercise 4.16. (E. 8 P. 190)

1. What, if anything, is incorrect about the following two integrations? The integrals are

both along the line y = x.

1+i

ˆ

0+0i

zdz =

z

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

1+i

0+0i

=

(1 + i)

2

2

= i (∗)

1+i

ˆ

0+0i

¯ zdz =

¯ z

2

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

1+i

0+0i

=

(1 −i)

2

2

= −i (∗∗)

2. What is the correct numerical value of each of the above integrals?

Solution.

The integrals (*),(**) are incorrect since with z = x + iy and seeing Fig.(a), Fig(b) above,

we have

122

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

ˆ

C

zdz =

ˆ

I

zdz +

ˆ

II

zdz

=

1

ˆ

0

xdx +

1

ˆ

0

(1 + yi) dy

=

1

ˆ

0

xdx +

1

ˆ

0

dy + i

1

ˆ

0

ydy

=

1

2

+ 1 +

i

2

=

3

2

+

i

2

ˆ

C

¯ zdz =

ˆ

I

¯ zdz +

ˆ

II

¯ zdz

=

1

ˆ

0

xdx +

1

ˆ

0

(1 −yi) dy

=

1

ˆ

0

xdx +

1

ˆ

0

dy −i

1

ˆ

0

ydy

=

1

2

+ 1 −

i

2

=

3

2

−

i

2

123

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.5 THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL FORMULA AND ITS EXTENSION

We go to see together some exercises such as 2, 6, 17, 19.

Exercise 4.17. (E. 2, E. 6 P. 199)

Evaluate the following integrals using the Cauchy integral formula, its extension, or the Cauchy-

Goursat theorem where appropriate.

1.

‰

sin z

z −2

dz around [z[ = 3.

2.

‰

e

iz

z

2

+ z + 1

dz around

¸

¸

¸

¸

z +

1

2

−2i

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 2.

Solution.

1. We can see that the term z − 2 does become 0 at the point z = 2 inside C is the circle

[z[ = 3. We therefore apply Cauchy integral formula with f (z) = sin z. Thus

‰

sin z

z −2

dz = 2πif (2) = 2πi sin 2

2. We need to solve the equation z

2

+ z + 1 = 0, then we get the roots are z =

−1 ±i

√

3

2

.

And the next is that we need to deﬁnite the point makes the denominator becomes 0 such

that inside C is the circle

¸

¸

¸

¸

z +

1

2

−2i

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 2.

We consider that

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

−1 + i

√

3

2

+

1

2

−2i

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

_

√

3

2

−2

_¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

< 2

So this is the point we ﬁnd and we can verify the others is outside C.

Then we apply Cauchy integral formula with f (z) =

e

iz

z +

1+i

√

3

2

. Thus

‰

e

iz

z

2

+ z + 1

dz = 2πif

_

−1 + i

√

3

2

_

=

2π

√

3e

i

2

+

√

3

2

Exercise 4.18. (E. 17 P. 200)

If a is a real number and [a[ < 1 show that

ˆ

2π

0

1 −a cos θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ = 2π

Solution.

We consider

‰

dz

z −a

around [z[ = 1 and because of [a[ < 1, the point which makes the

denominator becomes 0 is inside C is the circle [z[ = 1. Hence, we apply Cauchy integral

124

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

formula with f (z) = 1 for all z inside C, we have

‰

dz

z −a

= 2πi

And in the section 4.3, by putting parametric representation, we have proved that

‰

1

z −a

dz =

ˆ

2π

0

ie

iθ

dθ

e

iθ

−a

=

ˆ

2π

0

i (cos θ + i sin θ) (cos θ −a −i sin θ)

(cos θ −a)

2

+ sin

2

θ

dθ

=

ˆ

2π

0

a sin θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ + i

ˆ

2π

0

1 −a cos θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ

At this time, we can deduce that

ˆ

2π

0

1 −a cos θ

1 −2a cos θ + a

2

dθ = 2π

Exercise 4.19. (E. 19 P. 201)

Let f (z) be analytic on and inside a simple closed contour C. Let z

1

and z

2

lie inside C (see

ﬁgure below). Show that

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

(z −z

1

) (z −z

2

)

dz =

f (z

1

)

z

1

−z

2

+

f (z

2

)

z

2

−z

1

Solution.

We note that

f (z)

(z −z

1

) (z −z

2

)

=

f (z)

z

2

−z

1

_

1

z −z

2

−

1

z −z

1

_

Then we have two integrals. These are

‰

C

f (z)

(z −z

1

) (z −z

2

)

dz =

1

z

2

−z

1

_‰

C

2

f (z)

z −z

2

dz −

‰

C

1

f (z)

z −z

1

dz

_

125

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

We see in the ﬁgure above and consider the ﬁrst integral, at the point z

2

which makes the

denominator becomes 0 is inside C

2

so we can apply Cauchy integral formula there. And it is

similar for the case of z

1

. Thus we obtain

‰

C

2

f (z)

z −z

2

dz −

‰

C

1

f (z)

z −z

1

dz = 2πi [f (z

2

) −f (z

1

)]

Hence, this is really the proof we want to solve.

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

(z −z

1

) (z −z

2

)

dz =

1

z

2

−z

1

[f (z

2

) −f (z

1

)]

=

f (z

1

)

z

1

−z

2

+

f (z

2

)

z

2

−z

1

126

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

4.6 SOME APPLICATIONS OF THE CAUCHY INTEGRAL

FORMULA

In this section, we get the exercises 1, 3, 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15 to show.

Exercise 4.20. (E. 1, E. 3, E. 5 P. 211)

Use Gauss’ mean value theorem in its various versions and integrations around appropriate

circles to prove the following:

1.

1

2π

2π

ˆ

0

e

e

iθ

dθ = 1

2.

1

2π

π

ˆ

−π

cos

2

_

π

6

+ ae

iθ

_

dθ =

3

4

, where a > 0

3.

2π

ˆ

0

Log

_

a

2

+ 1 + 2a cos (nθ)

¸

dθ = 4πLog a where a > 1, n integer

Solution.

1. Let f (z) = e

z

Since function f is analytic on C, applying Gauss’ mean value theorem we have

1

2π

2π

ˆ

0

e

e

iθ

dθ =

1

2π

2π

ˆ

0

f

_

0 + e

iθ

_

dθ where r = 1

= f (0)

= 1

2. Let f (z) = cos

2

(z), like the exericise above :

1

2π

π

ˆ

−π

cos

2

_

π

6

+ ae

iθ

_

dθ =

1

2π

π

ˆ

−π

f

_

π

6

+ ae

iθ

_

dθ

= f

_

π

6

_

= cos

2

_

π

6

_

=

3

4

3. We have Log

_

a

2

+ 1 + 2a cos (nθ)

¸

= Log

¸

¸

a + e

inθ

¸

¸

2

completely.

Let f (z) = 2Log [z[, since function f is analytic on D = ¦z : [z[ , = 0¦, applying Gauss’

mean value theorem with z =

¸

¸

a + e

inθ

¸

¸

∈ D

127

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

2π

ˆ

0

Log

_

a

2

+ 1 + 2a cos (nθ)

¸

dθ =

2π

ˆ

0

Log

¸

¸

¸a + e

inθ

¸

¸

¸

2

dθ

=

2π

ˆ

0

f

_¸

¸

¸a + e

inθ

¸

¸

¸

_

dθ

= 2π2Log a

= 4πLog a

Exercise 4.21. (E. 8 P. 212)

Let f (z)be a nonconstant function that is continuous and nonzero throughout a closed bounded

region R. Let f (z) be analytic at every interior point of R. Show that the minimum value of

[f (z)[ in R must occur on the boundary of R.

Solution.

We consider the function g (z) =

1

f (z)

. So we can get the comment is f (z) has a minimum

if and only if g (z) has a maximum.

Since f (z)is a nonconstant function that is continuous and nonzero throughout a closed

bounded region R and f (z) is analytic at every interior point of R so g(z)f (z)is a nonconstant

function that is continuous and nonzero throughout a closed bounded region R and analytic at

every interior point of R.

Therefore, apllying Maximum Modulus Theorem we have the maximum value of [g (z)[ in R

must occur on the boundary of R.

Thus, that the minimum value of [f (z)[ in R must occur on the boundary of R.

Exercise 4.22. (E. 9, E. 10 P. 212)

For the following closed regions R and functions f (z), ﬁnd the values of z in R where [f (z)[

archieves its maximum and minimum values. If your answers do not lie on the boundary of R,

give an explanation. Give the values of [f (z)[at its maximum and minimum in R.

1. f (z) = z, R is [z −1 −i[ ≤ 1.

2. f (z) = z

2

, R is [z −1 −i[ ≤ 2.

Solution.

1. Because f (z) = z is analytic in R, module of f (z), [f (z)[, archieves maximum on

[z −1 −i[ = 1. We put z = 1 + i + e

iθ

, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, then we obtain

f(z) = 1 + i + e

iθ

= 1 + i + cos θ + i sin θ

= 1 + cos θ + (1 + sin θ)i

128

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

Moreover, module of this function is

[f(z)[ =

_

(1 + cos θ)

2

+ (1 + sin θ)

2

=

√

3 + 2 cos θ + 2 sin θ

=

_

3 + 2

√

2 cos

_

−

π

4

+ θ

_

Next, we consider the function g(θ) = 3 + 2

√

2 cos

_

−

π

4

+ θ

_

, 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, we get

cos

_

−

π

4

+ θ

_

≤ 1 easily. Then we can deduce that g(θ) ≤ 3 + 2

√

2. At this time,

we conclude [f(z)[

max

= 3 +2

√

2 at the point is θ =

π

4

and the function is z = 1 +i +e

i

π

4

.

Assuming that f(z) = 0, we have the contradiction is [ − 1 − i[ ≤ 1 and get f(z) ,= 0.

Thus [f (z)[ has a minimum on [z −1 −i[ = 1. Like the maximum, we obtain [f(z)[

min

=

_

3 −2

√

2 at the point θ =

5π

4

and the function is z = 1 + i + e

i

5π

4

.

2. We have f (z) = 0 if and only if z = 0 and this point is in [z −i −1[ ≤ 2 by considering.

So [f (z)[

min

= 0 at z = 0. Then since f (z) is analytic in R, [f(z)[ has a minimum on

[z −i −1[ = 2. We will set up

z = i + 1 + 2e

iθ

, θ ∈ [−π, π]

= i + 1 + 2 cos θ + 2i sin θ

Evaluating the module of f (z) follows

[z[

2

= (1 + 2 cos θ)

2

+ (1 + 2 sin θ)

2

= 6 + 4

√

2 cos

_

−

π

4

+ θ

_

≤ 6 + 4

√

2

Then [f(z)[

max

= 6+4

√

2 at the point θ =

π

4

and the function is z = (1+

√

2) +i(1+

√

2).

Exercise 4.23. (E. 13 P. 212)

Let u(x, y) be real, nonconstant and continuous in a closed bounded region R . Let u(x, y) ba

harmonic in the interior of R . Prove that the maximum value of u(x, y)in the region occurs on

the boundary. This is known as the maximum priciple.

Solution.

Consider F (x, y) = u(x, y) + iv (x, y), where v is the harmonic conjugate of u.

Let f (z) = e

F(z)

, we have f (z) is an entire function and is never 0 in R ,and f (z) continuous

in closed bounded region R ( because u(x, y)continuous in a closed bounded region R) so the

minimum value of [f (z)[ in R must occur on the boundary of R.

129

4 INTEGRATION IN THE COMPLEX PLANE

With [f (z)[ =

¸

¸

e

F(z)

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

e

u(x,y)+iv(x,y)

¸

¸

= e

u(x,y)

, we say that [f (z)[ has a maximum if and

only if u(x, y) has a maximum too.

Thus, the maximum value of u(x, y)in the region occurs on the boundary.

Exercise 4.24. (E. 15 P. 212)

Consider the closed bounded region R given by 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1. Now u = x

2

− y

2

is

harmonic in R. Find the maximum and minimum values of u in R and state where they are

achieved.

Solution.

In fact, the function u(x, y) = x

2

− y

2

is harmonic then have maximum and minimum on

boundary of R. And we can see that

_

_

_

x

2

−y

2

≤ x

2

≤ 1

x

2

−y

2

≥ −y

2

≥ −1

It means that −1 ≤ u(x, y) ≤ 1 for all x, y in R. We go on to note that on boundary of R,

the unique point (1, 0) makes u = 1 and the same is (0, 1) which makes u = −1.

Then we obtain the result above.

130

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A

COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.1 INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF REAL SERIES

We will solve exercises 1, 3, 4, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21.

Exercise 5.1. (E. 3, E. 3, E. 4 P. 231)

Use Eq (5.1-4) to obtain the ﬁrst nonzero terms in the Taylor series expansions of the following

real functions. Give a formula for the general or nth term.

1.

1

1 −x

expanded about x = 0

2.

1

1 −x

expanded about x = −1

3.

√

x expanded about x = 1

Solution.

1. We have

c

0

=

f (0)

0!

= 1

c

1

=

f

(0)

1!

= 1

c

2

=

f

(0)

2!

= 1

c

3

=

f

(0)

3!

= 1

We can deduce that c

n

= 1 by using induction.

2. Apply Taylor series expansions, we get

f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(x −x

0

)

n

=

∞

n=0

c

n

(x + 1)

n

Then, we list some coeﬃcients as follow

131

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

c

0

= f (−1) =

1

2

c

1

= f

(−1) =

1

2

2

c

2

=

f

(−1)

2!

=

1

2

3

c

3

=

f

(−1)

3!

=

1

2

4

So that the general coeﬃcient is c

n

=

1

2

n+1

.

3. In a similar fashion, we observe that

f

(x) =

1

2

√

x

f

(x) =

−1

4x

√

x

f

(x) =

3

8x

2

√

x

Then we have the respectively coeﬃcients are c

0

= 1, c

1

=

1

2

, c

2

=

−1

8

, c

3

=

1

16

. So the

general is c

n

= (−1)

n+1

1

2

n

, n ,= 0.

Exercise 5.2. (E. 10, E. 11 P. 231)

Study the ratio test and the notion of absolute convergence in a book on elementary calculus

and show that the following real series are absolutely convergent or are divergent in the intervals

speciﬁed.

1.

∞

n=1

2

n

x

n

n

abs.conv. for [x[ <

1

2

, div. for [x[ >

1

2

2.

∞

n=1

sinh n

e

n

(x + 1)

n

abs.conv. for −2 < x < 0, div. for x < −2 and x > 0

Solution.

1. We see the ratio test for this exercise as follows

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

2 [x[ n

n + 1

Hence,

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

= lim

n→∞

2 [x[ n

n + 1

= 2 [x[

In order to this series are absolutely convergent, we need

132

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 2 [x[ < 1

It means that the proof we ﬁnd. And the divergent is created simiilarly.

2. Also, we consider the ratio test below.

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

sinh (n + 1)

e

n+1

(x + 1)

n+1

sinh n

e

n

(x + 1)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

_

1 −e

−2π−2

_

(x + 1)

1 −e

−2π

Thus if we want to solve the absolutely convergent, we must have

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

1 −e

−2π−2

_

(x + 1)

1 −e

−2π

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= [x + 1[ < 1

It means that −2 < x < 0 and vice versa for the interval of divergent.

Exercise 5.3. (E. 16, E. 17 P. 232)

Recall the comparison test for convergence, from elementary calculus : If a series of positive

constants

∞

n=1

c

n

is known to converge, and if one is given a series

∞

n=1

u

n

(x), where 0 ≤ u

n

(x) ≤

c

n

, then the latter series converges. Assume that we know that the p-series

∞

n=1

1

n

p

converges,

where p > 1, to show the convergence of the following. Use the positive value of any quantity

that appears to be multivalued.

1.

∞

n=1

cos

2

nx

n

3/2

for −∞ < x < ∞

2.

∞

n=1

tanh nx

n

1.1

for −∞ < x < ∞

3.

∞

n=1

1

n

1+nx

for x > 0

Solution.

1. We have an inequality below.

¸

¸

¸

¸

cos

2

nx

n

3/2

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

1

n

3/2

And see that the series

∞

n=1

1

n

3/2

converges, so the series given converges.

2. In a similar way, we get

133

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

∞

n=1

tanh nx

n

1.1

≤

∞

n=1

1

n

1.1

And the series on the right side converges, the series given thus converges.

3. Because of 1 + nx > 1, there exists ε > 0 such that 1 + nx ≥ 1 + ε > 1. Then

1

n

1+nx

≤

1

n

1+ε

And the series on the right side converges, the series given thus converges.

Exercise 5.4. (E. 20, E. 21 P. 232)

Recall the comparison test for divergence. If a series of positive constants

∞

n=1

c

n

is known to

diverge, and if one is given a series

∞

n=1

u

n

(x) where 0 < c

n

≤ u

n

(x), then the latter series

diverges. Assuming that we know that the p-series diverges if p ≤ 1, prove the following series

diverge where indicated.

1.

∞

n=1

1 + cos

2

nx

√

n

for −∞ < x < ∞

2.

∞

n=1

coth nx

n

for [x[ > 0

Solution.

1. We consider the inequality.

1

√

n

≤

1 + cos

2

nx

√

n

But the series on the left side diverges, hence the series given too.

2. Because of [x[ > 0, we have [coth nx[ ≥ 1. Then

1

n

≤

¸

¸

¸

¸

coth nx

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

But the series on the left side diverges, hence the series given too.

134

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.2 COMPLEX SEQUENCES AND CONVERGENCE OF

COMPLEX SERIES

We have exercises 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.

Exercise 5.5. (E. 4, E. 5, E. 6 P. 241)

Use the nth term test to prove that the following series are divergent in the indicated regions.

1.

∞

n=0

(n + 1) (i + 1)

n

(z + 1)

n

for [z + 1[ ≥

1

√

2

2.

∞

n=2

n(i −1)

n

(z −2i)

n

for [z −2i[ ≤

√

2

3.

∞

n=1

_

2n + 2

n

_

n

(z + 1 + i)

n

for [z + 1 + i[ ≥

1

2

Solution.

1. We have

[u

n

(z) [ = [ (n + 1) (i + 1)

n

(z + 1)

n

[

= [n + 1[.[i + 1[

n

.[z + 1[

n

= (n + 1)

_

√

2

_

n

[z + 1[

n

If [z + 1[ =

1

√

2

, then

_√

2

_

n

[z + 1[

n

→ 1 when n → ∞.

Thus the series is divergent. And for the case of [z + 1[ >

1

√

2

, we still have too.

2. We get

[u

n

(z) [ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

n(i −1)

n

(z −2i)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

[n(i −1)[

n

[(z −2i)[

n

=

n

n

√

2

n

[z −2i[

n

We consider a sequence

√

2

n

[z −2i[

n

because of n

n

→ ∞. If [z−2i[ =

√

2, you have

√

2

n

[z −2i[

n

=

1 when n → ∞. So that the series is divergent.

3. We obtain that

135

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

[u

n

(z) [ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2n + 2

n

_

n

(z + 1 + i)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

_

2n + 2

n

_

n

[z + 1 + i[

n

= 2

n

_

1 +

1

n

_

n

[z + 1 + i[

n

Moreover, we remember that

_

1 +

1

n

_

n

→ e, n → ∞

And if [z + 1 + i[ =

1

2

, then 2

n

[z + 1 + i[

n

= 1. Hence,

[u

n

(z) [ =

_

1 +

1

n

_

n

→ e ,= 0

The proof is completed.

Exercise 5.6. (E. 8, E. 9, E. 10 P. 241)

Use the ratio test to prove the absolute convergence, in the indicated domains, of the following

series. Where does the ratio test assert that each series diverges?

1.

∞

n=0

n!e

n

2

z

for 1z < 0

2.

∞

n=0

(2 + i)

n

(z + i)

n

(n + i)

2

for [z + i[ >

√

5

3.

∞

n=0

1

n!

_

n

z

_

n

for [z[ > e

Solution.

1. We have

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(n + 1)!e

(n+1)

2

z

n!e

n

2

z

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸(n + 1) e

(2n+1)z

¸

¸

¸

= (n + 1) e

(2n+1)x

For the case of x < 0, we see that

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

= (n + 1) e

(2n+1)x

→ 0 < 1

136

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

So the series is convergent.

For the case of x ≥ 0, we consider that

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

= (n + 1) e

(2n+1)x

→ ∞ > 1

Hence, the series is divergent.

2. In a similar fashion, we take the ratio test here.

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

√

5

_

n

2

+ 1

_

[z + i[ (n

2

+ 2n + 2)

And if we make n approachs to ∞, the limit of this will depend on

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

√

5

[z + i[

At this time, we have a notice.

For the case of [z + i[ >

√

5, the series is convergent.

For the case of [z + i[ <

√

5, the series is divergent.

For the case of [z + i[ =

√

5, we cannot deﬁne the convergence of this series.

3. We get

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

_

n + 1

n

_

n

1

[z[

Then

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

u

n+1

u

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

1

[z[

lim

n→∞

_

n + 1

n

_

n

=

e

[z[

At this time, we still have 3 cases

If [z[ > e, the series is convergent.

If [z[ < e, the series is divergent,

If [z[ = e, we cannot define the convergence of this series.

Exercise 5.7. (E. 11 P. 242)

Make the substitution z = e

iθ

in Eq. (5.2-9), N = n − 1, assume θ is real, and separate Eq.

(5.2-9) into its real and imaginary parts to show that

1. 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + ... + cos (Nθ) = cos [Nθ/2]

sin [(N + 1) θ/2]

sin [θ/2]

2. sin θ + sin 2θ + ... + sin (Nθ) = sin [Nθ/2]

sin [(N + 1) θ/2]

sin [θ/2]

137

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Solution.

We have

1 + z + z

2

+ ... + z

n−1

= 1 + e

iθ

+ e

2iθ

+ ... + e

iNθ

= 1 + cos θ + i sin θ + cos 2θ + i sin 2θ + ... + cos (Nθ) + i sin (Nθ)

= (1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + ... + cos (Nθ)) + i (sin θ + sin 2θ + ... + sin (Nθ))

So that

1 −z

n

1 −z

=

1 −e

i(N+1)θ

1 −e

iθ

=

1 −cos (N + 1) θ −i sin (N + 1) θ

1 −cos θ −i sin θ

=

2 sin

2

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

−i2 sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

cos

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

2 sin

_

θ

2

__

sin

_

θ

2

_

−i cos

_

θ

2

__

=

2 sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_ _

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

−i cos

_

(N + 1) θ

2

__

2 sin

_

θ

2

__

sin

_

θ

2

_

−i cos

_

θ

2

__

=

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_ _

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

−i cos

_

(N + 1) θ

2

___

sin

_

θ

2

_

−i cos

_

θ

2

__

sin

_

θ

2

_

=

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_ _

cos

_

Nθ

2

_

−i sin

_

Nθ

2

__

sin

_

θ

2

_

Because of

1 −z

n

1 −z

= 1 + z + z

2

+ ... + z

n−1

, we deduce that

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_ _

cos

_

Nθ

2

_

−i sin

_

Nθ

2

__

sin

_

θ

2

_ = (1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + ... + cos (Nθ))+i (sin θ + sin 2θ + ... + sin (Nθ))

Hence,

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

cos

_

Nθ

2

_

sin

_

θ

2

_ = 1 + cos θ + cos 2θ + ... + cos (Nθ)

138

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

sin

_

(N + 1) θ

2

_

sin

_

Nθ

2

_

sin

_

θ

2

_ = (sin θ + sin 2θ + ... + sin (Nθ))

139

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.3 UNIFORM CONVERGENCE OF SERIES

In this section, we face with some exercises such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8.

Use the Weierstrass M test to establish the uniform convergence of the following series in the

indicated regions. State the convergent series of constants that is employed.

1.

∞

j=1

(−z)

j−1

for [z[ ≤ 0.999

2.

∞

j=1

j

j + 1

(−z)

j

for [z[ ≤ r, where r < 1

3.

∞

j=1

z

j

j!

for [z[ ≤ r, where r < ∞

4.

∞

n=1

[n −i[

n

3

z

n

for [z[ ≤ r, where r < 1

Solution.

1. Apply Leibnitz’s theorem for alternating series, we have (0.999)

j−1

is a sequence reduced

and approachs to 0. Hence

∞

j=1

(−1)

j−1

(0.999)

j−1

is converging. Then, we put M

j

= (0.999)

j−1

and obtain that

[u

j

[ ≤ M

j

So that this series is uniformly converging.

2. We consider the series

∞

j=0

(−z)

j

and easily prove that it converges because of the con-

verging series

∞

j=0

r

j

with r < 1. And then, according to Weierstrass theorem, we obtain

the series given is uniformly converging.

3. Because of [z[ ≤ r, we see that

[z[

j

j!

≤

r

j

j!

And

∞

j=0

r

j

j!

= e

r

is converging. So that the series given is uniformly converging.

4. We observe the inequality below.

140

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

¸

¸

¸

¸

[n −i[

n

3

z

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

√

n

2

+ 1

n

3

[z[

n

≤

√

n

2

+ 1

n

3

r

n

≤

√

n

2

+ 1

n

3

≤

√

2

n

2

And the series

∞

n=1

√

2

n

2

is converging. Hence, the given series is converging uniformly.

Exercise 5.8. (E. 6 P. 247)

In this problem, we prove the Weierstrass M test. We are given a series

∞

j=1

u

j

(z) whose sum

is S (z) when z lies in a region R. We have also at our disposal a convergent series of constants

∞

j=1

M

j

such that throughout R we have [u

j

(z)[ ≤ M

j

and wish to show this guarantees uniform

convergence of the original series as well as absolute convergence.

1. Using the comparison test from real calculus, explain why the series

∞

j=1

u

j

(z) must be

absolutely convergent. Recall that absolute convergence guarantees ordinary convergence.

2. Using the deﬁnition of convergence explain why

[S (z) −S

n

(z)[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

lim

k→∞

k

j=1

u

j

(z) −

n

j=1

u

j

(z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

u

j

(z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

if we take k > n.

3. Explain why

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

u

j

(z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

M

j

4. Prove that given ε > 0 there must exist a number N such that lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

M

j

< ε for

n > N.

Solution.

141

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

1. With the converging series

∞

j=1

M

j

, we have for all z in R, M

j

> 0

[u

j

(z)[ ≤ M

j

In contrast, we see that

∞

j=1

[u

j

(z)[ = [u

1

(z)[ + ... +[u

n

(z)[ + ...

≤ M

1

+ ... + M

n

+ ...

=

∞

j=1

M

j

Hence, the series

∞

j=1

[u

j

(z)[ is converging and then

∞

j=1

u

j

(z) is absolutely converging.

2. We get

S (z) =

∞

j=1

u

j

(z) = lim

k→∞

k

j=1

u

j

(z)

S

n

(z) =

n

j=1

u

j

(z)

So that we take a subtraction below.

S (z) −S

n

(z) =

∞

j=n+1

u

j

(z)

= lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

u

j

(z) , k > n

3. We obtain the inequality below.

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

k

j=n+1

u

j

(z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

∞

j=n+1

[u

j

(z)[

=

∞

j=n+1

M

j

Thus we deduce that

142

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

u

j

(z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

M

j

4. With M =

∞

j=1

M

j

, we create a sequence M

n

=

n

j=1

M

j

and obtain obviously that

M −M

n

=

∞

j=1

M

j

−

n

j=1

M

j

=

∞

j=n+1

M

j

At this time, M

n

approachs to M if for all ε > 0, there exists a positive integer N (ε) such

that

[M −M

n

[ < ε, ∀n > N

This is equivalent to

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

j=n+1

M

j

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

< ε, ∀n > N

Or we can say that

lim

k→∞

k

j=n+1

M

j

< ε

Exercise 5.9. (E. 8 P. 248)

In this exercise, we show that the series

∞

j=1

z

j−1

converges uniformly to 1/ (1 −z) in the disc

[z[ ≤ r, where r < 1. The proof requires that we obtain a value for N satisfying the deﬁnition

of uniform convergence.

1. Explain why Log (1/ [z[) ≥ Log (1/r) in the disc.

2. Prove 1/ [1 −z[ ≤ 1/ (1 −r) and Log [1/ (ε [1 −z[)] ≤ Log [1/ (ε (1 −r))] for [z[ ≤ r. Take

ε > 0.

3. Assume that 0 < ε < 1/2. Show that in the disc [z[ ≤ r we have

Log

1

ε [1 −z[

Log

1

[z[

≤

Log

1

ε (1 −r)

Log

1

r

143

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Solution.

1. It is easy to see that

1

[z[

≥

1

r

, thus we get the inequality need to explain.

2. In a similar fashion, we can observe carefully the inequality

[1 −z[ ≥ 1 −z ≥ 1 −r

So that the next is

1

ε [1 −z[

≤

1

ε (1 −r)

Hence, the proof is shown completely.

3. We have had 2 inequalities above as follows

Log

1

ε [1 −z[

≤ Log

1

ε (1 −r)

1

Log

_

1

[z[

_ ≤

1

Log

_

1

r

_

Because of ε < 1/2, we obtain the proof.

144

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.4 POWER SERIES AND TAYLOR SERIES

We get excercises 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33.

Exercise 5.10. (E. 27 P. 261)

Use the equation below and triangle inequality to prove that in the disc [z[ ≤ 1 we have

[e

z

−1[ ≤ (e −1) [z[.

e

z

=

∞

n=0

1

n!

z

n

Solution.

By using the given equation, we have

[e

z

−1[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

n=1

1

n!

z

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

Because of [z[ ≤ 1, we can easily deduce that [z

n

[ ≤ [z[for all n.

Hence, apply that inequality, we get

[e

z

−1[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

n=1

1

n!

z

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

∞

n=1

1

n!

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

[z[

= (e −1) [z[

So this is the inequality we need to ﬁnd.

Exercise 5.11. (E. 28 P. 261)

1. Let z

N

−z

N

0

=

N

n=1

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

valid for all z. N is a positive integer. Show that c

n

=

N!z

N−n

0

/ [n! (N −n)!].

2. Replace z in the above with z + z

0

and show that

(z + z

0

)

N

=

N

n=0

N!z

N−n

0

n! (N −n)!

z

n

This is the familiar binomial expansion.

Solution.

1. We have z

N

−z

N

0

=

N

n=1

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

deﬁne for all z where N is a positive integer

From Talor series formular, we need to evaluate the ﬁrst and the second coeﬃcients.

c

1

=

f

(1)

(z

0

)

1!

= Nz

N−1

0

145

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

c

2

=

f

(2)

(z

0

)

2!

=

N (N −1) z

N−2

0

2!

So we can easily see that c

n

=

N!

n! (N −n)!

z

N−n

0

by using mathematical induction.

2. By replacing z in the above with z+z

0

, the function f (z) becomes f (z) = (z + z

0

)

N

−z

N

0

.

We will do the same as above. First we have

(z + z

0

)

N

−z

N

0

=

N

n=1

c

n

z

n

This is equivalent to

(z + z

0

)

N

=

N

n=1

c

n

z

n

+ z

N

0

We already have c

n

above. Then

(z + z

0

)

N

=

N

n=1

N!z

N−n

0

n! (N −n)!

z

n

+ z

N

0

At this time, we notice that

c

0

=

N!z

N−0

0

0! (N −0)!

z

0

= z

N

0

Hence we have (z + z

0

)

N

=

N

n=0

N!z

N−n

0

n! (N −n)!

z

n

The proof is found completely.

146

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Exercise 5.12. (E. 29 P. 262)

1. Let f (z) = Log (z), where the principal branch of the logarithm is used . Thus f (z) is

deﬁned by means of the branch cut y = 0, x ≤ 0. Show that

f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z + 1 −i)

n

where

c

0

= Log

√

2 + i

3π

4

c

n

=

(−1)

n+1

e

−i(3π/4)n

n

_√

2

_

n

, n ,= 0

2. What is the radius of the largest circle centered at −1 + i within which the series of part

(1) converges to f (z)?

3. Use the ratio test to establish that the series of part (1) converges inside [z −(−1 + i)[ =

√

2 and diverges outside this circle. Compare this circle with the one in part (2).

Solution.

1. We have f (z) = Log (z) is the principal branch of the logarithm is used, and take the

circle [z −(−1 + i)[ <

√

2.

First c

0

= f (z

0

) = Log (z

0

) = Log

_√

2

_

+ i

3π

4

because of θ =

3π

4

by deriving from

z

0

= −1 + i and [z −(−1 + i)[ <

√

2 with the principal value.

With n ,= 0, we still use Taylor series formular for general coeﬃcient, and compute the

ﬁrst, the second respectively.

c

1

=

f

(1)

(z

0

)

1!

=

e

−i

3π

4

√

2

c

2

=

f

(2)

(z

0

)

2!

= −

e

−2i

3π

4

2

_√

2

_

2

We have f

(z) =

1

z

so f

n

(z) = (−1)

n+1

(n −1)!z

−n

Thus

c

n

=

f

(n)

(z

0

)

n!

= (−1)

n+1

(n −1)!z

−n

0

n!

= (−1)

n+1

e

−ni

3π

4

n

_√

2

_

n

147

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Hence we have what we need to prove and that is f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z + 1 −i)

n

with c

0

=

Log

_√

2

_

+ i

3π

4

and c

n

=

f

(n)

(z

0

)

n!

= (−1)

n+1

e

−ni

3π

4

n

_√

2

_

n

, n ,= 0.

2. Because the branch cut of the principal Logz is y = 0 and x ≥ 0 so the largest radius of

circle center at −1 + i must be from the origin to −1 + i and that is d = [−1 + i[ =

√

2.

3. We will examine

lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

c

n+1

(z + 1 −i)

n+1

(z + 1 −i)

n+1

c

n

(z + 1 −i)

n

(z + 1 −i)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(−1)

n+2

e

−i(n+1)

3π

4

(n + 1)

_√

2

_

n+1

(−1)

n+1

e

−in

3π

4

n

_√

2

_

n

(z + 1 −i)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= lim

n→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(−1) ne

−i

3π

4

(n + 1)

√

2

(z + 1 −i)

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

= lim

n→∞

1

√

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

n

n + 1

(z + 1 −i)

¸

¸

¸

¸

lim

n→∞

n

(n + 1)

√

2

[(z + 1 −i)[ = lim

n→∞

[(z + 1 −i)[

√

2

=

[(z + 1 −i)[

√

2

Now with the ratio test, we set

[(z + 1 −i)[

√

2

< 1 or [(z + 1 −i)[ <

√

2

Our series converges absolutely if z lies inside a circle of radius

√

2 centered at the point

−1 + i and diverges outside the circle. We need to observe on [(z + 1 −i)[ =

√

2.

We have

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

(−1)

n+1

e

−in

3π

4

n

_√

2

_

n

(z + 1 −i)

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

=

e

−in

3π

4

n

148

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Exercise 5.13. (E. 30 P. 262)

1. Let f (z) be analytic in a domain containing z = 0. Assume that f (z) is an even function

of z in this domain, i.e., f (z) = f (−z). Show that in the Maclaurin expansion f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

the coeﬃcients of odd order, c

1

, c

3

, c

5

..., must be zero.

2. Show that for an odd function, f (z) = −f (−z), analytic in the same kind of domain, the

coeﬃcients of even order, c

0

, c

2

, c

4

..., are zero.

3. What coeﬃcients vanish in the Maclaurin expansions of z sin z, z

2

tan z, and

cosh z/

_

1 + z

2

_

?

Solution.

1. f (z) is analytic in a domain containing z = 0 and it is an even function in this domain.

We have Maclaurin expansion f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

=

∞

n=0

c

n

(−z)

n

So c

0

z

0

+ c

1

z

1

+ c

2

z

2

+ ... = c

0

(−z)

0

+ c

1

(−z)

1

+ c

2

(−z)

2

+ ...

With even order we see (z)

n

= (−z)

n

. Then we simplify the even order and get c

1

z

1

+

c

3

z

3

+ c

5

z

5

+ ... = 0 because n is an odd positive integer and z

n

,= z

n+1

for all n. In

order to get this sum equal to zero then all the odd coeﬃcients must be zero. That means

c

1

= c

3

= ... = c

2n+1

= 0

2. We do the same as part (1)

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

= −

∞

n=0

c

n

(−z)

n

So we deduce that

c

0

z

0

+ c

1

z

1

+ c

2

z

2

+ ... = −c

0

(−z)

0

−c

1

(−z)

1

−c

2

(−z)

2

−...

With even order we see (z)

n

= (−z)

n

. Then this time it is the even order that remain in

this sum

c

0

z

0

+ c

2

z

4

+ c

4

z

4

+ ... = 0

To get the odd function, we must have even coeﬃcients equal to zero. That means

c

0

= c

2

= ... = c

2n

= 0

3. From part (1) and (2), we will now examine what coeﬃcients is zero

z sin (z) = −z sin (−z) because of sin (−z) = −sin (z) so z sin (z)is an even function, thus

its odd coeﬃcients are zero.

149

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

z

2

tan (z) is an odd function since tan (z) =

sin (z)

cos (z)

and sin (−z) = −sin (z) , cos (z) =

cos (−z) so its even coeﬃcients are zero.

cosh (z)

1 + z

2

=

e

z

+ e

−z

2 (1 + z

2

)

=

e

−z

+ e

z

2 (1 + z

2

)

so it is an even function then its odd coeﬃcients are

zero.

Exercise 5.14. (E. 31 P. 262)

Suppose a function f(z) is analytic in a domain which contains the origin, and we expand it in a

Maclaurin series f(z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

. If the circle [z[ = r lies within the domain and if on the circle

we have the bound [f (z)[ ≤ K, then we can place a bound on [c

n

[, namely [c

n

[ ≤ K/r

n

, for

n ∈ N. This is called Cauchy’s inequality and it is sometimes useful in telling us if we have made

an error in computing the coeﬃcients in a Maclaurin series expansion; i.e., if the inequality is

not satisﬁed, there is a mistake. The inequality is easily generalized to Taylor series.

1. Derive the Cauchy inequality by using the following equation

c

n

=

f

(n)

(0)

n!

=

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

n+1

dz, n = 1, 2, 3, ...

, taking the contour C

**as [z[ = r, and using the ML inequality.
**

2. Consider the expansion e

z

=

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

. We want to obtain a bound on [c

n

[ without actually

obtaining the coeﬃcients. Through suitable choices of r show that for all n ≥ 0 we have

[c

n

[ ≤ e and [c

n

[ ≤ e

2

/2

n

. Do the known coeﬃcients satisfy this inequality?

3. Generalize Cauchy’s inequality so that it can be applied to a Taylor series expansion f(z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

. Use your result to explain why in the expansion e

z

=

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −3)

n

we

can say, without ﬁnding any of the coeﬃcients, that [c

n

[ ≤ e

4

.

Solution.

1. We have

[c

n

[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

n+1

dz

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

1

2π

ML

by using ML inequality where M is the magnitude of

f (z)

z

n+1

and L is the length of the cicle

and that is L = 2πr.

First

¸

¸

¸

¸

f (z)

z

n+1

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

K

[z

n+1

[

=

K

r

n+1

= M

Then ML inequality is that

[c

n

[ =

1

2π

¸

¸

¸

¸

‰

C

f (z)

z

n+1

dz

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

1

2π

ML =

1

2π

_

K

r

n+1

_

2πr =

K

r

n

150

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Hence we obtain Cauchy’s inequality [c

n

[ ≤

K

r

n

, n = 1, 2, 3, ...

2. We observe that [c

n

[ ≤ e and get f (z) = e

z

=

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

and [c

n

[ ≤

¸

¸

¸

¸

e

z

z

n+1

¸

¸

¸

¸

r =

e

r

r

n

by

choosing r = 1. Like above but with r = 2 then we get [c

n

[ ≤

e

2

2

n

The known coeﬃcients satisfy this inequality because we using Maclaurin expansion for

z = 0 so it can satisfy.

3. We generalize the Cauchy inequality in Taylor expansion. This time is f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

.

And

c

n

=

f

(n)

(z

0

)

n!

=

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

(z −z

0

)

n+1

dz, n = 1, 2, 3, ...

where the circle is [z −z

0

[ = r

If we use the same technique as part (1), then we will get the Cauchy’s inequality for

Taylor series expansion.

[c

n

[ ≤

K

r

n

where [f (z)[ ≤ K and [z −z

0

[ = r.

151

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Exercise 5.15. (E. 32 P. 263)

1. Refer to the proof of theorem of Taylor series and use the equation

f (z

1

) =

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z −z

1

dz =

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

_

1 −

z

1

z

_dz

to show that

f (z

1

) =

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

_

_

_

_

1

z

+

z

1

z

2

+

z

2

1

z

3

+ ... +

z

n−1

1

z

n

+

_

z

n

1

z

n

_

z −z

1

_

_

_

_

dz

2. Use the expression for f (z

1

) given in part (1) to show, after integration, that

f (z

1

) = f (0) + f

(0) z

1

+

f

(0)

2

z

2

1

+ ... +

f

(n−1)

(0)

(n −1)!

z

n−1

1

+ R

n

where

R

n

=

z

n

1

2πi

‰

C

f(z)

z

n

(z −z

1

)

dz

3. We can place an upper bound on the remainder in equation above. Assume [f (z)[ ≤ m

everywhere on [z[ = b (the contour C

**). Use the ML inequality to show that
**

[R

n

[ ≤

¸

¸

¸

z

1

b

¸

¸

¸

n

mb

b −[z

1

[

4. Suppose we wish to determine the approximate value of cosh i by the ﬁnite series in

Eq 5.4-21. Taking the contour C

**as [z[ = 2, show that the error made cannot exceed
**

(cosh 2) /2

10

.

Solution.

1. Now we recall equation that is

1

1 −z

= 1 + z + z

2

+ ... + z

n−1

+

z

n

1 −z

So for substitution z by

z

1

z

then we get

1

1 −

z

1

z

= 1 +

z

1

z

+

z

2

1

z

2

+ ... +

z

n−1

1

z

n−1

+

_

z

1

z

_

n

1 −

z

1

z

Therefore,

152

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

f (z

1

) =

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

_

1 −

z

1

z

_dz

=

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

_

_

_

1 +

z

1

z

+

z

2

1

z

2

+ ... +

z

n−1

1

z

n−1

+

_

z

1

z

_

n

1 −

z

1

z

_

_

_

dz

=

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

_

_

_

_

1

z

+

z

1

z

2

+

z

2

1

z

3

+ ... +

z

n−1

1

z

n

+

_

z

n

1

z

n

_

z −z

1

_

_

_

_

dz

2. From part (1), we have had

f (z

1

) =

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

_

_

_

_

1

z

+

z

1

z

2

+

z

2

1

z

3

+ ... +

z

n−1

1

z

n

+

_

z

n

1

z

n

_

z −z

1

_

_

_

_

dz

=

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

1

z

dz +

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

1

z

2

dz + ... +

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

n−1

1

z

n

dz +

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

_

z

n

1

z

n

_

z −z

1

dz

From equation 5.4-17 we construct c

n

=

f

(n)

(0)

n!

=

1

2πi

C

f (z)

z

n+1

dz, we get

f (z

1

) = f

0

(0) +

f

(1)

(0)

1!

z

1

+ ... +

f

(n−1)

(0)

(n −1)!

z

n−1

1

+

z

n

1

2πi

‰

C

f (z)

z

n

(z −z

1

)

dz

3. We set R

n

=

z

n

1

2πi

C

f (z)

z

n

(z −z

1

)

dz is the remainder and assume [f (z)[ ≤ m everywhere

on [z[ = b (the contour C

).

Let take [R

n

[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

2πi

C

f (z)

z

n

(z −z

1

)

dz

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ ML (ML inequality)

First we examine L = 2πb is the length of C

**. And the second is
**

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

2πi

.

f (z)

z

n

(z −z

1

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

1

2π

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

z

n

(z −z

1

)

¸

¸

¸

¸

[f (z)[ ≤

1

2π

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

b

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

m

b −[z

1

[

= M

Hence,

ML =

1

2π

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

b

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

m

b −[z

1

[

2πb =

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

b

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

mb

b −[z

1

[

Thus we have [R

n

[ ≤

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

b

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

mb

b −[z

1

[

.

4. We already have cosh (z) =

e

z

+ e

−z

2

so [cosh (z)[ =

¸

¸

¸

¸

e

z

+ e

−z

2

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤

e

x

+ e

−x

2

= cosh (x).

Then [cosh (z)[ ≤ cosh (x).

153

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Using part (3) with [z[ = 2 = b and f (z) = cosh (z). Therefore, we get [f (z)[ ≤ cosh (2) =

m

[R

n

[ ≤

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

n

1

b

n

¸

¸

¸

¸

mb

b −[z

1

[

=

¸

¸

¸

¸

i

10

2

10

¸

¸

¸

¸

2 cosh (2)

2 −[i[

=

cosh (2)

2

9

with n = 10

Hence the remainder is

cosh (2)

2

9

and the error can not exceed

cosh (2)

2

10

Exercise 5.16. (E. 33 P. 263)

Let a function f (z) be entire and have property that f

(n)

(z) = f (z) , n = 1, 2, ... Show by using

a Taylor series expansion that this function must have this “addition property” : f (z

1

+ z

2

) =

f (z

1

) f (z

2

).

Solution.

We get the Maclaurin expansion of f (z

2

) =

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

2

where c

n

=

f (0)

n!

for all n ∈ N (in

equation 5.4-18 and 5.4-19). Now we use Taylor expansion (equation 5.4-10)

f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

, [z −z

0

[ ≤ a

Let z = z

1

+ z

2

and z

0

= z

1

then

f (z

1

+ z

2

) =

∞

n=0

b

n

(z

1

+ z

2

−z

1

)

n

=

∞

n=0

b

n

(z

2

)

n

=

c

n

(z

2

)

n

So the Taylor series becomes the Maclaurin. Hence, we want to get the Taylor so it must be

b

n

=

f (z

1

) f (0)

(n!)

.

We replace with the one into

f (z

1

+ z

2

) =

∞

n=0

b

n

(z

2

)

n

= f (z

1

)

∞

n=0

f (0)

n!

(z

2

)

n

= f (z

1

) f (z

2

)

154

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.5 TECHNIQUES FOR OBTAINING TAYLOR SERIES

EXPANSIONS

In this section, the exercises will be shown are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, 16, 19, 23.

Exercise 5.17. (E. 1, E. 2, E. 3, E. 4 P. 274)

The following exercises involve our generating a new Taylor series through a change of variables

in the geometric series Eq.(5.2-8) or some other familiar expansion. Here a is any constant.

Explain how the following are derived

1.

1

1 + az

= 1 −az + a

2

z

2

−a

3

z

3

+ ...

_

[z[ <

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

a

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2.

1

1 + z

2

= 1 −z

2

+ z

4

−z

6

+ ... ([z[ < 1)

3.

1

1 + a + z

= 1 −(z + a) + (z + a)

2

−(z + a)

3

+ ... ([z −a[ < 1)

4.

a) e

−z

2

= 1 −z

2

+

z

4

2

−

z

6

6

+ ... all z

b) Use the preceding result to ﬁnd the 10th derivative of e

−z

2

at z = 0.

Solution.

1. Because of [z[ <

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

a

¸

¸

¸

¸

, we get

1

1 + az

=

1

1 −(−az)

=

∞

n=0

(−az)

n

2. We use the formular

1

1 + w

= 1 −w + w

2

−w

3

+ ..., [w[ < 1

And set w = z

2

. we can infer

1

1 + z

2

= 1 −z

2

+ z

4

−z

6

+ ..., [z[ < 1

3. In a similar fashion, we also use the formular

1

1 −w

= 1 + w + w

2

+ w

3

+ ..., w < 1

We can deduce that

1

1 + a + z

= 1 −(z + a) + (z + a)

2

−(z + a)

3

+ ...

155

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

for [−a −z[ < 1 or [z + a[ < 1

4.

a) The formular is e

w

= 1 + w +

w

2

2!

+ ... for all w

Then with w = −z

2

, we replace into this formular and get

e

−z

2

= 1 +−z

2

+

z

4

2!

−

z

6

3!

+

z

8

4!

−...

b) Apply Taylor series expansion, we see the general coeﬃcient is c

n

=

f

(n)

(z

0

)

n!

So with z

0

= 0, we have

f

(n)

(0) = c

n

n!

Hence, the coeﬃcient of z

10

is −

1

5!

in the series of (a)

Thus f

(10)

(0) = −

10!

5!

= 30240

Exercise 5.18. (E. 5, E. 7, E. 8 P. 274)

1. Diﬀerentiate the series of equation 5.5-2 to show that

1

z

3

= 1 −

3.2

2

(z −1) +

4.3

2

(z −1)

2

−

5.4

2

(z −1)

3

+ ..., [z −1[ < 1

2. Use the series in equation 5.2-8 and successive diﬀerentiation to show that, for N ≥ 0

1

(1 −z)

N

=

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

, c

n

=

(N −1 + n)!

n! (N −1)!

, [z[ < 1

3. Integrate the series of Exercise 2 along a contour connecting the origin to an arbitrary

point z, where [z[ < 1 to show that

tan

−1

z =

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

z

2n+1

2n + 1

, [z[ < 1

Solution.

1. We can divide it as follows

156

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

1

z

3

=

1

z

2

.z

, [z −1[ < 1

=

_

∞

n=0

(n + 1) (1 −z)

n

__

∞

n=0

(1 −z)

n

_

∞

n=0

(n + 2) (n + 1)

2

(1 −z)

n

This series express as the right side in the proof.

2. In equation 5.2-8, we have

∞

j=1

z

j−1

= 1 + z + z

2

+ ... = S (z) =

1

1 −z

, [z[ < 1

Successive diﬀerentiation is that

1

(1 −z)

N

= z

0

+

N!

(N −1)!

z +

(N + 1)!

(N −1)!2!

z

2

+

(N + 2)!

(N −1)!3!

z

3

+ ...

=

∞

n=0

(N −1 + n)!

n! (N −1)!

z

n

where [z[ < 1.

3. We observe the formular below

1

1 + w

2

= 1 −w

2

+ w

4

−w

6

+ ..., [w[ < 1

And with [z[ < 1, we have

ˆ

0

z

1

1 + w

2

dw =

ˆ

0

z

_

1 −w

2

+ w

4

−w

6

+ ...

_

dw

= z −

z

2

3

+

z

5

5

−

z

7

7

+ ...

Then

ˆ

0

z

1

1 + w

2

dw = tan

−1

z

Thus tan

−1

z =

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

z

2n+1

2n + 1

with [z[ < 1.

157

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Exercise 5.19. (E. 11 P. 276)

By considering the ﬁrst and second derivatives of the geometric series in Equation 5.2–8, show

that

∞

n=1

n

2

z

n

=

_

z + z

2

_

(1 −z)

3

for [z[ < 1

Solution.

In equation 5.2-8, we have had

∞

j=1

z

j−1

= 1 + z + z

2

+ z

3

+ z

4

+ z

5

+ ... =

1

1 −z

, [z[ < 1

Successive diﬀerentiation the ﬁrst time, we obtain

−1

(1 −z)

2

= 1 + 2z + 3z

2

+ 4z

3

+ 5z

4

+ 6z

5

+ ...

Successive diﬀerentiation the second time, we get

2

(1 −z)

3

= 2 + 6z + 12z

2

+ 10z

3

+ ...

We compute the following series

z

(1 −z)

2

= z + 2z

2

+ 3z

3

+ 4z

4

+ ... =

∞

n=1

nz

n

2z

(1 −z)

3

= 2z + 6z

2

+ 12z

3

+ 20z

4

+ ... =

∞

n=1

n(n + 1) z

n

So

2z

(1 −z)

3

−

z

(1 −z)

2

=

2z −z (1 −z)

(1 −z)

3

=

z

2

+ z

(1 −z)

3

=

∞

n=1

n(n + 1) z

n

−

∞

n=1

nz

n

=

∞

n=1

n

2

z

n

Obtain the following Taylor expansions. Give a general formula for the nth coeﬃcient, and

state the circle within which your expansion is valid.

Exercise 5.20. (E. 12 P. 276)

Use series multiplication to ﬁnd a formula for c

n

in these Maclaurin expansion. In what circle

is each series valid?

cosh z

1 −z

=

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

Solution.

We have that for all z then

cosh z = 1 +

z

2

2!

+

z

4

4!

+

z

6

6!

+ ...

158

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

And with [z[ < 1

1

1 −z

= 1 + z + z

2

+ z

3

+ ...

Then we multiply them and get

cosh z

1 −z

=

_

1 +

z

2

2!

+

z

4

4!

+

z

6

6!

+ ...

_

_

1 + z + z

2

+ z

3

+ ...

_

=

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

= 1 + z +

_

1 +

1

2!

_

z

2

+

_

1 +

1

2!

_

z

3

+

_

1 +

1

2!

+

1

4!

_

z

2

+ ...

Hence, the general coeﬃcient is

c

n

=

_

¸

_

¸

_

1 +

1

2!

+

1

4!

+ ... +

1

n!

, neven

1 +

1

2!

+

1

4!

+ ... +

1

(n −1)!

, nodd

Exercise 5.21. (E. 15, E. 16, E. 19, E. 23 P. 276)

Obtain the following Taylor expansions. Give a general formula for the nth coeﬃcient, and state

the circle within which your expansion is valid.

1.

z

(z −1) (z + 2)

expanded about z = 0

2.

z + 1

(z −1)

2

(z + 2)

expanded about z = 2

3.

1

z

3

expanded about z = i

4.

z

3

+ 2z

2

+ z −1

z

2

−4

expanded about z = 1

Solution.

1. We have, from Rule I,

f (z) =

z

(z −1) (z + 2)

=

A

(z −1)

+

B

(z + 2)

=

z (A + B) + 2A−B

(z −1) (z + 2)

We obtain a system of equations

159

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

_

_

_

A + B = 1

2A−B = 0

Then we get the root is

_

¸

_

¸

_

A =

1

3

B =

2

3

Thus f (z) be rewritten

f (z) =

1

3

1

z −1

+

2

3

1

z + 2

Then, we see 2 familiar series below.

1

3

1

z −1

= −

1

3

_

1 + z + z

2

+ z

3

+ ...

_

= −

1

3

∞

n=0

z

n

2

3

1

z + 2

=

2

3

1

1 +

z

2

=

2

3

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

2

−n

z

n

We can infer

f (z) = −

1

3

∞

n=0

z

n

+

2

3

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

2

−n

z

n

=

∞

n=0

_

−

1

3

+

2

3

(−1)

n

2

−n

_

z

n

2. In a similar way, we get

2

z + 2

=

2

z −1 + 3

=

2

3

1 +

z −1

3

=

2

3

_

1 −

z −1

3

+

_

z −1

3

_

2

−...

_

−

1

z + 1

= −

1

z −1 + 2

=

−1

2

1 +

z −1

2

= −

1

2

_

1 −

z −1

2

+

_

z −1

2

_

2

−...

_

Add the two previous series

z

(z + 1) (z + 2)

=

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −1)

n

where c

n

= −

1

2

_

−

1

2

_

n

+

2

3

_

−

1

3

_

n

160

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

3. We have

f (z) =

z + 1

(z −1)

2

(z + 2)

=

A

(z −1)

+

B

(z −1)

2

+

C

(z + 2)

=

A(z −1) (z + 2) + B (z + 2) + C (z −1)

2

(z −1)

2

(z + 2)

=

z

2

(A + C) + z (A + B −2C) −2A + 2B + C

(z −1)

2

(z + 2)

Let the numerator be equal to z + 1 and we get A =

1

9

, B =

2

3

, C = −

1

9

Hence,

f (z) =

1

9

.

1

(z −1)

+

2

3

.

1

(z −1)

2

−

1

9

.

1

(z + 2)

Then

1

9

.

1

(z −1)

=

1

9

.

1

(1 + z −2)

=

1

9

.

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

(z −2)

n

, [z −2[ < 1

2

3

.

1

(z −1)

2

=

2

3

.

1

(1 + z −2)

2

=

2

3

.

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

(n + 1) (z −2)

n

, [z −1[ < 1

−

1

9

.

1

(z + 2)

= −

1

9

.

1

(4 + z −2)

= −

1

36

1

1 +

z −2

4

= −

1

36

.

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

4

−n

(z −2)

n

,

¸

¸

¸

¸

z −1

4

¸

¸

¸

¸

<

1

We can infer

f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

z

n

where c

n

=

1

9

. (−1)

n

+

2

3

. (−1)

n

(n + 1) −

1

36

. (−1)

n

4

−n

4. We see that

f (z) =

z

3

+ 2z

2

+ z −1

z

2

−4

= (z −1) + 3 +

5z + 7

z

2

−4

And analyse that

5z + 7

z

2

−4

=

A

(z + 2)

+

B

(z −2)

=

z (A + B) −2A + 2B

z

2

−4

161

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

Let the numerator equal to 5z + 7 and we get A =

3

4

, B =

17

4

Then

5z + 7

z

2

−4

=

3

4

.

1

(z + 2)

+

17

4

.

1

(z −2)

3

4

.

1

(z + 2)

=

1

4

.

1

_

1 +

z −1

3

_ =

∞

n=0

1

4

. (−1)

n

.

1

3

n

. (z −1)

n

, [z −1[<3

17

4

.

1

(z −2)

= −

17

4

.

1

(1 −(z −1))

=

∞

n=0

−

17

4

. (z −1)

n

, [z −1[<1

We can infer

f (z) =

∞

n=0

c

n

(z −1)

n

where c

n

=

1

4

. (−1)

n

.

1

3

n

−

17

4

162

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

5.6 LAURENT SERIES

We consider some excercises 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11.

Exercise 5.22. (E. 1, E. 2, E. 3, E. 4, E. 5 P. 293)

Obtain the following Laurent expansions. State the ﬁrst four nonzero terms. State explicitly

the nth term in the series, and state the largest possible annular domain in which your series is

a valid representation of the function.

1.

sinh z

z

3

expanded in powers of z

2.

cos (1/z)

z

3

expanded in powers of z

3. sin

_

1 +

1

z −1

_

expanded in powers of z −1

4. Log

_

1 +

1

z −1

_

expanded in powers of z −1

5.

_

z +

1

z

_

7

expanded in powers of z

Solution.

1. We have

sinh z = z +

z

3

3!

+

z

5

5!

+

z

7

7!

+ ...

So that

f(z) = z

−2

+

1

3!

+

z

2

5!

+

z

4

7!

+ ...

=

∞

n=−1

z

2n

(2n + 3)!

, [z[ > 0

2. We get

cos

_

1

z

_

= 1 −

z

−2

2!

+

z

−4

4!

−

z

−6

6!

+ ...

Hence,

163

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

f(z) = z

−3

−

1

2!

z

−5

+

z

−7

4!

+

z

−9

6!

+ ...

=

−3

n=−∞

z

−(2n+1)

(2n −1)!

=

−3

n=−∞

z

m

(−m−3)

, [z[ > 0

3. We use the formula of sin (a + b) for this function.

sin

_

1 +

1

z −1

_

= sin(1) cos

_

1

z −1

_

−cos (1) sin

_

1

z −1

_

cos

_

1

z −1

_

=

∞

n=1

_

1

z −1

_

2n

1

(2n)!

(−1)

m

sin

_

1

z −1

_

=

∞

m=0

_

1

z −1

_

2m+1

1

(2m + 1)!

(−1)

m

Thus

f(z) =

n

i=0

c

i

(z −1)

i

with the general coefficient

_

_

_

c

i

=

(−1)

i/2

sin(1)

(−i)!

, ieven

c

i

=

(−1)

(i+1)/2

cos(1)

(−i)!

, iodd

4. We can see that

Log

_

1 +

1

z −1

_

= Log (z) + Log

_

1

z −1

_

Log (z) =

∞

n=0

(−1)

2n+1

nz

n

Log

_

1

z −1

_

= −

ˆ

z

0

1

1 −w

dw

= −

ˆ

z

0

∞

n=0

w

n

dw

= −

∞

n=0

ˆ

z

0

w

n

dw

= −

∞

m=1

z

m

m

164

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

So the result is

f(z) =

∞

n=0

(−1)

2n+1

nz

n

−

∞

m=1

z

m

m

=

∞

−∞

c

k

z

k

with the general coefficient

_

_

_

c

k

=

(−1)

−2k+1

−k

, k ≤ 0

c

k

=

−1

m

, k ≥ 1;

5. We solve this excercise easily.

f(z) =

_

z +

1

z

_

7

=

7

i=0

C

i

7

z

7−2i

= z

7

+ 7z

5

+ 21z

3

+ 35z + ...

=

7

i=0

7!

(7 −i)!i!

; [z[ > 0

Exercise 5.23. (E. 6, E. 7 P. 293)

Obtain the indicated Laurent expansions of

1

z + i

. State the nth terms of the series.

1. An expansion valid for [z[ > 1

2. An expansion valid for [z −i[ > 2

Solution.

f(z) =

1

i + z

; [z[ > 1

=

1

z

∞

n=0

_

i

z

_

n

(−1)

n

=

∞

n=0

i

n

(−1)

n

z

−n−1

=

−1

m=−∞

_

1

i

_

m+1

(−1)

m+1

z

m

165

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

f(z) =

1

i + z

; [z −i[ > 2

1

z −i

∞

n=0

_

2i

z −i

_

n

(−1)

n

=

∞

n=0

2

n

i

n

(−1)

n

(z −i)

−n−1

=

−1

m−∞

_

1

2i

_

m+1

(−1)

m+1

(z −i)

m

Exercise 5.24. (E. 9 P. 293)

Expand the following functions in a Laurent series valid in a domain whose outer radius is

inﬁnite. State the center and inner radius of the domain. Give the nth term of the series.

1

z + 2

expanded in powers of z −i

Solution.

f(z) =

1

z + 2

=

1

z −i + i + 2

=

1

(z −i)

_

1 +

i+2

z−i

_

=

∞

n=0

_

(i + 2)

n

(−1)

n

(z −i)

n+1

_

; [z −i[ >

√

5

=

−1

m=−∞

(z −i)

m

(i + 2)

−m−1

(−1)

m+1

; [z −i[ > 1

Exercise 5.25. (E. 11 P. 293)

1. Consider f (z) =

1

z (z −1) (z + 3)

. This function is expanded in three diﬀerent Laurent

series involving powers of z. State the three domains in which Laurent series are available.

2. Find each series and give an explicit formula for the nth term.

Solution.

1. We will expand on 3 domains as follow

M

1

= ¦z : 0 < [z[ < 1¦

M

2

= ¦z : 1 < [z[ < 3¦

M

3

= ¦z : [z[ > 3¦

2. Consider the domain M

1

, we have

166

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

f(z) =

1

[z (z −1) (z + 3)]

=

1

4z

_

1

z −1

−

1

z + 3

_

=

1

4z

_

−

∞

n=0

z

n

−

1

3

∞

n=0

_

z

3

_

n

(−1)

n

_

= −

∞

n=0

1

4

z

n−1

−

∞

n=0

z

n−1

_

1

4

1

3

n+1

_

(−1)

n

=

∞

n=0

1

4

z

n−1

_

−1 −

1

3

n+1

(−1)

n

_

=

∞

m=−1

1

4

z

n−1

_

−1 −

1

3

m+2

(−1)

m+1

_

The next domain M

2

, we obtain

f(z) =

1

[z (z −1) (z + 3)]

=

1

4z

_

1

z −1

−

1

z + 3

_

=

1

4z

_

1

z

∞

n=0

_

1

z

_

n

−

1

3

∞

m=0

(−1)

m

_

z

3

_

m

_

=

−2

k=−∞

z

k

_

1

4

_

−

∞

t=−1

(−1)

t+1

z

i

_

1

4

1

3

t+2

_

=

∞

−∞

c

t

z

t

with the general coefficient is

_

_

_

c

t

=

1

4

t ≤ −2

c

t

= (−1)

t

_

1

4

1

3

t+2

_

, t ≥ −1

And the last is M

3

167

5 INFINITE SERIES INVOLVING A COMPLEX VARIABLE

f(z) =

1

[z (z −1) (z + 3)]

=

1

4z

_

1

z −1

−

1

z + 3

_

=

1

4z

_

1

z

∞

n=0

_

1

z

_

n

−

1

z

∞

m=0

(−1)

m

_

3

z

_

m

_

=

∞

n=0

1

4

z

−n−2

−

∞

m=0

1

4

(−1)

m

3

m

z

−m−2

=

∞

n=0

1

4

z

−n−2

_

1 + (−1)

n+1

3

n

_

=

−2

n=−∞

1

4

z

k

_

1 + (−1)

k+1

3

−k−2

_

168

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN

INTEGRATION

6.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION OF THE RESIDUES

The ﬁrst is shown by the exercises such as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10.

Exercise 6.1. (E. 1, E. 2, E. 3 P. 341)

Using the method of residues, evaluate the integral

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+ 2 (z −1) +

3

z −4

dz

, where the contour C is given below.

1. [z −1[ = 2

2. [z −5[ = 2

3. The rectangle with corners at ±(5 ±i)

Solution.

1. We can see that the function f (z) = 2 (z −1) +

3

z −4

is integrability on and even in the

contour C, so

C

f (z) dz = 0. Then we need to compute

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+ f (z) dz = 2πi

_

Res

_

1

(z −1)

2

, 1

_

+ Res

_

i

z −1

, 1

__

= 2πi (0 + i) = −2π

2. Using a similar comment, we have

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+ 2 (z −1) dz = 0. Hence,

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+ 2 (z −1) +

3

z −4

dz = 2πiRes

_

3

z −4

, 4

_

= 6πi

3. In this exercise, in the given rectangle, we obtain

C

2 (z −1) dz = 0. Thus

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+2 (z −1)+

3

z −4

dz = 2πi

_

Res

_

1

(z −1)

2

, 1

_

+ Res

_

i

z −1

, 1

_

+ Res

_

3

z −4

, 4

__

169

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

According to exercise 1 and 2, we get the result is

‰

C

1

(z −1)

2

+

i

z −1

+ 2 (z −1) +

3

z −4

dz = 2πi (3 + i)

Exercise 6.2. (E. 4, E. 5, E. 6, E. 7 P. 341)

Evaluate the following integrals by using the method of residues. In Problems 6-8 use Laurent

expansions valid in deleted neiborghoods of the singular points to get the residue.

1.

‰

∞

n=−∞

e

−n

2

(n −1) (z −1)

n

dz around [z[ = 2

2.

‰

∞

n=−5

1

(z + i)

n

(n + 6)!

dz around [z −i[ = 3

3.

‰

∞

n=−∞

cosh (1/z) dz around the square with corners at ±(1 ±i)

4.

‰

z sin

_

1

z −1

_

dz around [z[ = 2

Solution.

1. We consider the function f (z) =

∞

n=−∞

e

−n

2

(n −1) (z −1)

n

on the contour [z[ = 2 and

see that f is integrability for all z ,= 1. So we have a singular points z

0

= 1 where n < 0.

Applying the method of residues, we get

‰

C

f (z) dz = Res [f (z) , 1]

= −2e

−1

2. In this exercise, we note that

‰

C

−4

n=−∞

1

(z + i)

n

(n + 6)!

= 0

So that the ﬁrst integral becomes

‰

C

∞

n=−5

1

(z + i)

n

(n + 6)!

=

‰

C

∞

n=−∞

1

(z + i)

n

(n + 6)!

In a similar fashion, we compute the result is

‰

C

∞

n=−5

1

(z + i)

n

(n + 6)!

=

2πi

7

170

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

3. We have z

0

= 0 is a singular point of the function f (z) = cosh (1/z) in the square with

the corners ±(1 ±i). Then we need to extense the function by Laurent series.

cosh (1/z) = 1 +

1

2!z

2

+

1

4!z

4

+ ...

Hence,

‰

C

∞

n=−∞

cosh (1/z) dz = Res [cosh (1/z) , 0] = 0

4. Like the exercise above, we see that z

0

= 1 is a singular point of the function f (z) =

z sin

_

1

z −1

_

in the contour [z[ = 2. Next, we must expand the function by Laurent

series.

z sin

_

1

z −1

_

= (z −1) sin

_

1

z −1

_

+ sin

_

1

z −1

_

= (z −1)

_

_

1

z −1

_

−

1

3!

_

1

z −1

_

3

+ . . .

_

+

_

_

1

z −1

_

−

1

3!

_

1

z −1

_

3

+ . . .

_

= 1 +

_

1

z −1

_

−

1

3!

_

1

z −1

_

2

−

1

3!

_

1

z −1

_

3

+ . . .

Thus the result is

‰

C

z sin

_

1

z −1

_

dz = 2πiRes

_

z sin

_

1

z −1

_

, 1

_

= 2πi

Exercise 6.3. (E. 10 P. 341)

Use residue calculus to show that if n ≥ 1 is an integer, then

‰

C

_

z +

1

z

_

n

dz =

_

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

_

2πin!

n −1

2

!

n + 1

2

!

, nodd

0, neven

where C is any simple closed contour encircling the origin.

Solution.

We consider the function as follows

f (z) =

_

z +

1

z

_

n

=

n

k=0

C

k

n

z

n−k

z

−k

=

n

k=0

C

k

n

z

n−2k

171

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

There are 2 cases below.

• n = 2m. We note that

‰

|z−z

0

|=r

(z −z

0

)

l

dz =

_

_

_

0, l ,= −1

2πi, l = −1

Because of n −2k = 2m−2k ,= −1 for all m, k, we obtain

‰

c

f (z) dz = 0.

• n = 2m + 1. We see that

‰

c

f (z) dz =

‰

c

2m+1

k=0

C

k

2m+1

z

2m+1−2k

dz

=

2m+1

k=0

C

k

2m+1

‰

c

z

2m+1−2k

dz

Then, by solving the equation 2m + 1 −2k = −1, we have k = m + 1. Hence,

‰

c

f (z) dz = 2πiC

m+1

2m+1

=

2πi (2m + 1)

(m + 1)! (2m + 1 −m−1)!

=

2πin!

_

n −1

2

_

!

_

n + 1

2

_

!

So we complete the proof.

172

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

6.2 ISOLATED SINGULARITIES

We use the exercises 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 17, 18, 19, 23 for our examples.

Exercise 6.4. (E. 1, E. 2, E. 5 P. 350)

Show by means of a Laurent series expansion

∞

n=−∞

c

n

(z −z

0

)

n

that the following functions

have essential singularities at the points stated. State the residue and give c

−2

, c

−1

, c

0

, c

1

.

1. sinh (1/z) at z = 0

2. (z −1)

3

cosh (1/ (z −1)) at z = 1

3. e

1/(z−i)

e

z−i

at z = i

Solution.

By using Laurent series for the given function, we can easily compute the coeﬃcients are

needed. Moreover, the ﬁrst negative coeﬃcient is really the residue. Indeed, the reader can see

as follows

1. We have

sinh

_

1

z

_

=

1

z

+

1

3!z

3

+

1

5!z

5

+ . . . , z ,= 0

Then c

−2

= 0, c

−1

= 1, c

0

= 0, c

1

= 0.

2. We get

(z −1)

3

cosh

_

1

z −1

_

= (z −1)

3

_

1 +

1

2! (z −1)

2

+

1

4! (z −1)

4

+ . . .

_

= (z −1)

3

+

1

2!

(z −1) +

1

4! (z −1)

+ . . .

Then c

−2

= 0, c

−1

=

1

4!

, c

0

=

1

2

, c

1

= 0.

3. We obtain

e

1

z−i

e

z−i

=

_

1 +

1

1! (z −i)

+

1

2! (z −i)

2

+ . . .

_ _

1 + (z −i) +

1

2!

(z −i)

2

+ . . .

_

=

∞

n=0

∞

k=0

1

n!

1

k!

(z −i)

n−k

Then

173

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

c

−2

=

∞

n=2

1

n! (n −2)!

c

−1

=

∞

n=1

1

n! (n −1)!

c

0

=

∞

n=0

_

1

(n!)

2

_

c

1

=

∞

n=0

1

n! (n + 1)!

Exercise 6.5. (E. 8, E. 9, E. 10 P. 350)

Use series expansions or L’Hopital’s rule to show that the following functions possess removable

singularities at the indicated singular points. You must show that lim

z→z

0

f (z) exists and is ﬁnite

at the singular point. Also, state how f (z

0

) should be deﬁned at each point in order to remove

the singularity. Use principal branches where there is any ambiguity.

1.

e

z

−1

z

at z = 0

2.

e

z

−e

Logz

at z = 1

3.

sinh z

z

2

+ π

2

at the two singular points

Solution.

In three exercises, we use L’Hopital rule to show the functions possess removable singularities

at the indicated singular points.

1. We have

lim

z→0

e

z

−1

z

= lim

z→0

e

z

= 1

Hence,

f (z) =

_

_

_

e

z

−1

z

, z ,= 0

1 , z = 0

2. Next, we get

lim

z→1

e

z

−e

Logz

= lim

z→1

e

z

1

z

= e

Thus

174

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

f (z) =

_

¸

_

¸

_

e

z

−e

log z

, z ,= 1

e , z = 1

3. We are carefully because we obtain 2 roots in the equation z

2

+ π

2

= 0. Then, we have

lim

z→πi

sinh z

z

2

+ π

2

= lim

z→πi

1

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

2z

=

1

2πi (1 + πi)

1/2

lim

z→−πi

sinh z

z

2

+ π

2

= lim

z→πi

1

(1 + z

2

)

1/2

2z

=

1

2πi (1 −πi)

1/2

So the result is

f (z) =

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

sinh z

z

2

+ π

2

, z ,= ±πi

1

2πi (1 + πi)

1/2

, z = πi

1

2πi (1 −πi)

1/2

, z = −πi

Exercise 6.6. (E. 17, E. 18, E. 19, E. 23 P. 351)

State the location of all the poles for each of the following functions and give the order of each

pole. Use the principal branch of the given functions if there is any ambiguity.

1.

1

z

2

+ 2z + 1

2.

1

z

2

+ z + 1

3.

1

z

3

−1

4.

1

10

z

−e

z

Solution.

In four exercises, we need to deal with the equation of denominator for each function.

1. The root in there is z = −1, so we try assuming that z = −1 is a pole of order two.

lim

z→−1

(z + 1)

2

1

z

2

+ 2z + 1

= 0

Hence, our assumption is true.

2. In a similar fashion, the roots are z = −

1

2

+ i

√

3

2

, z = −

1

2

−i

√

3

2

. Then this means that

two roots are really two simple poles.

175

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

3. We see easily that the roots in this function are z = 1, z = −

1

2

+ i

√

3

2

, z = −

1

2

−i

√

3

2

.

We deduce similarly that three roots are simple poles.

4. We carefully solve the equation 10

z

= e

z

and obtain the root is z =

i2kπ

log 10 −1

. So that

this is a simple pole.

176

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

6.3 FINDING THE RESIDUE

Exercise 6.7. (E. 3, E. 4, E. 5 P. 357)

For each of the following functions state the location and order of each pole and ﬁnd the

corresponding residue. Use the principal branch of any multivalued function given below.

1.

cos z

z

2

+ z + 1

2.

1

z

−

e

z

z (z + 1)

+

1

(z −1)

4

3.

1

z

1/2

(z

2

−9)

2

Solution.

1. We factor the denominator and obtain

f (z) =

cos z

_

z −

−1 −i

√

3

2

__

z −

−1 + i

√

3

2

_

We can easily examine that both z =

−1 ±i

√

3

2

are single poles of f (z).

So we will compute the residue of each pole

Res

_

f (z) ,

−1 −i

√

3

2

_

= lim

z→

−1−i

√

3

2

_

z −

−1 −i

√

3

2

_

f (z)

=

cos

_

−1 −i

√

3

2

_

−i

√

3

Res

_

f (z) ,

−1 + i

√

3

2

_

= lim

z→

−1+i

√

3

2

_

z −

−1 + i

√

3

2

_

f (z)

=

cos

_

−1 + i

√

3

2

_

i

√

3

2. Take f (z) =

1

z

−

e

z

z (z + 1)

+

1

(z −1)

4

Just like Exercise 3 we can see that f (z) has two poles at z = −1 with order 1 and z = 1

with order 4 as the reader can verify themselves.

Because lim

z→0

zf (z) = 0, z = 0 is not a pole of f (z)

So we compute easily

177

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

Res [f (z) , −1] = lim

z→−1

(z + 1) f (z) = e

−1

Res [f (z) , 1] = lim

z→1

d

3

2dz

3

_

(z −1)

4

f (z)

_

= 0

3. Because we use principle branch of z

1

2

, f (z) have no pole at z = 0 and z = −3 but it has

a pole z = 3 with order 2.

Res [f (z) , 3] = lim

z→3

d

dz

_

(z −3)

2

f (z)

_

= lim

z→3

−

1

2

√

z

(z + 3) −2

√

z

z (z + 3)

3

= −

1

72

√

3

Exercise 6.8. (E. 16, E. 18, E. 20 P. 358)

Find the residue of the following functions at the indicated point.

1.

z + 1

z

sin (1/z) at 0

2.

1

(z + i)

5

at −i

3.

z

12

(z −1)

10

at 1

Solution.

1. We see that the function f (z) =

z + 1

z

sin (1/z) has a pole of order 2 at z = 0. We need

to prove that

lim

z→0

z

2

f (z) = 0

Indeed, we have

¸

¸

¸

¸

z

2

z + 1

z

sin (1/z)

¸

¸

¸

¸

≤ [z (z + 1)[

We know that lim

z→0

z (z + 1) = 0, so we obtain the proof.

2. We see that the function has a pole of order 6 at z = −i. Indeed, we have

lim

z→−i

(z + i)

6

1

(z + i)

5

= lim

z→−i

(z + i) = 0

3. In a similar fashion, the function has a pole of order 11 at z = 1. We see this as follows

178

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

lim

z→1

(z −1)

11

z

12

(z −1)

10

= lim

z→1

z

12

(z −1) = 0

Exercise 6.9. (E. 27, E. 31 P. 358)

Use residues to evaluate the following integrals. Use the principal branch of multivalued func-

tions.

1.

‰

dz

sin z

around [z −6[ = 4

2.

‰

e

1/z

z

2

−1

dz around [z −1[ = 3/2

Solution.

179

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

6.4 EVALUATION OF REAL INTEGRALS WITH RESIDUE

CALCULUS I

The reader can see exercises 3, 4, 7, 8 for examples of residue calculus I.

Exercise 6.10. (E. 3, E. 4 P. 364)

Using residue calculus, establish the following identities.

1.

ˆ

π

−π

dθ

a + b cos θ

=

2π

√

a

2

−b

2

for a > b ≥ 0.

2.

ˆ 3π

2

−π

2

cos θ

a + b cos θ

dθ =

2π

b

_

1 −

a

√

a

2

−b

2

_

for a > b > 0.

Solution.

1. We put t = π + θ and see that

ˆ

π

−π

dθ

a + b cos θ

=

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

a −b cos θ

The next is the denominator is deﬁnited because of a > b ≥ 0. Then we apply the method

of evaluation of real integrals with residue calculus 1. We get z = e

iθ

, so that

_

_

_

dθ =

dz

iz

cos θ =

z+z

−1

2

Then the integral becomes

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

a −b cos θ

=

‰

|z|=1

2dz

2iaz −ibz

2

−ib

We need to face with the equation ibz

2

−2iaz + ib = 0 and have 2 roots easily.

z =

a ±

√

a

2

−b

2

b

But the only point, z =

a −

√

a

2

−b

2

b

, is in the unit circle, the reader can verify themselves.

Now we only compute the residue at this point.

ˆ

2π

0

2dθ

2iaz −ibz

2

−ib

= 4πiRes

_

1

2iaz −ibz

2

−ib

;

a −

√

a

2

−b

2

b

_

=

2π

√

a

2

−b

2

Note that, we only get the result in the case a > b > 0, but do not worry, it is very easy

to get the proof for the cases a > b = 0.

180

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

2. Like the exercise above, we put t = θ +

π

2

and see that

ˆ 3π

2

−π

2

cos θ

a + b cos θ

dθ =

ˆ

2π

0

sin θ

a + b sin θ

dθ

The next is the denominator is deﬁnited because of a > b > 0. Then we apply the method

of evaluation of real integrals with residue calculus 1. We get z = e

iθ

, so that

_

_

_

dθ =

dz

iz

sin θ =

z−z

−1

2i

Then the integral becomes

ˆ

2π

0

sin θ

a + b sin θ

dθ =

‰

|z|=1

_

z

2

−1

_

dz

iz (bz

2

+ 2iaz −b)

We need to face with the equation bz

2

+ 2iaz −b = 0 and have 2 roots easily.

z =

−ia ±i

√

a

2

−b

2

b

But the only point, z =

−ia + i

√

a

2

−b

2

b

, is in the unit circle, the reader can verify them-

selves.

Now we only compute the residue at this point and the point z = 0.

ˆ

2π

0

sin θ

a + b sin θ

dθ = 2πi

_

Res

_

z

2

−1

bz

2

+ 2iaz −b

;

−ia + i

√

a

2

−b

2

b

_

+ Res

_

z

2

−1

bz

2

+ 2iaz −b

; 0

_

_

=

2π

b

_

1 −

a

√

a

2

−b

2

_

Exercise 6.11. (E. 7, E. 8, E. 9 P. 364)

Using residue calculus, establish the following identities.

1.

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

(a + b sin θ)

2

=

2πa

_

√

a

2

−b

2

_

3

for a > b ≥ 0.

2.

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

a + sin

2

θ

=

2π

_

a (a + 1)

for a > 0.

Solution.

1. Like the exercises above, the denominator is deﬁnited because of a > b ≥ 0. Then we

apply the method of evaluation of real integrals with residue calculus 1. We get z = e

iθ

,

so that

181

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

_

_

_

dθ =

dz

iz

sin θ =

z−z

−1

2i

Then the integral becomes

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

(a + b sin θ)

2

=

‰

|z|=1

−4zdz

i (bz

2

+ 2iaz −b)

2

Using the root of exercise 4, we still choose z =

−ia + i

√

a

2

−b

2

b

is in the unit circle but

it is a second-order pole. Then we have

ˆ

2π

0

dθ

(a + b sin θ)

2

= 2πiRes

_

−4z

i (bz

2

+ 2iaz −b)

2

; z

1

=

−ia + i

√

a

2

−b

2

b

_

= 2π lim

z→z

1

d

dz

_

(z −z

1

)

2

−4z

(bz

2

+ 2iaz −b)

2

_

=

2π

_

√

a

2

−b

2

_

3

2. We will reduce the degree of sin

2

θ by using formula sin

2

θ =

1 −cos 2θ

2

and the denom-

inator is deﬁnited because of a > 0. Then we apply the method of evaluation of real

integrals with residue calculus 1. We get z = e

iθ

, so that

_

_

_

dθ =

dz

iz

cos 2θ =

z

2

+z

−2

2

Then the integral becomes

ˆ

2π

0

2dθ

2a + 1 −cos 2θ

=

‰

|z|=1

−4zdz

i [z

4

−z

2

(4a + 2) + 1]

We need to solve the equation z

4

−z

2

(4a + 1) + 1 = 0 then we have 4 roots.

z = ±

_

2a + 1 ±

_

a (4a + 1)

But there are only 2 points in the unit circle, these are z = ±

_

2a + 1 −

_

a (4a + 1).

Thus if we call these are z

1

; z

2

respectively, we will have

ˆ

2π

0

2dθ

2a + 1 −cos 2θ

= −8πi

_

Res

_

z

i [z

4

−z

2

(4a + 2) + 1]

; z

1

_

+ Res

_

z

i [z

4

−z

2

(4a + 2) + 1]

; z

2

__

=

2π

_

a (a + 1)

182

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

6.5 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS II

We think 4 exercises below are the basic things to help the reader understanding in this section.

Exercise 6.12. (E. 19, E. 20, E. 21 P. 371)

Evaluate the following integrals by means of residue calculus.

1.

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+ x + 1

2.

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

(x

2

+ x + 1) (x

2

+ 1)

3.

ˆ

∞

−∞

x

4

dx

x

6

+ 1

Solution.

In 3 exercises, the denominator is nonzero for all real numbers and the degree of it diﬀers

from the numerator by 2 or more. Thus at all poles in u.h.p, we have the result respectively.

1. This follows that

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

x

2

+ x + 1

= 2πi

Res

1

z

2

+ z + 1

Then we solve the equation z

2

+ z + 1 = 0 and get

z =

−1 ±i

√

3

2

= e

i

2π

3

; e

−i

2π

3

Hence, this function has a simple pole in the u.h.p at e

i

2π

3

. We will evaluate the residue

at this point.

Res

_

1

z

2

+ z + 1

; e

i

2π

3

_

=

1

(z

2

+ z + 1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=e

i

2π

3

=

1

2e

i

2π

3

+ 1

=

1

i

√

3

So that the result is

2π

√

3

.

2. This follows that

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

(x

2

+ x + 1) (x

2

+ 1)

= 2πi

Res

1

(z

2

+ z + 1) (z

2

+ 1)

Then by solving the equations z

2

+ z + 1 = 0 and z

2

+ 1 = 0, we get

z =

−1 ±i

√

3

2

= e

i

2π

3

; e

−i

2π

3

183

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

and

z = ±i

Hence, this function has 2 simple poles in the u.h.p at e

i

2π

3

and i . We will evaluate the

residues at these point.

Res

_

1

(z

2

+ z + 1) (z

2

+ 1)

; e

i

2π

3

_

=

1

(z

2

+ z + 1)

(z

2

+ 1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=e

i

2π

3

=

1

_

2e

i

2π

3

+ 1

__

e

i

4π

3

+ 1

_

=

2

i

√

3

_

1 −i

√

3

_

Res

_

1

(z

2

+ z + 1) (z

2

+ 1)

; i

_

=

1

(z

2

+ z + 1) (z

2

+ 1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=i

=

−1

2

So that the result is

π

√

3

.

3. This follows that

ˆ

∞

−∞

x

4

dx

x

6

+ 1

= 2πi

Res

z

4

(z

4

−z

2

+ 1) (z

2

+ 1)

Then by solving the equations z

4

−z

2

+ 1 = 0 and z

2

+ 1 = 0, we get

z =

−

√

3 ±i

2

= e

i

5π

6

; e

−i

5π

6

and

z =

√

3 ±i

2

= e

i

π

6

; e

−i

π

6

and

z = ±i

Hence, this function has 2 simple poles in the u.h.p at e

i

π

6

, e

i

5π

6

and i . We will evaluate

the residues at these point.

184

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

Res

_

z

4

(z

4

−z

2

+ 1) (z

2

+ 1)

; e

i

π

6

_

= lim

z→e

i

π

6

z

4

_

z −e

−i

π

6

__

z −e

i

5π

6

__

z −e

i

−5π

6

_

(z

2

+ 1)

=

−1 + i

√

3

3i

_√

3 + i

_

2

Res

_

z

4

(z

4

−z

2

+ 1) (z

2

+ 1)

; e

i

5π

6

_

= lim

z→e

i

5π

6

z

4

_

z −e

−i

π

6

__

z −e

i

π

6

__

z −e

i

−5π

6

_

(z

2

+ 1)

=

−1 −i

√

3

3i

_√

3 −i

_

2

Res

_

z

4

(z

4

−z

2

+ 1) (z

2

+ 1)

; i

_

=

z

4

(z

4

−z

2

+ 1) (z

2

+ 1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=i

=

1

6i

So that the result is

2π

3

.

Exercise 6.13. (E. 28 P. 372)

Show that for a, b, c real and b

2

< 4ac, the following hold

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

ax

2

+ bx + c

=

2π

√

4ac −b

2

Solution.

Because of b

2

< 4ac, the denominator on the right hand is deﬁnited and the equation ax

2

+

bx + c = 0 has 2 complex roots. This means that

x =

−b ±i

√

4ac −b

2

2a

Assume that a > 0, we choose the point

−b + i

√

4ac −b

2

2a

, we will evaluate the residue at this

point.

ˆ

∞

−∞

dx

ax

2

+ bx + c

= 2πiRes

_

1

az

2

+ bz + c

;

−b + i

√

4ac −b

2

2a

_

= 2πi

_

1

2az + b

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=

−b+i

√

4ac−b

2

2a

_

=

2π

√

4ac −b

2

And if we consider the case a < 0, by choosing the point

−b −i

√

4ac −b

2

2a

and applying

method above, we still have the result is the right hand.

185

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

6.6 EVALUATION OF INTEGRALS III

Exercises 1, 3, 5, 7, 13, 24 are expressed there to solve easily.

Exercise 6.14. (E. 1, E. 3, E. 5, E. 7, E. 13 P. 382)

Evaluate the following integrals by residue calculus. Use Cauchy principal values and take

advantage of even and odd symmetries where appropriate

1.

∞

ˆ

−∞

cos (2x)

x

2

+ 9

dx

2.

∞

ˆ

−∞

xe

ix

(x −1)

2

+ 9

dx

3.

∞

ˆ

−∞

xsin (2x)

x

2

+ x + 1

dx

4.

∞

ˆ

−∞

_

x

3

+ x

2

_

cos

_√

2x

_

x

4

+ 1

dx

5.

∞

ˆ

0

cos (x)

(x

2

+ 4)

2

dx

Solution.

We consider arc C below.

Now we know completely how to evaluate the residue at each point in some sections before.

Then we only need to solve some exercises by using equations which is gotten in this section.

1.

186

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

∞

ˆ

−∞

cos (2x)

x

2

+ 9

dx = 1

_

_

∞

ˆ

−∞

e

i2x

x

2

+ 9

dx

_

_

= 1

_

2πi

Res

_

e

i2z

z

2

+ 9

__

= 1

_

2πi.Res

_

e

i2z

z

2

+ 9

, z

1

= 3i

__

= 1

_

2πi.

e

i2z

2z

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=3i

_

= 1

_

2πi.

e

−6

6i

_

=

π

3

e

−6

2.

∞

ˆ

−∞

xe

ix

(x −1)

2

+ 9

dx = 2πi

Res

_

ze

iz

(z −1)

2

+ 9

_

= 2πi.Res

_

ze

iz

(z −1)

2

+ 9

, z

1

= 1 + 3i

_

= 2πi.

ze

iz

2 (z −1)

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=1+3i

= 2πi.

(1 + 3i) e

−3+i

6i

=

π

3

. (1 + 3i) e

−3+i

3.

187

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

∞

ˆ

−∞

xsin (2x)

x

2

+ x + 1

dx = ·

_

2πi

Res

_

ze

2zi

z

2

+ z + 1

__

= ·

_

2πi.Res

_

ze

2zi

z

2

+ z + 1

, z

1

=

−1 +

√

3i

2

__

= ·

_

2πi.

ze

2zi

2z + 1

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=(−1+

√

3i)/2

_

= ·

_

π

_

−1 +

√

3i

_

e

−

√

3−i

√

3

_

= ·

_

π.e

−

√

3

√

3

_

−1 +

√

3i

_

(cos 1 −i sin 1)

_

= ·

_

π.e

−

√

3

√

3

_

−cos 1 + i sin 1 +

√

3i cos 1 +

√

3 sin 1

_

_

=

π.e

−

√

3

√

3

.

_

sin 1 +

√

3 cos 1

_

=

2π.e

−

√

3

√

3

sin

_

2π

3

−1

_

4.

∞

ˆ

−∞

_

x

3

+ x

2

_

cos

_√

2x

_

x

4

+ 1

dx = 1

_

2πi

Res

_

_

z

3

+ z

2

_

e

i

√

2z

z

4

+ 1

__

= 1

_

2πi.Res

_

_

z

3

+ z

2

_

e

i

√

2z

z

4

+ 1

, e

iπ

4

_

+ 2πi.Res

_

_

z

3

+ z

2

_

e

i

√

2z

z

4

+ 1

, e

i3π

4

__

= 1

_

2πi.

_

z

3

+ z

2

_

e

i

√

2z

4z

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=e

iπ

4

+ 2πi.

_

z

3

+ z

2

_

e

i

√

2z

4z

3

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

z=e

i3π

4

_

= 1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

2πi.

_

_

e

i3π

4

+ e

iπ

2

_

_

e

−1+i

4e

i3π

4

+ 2πi.

_

_

e

i9π

4

+ e

i3π

2

_

_

e

−1−i

4e

i9π

4

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

=

π

√

2

e

−1

(cos 1 −sin 1)

5. Since

cos (x)

(x

2

+ 4)

2

=

cos (−x)

_

(−x)

2

+ 4

_

2

, we can derive that

188

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

∞

ˆ

0

cos (x)

(x

2

+ 4)

2

dx =

1

2

1

_

2πi

Res

_

e

iz

(z

2

+ 4)

2

__

= 1

_

πiRes

_

e

iz

(z

2

+ 4)

2

, z

1

= 2i

__

= 1

_

¸

¸

¸

_

πi lim

z−→2i

d

_

(z −2i)

2

e

iz

(z

2

+ 4)

2

_

dz

_

¸

¸

¸

_

= 1

_

¸

¸

¸

_

πi lim

z−→2i

d

_

e

iz

(z + 2i)

2

_

dz

_

¸

¸

¸

_

= 1

_

πi lim

z−→2i

ie

iz

(z + 2i)

2

−2 (z + 2i) e

iz

(z + 2i)

4

_

= 1

_

πi

ie

−2

(2i + 2i)

2

−2 (2i + 2i) e

−2

(2i + 2i)

4

_

= 1

_

πe

−2

16 + 8

256

_

=

3πe

−2

32

189

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

Exercise 6.15. (E. 24 P. 384)

To establish the well-known result

∞

ˆ

0

sin x

x

dx =

π

2

we proceed as follows:

1. Show that

f (z) =

e

iz

−1

z

has a removable singularity at z = 0. How should f (0)be defined to remove the singularity?

2. Using the contour of Fig 6.5-1, prove that

R

ˆ

−R

e

ix

−1

x

dx +

ˆ

C

1

e

iz

−1

z

= 0

and also

R

ˆ

−R

cos x −1

x

dx + i

R

ˆ

−R

sin x

x

dx =

ˆ

C

1

1

z

dz −

ˆ

C

1

e

iz

z

dz

3. Evaluate the first integral on the above right by using the polar representation of C

1

:

z = Re

iθ

, 0 ≤ θ ≤ π. Pass to the limit R −→ ∞ and explain why the second integral on

the right goes to zero. Thus prove that

∞

ˆ

−∞

cos x −1

x

dx = 0

∞

ˆ

−∞

sin x

x

dx = 0

and finally that

∞

ˆ

0

sin x

x

dx =

π

2

190

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

Solution.

1. We have

f (z) =

e

iz

−1

z

=

∞

n=0

i

n+1

(n + 1)!

z

n

Thus, f (z) has a removable singularity at z = 0.

And we define that

f (0) = lim

z−→0

f (z)

= lim

z−→0

ie

iz

1

= i

2. By using a contour of integration containing a semicircular arc in the u.h.p, we get

R

ˆ

−R

e

ix

−1

x

dx +

ˆ

C

1

e

iz

−1

z

= 2πi

Res

_

e

iz

−1

z

_

= 2πiRes

_

e

iz

−1

z

, z

1

= 0

_

= 2πi. lim

z−→0

_

z.

e

iz

−1

z

_

= 2πi. lim

z−→0

_

e

iz

−1

_

= 0

Thus,

R

ˆ

−R

cos x −1

x

dx +

R

ˆ

−R

sin x

x

dx =

ˆ

C

1

1

z

dz −

ˆ

C

1

e

iz

z

dz

We symbolize the equation above is (*).

3. We will evaluate I =

´

C

1

1

z

dz before by using the polar representation of C

1

: z = Re

iθ

, 0 ≤

θ ≤ π. Then we obtain dz = iRe

iθ

dθ.

Thus

191

6 RESIDUES AND THEIR USE IN INTEGRATION

I =

π

ˆ

0

1

Re

iθ

iRe

iθ

dθ

=

π

ˆ

0

idθ = iπ

We continue to symbolize this equation is (**). The next is evaluation of J =

ˆ

C

1

e

iz

z

dz.

We get a comment that since lim

z−→∞

¸

¸

¸

¸

1

z

¸

¸

¸

¸

= 0, lim

R−→∞

´

C

1

e

iz

z

dz = 0 (***)

From (*),(**) and (***), we have

∞

ˆ

−∞

sin x

x

dx = π

And

sin x

x

is even function, so that

∞

ˆ

0

sin x

x

dx =

π

2

Hence, we complete the proof.

192

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while vast oceans of truth lie undiscovered before me.” – I. Newton.

“I am sure that no subject loses more than mathematics

by any attempt to dissociate it from its history.” – J.W.L. Glaisher.

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