A Mahaa-Advaitha of science and spirituality from the Indian and woman’s perspective

CONTENTS
Dedication Preface. 1 Advaitha 2. Bhagavad Gita 3.Science and spirituality 4.Spacetime –an enigma. 5.Susruthasamhitha 6.Women in medical sciences 7.women in sciences 8.Yogadarsana 9 Medical ethics 1

10.Effect of Raagachikitsa on modifiable factors of heart disease 11.Music therapy ,the Indian way 12.My personal experiences with music and effect on human body and mind. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

DEDICATION. This book is dedicated to KRISHNA,the cowherd /cum musician who turned out to be the greatest philosopher and friend of humanity and still lives in me and you as ecstacy (NA) of the earth (KRISH). PREFACE.

The truly liberated woman writer , when she exists, will say”..I overflow. My desires have invented new desires….My body knows unheard of songs. Time and again …I have felt so full of luminous torrents that I could burst……” (Helene Cixous) Yes. I am bursting with the ecstacy of unheard of melodious songs , luminous torrents of melodies that fill me and burst out of me as new songs, new words and new ideas and this experience I have to communicate to the outside world of informed readers . Hence I write books, I sing , and I give lectures on various subjects from art to science , from western to eastern philosophy , from medicine to astronomy and from music to psychology. Why should I begin this preface with a feminine perspective and why should I include two chapters on feminist views on science? Just to show that the feminine and feminist phases are almost over and in the third female phase , a new generation of woman writers , like me are slowly emerging. The new generation of university educated women who no longer feel the necessity to express feminine, feminist discontent , who love humanity (including our male counterparts) with all their follies , shortcomings, greatness and virtues. We know that they are the sparks from the same fire , the children of the same biological heritage to which we belong and that forgiveness is the greatest virtue of every human being and as females we can forgive our men for whatever they
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have done to us .( If entire human race feels that way , how peaceful and happy the earth will be !!!) This book is an interdisciplinary approach to life and its sciences and arts done through an Indian perspective. The most modern scientific and aesthetic theories are compared wherever possible. The new music therapy system devised and scientifically proven is the ancient Indian one in a new form elaborated in the light of modern western music therapy principles but in the most traditional Indian way.. Before reading the book , I would suggest the readers to go through this preface so that you have a picture of what my artistic/poetic mind feels about the scientific expeditions I have made. What my right brain feels about the workings of my left brain? What western poets and western psychologists feel about the ancient myths and dream visions with which each and every one of us are so familiar? How the Indian yoga/veda/musicology /aesthetics view this , as compared to the western views? Freud used myth as a vehicle of expressions to use it as evidence and illustration in his psychoanalytical writings. His writings made two changes in the 20th century approach to dreams and myths.The acceptance of them as experiences of unconscious wish , fear, instinctual drives and the use of them as analytical devices which can reveal truths through its unique illusions. Freud viewed even a child’s entry into water as a distorted representation of libido or equated as painful feelings for conscious awareness. But there is a new use for myths and dreams as guide for exploring past civilizations and individuals and new possibilities for them in poetic language and in science. A child at play can be compared to an imaginative writer rearranging things (words) in his world in a new way that pleases him/her.The adults substitute for play, fantasy and daydreaming and even eroticism and unfulfilled ambitions. In a child these are not at work.The child’s eyeview is different from an adult’s eyeview. The child is more like a yogi /a naadalayayogi (musician in India) well aware of the aesthetic experiences and quality of his/her play of creation (leela of God) and equated to the divine will at play. Myths are thus dreams of a nation, a civilization and of the entire human race-The archaic modes of thought –the very valuable psychological instruments. Jung made a new contribution. Man yearns for spiritual meaning in life. Poets /musicians are in touch with reality which a rational mind cannot
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experience .Psychic truth is a step to spiritual fulfillment and myth and dreams as instruments can bring about a union between the unconscious and superconscious. Spiritual experience can be according to Jung, 1.A general feeling of devotion (Bhakthy or Love in India) 2.A careful scrupulous observation of a dynamic agency or effect , not caused by an arbitrary act of will. The experience is involuntary and either a quality belonging to a visible object or influence of an invisible presence that causes a peculiar alteration in consciousness. 3.A psychological experience that which wields power as your system functions as a personal or impersonal God (saguna or nirguna Brahma in India) always an overwhelming divine or psychic presence. It is a great treasure in Jung’s scheme which provides a source of life , meaning and beauty –a new speculation to the western world and to the mankind. Myth /dream is more than a psychological tool. It is a guide to our own psyche and a conveyer of its language. God as a collective image of the entire humanity bringing protection and salvage to us is represented in them. (But , if not channelised fully and if not recognized it can also lead to neurosis). Yeat’s theory of great meaning or Anima Mundi , the collective memory containing all that is experienced by the living and the dead is seen in the ancient concept of God as a woman, the Amma or mother of the entire creation. The process of gaining immortality consists of an unrestrained search through dreams and past experiences for a knowledge of man which exceeds timespace and unites individual souls (jeevathma) to all the emotional and spiritual , intellectual experiences of the entire human race. Yeat’s concept of creation as a movement when we are both asleep and awake is interesting . He said ”I cannot explain it , but I am certain that every high thing was invented in this way , between sleeping and waking.” The golden bird or the poet/musician translates the look of the saint or angel or the silent bird (with which it is compared) into song and thus articulates the image of eternity which exists under closed eyelids of any visionary or artist. The symbol of the two golden birds (one singing and the other silent) is the same as we have in the Veda. The two suparna or twin birds. One the singer and enjoyer of good and bad, the one who is always on the move from one place to another, and the other the silent yogi or saint introspecting and the self or observer , silent witness of the world-drama. The golden bird (suparna) capture in the essential quality of its form and its song the emerging time of the
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past , present and future. It is an objective realization , an imposition upon nature , of the artists –compulsion to overcome the most disturbing rational limitation. ‘Miracle, bird or golden handiwork More miracle than bird or handiwork Planted on the starlit golden bough”, The bird stares or observes the world or the miracle around it, but is itself the miracle. The artist’s handiwork and the vision of immortality are planted on the golden bough , plucked by each aspirant and enquirer seeking the role of king of the wood of spirit of fertility and renewal. “Time past and time future what might have been and what has been point to one end which is always present” (Burnt Norton.T.S.Eliot) The abstract concept of time and challenge and its conquest (only through time , time is conquered) are transmitted in the movement of stillness. The recurrent movement of stars , planets , nebulae, of blood and lymph, the circadian rhythms, generations of living things (sexual union creating races of men and women), the cyclical seasons, fruits and plants, clouds and rainwaters, the cyclical pattern of the entire creation (prakrithy) and its movement and the stillness of eternity as God or Brahma….. The harmony of the knowledge within the soul of seers, poets and children, emerging in the dream visions and myths of civilizations as a ritualistic cosmic music and rhythmic dance of the spheres..The present conquered through the awareness of the stillness and silence (anaahathanaada in India) in the context of sound (Aahathanaada) and its movement.The harmony of the male and female. Of Brahma and Prakrithy. The awareness that the cyclical history of the world /society /nation point to our inevitability of return to our original state of existence..that phases of history enactments of development of the human mind ..That human mobility and virtue is of divine origin..That the human phase bases its laws, customs and values on reason. We thus return to our earlier values to begin a new system or cycle of existence..These are hallmarks of Indian system and are seen in the logic of time of Springler and in the cyclical system of Vico. Every symbol lies in the vast periods of time cycle , for us to recover and experience as dream visions , to
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cherish as myths…The way of the veda, yoga, Tao and of the Kabbalah is still accepted by modern thinkers and scientists and artists in this way. One thing I would emphasise, that TAO operates according to spontaneity. And not according to our plan or according to our forceful interference. In this respect, it is like a poem, music or a beautiful aristocratic woman (Saraswathi /creativity and wisdom) who is more enjoyable when she comes to you spontaneously, on her own sweet will and pleasure. In yoga the aroopadhyaana (meditation on formless being of God) as boundless spacetime of energy fields , as boundless consciousness of Thureeya is there. But there is saroopadhyana (meditation on the form which you prefer and love most) also. Because human minds differ. In Gestalt psychology human mind perceives things as a configuration of elements , theories, meaningful and organized as a whole , and not as parts .The interpretations differ because the observer’s active role affect the literature read and the music heard.The poem /music does not exist until it is read/heard. The reader/listener experience, the construction of meanings by them, and the aesthetic aura so formed around the aeration and the creator by them are all important in aesthetics. The music /literature contains some blanks that a listener or reader can only fill. I , as an observer of my life drama, as a listener of music and a reader of literature and science and world phenomena is in the corridors of this time-space experience , trying to fill it with my own life . My interpretations and observations arise from a dialogue between past and present (a fusion of the two) and my journey takes the past with my present , so that it may create meaning to the future generations of human race. My present is the gap between the past and future –My corridors of time-space. From there I view around. My hermeneutics, my reader/listener/observer oriented perspectives or affective stylistics , as an informed reader/listener may be going beyond the surface meanings and entering the depths of the ocean. The pearls of wisdom are always in the depths of silence.. Not in the surface waves that struck and make noises. I hope my journey and my bursts of luminous torrents of divine songs and melodies will liberate the future generations from pains and make them peaceloving , healthy world-citizens. Dr Suvarna Nalapat
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ADVAITHA

( Article Published in 1980 ) Nature’s great variety often conceals an underlying symmetry as in the structure of crystals and molecules. Physicists are searching for a supersymmetry which will unite the subatomic world of quantum physics with the universal force of gravity.If we rotate a snowflake about its center through sixty degrees , the initial and final positions are indistinguishable. Therefore we say that a snowflake has rotational symmetry . In an analogous way , the equations describing physical processes may exhibit symmetry. This theory of symmetry is expounded by ancient astronomers in the rotational symmetry of the universe.The rotational symmetry of the Raasichakra (ZODIAC) and the calculations of yugaas and kalpaas are all based on the 60 lunar years and their multiples. Quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD) attempt at unification of all the fundamental forces of nature and act as a modern Advaitha philosophy. Noether’s theorem dictates that quantum field theory represents conservation of momentum as a symmetry of the equation under translation in time. All particles of which the universe is composed of , are divided into 2 categories – fermions and bosons- distinguished by the spin of the particle. Aphoton having a spin of one unit is a boson , while protons , neutrons and electrons having a spin of one half are fermions. Fermions obey an exclusion principle (discovered by Wolfgang Pauli) which prevents two identical fermions from occupying the same state. Were it not for this principle , chemistry and life would have been impossible. Every fermion has an associated antiparticle, having equal mass but opposite charge and spin.The antiparticle of a negatively charged electron is a positively charged positron.When a particle and an antiparticle meet , they annihilate to produce a burst of energy.

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On the other hand, any number of identical bosons may reside in one quantum state, and there is no exclusive principle to be obeyed by the bosons and there are no antiparticles. According to modern theories, constituents of matter are all fermions, while bosons are the intermediary particles that carry the forces. They bind the electron to to the nucleus of an atom and in an electroweak theory , fermions interact by exchanging photons; Supersymmetry theory is a new symmetry principle that links fermions with bosons in a way consistent with the requirements of the quantum field theory. In 1974, Julius Weiss came forward with his theory of symmetry transformation . According to it , each fermion should have a bosonic partner of identical mass and vice versa. Supersymmetry thus links apparently disparate phenomena just as electromagnetism and light were linked together 100 years ago by Maxwell’s theory. If transformation which turns a fermion into boson is applied a second time , the result is predictably a fermion.The final fermion is in a different position in space from the initial fermion. An elementary particle for a fleeting second becomes a pair of particles with different changes and recombine to produce the original which occupy a different point in space. From this, we can find that quantum electrodynamics is producing infinite answers to finite questions. The mirror image antiparticle theory is not limited to the field of quantum electrodynamics. Modern geography and astronomy speak about the existence of an antiuniverse somewhere in the cosmos with its characteristics reversed to those normally found in this universe. In the 186th meeting of the American Chemical society , Dr Cyrill Ponnaperuma read a paper on the structure of meteorites embedded in the Antarctican ice. The aminoacids of this meteorite have a dextrorotatory configuration quite contrary to the levorotatory configuration , on our planet. The discovery of antimatter has led scientists to consider the possibility of the existence of an antiuniverse somewhere in the cosmos. Chunks of antimatter from the antiuniverse are hurled towards our universe , just as meteorites are being thrown towards earth from other parts of our universe. The highly abstruse theoretical physics dealing with the principle of symmetry laws suggest that processes , phenomena and events happening in this universe must have their counterparts in a reverse manner in another universe which we may call antiuniverse. If a fundamental particle exists in this universe , we must have a similar
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particle somewhere in the cosmos but it will be like the one seen by reflecting it in a mirror. The time event also is in a reverse manner . That is, ”the reel of time will be functioning in the reverse direction to that going on in our universe: The future events in the antiuniverse are perhaps the past events in this universe.” These words appear in the Physical Geography edited by Das Gupta and Kapoor (1979). One remembers the words of the famous philosopher Bertrand Russell , ”In science ,it is the past that determines the future and not the future the past.” Paradoxically enough, it is this very basics of astrology which is being crucified by those who follow Russel’s footprints. Theory of karma of ancient philosophers and astronomers depict the universe and the antiuniverse in the Savya( clockwise) , Apasavya(anticlockwise) cycle of the Raasi chakra . The 14 worlds –7 above and 7 belowrepresent the mirror image universes and antiuniverses. Sankara calls it Bimbaprathibimbaathmaka (mirror image). Varahamihira starts his Hora with the opening lines “Karmaarjitham poorvabhave sadaadi Yathanyapankthym samabhivyanakthi” Is it not scientific to ask people to remember that our present will be the past of the future generations and act accordingly so that events in the future universes can be determined at least to some extent by our own actions and will? For example, protection of Environment by present generation , will determine the future of coming generations . If the future is determined by the past, as Russel puts it, there is nothing unscientific in this Karma theory. When we study the structure of a crystal, we come across the geometrical concept of a lattice which is the periodic and regular repetitive arrangement of the representative atom points in space. We consider the abstract force as a concept and the crystal as the real thing. But ancient sages ask us: Is it not foolish to think that the crystal is the real , while we know that it it does not exist without the binding force within and behind it? Is not this abstract and unseen force real , because it is the one which gives the infinite shape to the crystal? They tell us that the finite crystal is the unreal or Maaya and the infinite binding force is the real.Thus Advaitha becomes applicable from the smallest molecule to the most complex universe. “Everyone who deals with the phenomena of Pathology soon comes to know that nature often speaks the secrets with a still small voice out of a dense thicket of happenings.” So said Peyton Rous (1879-1970), a noted
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pathologist of Rous Sarcoma fame and Nobel laureate . It may be difficult to hear that still small voice in the tumult and confusion of everyday life. But once we hear it, every other voice is drowned in its glory and the” real world “ as we call it becomes a Maaya. The Voice of that great silence is peaceful… Shaanthi…..Shaanthi…

BHAGAVAD GITA-AS A PSYCHOLOGICAL TEXT.

I became aquainted with the Gita from my childhood. I read the Sanskrit commentary by Adisankara from my grand uncle’s library, without understanding its meaning. Then I saw various commentaries of Thilak, Gandhi, Vinobha, Pandit Gopalan Nair and many others in my father’s collection , some lines underlined by him and with his own thoughts on them scribbled in the margins. I had glorious examples for me to follow –My grandmother (the perfect Bhakthiyogin) , granduncle (gnaanayogin) and my mother and father (karmayogins) and my mother’s sister (dhyaanayogin.). Quite unknowingly I had imbibed all these within my being , so that I could understand the message of the Gita and try to spread it in my own little way . My superego bloomed quite naturally like a flower from its bud. I have viewed the Gita , in different ways. One of them is as a psychological text. In the samkhya (eleventh sloka) the very condition of an ordinary man who laments over things which are unlamentable , and at the same time posing himself as an intellectual is brought out by Krishna and sankara calls this state as that of an Unmatha (mad man).There exists this duality to greater or lesser extent in most of us.(virudha state).Am I the “id” personality, the biological pleasure principle controlled by my hunger, thirst, sleep and sex urges alone? Am I the ego, the psychological reality principle which explore the world around , learning new things , perceiving new things and remembering ..reasoning, creating and problemsolving ? Am I the superego which has aquired values from my ancestors, teachers, and the world teachers , great scriptures ? Am I beyond all these , beyond spacetime, the real self, the Atma, the Aham Brahmaasmi, of the scriptures? This enquiry has lead me to learning Botany, Zoology, Medical science (the study of the living things) the physical, mental world with their normal and abnormal structures- and astronomy and astrophysics (ancient and modern) the study of the universe , the animate and inanimate Brahmaanda. Whether the tiniest animalcule, human body, or the largest galaxies , the entire visible universe is still physical. Materialists think that the physical body is the only truth and when it decays /dies nothing else remains and hence they lament over the death of the perishable body. But one whose analysis has crossed the superego and entered the true self, the imperishable Atma knows that the reality is the self and there is no beginning or end to it . In that case why do we not remember our true nature? Krishna says, I, you,

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and these leaders of men are all eternal. I remember my previous existence. You don’t. That is the only difference.” So lack of memory is the cause . But why? Because of your Moudya, the vaasanaas accumulated over the various births and the actions*(karma), making a covering over the most effulgent truth we are unable to see its light. We remain in the dark and lament .When we come to realize that our self is the endless , beginningless, eternal present , the one and only truth, we become eternal (amritha) and it is this that the Gita teaches . Krishna, the superpsychologist and teacher councels us to find out our real self beyond id, ego and superego.We have a gross body, a subtle body, (mind, intellect,) a causal body (called Dharmakaaya by Budhists and kaaranasareera by the vedanthin) which has the power to incarnate and beyond that is our eternal Amritha body , also called Aanandaamayasareera or the body of eternal bliss. Carl Jung once pointed out that if one does not understand one’s personality type , a neurosis is created. Most of the lamentable neurotic states in our society come from identifying the physical body as the true personality type. This produce severe disturbances in our psyche. When people understand the subtle body as the self , they become egocentric , feel that I have done or achieved so much and am superior to all others in the world. This causes severe disturbances in society we live in. Similarly a person with many qualities if he/she is not given opportunities to show his/her merits may develop a inferiority complex or a mental agony which also will be reflected in the society as negative emotions. Hence the Gita (chapter 3 ,sloka 41) asks to remove frustrations, egocentrism etc for the benefit of the individual as well as the society of which he/she is part of. Freudian psychology puts the responsibility of a person’s mental disturbances on others-on parents, society, relatives, children and the like. But the real cause is none of these , but our own previous karma (actions) and the Gita makes us bold enough to take up the responsibility of all our actions and experiences , whether good or bad. Because of this we become more conscious of our thoughts and actions , since these will determine our future, not the actions of others. I am the creator of my gunaas (qualities) through my actions, but at the same time I am not the creator.. Athma is the creator, and I have a responsibility to improve my karma and vaasana , and I don’t have time to waste in finding fault with others, and gossiping idly, and at the same time I don’t have to feel proud of what I am doing, since it is in the plan of the providence that it should have happened like that. This wisdom (viveka) of nitya (eternal) and transcient (anitya) is driven into our consciousness through the wise teacher, Krishna. German philosophers think that we inherit all our abilities from our genes (natureparents) while British philosophers stress the importance of upbringing (nurture). The yoga psychology of the Gita, emphasise the importance of both . The subtle body (sookshma) carry all the qualities aquired in previous births, to which are added qualities aquired in the present birth, through the gross body (sthoola) derived from parents and the qualities of nurture. But it is not aping of the ancestors .The identification is not mere imitation, but imbibing the ways of thinking , the reasoning faculties, of an ancestor or a sage or Guru . Each and every person has power to exercise one’s own choice in selecting a Guru, but even that is 11

determined by your previous karma and vaasana and your qualities. You might have seen your Guru as well as an illiterate person in your childhood. Who influences you most depends upon your nature as well. Hence you are both the karttha (doer) and akartha (non-doer). Psychoanalysis originated in the clinical consulting room and therefore all its models were having abnormal mental states. Learning and trait theories on the other hand originated from the intellects of psychologists in search of truth. It includes the drive or the stimulation one feels for his karma (actions) and the cue or the ability to distinguish the different stimuli . The sequence is from drive, cue, response of the individual and its reinforcement and Krishna when he asks Arjuna to arise and do his duty , is giving that drive and cue and Arjuna naturally responds. We as individuals concentrate our attention in some subjects, or in some people. It is then quite natural for us to get away from the other subjects and people. (Chithavrithynirodham) .If we continue to do this for a long period , by practice it becomes part of our personality . Learning and trait theory acknowledge such a merging of things in which we concentrate on our own personality .When I concentrate on Pathology, astronomy, or music or literature or any other subject , my entire concentration is on that subject and I forget about the Id personality of mine, which is the pleasure principle. But just think of a person who concentrates only on the body, its physical beauty and the sense pleasures derived from it, That person because of his/her constant practice of concentration identify oneself with the physical body , neglects the subtle and the superego and the real self. Such people become threats to the society by their abnormal sense desires.They will desire that which is not theirs and do violence to get it . They become threats to peaceful existence of a society . While we are children we may not have a choice to choose our models. And our own subjects. But once we are adults the power of cue gives us freedom to choose our models, our contacts etc.We can choose our own subjects for contemplation too when we are adults. In this way we can concentrate on our chosen subject/s. If the choice is the eternal Brahman, naturally one identify with Brahman and then we are confident to announce that I am Brahman.(Aham Brahmaasmi). It is this identification which makes Krishna , a world teacher, and Arjuna ,without the identification, the student. When we get beyond our superego and concentrate on our true self , we are able to attain 100% personality development. Then for us the entire visible and invisible universe constitute one energy, and we become a quantum of that energy . Any one who has experienced this becomes a natural sthithapragna. In a person’s personality there are some surface traits and some source traits which are more central to the personality , as discussed by Cattell as early as in 1950. Alport speaks of the functional autonomy of certain long practiced traits. According to him the practice might have begun for a particular aim, but after sometime the practice in itself became a motivating force and these traits have no roots in childhood. It is the choice of an adult. Or rather the traits that are within the potential of the self and which became manifested during adulthood , due to 12

concentrated effort or Nishta. This theory was practiced and perfected for thousands of years in our subcontinent and there are long lists of generations of teachers who did this in our Upanishadic, musical, and other traditions. We call them as Guruparampara (the lineage of world teachers) and not as a separate religion in a particular teacher’s name. There are areas in our personality known and unknown to us and to others. These areas are areas of free activity , the blind area, the avoided or hidden area , and the unknown activity .With sensitivity training, the area of free activity , known to us and others increases and other areas decrease. We, know our personality in entirety and let know others to know it. It is in such a state Krishna tells us that I have taught the Gita to Vivaswan in a previous incarnation, at the beginning of creation. It is the absolute speaking about the unknown as known. In Krishna’s personality, then, is nothing that is hidden, or unknown. Everything is known, experienced, revealed without any divisions (illusions ) in a perfect Advaitha state. In the case of Arjuna , only the unknown was not revealed, and the other three segments were revealed, and his personality development had reached such a state that the Nara ( imperfect man) in him was about to bloom into the Naarayana (Perfect man /God). Krishna, the sadguru, revealed it to him, and merged with him. With viswaroopadarshan, everything is known and merged and Arjuna becomes Krishna .Through selfknowledge and introspection, one learns how he/she relates to others , how others see him/her and how they interpret what she/he does. But the single most important aspect of an individual’s subjective world is the self concept .Gita gives us this self concept. It gives us the study of the direct experience (swaanubhoothy) naturally and naively and hence is the greatest psychological text and practical lesson on personality development. SENSITIVITY TRAINING OF THE INDIAN SCRIPTURES SWAPNA JAGRAD

AREA OF FREE ACTIVITY
(KNOWN TO US /OTHERS)

BLIND AREA
(UNKNOWN TO US/GUESSED BY OTHERS USING GENERAL RULES WHICH MAY BE WRONG OR NOT)

SUSHUPTHY/SAMADHI

JAGRAD

HIDDEN AREA

UNKNOWN TO US
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(KNOWN TO US,UNKNOWN TO OTHERS)

/OTHERS

SCIENCE AND SPIRITUALITY
(Vol 6.1990 page 23-25.Gurukulam printed at Island Gurukula Aranya,Bainbridge Island ,Washington,USA.) I have always been fasinated by by the famous quote from Aristotle. The philosopher must begin with Medicine and the physician must end with philosophy. But who am I ? Am I suvarna, born on the 6 th of May , 1946, and destined to die on a particular day after a brief sojourn in this world? Am I a Pathologist trying to learn the science of diseases and disharmonies in a healthy harmonious human body? Am I a housewife who racks her brain with a thousand household problems and plans for a better future for her family? Am I the body, the mind, or the intellect? All of which are limited by time , space, name, form and yet keep the spirit of enquiry alive forever? These questions have haunted me and made me seek through the various fields of science, art and history of the human race. My aquaintance with science has shown me the harmony of natural law in the living body , in the atomic and subatomic structure of elements , and in the vast universe itself. I have gazed and gazed with a rapturous amazement at this harmony , which reveals the existence of supreme intelligence or a force , compared to which all the systematic thinking of humanity (systematic thinking being equivalent to science) becomes utterly insignificant. Or rather a feeble imitation or faint reflection of it. Spirituality lies in the comprehension of that harmony. It has nothing to do with customs , languages, ceremonies or rituals. A scientist is one who observes natural phenomena and deduces general theories or laws from his/her observations. He/she predicts certain results making use of some general laws. The predictions are verifiable by the observations of others. If a clash occurs between prediction and observations , the scientific theory looses its validity. In other words, verifiability based on observations is the hallmark of a scientific theory. A theory becomes truth only if it can stand the test of time through generations of the human race. A scientist seeks to explain the world. Explanation of the material world or knowledge of what you call Prakrithi (world of matter) is common for the scientist and the spiritualist. But after learning and explaining the world , the spiritualist goes a step further. He tries to direct human behaviour. Therefore a spiritualist is a scientist who utilizes his/her knowledge for the direction of human behaviour for the common good of all humanity.

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In this sense, the Rishis of the ancient world were scientists , and vice versa, the scientists of the modern world (like Albert Einstein) are Rishis. Einstein’s spirituality can be seen in his words “True value of a human being is primarily determined by the measure and sense in which he has attained liberation from the self,and the example of a great and pure individual is the only thing that can lead us to noble thoughts and deeds.” I would like to raise a question. Are these ethical theories of Einstein verifiable hypotheses (and hence scientific) as are his theories on relativity? Which one is more scientific? The theory of relativity is an accepted scientific theory. The more modern supergravity theory , which is a gauge theory of supersymmetry theory , is only an extension of Einstein’s theories. That means this scientific theory has been modified by scientists from time to time , following clashes between observations and predictions. On the other hand the spiritual vision of a truly good man’s value to the community is always true. It has been tested by time, as history teaches us over and again. Science gives us verifiable theories with human experience. The latter is more longlasting than the former. Science aims at a comprehensive and complete understanding of the connection between sense of experiences and at an accomplishment of this aim by the use of a minimum of primary concepts and relations That is, science aims at seeking a logical unity in the world picture. As Meyerson puts it, All science is the reduction of multiplicities into identities. This logical unity is attained by the Advaitha philosophy of India . A minimum of primary concepts –only two, namely Brahman and Prakrithi –and their relationship is used for this purpose. To comprehend the real oneness of the universe , astronomical and mathematical expressions were used by the sages. Einstein observed that , To reach the elementary laws of the cosmos, there is no logical path; Only intuition resting on a comprehensive understanding of human experiences can reach them.”This intuition, resting on a comprehensive understanding of human experiences makes man a scientist as well as a spiritualist. To explain Advaitha in astronomical terms , let us first imagine a space. We may imagine it as empty , but actually it is not empty because a fieldfree space does not exist at all, that is, even though we are asked to imagine a soonya or zero space, it is actually vibrant and lively with energy or chith , an electromagnetic energy field.(mandala). The space is represented by the diagrammatic representation “O” , the zero or a snake that try to swallow its own tail. This is the truth of Indians .The ancient Arabs called zero “ Hindsath” –The Truth of the Hind (Indian) people. The next step is trying to describe various objects that fill the space, originate in it, and exist in it, depending upon coordinates like time, inertial systems with metrical properties, and space itself. These objects are many,- planets, stars, nebulae, comets and so on. When you try to imagine these objects in space , you naturally think about a beginning or a starting point at which the objects became manifested from the unmanifested space. According to theory of relativity the space and the objects which fill the space have no separate existence , so that if the space is endless and beginningless the objects that fill space have no separate existence , so that if the 15

space is endless , beginningless , objects that fill the space also must be endless , beginningless. And hence the question of a beginning or an origin is meaningless. Yet for comprehension , the human mind has to attribute a beginning or Aadi ( origin) for one of them.. Brahma of the Advaitha philosophy is equivalent to the space and Prakriti is equivalent to the objects that fill the space. One is given the property of the beginning and hence it must have the property of ending as well. In this way, Prakrithi is imagined as a changing finite system and Brahman as a changeless infinite system. The Naasadeeyasooktha of the Rgveda speaks of this when it describes a nothingness , a darkness, in which everything was hidden. This infinite womb of time, this Thamodwara or blackhole , is represented as a zero , the discovery of which was a landmark in the history of human thought. This concept of a blackhole or the Khahara re-emerged when Kerr tried to solve Einsteinian equations and was further generalized and modified by Newmann and others. Bhaskaraacharya describes it thus: The bhoothaas enter and exit from the endless beginningless one during Prabhava (creation) and Pralaya (dissolution).But it always remains the same with no change whatsoever. It is always whole (poornam) Whether you add or subtract raasi (mandala) to it , the khahara remains the same anantham (endless) and achyutham (one with no destruction) as Vishnu. X x O=

o (infinite)

X/ = Infinite Squareroot of zero=O Cuberoot of zero=O This sath, chith, ananda ( Truth, Energy and Bliss) with no limitations of dik, desa, gati or phala ( directions, regions or localizations, movement or cause and effect ) is misunderstood by the ignorant as empty.( Sankaraachaarya ) Hitherto we have been describing the astronomical blackhole and the electromagnetic field or quantum mechanics associated with it. We know these things exist outside us. But the moment your mind or intellect conceives the idea of it, it is located within you as well. That is, the infinite now fills a space within you which is called the Hridaakaasa. Now, instead of a changing Prakrithi occupying a changeless infinite within the changing perishable framework of your body. That is within you: Brahma exists in Prakrithi. O &X thus become the same. They have no separate existence. Or, only one thing exists and that is Brahma. But then , if Brahma and prakrithi are the same , why does sankara call prakrithi Mithya? Mithya is a relative truth, true only to the particular period, or area or person. Therefore the I who is known as Dr Suvarna Nalapat with a body, a thinking mind, a changing form, a birth (beginning) and a death (end) is only relative truth. The cosmic I which exists in me as self is the absolute truth. It has been there since time immemorial and it will be there even after this perishable frame or body decays. Naamaroopaathmaka jagat , limited by 16

o

name, form, etc is relative truth. The universe as a whole with the everlasting stream of life is absolute truth. The experience of this absolute truth, or the harmonious existence within you of the animate and inanimate objects , is spirituality. I am jeeva.( A living thing).Therefore , Iam Brahma. Because Every jeeva is Brahma.(Jeevo Brahmaivanaapara). In this way , a true scientific mind finds out the oneness of all existence and becomes a lover of this world. One believes Vasudaiva kudumbakam ( The entire earth is my family ) and attains the highest saadhana of compassion to all. The universal love and tolerance of rishis sprang up from this pure and simple scientific explanation of the universe. Their dialectics is only to help the human mind realize the absolute truth. Each and every scientist begins by negating the eternal or Brahma (represented as + 1) with the finite external world or prakrithi (represented as –1). +1-(-1)= +1. When they get complete knowledge of this external world , slowly they start negating it by an infinite principle: -1-(+1)=+1. And thus they become spiritualists. A scientist turning spiritualist and a spiritualist turning scientist is no mystery. To borrow a quotation from Aristotle: The scientist begins with spirituality and the spiritualist ends with science.

Creation of Mind. (Published in the Book “Perspectives on mind “ by Indian Association of Psychiatrists .Gnan publishing Bouse New Delhi ) Mind is the greatest enigma of all times. While studying this subject one is entitled to fall into the old rivalry and dilemma of universal truth that exists only in the human mind , and nominalism which deny the very existence of universalism at all . Which is truth? The scientific , discovered by a process of knowing? The poetic created by a process of making? Are they different or two sides of the same coin? Where does the correspondence theories of scientific truth and the coherence theories of poetic truth merge? Science delimits , documents and
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define everything . Coherence theory is intuitive perception of truth where documented evidence is replaced by selfevidence or experience. Can we ever distinguish or prove the truth in the following possibilities? 1.The universe is finite and thus admits a finite complete description as classical science do. 2.The universe is infinite and cannot be completely described by some finite sets of facts as in the theory of relativistic astrophysics. 3.The universe is infinite and cannot be completely deducted by any finite sets of facts as the unified theories of modern science and spiritualistic advaitha philosophy holds .The answer is not always a scientifically proved fact but an intuitionaly perceived reality.Truth discovered by scientific enquiry and intuitional perception merge imperceptibly , as in the case of Kekule, Poincare, and Einstein. So what is mind? Scientifically proven and welldocumented delimited matter (phenomenon) or intuitionally conceived , experimented unlimited and not wellunderstood? This book PERSPECTIVES ON MIND published through the Indian Psychiatrists association discusses the different aspects of the mind in the following articles written by brilliant scientists in their own fields.It is desired thus ,that it evokes wide readership and thought-provoking discussion and healthy criticism , so that the infinite possibilities of the human mind are explored to the fullest extant.

 Psychiatrist and the new sciences of the mind
Dr Philip John starts with a quote from Francis Crick , clearly stating his stand that mind is no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly of nerve cells in the brain.His intention is to lead his speciality back to neurosciences, though it had originated in theology and philosophy. He wants to wean it from the mother and entrust it to the fostermother. Mind being matter , his community (doctors) is trying to treat patients on a physical model for
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psychiatric illness, and therefore is ill at ease with the nonmedical voluntary agencies who are concerned with mental health of clients (instead of mental illnesss of patients.). Yet, he himself uses the term mental health (from entering the field of mental healthpage 3 of the typewritten manuscript). In his eyes psychiatrists can never be equivalent to psychologists , however much the modern democratic world and the theologians and philosophers talk about equality , because medical knowledge (and ofcourse its degrees and postgraduate degrees) is a powerful weapon in the hands of the modern India , with which he treats the ignorant “laymen”. Since mind for the medical man is only a nerve cell which twitches and turns with an electrical stimulus , we cannot expect anything more from a deterministic standpoint like that. But there is something very commendable in this article and that is the criticism of the columnists who regularly write on extramarital relations and make psychiatry appear as something that deals with either love affairs or extramarital sex or at the other extreme end dealing with ranting raving lunatics. According to the author, the mind is the creation of the brain and the total personal experience of the various functions of the brain and psychiatry being a neural science , studies mutually interacting systems like mind/brain, nature/nurture. Is brain the creation of the mind or viceversa is a philosophical question taken up by science. Something like a hen and egg problem. Or a wave and particle problem. If experiences influence biology and biology inflences experience , and psychiatist as a doctor is studying the Biology, Biochemistry and Pathology of the brain which influence the experience of the organism which in turn influence the biology That means they are a mutually interactive pair or system and there need not be any illwill or rivalry between them. The best part of this is the exhaustive genetic, molecular level cell changes and the structural /functioning imaging techniques used in modern medicine by which “one can watch a thought” or reconstruct a memory in another person’s brain. That again is the
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crux of the point. A doctor can peep into another person’s personal feelings –his pain, pleasure, grief, every feeling-but cannot go deep into his own self with all his sophisticated equipment .No self – vision is possible and all the machines act as mere extension of our physical eye with which we observe what is outside of ourselves. We have a sigh of relief when at last theology surfaces in this essay. After all it was the mother of psychiatry and a mother cannot be neglected by dutiful children. The author says, ’”the creator has put in three communication systems in the human body” essential for life (neural, immune and autocrine) and that he is excited at the prospect of ancient philosophical questions receiving biological answers.As everyone of us are looking or peeping through the only window available to us –our mind and the science it had learned –there is no wonder in a medical person being preoccupied with the biological window constructing a mind on the basis of the image of the body. But ignoring the other possible windows and reconstructing the body on the image of the mind and the soul is a sign of lack of flexibility and of deterministic classical standpoint which is being rejected in the modern relativistic world of science. Words one utter, or write reflect one’s mind and knowingly or unknowingly we write our own mind out for others to read its feelings. A thoughtful imaginative and philosophical person is a psychologist who can visualize the feelings of others and of himself , even without costly sophisticated equipments.  MIND,MACHINE AND TIME The myth of the consciousness-brain relationship is beautifully brought out by V.P.Joy by his opening question , does the shape of the nail give shape to the coat? The materialistic reductionism , Holism and the domain of their intersection , the concept of the thermodynamic arrow of time , leading to disorder and creative arrow of time creating order and having the power of
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selforganisation through a network system , the associative and reinforcement learning methods and cybernetics are mentioned in a concise yet comprehensive manner. This article conceives brain as spacial and mind as time entity , the difference being only in direction , exactly like the ancient seers like Yagnavalkya and Gargi and modern scientists like Einstein and Hawking. This makes the article interesting. One can conceive imaginery spaces separate from our own. But to conceive imaginery time (or real time) or mind different from our own is not that easy.We can only watch our mind and conceive it.To say that we have conceived it entirely we will have to transcend time and that is next to impossible for an ordinary mind, the faculties of which remain limited to one system of knowledge.The neural network cannot achieve the mysterious unification of the observer and the observed…a mirror reflecting a mirror reflecting a mirror…..Remember that was what Sankara said when he spoke of the entire universe reflected in the mirror of your mind ad infinitum. And this is what Joshua Royce meant when he said Mental image of one’s own mind must be infinite. I am reminded of the Schroder-Bernstein law where , S is equal to T . It is therefore impossible to describe any one thing exhaustively without mentioning everything as well. While describing a torroidal spacetime continuum in the mind of the seer , the mind of the seer is not the usual 4-dimensional mind. It passes beyond the dimensions as described by the ancient astronomers Gargya, Vasishta etc and about this a modern professor of Mathematics (Rudy Rucker –Ralford women’s college,Virginia –“Infinity and the mind”page 23) remarks:”A number of duoverses drift in a 5-D universe….continue indefinitely …..one is reminded of those eastern descriptions of the world as a disc resting on the back of elephants ,who stands on a turtle,who stands on a turtle, stands on a turtle, who stands on a turtle, stands on a turtle ………” ad infinitum.
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Remember, if you reverse a turtle you get a torus and that on the shell of a turtle divided into 9 (loshu of the Chinese) there is the secret code of the Indian universe. The infinite mindscape can only guess the true infinity through rational thought and mysticism (rational mysticism), as Sankara and other great seers did, but can never grasp it in entirety.  TOWARDS A PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND Dr Babu Joseph starts with the mind –body dichotomy of Descartes and proceeds to a comparison of the ancient Indian view. He differentiates between consciousness and awareness and includes formation of thoughts and arousal of emotions even in the absence of external stimuli to the realm of consciousness and proceeds to expound Baar’s philosophical theory of consciousness, Kock’s and Eneck’s mapping cortical oscillation /experience, Libet’s and Farah’s views on threshold and high/low quality representations of consciousness. The article analyses consciousness at physical level, both microscopic and macroscopic. At the submicroscopic levels wave functions , schrodinger equations , quantum jumps , Penrosean views expressed in Emperor’s new mind and shadows of mind and some of its critics are mentioned. At the macroscopic level , brain as a nonlinear dynamic system as evidenced by ECG signals , the mathematical analysis of signals , nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and EPR paradoxes are presented. The role of neurotransmitters also is mentioned. The author explains Mc Culloch’s sequential logical operations and Hebb’s neural network learnings. Essentially the survey attempts to provide a physical basis of mind as a manifestation of matter and is not a holistic approach. Though his window is different from that of Dr Philip John , it almost resembles it , being purely physical. The theory behind the article is that QM and classical stochastic ideas are compromises aimed at understanding the origin of abstract ideas from the ensemble of particular processes. The rationale behind this composite approach is that microlevel
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phenomena are QM, consciousness (physical level of mind) manifested as classical level.  INDIAN SYSTEM OF PHILOSOPHY AND AYURVEDA There are two articles based entirely on the Indian systems of knowledge. One is on the concept of the mind in the Indian systems of philosophy and the other in Ayurveda. From the philosophical point of view C.V.Vasudeva bhattathiri explains the nature of mind in the six philosophical systems of India , compares the different views. From the purely material , to the purely spiritual there are several gradations and mixtures possible for the mind in various Indian systems and the debates by these different systems on the nature of things on a purely rational and scientific basis makes India a land of scientific enquiry and flexible democratic ideologies. The language of the Indian sciences is not English. It is either Sanskrit or prakrit . In a book meant for readers of the English language , a person writing on the Indian sciences has to waste considerable spacetime for explanation of terms which makes such articles more of an explanatory note rather than a scientific paper. This has happened to both the articles mentioned and yet they stand out as a different approach to the problem of the mind. I myself have many a time experienced the impossibility of presenting a paper on Indian sciences to an audience who are not familiar with the Sanskrit words and their correct meanings and connotations. To an Englishspeaking reader/listener one has to first explain terms and only then attempt to compare the modern terms and this usually means that one has to write a treatise on the subject. This dilemma has landed me up in writing volumes on the Upanishads , Brahmasoothra, yoga, thanthra, jyothisha and other systems of knowledge. Hence I feel that these two modest articles on the Indian systems have tried their best as a preliminary introduction to the subject.  HUMAN MIND-THE NEUROBIOLOGICAL ASPECT. Starting with the seat of memory and emotional changes and the loss of continence by brain damage Dr Roy J.Mathew proceeds to
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drive , motivation, and goal directed behaviour, associated with prefrontal lobe and pass on to the special mystical spiritual aspect , the LANGUAGE.The eternal truth, the Vak of the Nyaya , viseshika, the Sphota of Bharthruhari. According to him, Mandanamishra accepts the sphota and Sankara does not. Asked by the opponents whether you reject the sphota or not, Sankara had actually said that I do not reject it, but I am experiencing it all the time, within. (In his Bhashya to Brahmasoothra, on which at present I am writing a commentary.) The receptive, expressive, elements and their complementarity , communication through signs ,Broca’s Wernicke’s areas associated with speech and processing of language by brain using three interacting sets of mechanisms are explained in the rational, scientific manner. I feel that this is one of the key articles in the book , since it tries to comprehend both the dominent and nondominent , both modern and ancient knowledge systems in a scientific manner , rationally and holistically.  MIND IN INTEGRATIVE PSYCHOLOGY. One of the most important essays is that of V.George Mathew ,on integrative psychology.This branch of science as the name implies, indicate an integration of modern psychology with parapsychology and psychology of consciousness.This humanistically oriented system of integrating the most modern and the ancient systems is not a new development in the history of human thought. This has existed in every age and every country, where the present and the past thought processes were examined and analysed and assimilated by a thoughtful mind. This was what was done by Vyasa and sankara in India when they compiled the Vedas and the commentaries on the Prasthaanathraya. In recent times the Theosophical society of India under the able guidance of Madame Blavatsky had given a new impetus to this integration. Most of the western thinkers and scientists were influenced by the theosophical society and the rational and scientific way in which it integrated the psychology and parapsychology . My own great granduncle Nalapat Narayanamenon , was a member of the theosophical
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society and from his philosophical and scientific integrative approach to the science and arts , I have gained a lot. Studying the mind in different planes and conceiving it as a band of vibrations , theosophists brought it from the realm of quantum electrodynamics to that of quantum chromodynamics. From light to colours and sound. From a quantum of light particle to the sound waves with different colours or varna. This was the ancient Thanthra practice of giving different wavelengths and colours to each letter of the alphabet. Sir John woodroffe had beautifully described this in his Garland of letters. Sankara had talked about this in his commentaries to Upanishads and Abhinavaguptha had explained it in terms of dwani and rasa. George Mathew gives us this property of the mind when he conceives the mind as a band of vibrations. His views on Aparokshagnaana and the poornachakra are really commendable, both being vedanthic and thanthric respectively.The mandala of the poornachakra are known to Budhists and to Sreechakra upaasakaas for time immemorial. (The last chapter “creation of mind”is contributed by Dr Suvarna Nalapat and Dr V.M.N Namboothiri writes about the chapter as follows)  CREATION OF MIND. Dr Suvarna Nalapat examines the subject from two universal experiences-death and timespace and explains the three dimensional view of Einstein’s mind along with special features in his brain which is examined by a group of scientists. She further proceeds to study the question of ‘WHERE ,WHEN AND HOW IS MIND BORN”- the organic body, the inorganic universe, and beyond it as given in Swethaswethara Upanishad and astrophysics. She also discusses the experience of God and Atma vis-à-vis the unseen and unknown aspects of belief where she brings out the example of Einstein’s belief in intuition, faith and conviction in science subjects . Furthermore she discusses the importance of Ayurveda in controlling the mind through niyama and yama. A study of subcellular level of communication or vak and the
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existence of network of energy in universe is also included in her article.

CREATION OF THE MIND. Life is made up of two universal experiences-one death and the other timespace. Those who are interested only in sex can start with sex as a universal experience. Whichever one takes, one must remember that the universality is always relative. The physical experience of sex or death may seem the same but mentally it is not the same for all. The sacred bond between a Brahmin boy and girl as in the Tamil tradition , or that of the Abraham-David dynastic traditions of the bloodline of the grail may be similar both mentally and physically but not for those who see it only as a pleasure principle. Even the experience of death is different in people following different traditions and value systems . For a medical person , theoretically it is cardiac arrest or cessation of cellular functions. For a phycisist /advaithin dissociation of energy (atma) from mater (anathma).The mental understanding of death in different people differ. The bardo state of the Budhist tradition is comprehendable by one familiar with the Gita and the Katha Upanishad, but not by a medical doctor. This is so with spacetime. Many of the members of the human race ,even those with superior mental qualities and intelligence , are not able to comprehend the spacetime of Einstein’s brain. Iam aware of the fact that three-dimensional view of Einstein’s mind is attributed to some special features in his brain by a group of scientists. But for this only a limited number of brains were examined for comparison and we cannot rule out the following possibilities: 1.A similar brain structure may be identified in an old astronomer/astrologer of the present day India who is not famous
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as Einstein but still have a three-dimensional understanding of the universe. This is also possible in other parts of the world , in faraway Polynesian tribes , chaldean Polynesian races. If a collective consciousness can exist, the possibility of it manifesting as an Einstein brain also exists. The energy manifesting itself as matter can take up its form at will . If it wants to experience timespace continuum it will assume the form the shape most suitable for its experience . Just like the body and brain of a man with musical intelligence (naadayoga) is different from ours, the brain of a mathematical/special genius has to be different. But the difference in body-structure need not be the cause for the difference in genius and viceversa. 2.Suppose we find the same change in a group of persons with low IQ and mental faculties after examining more number of brains , would we then brand Einstein as mentally retarded or the mentally deficient one as a genius like Einstein even though there are no signs of a genius in the poor man’s life or actions. We must remember that science is not deterministic anymore. WHERE,WHEN AND HOW IS MIND BORN? Swethaswethara Upanishad (sl 6.sec 2) says that when the ocean of energy is churned , when the praana is controlled , and when the sweet bliss of Ananda is experienced (as soma) the mind or manas is born. That means the mind is born within the organic body as well as outside of it within the inorganic universe and beyond it. In an organic body, mind is born when one churns the intellect with rational thought and analysis (chith), controls praana (senses /indriya) with concentrated yoga (the state of sath or truth) and when one experience ecstacy of ananda in creativity (poetry, music other aesthetic arts). In the inorganic universe and beyond it is born as an eternal energy concentrated into a universal manifested powerpoint or the Bindu in an ocean of unmanifested energy field (wave particle or tharanga, kana) and from this the entire sarga (creation) and ananda (bliss) including that of the organic body
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emanate. This means that the organic mind is in direct continuity with the inorganic universe and beyond or in religious vocabulary, man is in direct continuity with God. (jeeva with paramathma). The vyasthy is only a particle in the vast ocean of samashty mind. The individual mind is only a wave particle in the ocean-field of universal mind, tossing in it , floating on it, experiencing the different moods of it, yet mostly unaware of its unity with it. This unawareness is because of the lack of a six-dimensional (shadchakra) view of the entire creation.The individual mind sometimes understands itself as a mere speck or point , at other times as a line or wave or a series of points , in a line of descent which one calls a bloodline or family tree or vansavriksha. Beyond that , the threedimensional view of truth is very rare , not to mention the six dimensions. Therefore when a person like Einstein passes beyond the two-dimensional awareness we are surprised at his genius. According to the Brihadaaranyaka Upanishad, hunger is death. In the beginning the universe was encompassed by death/hunger/pralaya . Death wished. Let me have a mind. From that thought , or will , mind was born. The universal energy existing alone wanted to see, experience and enjoy itself, so that it assumed the shape of mind and the mind to enjoy the fruits of its activity assumed the shape of the body and in this way , the seen matter was born out of the unseen energy. From what the astrophysics of the modern times say about energy and matter this explanation of the ancients is not different. Narayana Upanishad gives a physical basis for mind. There is a swarat and a virat (individual and collective) consciousness. These exist in the ghatakasa and chidaakasa (within a pot and outside of it) but are continuous and the same. Sankara uses these terms often and so too Einstein when he says that the boxspace and the outer space are continuous and the same. This brings us to the ageold seen-unseen conflict.
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Have you ever seen or experienced God? Have you ever seen or experienced Atma? Why should you believe in the unseen and unknown while you can be satisfied with the known and the seen, the physical body and the world . This is the vainaasika logic of India. Aham or self as different from the seen body /brain is only an imaginery unseen thing never experienced by anybody and hence one need not bother about its existence. But have a science student ever seen an atom or an electron with the naked eye ? Still they learn a lot about it and still do believe in it because others with better equipped minds have said about its existence. In a conversation with another scientist , when he asked how could you grasp the vibration of an inertial coordinate system Einstein replied: ”It is merely a useful fiction and I have no idea how to realize it. If I could only get far away from all material bodies and free myself all external influences ,my coordinate system would then be inertial.”(Evolution of Physics).That was exactly what the Advaithin seeking Brahma or absolute reality have been saying for yugaas or kalpaas. Einstein said while delivering a lecture in Japan “I was sitting in a chair in a patent office at Berne when all of a sudden a thought occurred to me. If a person falls freely he will not feel his own weight. I was startled. This simple thought made a deep impression on me. It impelled me towards a theory of gravitation. It was a pure intuition. While sir Frank Dyson , the English astronomer was experimenting to prove the Einstein theory , during the 1919 solar eclipse on May 29 , Einstein wrote to his friends:”I do not doubt the correctness of the whole system (general theory of relativity) whether the observation of the solar eclipse fails or not.” That is faith and conviction of one’s faith, with or without proof. This is so in all science subjects. Then why not in philosophy? Parabrahma according to Sankara is absolute energy state without time , space, movement or cause and is linked to an ocean having the symbol zero to represent it. But he asserts that the symbol zero does not mean nothingness but a state of having no dualities whatsoever and this is manifested as the mind of a sarvagna (all
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knowing person-a rishi) during samaadhi , and when there is the slightest vibration in it as the form of a thought , mind is born as a bindu and the symbol is zero with a dot in center, representing antharyamipurusha. In an ordinary human being who has not bothered to concentrate into a samadhi state , or tried to concentrate and think upon a specific subject , the Brahma still exists but in the form of a stormy ocean where there is no clarity of thought or of memory , where everything is in a chaotic jumbled up existence so that there is no awareness of the unity of existence. This represents the samsaarijeevan. Modern psychiatrists are concerned with the problems of these samsaarijeeva alone.The mind and intellect of creative artists and scientists , of yogis and rishis, are the concern of mystics and philosophers. The importance of ayurveda and other Indian systems lie in the fact that they had over the years evolved a system of yama and niyama to control the mind as a daily routine basis and to keep it calm and disease-free. Unfortunately this system was considered as part of a religious tradition by the English educated postcolonial population of India and neglected. Language is a way of communication. The subtle communication at physical level taking place from cell to cell also is a language , or Vak and according to the ancients , vak is agni or energy . At the subcellular level communication occurs as endocrine , paracrine , neuroendocrine and synaptic levels between two cells and as autocrine in the cell itself. The first four are communication between two cells and needs a cell outside of itself , whereas the last , the autocrine, communication is from a cell to itself and needs only a single cell. A cell can control itself and the neighbouring cells and the entire mandala or field or environment in which it is situated (the human body itself) by these communications. For the subtle communication , gross word is not needed and the mind of a being is not situated only in its brain and nervous system but in the entire body and in continuation with the outer field in which it is situated. Simply because we cannot see
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this network with our gross eyes we do not negate the existence of the network of energy in the universe. There are energy particles in our body called the mitochondria. When food is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water , because of the metabolic energy , H atoms in the water are liberated in the mitochondria. Some of these are converted to NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and others to FAD (flavine adenine dinucleotide).The electrons of the remaining H atoms pass through mitochondrial respiratory enzymes , combine with protons, converted to hydrogen, to combine with oxygen and form water. The energy obtained from this transfer of electrons along a series of electron carriers is finally utilized to generate ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. There is a subtle space within the inner and outer coverings of the mitochondria where the enzymes and the protons are stored. Pumping of electron from the internal space to the outer space happens within the mitochondrium. According to the chemiosmotic theory of Mitchell this pumping is the first stage of the electron transfer. The proton gradient so formed represent the energy. The cells need this energy for communication. This process and the structure of the mitochondria in man and microbes are the same. That means the biological energy at the subtle level is the same in man and the tiniest creature. And it is the same as in the inorganic world of protons and electrons. We should also remember that the subtle energy which is free and universal in everything known as communication (vak) occur in the mitochondria and is therefore always feminine. Chandogya says that mind is annamaya, praana is jhalamaya, vaak is thejomaya. Annam or food is Krishna or black and associated with earth. All things contain carbon, including CH, Fats, proteins constituting the physical body belong to this and it is not restricted to brain alone. Thejas in the world shines , and is oorja (energy) both in the physical world and beyond belonging to vak and these two are reconvertable and recycling through the intermediary of praana or jhala. There is annam , jhalam and agni in every object , and the only difference is in the proportion of each which gives
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rise to different form and structure to each. This saying of Sankara is now proved by science. Only when annamayam , the earth, and the jhaladevatha which is represented by the moon, joins with the agni (sun) and the praanaajhala in the atmosphere , does creation occur.Only then does thought, sight,and hearing occur. Says the Acharya, which is very scientific. According to the principle of a light object rising above the heavy object , he says that the subtlest annam in the physical world is manas or mind, the subtlest jhalum is vayu , and the subtlest thejus is vak or communication. Just like protons and electrons emit from a burning star , hot and pure words emit from a burning pure mind. The entire spacetime is filled with these electrons wave particles. The vak emitted from the minds of men and women of earth spread upwards since they are the subtlest and the lightest. At this juncture we will just compare a few grosser terms which both sankara and the modern science think as arising from one another. MODERN SCIENCE SANKARA Annam food Jalam & jadaraagni H2O, HCL, + ENZYMES Rasam Digested food Raktham blood Maamsa & medas Connective tissue & epithelium asthi bone majja marrow Bheeja+sonitha Testis (sperm) + ovary(ovum) praja Zygote (child) From annam ( food) water and energy combination the digested food and from it in order the blood, connective tissue, bones,and bone marrow – upto that both Sankara and Modern science agree. Then Sankara says the ovum and sperm arise from bone marrow and probably the Biblical story of a woman created from the rib of a man ( Rib retains marrow in adult life ) also reflects the same
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view. When we look at the microscopic picture of the germ cells of the testis and ovary resemble more of the reticuloendothelial /lymphoid cells especially in case of germ cell tumours and one wonders who is right and who is wrong. Creation starts in the philosopher’s mind as energy or invisible absolute truth and ends with visible gross matter and body with its nervous system.The astronomer agrees with this.The sequence is somewhat like this: THE CYCLE OF CREATION Energy field or Mandala of unmanifested energy waves Universe manifested Solar system Light/sound waves manifested Subatomic particle (subtlest) Subatomic particle(grosser) Atom Elements Proteins.CH,Fats Genes Chromosomes Cells,tissue Organs Physical body with welldeveloped nervous system

Absolute truth , invisible Blissful BrahmanRelative truth (visible) prakrithy With unmanifested Varna Sun, the visible energy source of earth/planets Seen/heard thanmaathra dwani(quantum dynamics) Paraparamaanu paramaanu Anu Moolakam Annam Janithakam Kosa,kala Anga Sareera,with angopaanga and kundalini sakthy.

The subtle energy becomes grosser and grosser with each step. Now reverse the order of events , we get the view of medical science starting from gross physical matter. The ancient medical texts however do not stop short at the bodymind level , but explores the possibilities beyond that in a holistic approach.
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Modern medicine considers the physical body and the brain as the seat and creator of the mind , but the ancients and the astrophysicists know that it is the oorja that condenses to form the sookshma or subtle mind energy and this in turn condense to form the gross body and the brain and ultimately , in essence there is nothing but oorja (energy). Matter or gross visible universe and body are nothing but invisible energy . Mind is the intermediary stage , between the two states of energy. It is only in poorvamimamsa, among the six philosophical systems of India , we find the question of the problem of dharma or ethics. In all others the question of truth and its manifestations are rationally explored through different windows. Of these vaisheshika is the ancient quantum dynamics and nyaaya the logical, rational scientific approach, jyothisha the classical and relativistic astrophysics, ayurveda the science of the body and its health, samkhya reduces the question of two different manifestations of the truth , the visible and invisible energy, purusha and prakrithy . This duality is even reduced by the utharamimamsa, where the grand unification of energy into Brahma is expounded. In its scheme of things there is nothing but energy. Once we realize that the energy (Brahman) is within us as a chaaya or shadow seen in a mirror. Or the sun seen in a clear lake , and our annamaya mind is active only when it joins agni from the sun and jhala from the atmosphere and when these three separate ,they enter their own state of energy itself , we naturally wants to know our own nature or the Brahmi state. How can one see or experience that state , if one is not a rishi or a person with exceptional concentrating powers? When is the mind free from all sensory objects and is almost like absolute energy , or God? For an ordinary mortal who is not a rishi or yogy it is the state of sleep, and therefore the upanishadic rishi analyses that condition.

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The two states of mind (jagrat and sleep states) as two mirrors reflecting Relative truths . When one sleeps the physical or annamaya mirror of mind is suddenly withdrawn.Then there will be no sensory stimulations or objects and the early state of energy alone remains.There are no names , forms or colours of the waking (jagrat) state . During dreamsleep , or the REM sleep there is a mixture of memories of the jagrat and those of the pure sushupthy state and could be predictive or signs and communications from a higher realm or our self. This paradevatha is called sadakhya by sankarabhashyam and says that without the sadakhya ( that with the name Truth ) or light ray , no external or internal eye can see or communicate anything. When modern psychology after Freud started dream analysis based on the dreams of patients with chaotic minds , the ancient African and Indian tribes analysed the dreams of rishis and scholars with calm concentrated minds. Jung was able to lead dream analysis in this direction and he discovered the virat in every swarat as a collective memory of the past. He also noticed the dream discovery of the benzene ring by kekule. The astronomic synchronicity was studied in detail and Volf Gang Pauli and Penrose recognized the importance of a mathematical theorem being grasped in sleep visions.( Ref Srinivasa Ramanujam’s dream of his Paradevatha ). Julian Robert Poppenheimer said:The general notions about human understanding ….which are illustrated by discoveries in atomic physics are not in the nature of things wholly unfamiliar, wholly unheard off or new. Even in our own culture they have a history and in Buddhist and Hindu thought a more considerable and central place .What we shall find is an exemplification , an encouragement and a refinement of old wisdom. In mysticism and the new physics Mitchell Talbot calles Thanthra , an ancient quantum physics theory. Naada, Bindu and Naadabindu are vibrations , wave and particle of the
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quantum astrophysics. The electrical lines of force or sakthy converges and concentrate upon a region of space , crisscross, but also sink into the fabric of space , ike threads pulled through a funnel or drawn a bathtub drain. A classical geometrodynamical elective charge is a set of lines trapped in a prologuy of space..The thanthra-space permeated by lines of force (sakthy) is likened to the hairs of Shiva who has the spacetime as his hair (vyomakesa), an equivalent is kesava, for the vaishnavathanthra. I have been studying the development of consciousness in the oldest and ancient cavemen , the development of multiple intelligences in various spheres of activity including language and literature, music, arts, sciences and philosophy in various countries and civilizations ( from time immemorial, To the most modern .) . I could not find any controversies between art and science , intuition and rational thought , ancient and modern. The human mind is the most beautiful and the most unique phenomenon which defy all explanations and yet experienced by one who contemplates on its potentialities , which are infinite . It is able to grasp infinity , because it is infinite in nature and that is probably the ultimate state one can reach. There is a grand unification (maha-advaitha) of the natural forces , both in the ancient and the modern mind. I would like to summarise it thus:

Step1:.Electricity(vaidyuthi)+magnetism(kaantha)+l Faraday ight(prakaasam) Maxwell Quantum (qed,qcd) Step2:Electromagnetism.weak forces(1900)W, Z Unification particles (rubbia) of EM and
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Weinberg salam (1970) Step3:planetary motion(saayana)+space+time+Weinberg salam +strong forces,theory of relativity

weak forces Varahamihir Newton Einstein unification Step4:Bioenergy(jeeva),neurophysiology(vaayu,pra Mahaa ana and jeeva of the 5 elements+theory of relativity Advaitha (laws of the brahmaanda(universes)and the Superunifica nirayana(inertia)+unification of natural forces tion.

It is like this the great vedanthins established the unity of the jeevathma and paramathma. That is the science of their language is good as or even better than the modern English language in explaining the universe and the place of the human mind in it. Mind or the biological energy is equivalent to Brahma , but experienced as such only by a selected few , they argued. This is true , since not every one of us can become an Einstein or Sankara.

Quantum ,relativity and neurophysiology ,A comparison:
Quantum Light(prakaasa) Zero(Brahma) Satya(truth) E relativity Gathi(movement) Number 1+jagrat(awakened state) Mithya(relative) C2 neurophysiology Bioenergy(jeeva) 1+…n= 1(successor)jeeva sathya(truth)experienced M

By intuition, logic, mathematical induction and observation of the universe and its movable and immovable matter, biological behaviour , dreams and symbols used by the most active and
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intelligent mind in the multiple spheres of activity , can one reach the grand unification and the infinite possibilities of the human mind. One cannot boast of having fathomed the depths of the mind, merely by knowing one branch of science , or one branch of art alone. In her book, Infinity and the mind, Rudy Rucker has tried to assess the infinite human mind , the alef of the Hebrew, the alfa of the Greek, the leminiscate of the west and the ashtadalapadma ( two intertwined serpents ) of the east. To grasp infinity and the absolute , a finite object is not suitable. Mind , though unable to explain it fully , is capable of grasping and experiencing it, which Sankara calls swaanubhoothy. He says one can try to explain it in rational and scientific logic but this viveka alone is not the experience , that is unexplained and unutterable. Rudy Rucker also says that one can grasp infinity with two methods: the rational or scientific , attempted by scientists all over the world, and the mystical and artistic, aesthetic , attempted by artists, musicians, poets, philosophers, seers, spiritual people. One cannot say that one method is superior to the other categorically, unless one has the experience and proficiency in both methods. I would like to end this note with a quotation from Rudy Rucker: ”There are two distinct forms of consciousness, finite and infinite. As long as I identify with my body and my rational mind, I cannot conceive of my W. But it is not hard to envision my W if I identify with the absolute. This does not lead to the usual type of theoretical regress because someone who has merged with the absolute is in a position to ‘ name’ each and every natural number at once”. Being a mathematician she speaks of natural numbers. Being an Advaithin , I would substitute each and every natural emotion and thought. That probably sums up the alpha and omega of all extrasensory perceptions (ESP) as well.

SPACETIME-AN ENIGMA

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(Annual National conference of Indian Psychiatric society 2000,Kochi, Souvenir page 29-36.)

(In my earlier writings and speeches , I have been dealing with spacetime , from an astronomical point of view comparing modern and ancient astronomy and substantiating the scientific approach in the Upanishadic traditions.In this very special essay, I am approaching the same subject from a psychological standpoint , both modern and ancient.The Sanskrit equivalents to English terms are given in brackets wherever applicable for the benefit of those who are not aware of the Upanishadic and yoga psychology) For any topic of discussion there should be an epistemology (vishaya) a methodology (thanthra) to achieve the desired results, an axiology (prayojana) for its learning and competence (Adhikaara) to talk on the subject. My competence to write on the subject is not any degree or diploma in it , but a very prolonged study of the psychic phenomenon attached to the awareness of of the spacetime continuum. This study had started as early as 1954, when I was a child of 8, without any conscious effort or knowledge of the process from my part. The analytical research I have been undertaking on astronomy, psychology, consciousness from the beginning of human race, and anthropological and archeological evidence accumulated over the years on these subjects are my Thanthra , ( Methodology) for substantiating the dream experiences which I have been witnessing for years so that I can be aware of my own psyche in a better way. The arrows of Time

How do we perceive time in our thought processes and in the physical world around? Physicaly we find time moving forward, from left to right. For example, morning to noon, evening and night, then a cyclical coming back to morning, just as a needle on a clockface. The same is true of seasons, and when we come to years , 1946,66,86,2006…. (a 20 year cyclical period) we alow the same linear flow. From birth to childhood, adolescence, old age, and death there is a linear forward left to right flow. If the day and seasons are cyclical , why not the years and human births? This question paved the way to the great cyclical yugaas and kalpaas and the possibility of rebirths and reincarnations in our ancestral minds. The linear arrow of past , present and future is the thermodynamic arrow. In the memory of the human race, the archaic images and symbols of the past are still fresh and alive. From that one can plan one’s future as well as that of the nation or the world. We remember yesterday’s events , events of our childhood upto a certain period and beyond that our memory fails. We cannot remember our tomorrows or our future. That is , in the waking state (Jagrad) our spacetime and its memories are restricted and limited. The arrow of memory has a left to right backward flow and this is called the psychological arrow of time. This is the true cyclical nature/ or function of time. If we do not realize this the physical time appears as moving forward against the direction of the psychological time and this creates disorder (entropy). Varahamihira, India’s ancient astronomer 39

said that the feeling of time , mind, planets and stars moving in opposite directions is an illusion created by the relativity of life. The vedantin puts it in a different way. For him the psychological arrow of seemingly backward , left to right motion in the waking state (jagrad) is an illusion (maaya) which is difficult to overcome (duratyayi) by the ordinary human mind. Stephen Hawking also thinks that the opposite movements of the two arrows of time is an illusion of the mind. Transcending illusion Constantly moving and changing universe (Jagath) is an illusion of common mind to be transcended.The psychological arrow of individual mind is a relative truth to be transcended.To transcend these two relative truths (prathibhasika and vyavahaarika truths) one has to negate one’s experiences in the waking state which indeed is a difficult step. People are afraid that by negating the known world of the waking state they reach a soonyatha (void).But vedanthin says emphatically and positively Dik desa kaala gathiphalasoonyam hi Parammartha sath advayam brahma mandabudheenaam asad iva prathibhaathi.(Absolute truth is not void. It appears as void to lesser intellects because it is devoid of dik-direction-,desha-place or space-kaala-time-gathi-movement or vibrations-phala –results/effects-etc) Like the vedanthin and the samkhya , Hegel , Marx and Virchow knew that nothing is created out of nothing. If the world is sath or true , it must have originated from sath. If it is asath, it has no origin at all. If matter is energy it has its origin from energy. The blackhole is not empty but energy reverberating and a fall into it is not a fall as Hawking puts it , but an expansion. The concepts of expansion-contraction is reversed here. Only when the entire universe is concentrated into a dense point (bindu), the cosmic egg (primordial atom) in chaos (kaaranajala), the concentrated energy in the primitive manifest form can transcend space-time, movements and relative truth. This is moksha or nirvana , the highest level of consciousness achieved by human mind. Even Freud , the greatest critic of religion was aware of this fact. He wrote in the famous Goetz letters , ”If however without the aid of a clear intellect you become immersed in the world of the Bhagavad Geetha, where nothing seems constant and everything melts into everything else, then you are suddenly confronted by nothingness? Do you know what that means? And yet this very nothingness is simply a European misconception. The Indian Nirvaana is not nothingness , it is that which transcends all contradictions. It is not as Europeans commonly take it to be, a sensual enjoyment, but the ultimate in superhuman understanding , an icecold all-comprehending yet scarcely comprehensible insight. Or if misunderstood, it is madness. What do these would-be European mystics know about the profundity of the east? They rave on, but they know nothing. And then they are surprised when they loose their heads and are not infrequently driven mad by it…The most sensible thing is to keep on asking questions. At the moment you are interested in the Hindu philosophers. They often went so far as to express their answers in the form of questions. They knew why.”(Bruno Goet’s reminiscences of Freud .q.William B.Parsons:Vishnu on Freud’s desk page 44-45)

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How does an individual achieve the concentration to transcend spacetime”? If you are genuinely interested in an object or subject you are immersed in it , or concentrate on it so deeply and intensely so that you forget time and space. A lover, a scientist, a poet, or a professor thus become absentminded. The power of concentration is perfected in dhyanayoga. The discipline of PATHANJALI IS A METHOD FOR THIS. The use of various thanthraas (methods), mandalaas and yanthraas (equipments) and mudra (symbol) and vigraha (images) are prescribed for improving the concentration power of the mind. With these one concentrates on the self (Atman) and achieves transcendance of spacetime to become one with Brahma. Nirvaana or the state of transcendence is achieved only by exceptionally great minds. But to give an equivalent experience to the ordinary people , the vedanthin takes up the example of sleep experiences. Sleep is the best known period when we transcend space and time. In sleep , mind travels beyond the current birth to past lives. Into future events as predictive dreams indicate. The mind gets over the blocks of memory and because of this the dreams of a chieftain , the astrologer and a medical man were studied and interpreted thoroughly by all ancient people, including the Indians. Interpretation of dreams had a very important role in the tribal life ages before Freud and Jung were born. Babylonians, Chinese, chaldeans, Greeks, Jews, aboriginal tribes all over the world, Indians,Egyptians etc had their own methods of dream interpretations and analysis.

Astronomical synchronicity (Thrikaalagnaana) In dreams symbols occur spontaneously and dreams are not invented or produced but they just happen and the conscious mind has no control over their production. Symbols can also occur in some psychic manifestations. Even inanimate objects participate in creation of symbols and signs. The pendulum clock of the palace stopped when Frederick the Great died. The wristwatch of Nalapat Narayanamenon stopped the moment he expired. The same happened when my husband died . Observing such events the alchemists had come to the conclusion that psyche and matter are the same. The whole edifice of Ayurvedic system of medicine of ancient India rests on this basic principle. The one observed from within (psyche) and the one from
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without (matter , external world) are the same phenomenon.To this concept which was as ancient as the human race Karl Jung gave the name synchronicity. This term means the meaningful coincidence of outer and inner events that are not themselves causally connected. Jung noted that when there was a meaningful coincidence of an individual’s dream and the events of the outer world there was an archetype activated in the unconscious of the individual concerned. Synchronistic events almost invariably accompany the crucial phases of the process of individuation but too often people ignore them and fail to make them meaningful in relation to the symbolism of dreams. Many meaningful events have occurred when such archetypes are activated as in the story of Charles Darwin and A.R.Wallace. Predictive dreams and intuitional flashes foretelling future , inventing new mathematical and scientific theories are dealt with in Jung’s essay, Synchronicity: An acausal connecting principle. The special interest is the possible relation between astronomical synchronicity and microphysics. Imagine two events in space-time. A and B are two observers in relative motion (Special relativity). P and Q are two space-like separated events. A &B have different ideas of P &Q. A may think that P occurred first while B thinks that Q occurred first. Each perceives a world that is consistent with his own perceptions. Due to the relativity of an observer’s perception in a quantum entangled field the procedure of measurement adopted by one and the perceptions so obtained with those methods (thanthra) may look like
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an illusion to another. We are finding the results of this differences of perceptions and opinions in every walk of life in the present world. According to relativity one has just a limited static four dimensional spacetime. In 1970, H.H.Kornhuber using electroenchephalogram demonstrated that the conscious act of free will (jagrad) is a pure illusion having been already preprogrammed in the preceding unconscious activity of the brain.
Suppose P is an event in spacetime (or birth of a particle A /birth of a human being A). P1 and P2 are two positions of a particle P in spacetime , p1 and p2 is the distance covered and time taken.(if P is suvarna, the chronological age and the emotional maturity or psychic age). Since the particle is present now in spacetime it must be there in future and it must have been there in the past. How many times it has taken births , and how much distance it has covered may not be known to you , but you can definitely predict its previous existence and future existence in spacetime , and this is all about the rebirth theory and predictive astrology. This also confirms the presence of a self and antiself (electron-antielectron pair,universe-antiuniverse pair). The physical body is the antiself (anathma from which the Latin word Anatomy for the study of the structure of the physical body was coined) of the Advaidin and the soul or Athma which gives us predictive dreams , intuitions or other creative powers and the Upanishads speaks of these in detail, by negating the antiself and merging with the self we transcend spacetime and this is experienced in nirvana , in dreamless state (sushupthy) and when one reaches this state he/she receives symbols/signs from the self as creative intuitions and dreamvisions. The thrikaalagnaana or transcendence of spacetime is the astronomical and psychological synchronicity of Jung and Volf Gang Pauli.

On dream visions
Transcending cosmic time at an individual level , astronomy (physical world phenomena including the molecular astrophysics –quantum dynamics) religion and psychology merge with each other imperceptibly. We have to recall here the opinions of Albert Einstein , that religious feeling is the strongest and the noblest motive for scientific research. Religious feeling does not mean the power of punishment from a superior power. Nor is it the moral , ethical feeling leading to social impulses like serving humanity or a community. It is the cosmic religious feeling which occurs , according to Einstein , ”in individuals with exceptional endowments who want to experience the universe as a single significant whole.” In other words it is the Advaithic feeling of oneness with the universe experienced by the most rational and scientific mind in search of truth. The seeker should be willing to experiment with the self (Athman) and the logical and rational selfstudy should make one come to terms with the universe in a positive way. If the study of the self is based only on the waking state experiences ,we 43

will naturally end up in a tangle of illusions (maaya) since in that state , as described earlier we can not transcend our limited spacetime of our ego. Here is the role of dream analysis. The psychoanalysis following Freud’s footsteps approach dreams as a remnant of waking state experiences. Therefore all the dream visions are interpreted in terms of sex , power politics and repressed wish fulfillment. This is true in some dreams but not in all. Freud thought that the psychoanalyst must shed all virtue and become a bad fellow , a lawbreaker. He thought that to achieve something the psychoanalyst develop a criminal mind. Because only a criminal mind can fathom the depths of a criminal mind, and for him all patients probably were given the benefits of doubt of possessing a criminal mind. The criminality associated with achievement is probably the result of psychoanalysts getting opportunities to deal with deranged minds only. It is quite natural for us to think that a yogi or scioentist with rational mind having transcended timespace does not seek the assistance of a psychoanalyst so that the latter are not familiar with such minds in their day to day life. About this the renouned Indian mystic Aurobindo once wrote “I find it difficult to take these psychoanalysts at all seriously when they try to scrutinize spiritual experience with the flicker of their torchlights , yet perhaps one ought to, for half-knowledge is a powerful thing and can be a great obstacle to the coming in front of truth. This new psychology looks to me like children learning some summary and not very adequate alphabet. They look from down up and explain the higher lights by the lower obscurities. The superconscient not the subconscient is the true foundation of things. The significance of the lotus is not to be found by analyzing the secret of the mud.” We sometimes dream about past events , future happenings (predictive dreams), cross national and international and even interuniversal boundaries in our dreams .Very often we find that some of our dreams have a definite evidently purposeful structure indicating an underlying idea or intention though as a rule the latter is not immeadiately comprehensible to us. To understand and analyse our psychic life processes and our whole personality our dreams and their symbolic images have a much more important role than we usually think. Memories of a bygone past and archaic archetypal symbols are tucked away in our self and these come to the surface in dreams , when we shut out all the stimuli of the present existence (transcending timespace) The self is not only the depository of past memories but also the treasurehouse of the seeds of future events and possibilities. New thoughts and creative ideas come up in dream visions. Karl Jung said “They grow up from the dark depths of the mind like a lotus and form a most important part of the subliminal psyche.” Both Aurobindo and Jung use the symbolism of the lotus which is the symbol of creativity and the seat of Brahma , the creator, in Hindu mythology. The examples of French mathematician Poincare , chemist kekule, French philosopher Descartes, british author Robert Louis Stevenson are cited by Karl Jung to substantiate the creative value of dreams in various fields. He said that since meanings attributed to the same word have different meanings for different people , the psychoanalyst should not try to impose a meaning to the dream symbols of his/her clients. It is ideal to allow them to understand the meaning themselves. Jung even respected the views of the primitive tribals of East Africa , who told him that the dreams of the chieftain and the 44

medical men were only significant since since they are concerned with the wellbeing of the entire community. When he approached and talked to the chieftain and the medical man in question, he had a surprise in store. They said, after the advent of the white men into the territory they had lost their dreams , because it was no longer in their powers to protect the land and their tribes. Jung tried to scientifically prove that the rare and recurring dreams are particularly important and need interpretations. The spontaneous symbols that recur in dreams are not invented by the waking ego , they just come up from the self as if from nowhere. P.D.Ouspensky studied the recurrent childhood dreams in detail. Dream symbols being manifestations of the psyche beyond the control of the conscious waking state. Are important for anyone who studies timespace and its transcendence. As a plant produces its flower , psyche creates its symbols naturally , in dreams. The symbols in childhood dreams are especially significant , since the child does not have access to the traditions or the systems of knowledge prevalent in the world. A RECURRING CHILDHOOD DREAM (PERSONAL EXPERIENCE) I had the good fortune to study some of my dreams with a predictive nature in my life. This special essay will not be complete unless I mention at least one childhood dream which kept recurring throughout my life. It had been a very impressive dream and has changed the course of my life at the most crucial points. Those belonging to the Freudian school can view it as madness, and the Jungian I am sure will realize the significance of this in my psychic knowledge of the self (Athmagnaana). At the age of 7 or 8 I had a dream in which I saw a sparkling golden ocean in the midst of which was a solitary spot , possibly a mountain peak , I stand on it alone in a meditative pensive mood..A rare atmosphere of calm serene ecstacy surrounds me. Sometimes the sparkling golden waters assume seven colours and move like particles. The coloured particles move, dance around me in layers , sometimes one colour at a time, sometimes all together, or only golden particles. Then I hear a voice whispering VRIDHACHALAM. And I woke up. My sister was sleeping beside me (a girl of 8 or 9) and I ask her ,’ Vasanthy, what is the meaning of Vridhachalam?” She naturally does not know and asks me to go to sleep without disturbing her. After this dream vision I write my first poem at the age of 8, about death , and it is published in the Mathrubhoomi weekly in the children’s page. Immeadiately after the first poem on death, the nothingness, I write a second poem on lotus flowers (golden yellow and red lotus) blooming in a clear white waters , and on Devi Saraswathy and these poems with a few others are published as a small book christened ‘Lotus flowers”, at the age of 11 (in the year 1957) by my father . An M.B.B.S doctor practicing in our village in those days, said that seeing seven colours in dream means that I am anaemic (without even doing a Hemoglobin estimation!!!) and I was given iron tablets which lead to complication of constipation and my mother , a staunch Ayurvedist, stopped giving it . The memory of the dream lingers as a pleasant surprise and makes me unusually calm and contended and in such moods I write many more poems and prose. People say that this child is a poet. No one including myself gives much importance to the dream.

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After many years the glittering sparkling ocean with a central /eccentric point recurs in three consecutive years from 1977 onwards on the same date (May 17): This time I distinctly see the Mandala pattern made of colour particles moving and dancing like calm waters (waves) and the center is Devi Gayathri , instead of me. The second and third year , Devi is replaced by Lord Budha and myself. I become alert because of many reasons. One is the nature of recurrence. Another is the feeling of ecstacy. The rare vision of the Devi and Budha , and above all when I try to draw the Devi , I cannot draw her form but a mandala is drawn instead , which resembles a Raasichakra. When I keep this in my bedroom, my husband asks “when did you start worshipping Kaali?” I was not interested in astronomy or astrology until 1975.. But all on a sudden I am able to understand some profound astronomical truths and later on through another dream , I get access to Varahamihira’s Panchasidhanthika which I translate with a commentary and comparison of modern astronomy. Years pass by. At the age of 43/44 I come across a book written by a certain Indira Parthasarathy Paterson on hymns to Shiva. Surprisingly I decipher the meaning of my dream. According to the ancient saivite traditions of the Tamil , Vridhachalam , the abode of shiva is the only point that stood above flood waters during cosmic flood. It is the oldest point, hence called vridhachalam.Still later , I understand that the musical notes using all swaras in descending and ascending order ( sampoornaraaga) are having a property of Karshana ( attraction) and since they are the most ancient and most mature called VRIDHASWARA .The Karshna and Vridhaswara aspect is in the name KRISHNA as Nadabrahman , the sampoornaraaga emanate from him . Later on, I come across the oceanic feeling so much talked about by Freud, Romain Rolland, and experienced by many mystics all over the world, including Ramanamaharshi. I analyse the possibilities and probabilities of this symbol and in the process acquire a substantial body of knowledge in various disciplines. Oceanic feeling of unity, the true source of religion/spirituality , is not opposed to reason, and is not a wishful thinking or desire for immortality. It had been a dynamic vitalistic creative and socially adaptive and completely independent force that had been in me , with me since childhood, before I had access to any institutionalized religion or knowledge systems. It helped me to assimilate the ideas of unity in Vedanta , Greek philosophy , mysticism of plotinus, and Indian seers, poetry of Nalapat, Tagore and Whitman, the writings of Thoreau and Emerson, and many others including the modern scientists. I realized that mystic feeling and true religious feeling (cosmic consciousness) will be the same in every human being, in every country, in every age or epoch, following different religions and customs. Freud was aware of the mystic experience, the nirvana and its possibilities. He just mistrusted mysticism out of a respect for upholding the integrity of critical reason. At his time the possibility of participation of critical and intuitive functions of the mind was not fully explored by western scientists. The harmony of the opposing forces as the most beautiful though proposed by Heraclitus was not yet accepted by psychologists. But this had been a very old theme as far as ancient Indian sciences and Indian philosophy were concerned . Even Freud , the strongest critic of mystic experience of transcending timespace boundaries had acknowledged this. That is why quoting a phrase from Goethe’s Wilhelm Meister , he wrote: ”We may well heave a sigh of relief at the thought 46

that it is nevertheless vouchsafed to a few to salvage without effort from the whirlpool of their feelings the deepest truths, towards which the rest of us have to find our way through tormenting uncertainty and the restless groping.” Freud’s reference to the few extends from Goethe to a group of intuitive psychologists (Goethe, schiller, Shakespeare, Nietzsche, Plato, Rolland) whom he admired. In short, spacetime , the enigma, can be transcended only in mystic experiences , either in states of meditation, intense concentration or in deep sleep as dream visions. For those exceptional individuals who want to explore and introspect the Atman or self , these are the easiest options and the result of the exploration is often the unravelling of the greatest mysteries of the world and of the human mind. A perfect blend of reason, intuition (science and arts) gives it exceptional aesthetic quality and hence the ancient seer called it the only truth (satyam) goodness (shivam) and beauty (sundaram) worth knowing and experiencing. The one without a second (Advaitha) which is beyond timespace, and the architect of timespace, they recognized as God, with a thousand names, forms, yet without any name or form (Brahma) This concept of God removes all contradictions and gives us the most acceptable religious , philosophical, and scientific explanation of absolute truth. If only we realize this and have the real religion , what Einstein called the cosmic religious feeling, we can overcome the social and cultural problems of not only of our times , but also the future generations to come. Transcending spacetime gives us insight regarding the essential oneness of the universe where the petty contradictions of our egocentric waking consciousness has no relevance at all. (This special essay is contributed to the informed readers of the Indian psychiatric society with warm regards.)

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Timing the time –The Indian way.
Time is an enigma and eludes every human imagination.Time has neither beginning nor an end and has no boundaries.Operationally however it is divided into measurable time(khanda kaala)and immeasurable time(akhandakaala).The latter is considered synonymous with divine will which by disturbing the static state of the cosmic elements initiates the sarga(creation)and pralaya(dissolution)processes.Only the khandakaala is conceivable to the human mind. Indian astronomers divided the Khandakaala into measurable units.Taking Nimesha (time needed for an eye to wink as a standard unit )as unit,the different units are: 1/3 nimesha=1 lava 1/3 lava=1 vedha 1/100 vedha=1 truti 1/3 truti=1 thrasarenu 1/3 thrasarenu=1 dhyanuka ½ dhyanuka=1 paramaanu Higher units of nimesha are 3 nimesha=1 kshana 5 kshna=1 kashta 15 kashta=1 laghu 15 laghu =1 naadika 2 naadika=1 muhurtha 3.75 muhurtha=1 yaama 8 yaama=1 ahoraathra(24 hours) 15 ahorathra =1 fortnight(paksha) 2 paksha=1 maasa(month) 2 maasa=one rithu(season) 3 seasons =1 ayana(1/2 year) 2 ayana=1 samvatsara(year) 1 human year =360 days(one celestial day) 1728000 years =1 kritayuga 1296000 years=1 threthayuga 864000 years =dwaparayuga 432000 years=1 kaliyuga. 4320000 years =1 mahaayuga 71 mahaayuga=1 manuanthara(30,67,20000 years or a period of Manu) 14 Manuanthara =1 kalpa (432 0000 000 years)including the sandhyaas. Or link years which are intervals between the two successive yugaas. 2 kalpaas=1 Brahma day(8640000000 years) 360 Brahma days=1 brahma varsha(one year of the Brahma) 100 brahmavarsha=1 Mahhakalpa. There is another simpler method of division of time as follows: 60 Tatpara=1 para 60 para=1 villipta 60 villiptha =1 liptha 48

60 liptha=1 vighati 60 vighati=1 ghati 60 ghati=1 day 360 days=I year 432 0000000 years =1 kalpa. According to Yogavaasishtam,36000 days (100 years)of the creator is equivalent to one day of Lord Vishnu and 36000 days of Vishnu make one day of shiva.Brahma,Vishnu,and shiva are the trinity of Hindhu mythology and any living thing by means of its past virtues can ascend to the status of the trinity –so much so the number of trinities and their lifespan is limitless. At the end of each kalpa (4320000000 human years)the naimithika pralaya(deluge)occur which lasts for one kalpa.Thus 2 kalpaas make on eday of Brahma,and an equal number of years of deluge.At the end of mahaakalpa(100 years of brahma)the praakrithapralaya (great deluge)occur when even the panchabhootha(5 elements)are destroyed. According to Brihad Jaathaka,one kalpais the time interval between 2 successive conjunctions of 7 planets at the point of Aries.This is calculated by the LCM of the number of days taken by each planet to complete a revolution round the sun.(Mercury 87.96 days;venus 224.7 days;earth 364.24 days;mars 686.98 days;Jupiter 4332.58 days,Saturn 10759.22 days,and moon 27.29 days to revolve around the earth(sidereal month not synodic).Their LCM indicates the smallest unit of years in one kalpa.

some of the references made use of while writing this article are: 1.Vishnu on Freud’s desk.A reader in psychoanalysis and Hinduism.Ed T.G.Vaidyanathan&Jeffrey .J.Kripal. 2.Man and his symbols.conceived and edited by Carl jung. 3.Ideas and opinions of Albert Einstein 4.Synchronicity an acausal principle .Carl Jung 5.The origin of time.Stephen Hawking. 6.Hymns to shiva .Indira Paterson. 7.Upanishads (12 major Upanishads and their commentaries) Dr Suvarna Nalapat 8.Ancient astronomical text Panchasidhanthika of Varahamihira.Commentary by Dr Suvarna Nalapat
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9.Critique of reason .Immanuel Kant. 10.Saradathilakam by Raaghavabhattan.

SUSRUTHASAMHITHA
Aesthetics of a glorious past and its continued remembrance And practice
A culture’s selfawareness in terms of law ,medicine and grammer is an important precondition for awareness of its aesthetics.The knowledge of medicine –a system of management of pain,of anesthetics,of birth and death is interrelated to poetry,a system of management of pleasure ,of aesthetics and of creation.(G.N.Devy.After Amnesia.page 64-65.Orient Longman 1995) Being involved in both the systems mentioned above ,I believe in the dictum “In the continued remembrance of the glorious past individuals and nations find their noblest aspirations “as did Sir William Osler ,the pathologist par excellance.Hence during my tenure as ateacher in the Medical college Calicut I probed into the medical history of our nation,and unearthe da precious jewel from its rubbles.The oldest surgical and pathological text of ancient India,the Susruthasamhitha.Being a student and practitioner of the allopathic system of medicine ,it was but natural for me to compare the ancient and the modern systems of medicine.Here I share some of my reflections with the readers.

The beginning
Both Ayurveda and allpathy originated as cults in and around temples.In the months of Hemantha and sisira ,rigorous penances followed by the oath and the holy pilgrimage to the temples on hilltops were common to India and Greece.The pilgrimage centers of vaishnava,saiva and devi cults,chaityas of Budhists and jains with their prathikarma and paryushan parva were of this tradition.These rites were to remove the thridosha accumulated during this and the previous births.The belief that mental (psychiatric)illnesses were due to bhootha (past life)was deeprooted in the ancient mind and it is being proved by modern science.The aesculapean cult of Greek medicine shared the
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same belief.It was the forerunner of modern medicine prevalent in the Mediterranean basin ,where Asculapeus lived.He had his Guru in a half naaga tribal Chiron,an inhabitant of the serpent country.,Paataala.In BC 429,the cult spread toAthens.The asculapean temples were on hilltops.They were medical schools were the healing art and philosophy were taught by rishis or priests.Students had to prove their merit before getting entry into the school.(temple).Once they pass the entrance exam ,they were to take an oath just like the oath taken before prathikarma ,and it was this oath which later became known as the Hippocratus oath.The temples were built in the most picturesque sites and holy baths,fasting,vegetarian diets,nonviolence,virechana(cleaning of the bowels)and prayers were mandatory for the disciple to get entrance into templeschool.Only after a prolonged period of such rigorous austerities did the main gates open for the aspirant student.Once the student gets entry he prostrates in front of the main deity and the Guru produces a healing dream by hypnosis.Depending upon the nature of the dream the disciple acquires the ability to read the past ,present,and the future and to heal mental and physical illness.In the Tamil epic Chilappathikaram we find evidence of such practices .In the Upanishadic traditions also the healing dream is mentioned many times. In susruthasanhita ,the oath ,the upanayana into the cult(soothrasthana 2-6)of a meritorious disciple by a Guru as wellas the licensing and permission by the royal court to practice(10-2)are mentioned.The knowledge of the past ,present and futiure(thrikaala)or the Daivagna method was prevalent in Indian medical system and in the Cos island where Hippocratus ,the twentieth generation fromAesculapeus lived and taught the basic principles of modern socalled western medicine.How was the problem (mental or physical)created and what was its past history?What is the present status of the problem and how far it has progresses?Can the problem be solved by a particular line of treatment or other so that the patient be saved?What are the chances of survival of the patient?These were detrmined by history taken,physical examination,and the position of stars and planets.Even now we following modern medicine calculate the past history,aetiology,pathogenesis,and prognosis on the same line of thought.The only fact left out is the position of stars and their influence in modifying the outcome. Hippo in Greece means a horse.The oldest known vedic doctors ,the aswins were also called horses.Hippocratus is a Greek name for Aswin
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,from whom medicine originated.Hippocratus believed that the symptoms of a disease are only the reactions of the body to combat a disease and the duty of a doctor is not to treat symptoms but to increase the natural forces of the body.This is exactly what ayurveda and the tribal traditions also believe and teach..The homeostasis between body and mind was called health and the balance of the three humours was essential for healthy living.The samkhya philosophy and vedic medicine also believe in the homeostasis of three guna(qualities)and the three doshaas(imbalances derived from them)and balancing them for perfect health.Hippocratus said that if a doctor treats an occult cancer ,the chances of survival of the patient is less since the disease become overt by his/her treatment.He said philosophically ,”life is short,and the art of healing eternal.Experience may fail us.Many a time decisionmaking may be difficult.”The doctor in those early days was a kindhearted ,good,honest,divine being with ahealing touch ,a philosopher par excellance,and a rishi.Hippocratus said that as long as such people who love and practice the healing art remain on earth,people who love humanity will continue to exist to serve the world.

Dissection of the Human body
The first Greek to dissect a corpse was Alemaon , the disciple of Hippocratus. He did it secretly , and alone. Herophilus was bold enough to dissect and demonstrate it to his students (died in BC 290) but embalming and dissection were not considered a sin in ancient Egypt from time immemorial . In Tibet and India this was practiced. While the dissection was on royal corpses on Egypt, on criminals and enemies in Peru and Mexico, on captured enemies among the scytheans, it was on Godmen and Laamaas in Tibet , and on horses and other animals in ancient India. At times a young adult also was selected for it instead of a horse in exceptional situations , as in the case of Sunasepha , whom Viswamithra saved. This Kaapaalika practice was stopped during the period of Ramayana by Viswamithra and the royal brothers of Ayodhya ,Rama and Lakshmana. It was performed on royal corpses also as in the case of King Dasaratha of Ramayana by sage Vasishta. Susrutha, the son of viswamithra lived in ancient times but susruthasamhitha , the oral tradition bearing his name was codified as a text only very late during BC 500. By that time there were many restrictions for dissecting a corpse inIndia. Therefore the body was taken secretly to the forest , kept immersed in a freshwater lake (as if in
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a formalin tank , nowadays) for 7 days (minimum) and taken out on a fullmoon night and dissected with sharp roots and bamboochips. This was the reason for adopting either 15 or 16 days for finishing the pithrukarma (burial rite) ceremonies. During Susruth’s time there were 8 divisions for Ayurveda. 1.Salyathanthra (surgery) 2.Saalaakhyathanthra (E.N.T,Dentistry) 3.Kaayachikitsa (medical treatment) 4.Bhoothavidya (psychiatry ,psychotherapy) 5.Koumaarabrithya (pediatrics and adolescent medicine) 6.Aagathathanthra (toxicology and treatment of poisoning) 7.Rasaayanathanthra (pharmacopoeia and longevity) 8.Vajeekarana (rejuvenation and vitality). PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHOLOGY –MODERN AND ANCIENT Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) forwarded a new trend in psychiatric medicine. His free association methods , dream analysis, problems of the unconscious mind and Oedipus complex became popular. Freud’s central theme was sex, while Adler concentrated every action and reaction of the human mind on power. Carl Gustav Jung gave a more authentic and holistic explanation of the human mind , its dreams and its aspirations . His archetypes and shadows resembled the ancient Indian way of analysis. Currently Dr Herbert Benson of the Harward medical university has gone back to the ancient yoga , dhyana and japa methods for reducing sympathetic nervous system functions and relief of many mental and physical illnesses. In Massacheussets Medical school , more than hundred hospitals follow praanaayaama and prayers for healing of mind and body and for increasing immunity. A variety of diseases like asthma , intractable headaches and body pains , blood pressure , cardiac diseases , diabetes , side effects of cancer chemotherapy and dialysis , irritable bowel syndrome , insomnia, emphesema and skin diseases are treated by those methods in many American hospitals. The journal of biomedicine (1980) published an article on how transcendental meditation can be used to decrease stress responses and thereby keep the body and mind healthy.The old concepts are returning to stay. The past is the prologue of the future. According to susrutha , Purusha, the endless beginingless eternal changeless absolute principle assumes the shape or relative body of the living Jeevi, (including man). The sarvagnapurusha or absolute thus appear in a living body as a karmapurusha. When karmapurusha
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leaves the body to go back to his original state or abode , we say that the jeevi is dead. It is the purusha while entering a zygote gives it consciousness , creativity, mobility, observing, cognitive, analyzing powers. These were with the karmapurusha during its previous existence.That is past karma (action), vaasanaa (tendencies) of karmapurusha manifest in the new body as his character. The body characters are from ancesters. The character is controlled by the 3 guna (qualities) which are from the karmapurusha , as prakrithy. (nature) In creating a child, man and woman have only limited roles. They just participate in a divine will. Selection of a suitable pair , intercourse at the proper time so that a good soul comes to earth and inhabits within the zygote , protecting the pregnancy are in their control. Mere sexual intercourse is not enough in the creation of a good offspring. For it, the couple need the help of karmapurusha , one who had a previous past (bhootha) and is in the gandharva (gandabba according toBudhist) state of bardo.The head , face, body, hair, bone, nails, teeth, arteries, veins , nerves , semen are derived from the seed of the father. Blood, marrow, heart, umbilicus, liver, intestine, genitalia, muscles are contributed by the mother’s seed.The power, colour and shape of body are imparted by the nourishing liquid that flows through the mother’s blood which in turn is derived from mother’s diet..Consciousness , knowledge , wisdom, experience of pain and pleasures, and longevity come from the karmapurusha. When Thamas overwhelms the consciousness , a natural reaction of the body happens periodically, which is called swabhaavikanidra or sleep. This is different from the Thaamasikanidra or coma where satwa and rajas are very weak. In sleep jeeva is not asleep , but wide awake according to Susrutha. It visualizes the past experiences and events and gives and gives them to the rajasic mind as dreamvisions. One can awake from sleep only if satwa is powerful. In deep coma when satwa is too weak the state continues to death. Jeevathma in sleep see visions of his sarvagna state through the agency of karmapurusha. Therefore visionary dreams are the signs of sarvagnapurusha (sareerasthaana 4.35) One can increase one’s intelligence and sustain it upto old age and death. For this, and to increase the healing powers of man and their longevity several methods are prescribed. 1.Medicines, with gold and honey. (chikitsa sthaanam.28,2-8,28,2,21) 2.Living in a cultured environment with no contact with uncultured minds and antisocial elements
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3. daily swaadhyaaya and learning 4.discussions, discourses with learned men in various disciplines, and contact with good people (sadsangha) Among medicines, 24 types of somalathaas are prescribed and also other plants with same properties. Many people consider that soma was an ancient alcoholic drink . This is not true. susrutha says that those who drink soma has to follow rigorous austerities like refraining from bad company, bad deeds, laziness, alcoholism, medicines with opposite effects, and should lead a pious life . For complete effects of the soma drink , specific daily routines are prescribed which will be very difficult for an alcoholic to do .These require immense mental and physical control over the senses. The entire period of austerity lasts for a minimum of three months. Only people who control the senses are free of unmaada (psychiatric illness). There are different types of unmaada. Four of them are due to thridoshakopa (imbalance of the 3 humours) The fifth is due to intense grief or emotions. A sixth is due to chemicals , toxins, poisons producing the imbalance of humours. Apart from removing the toxins, and giving medicines to combat the imbalance , methods to avoid intense grief or emotions, depressions etc and give peace of mind are needed and these are devised. This includes pilgrimages to hilltop temples, riverbanks, seacoasts, forests, wearing the cooling prasaada and chandana on forehead, reading holy scriptures, and above all singing the names of God in perfect harmony (keerthana) are all prescribed. (ancient raagachikitsa) . Most of the devakarma (rituals for God) are for this purpose. Unmaada is due to bhootha (past life, causing impurity of the elements ) Past life may be this life or the previous lives. (previous life’s karma) Pretha just means a person who lived on this earth , and went out of it after completing its tenure. The pretha represents the collective experiences of all the ancestors of the human race. Personal as well as collective past experiences of human race give rise to mental disturbances, as well as to mental peace. If it is disturbing , then we call it paisaacha (that which produce tension and fear) and it causes symptoms of unmaada . That is Bhoothaprethapisaachakrith means madness (unmaada) is caused by past experiences of the personal and collective level of human consciousness which cause disturbances and impurity of the 5 elements with which we are made of. Therefore, the 5 elements of our body( internal environment) , of the earth, and the
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cosmos (our external environment) should not be polluted. This probably is the first recognition of the need for environmental protection. Unless we know the exact meaning of these words it is likely that we may blindly believe the words of others and criticize it. Or may blindly believe and become mad people ourselves. It is evident that samsaara (domestic and social life ) cause mental tensions and therefore mental disease. To reduce these tensions dhyana , yoga, bhakthy and gnaana were different methods devised for people of different temperaments to be used either on combination or one method alone. . Another very effective method was through the artistic medium-music, dance and literature. When all these preventive and curative methods fail and for people who don’t have tastes for any of these, and immersed in the mundane things only, sometimes it becomes necessary to give a shock treatment. For this they devised creation of a fearful atmosphere or a weird scene and painful experiences. Just like the modern allopaths devised the electric shock treatment. It was not the only method of treatment and it never was the choice treatment the ancients. Once the disease manifests , bloodletting, oilbaths, swedana, virechana, food mixed with sesame oil were all tried. Susrutha knew that uncontrolled sensory pleasures and falsehoods lead to apasmaara (loss of memory and consciousness –either partial or complete) and prevention was better than cure.

Surgical treatment
Susrutha describes three stages for surgery. 1.poorvakarma (preoperative preparation) 2.Pradhaanakarma (the surgical procedure proper) 3.paschaadkarma (postoperative care) Poorvakarma includes astrological calculation of best time for surgery, depending upon the position of stars and planets , the seasons etc, prayers/bhajans/music on presiding deities, for invoking blessings from God, Guru and natural spirits, ancestors (previous teachers or guru – the pithru), examination of the patient , deciding whether surgical intervention is necessary or not, positioning for the procedure, tightly held by the disciples. For internal surgeries and removal of the dead foetus from uterus Susrutha prescribes an empty stomach by fasting. For minor procedures light liquid diet was allowed. Whether anaesthesia was used or not during Susrutha’s time had been a controversial issue for a long time. I found the word for anaesthesia in
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chikitsaasthaanam. The reference is of supthivaatham (supthy = sleep, and vaatham =gas) which means the gas that produce deep sleep like coma. This indicates that susrutha knew the use of anaesthetic gas.(supthivaatha sringmoksham kuryarthu bahusho bhishak 4-12 chikitsasthanam). The checking of clean instruments kept at the surgeon’s armslength , availability of trained nurses to assist, and even the alabu (specimen collection container) are described with precision and accuracy by the text just as an operative surgery text of modern medicine. Pradhaanakarma can be attempted by a surgeon who can perform the eight karma with accuracy , speed and experience. Th e 8 karma are 1.chedana (excision) 2.bhedana (incision) 3.lekhana (scraping and curettage) 4.vedhana (puncturing) 5.eshana (probing) 6.aaharana (extraction) 7.vishravana (tapping of fluids including bloodletting) 8.Seevana (suturing) The surgeon should have complete knowledge of the human body , and the science of surgery , should be experienced, courageous, confident, powerful, unselfish, and should possess hands that do not sweat while doing surgery. The postoperative care is important. At least for 48 hours the bandages should not be loosenened or disturbed. Because the healing should take place from below upwards . On the third day examine the site , remove dead tissues and pus if any and apply new bandage . In hot and rainy season daily dressings were changed after that. In snowy seasons dressings are changed on alternate days . If the patient complains of pain in an apparently clean healed wound , pure ghee and liquorice were made into a paste and applied hot. The doctor should be available on call and the nurse should intimate if any emergency or complications arise. All these procedures , the operative surgery notes of various conditions , the descriptions of instruments etc are all very scientific and this is really remarkable when we consider the period of the text. It was a time when the western world had never ever imagined it possible to have a surgical intervention for a disease.

Cancer(Arbudha)
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W.A.D.Anderson had mentioned in his textbook of pathology that Ramayana was the first known text where arsenic and surgery are mentioned as treatment for cancer. Susrutha considers cancer as growth of tissue, accompanied by pallor. He describes it as stony hard , fixed to deep tissues , and spreading from one place to another. According to him some of the cancers are untreatable (asaadhya) and others are treatable. He classifies cancer according to sites and nature. While describing cancer of the yoni, larynx and skin , he compares it to the white lotus flower (swethapundareeka). In allopathy , even in present day classrooms the description of the squamous cell carcinoma of these sites is cauliflowerlike. (the whiteness and the flower like appearance) . Susrutha prescribes a vegetarian diet , a modest life avoiding illicit sensual pleasures, daily food containing yava and mudga, virochana, dhooma , daily oilbaths and the use of “karkaruka, naarikela, priyaala, panchamagulachoornam” for prevention of cancer. I think this may be tried for prevention of cancer. Modern science is of opinion that a nonvegetarian diet and excesses of sensual pleasures can lead to certain types of cancer. We know that cancer is an excessive uncontrolled proliferation of a clone of abnormal cells. I often wonder whether the ancient Indian sage too knew this secret. If not why did he gave the name arbudham to this disease? In Sanskrit arbudham means a number , a clone more than a crore cells is an arbudham. Another interesting thing is that in yogavasishta , sage vasishta , the teacher of Srirama tells his disciple that the monsterous karkadi (meaning crab-in latin this is translated as cancer) enters the human body as a jeevasoochi (live needle) and gobbles its entire nourishment so that it becomes weak and perish. He adds that karkadi can enter only the bodies of men and women who have excesses of sensual pleasures and uncontrolled lifestyles. Prevention of diseases , including cancer , was the aim of the ancient Indian lifestyle . The scriptures , the different systems of arts and sciences , the methods of temple worships , the food habits and even the festivities in relation to the different seasons were devised carefully so that people live a peaceful healthy life . It is sad that in the modern times , this fact is forgotten and a lifestyle of a particular geographic region , devised suitable to its geographic and climatic features , is mistaken and misconstrued as a religion and in its name atrocities are committed.
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Indian culture, and sciences and arts are for the whole world, for the entire humanity. It can never be destroyed by anyone. Nor can it be protected by a few who takes up arms against our fellow countrymen. This eternal spring of wisdom existed and will exist forever , as long as there are people who love and serve humanity , on this planet earth, as Hippocratus put it centuries back.

WOMEN IN MEDICAL SCIENCES
(Article published in Calicut Medical college Magazine 1991.) It was only in 1972 that the New york Academy of sciences conducted the first ever conference for working women scientists. The second was conducted in 1978 by the association of women in sciences.(AWIS) constituted in 1971. The 1972 conference studied the lives of twelve distinguished women scientists. In a seminar conducted in 1979 , apart from essays and symposiums , the presentations of postdoctoral women on their outlook about life were also included. All of the participants were of the view that such discussions and meetings certainly help in assessing the problems faced by working women. Alice Kemp described Christine, one of the known 16 th century feminists as…”at the dawn of the 15 th century , she stood like a Janus , looking eagerly into the future and the past. she represented the changing era. However their writings showed their affinity towards orthodox . At the same time she could be seen struggling for the solution of innumerable unsolved problems with a free thinking. She is viewed as the personification of changing times.” We salute the glittering services rendered by the eminent doctors of Salerno medical college in the 11th century and the lady doctors of the ancient Egyptian civilizations. It is generally said that ladies are as good as gents in each and every science. .But is this really true? The Toqavalli published Democracy in America in 1830. Out of the 705 pages , only 6 pages were earmarked for science. However he was kind enough to spare 8 pages for women. But discussions were mainly on women as wives. A little was discussed about women education. Till 1960 admission was denied to women in Thomas Jefferson hospital. Admission to the Hopkinson medical school was open to women only when a conditional aid worth of five lakhs dollars was offered by Elizabeth Garatt Anderson. Admissions were prohibited to women in 28%of medical schools in 1934. Even in 1944, 9%of medical schools were labeled as exclusively for men. There was not even a single lady doctor in any of the hospitals of America . Till 1978 there was only one lady doctor as a professor in the department of medicine in England. In a list published in 1921 consisting of scientists in America, 504 were women out of which 50% belonged to biology and medicine. The percentage never remained constant. If it was 11 % in 1960, on elapsing 16 years in 1976 , 23.2% women were still working in biological sciences. Majorityy of them were in biochemistry, biology, genetics, anatomy, molecular biology and immunology. 59

It is seen that lady doctors preferred paediatrics , microbiology, preventive and social medicine, gynaecology etc.The statistics about US medical schools revealed that their contribution as academicians were meager.

Table 1.Percentage of men and women as academicians. Professional /academic post 1.Professor. 2.Associate professor. 3.Assistant Professor. Men% 96 91% 84 Women% 4 9% 16

However the semiskilled work force in the medical area was largely contributed by women. If you would construct a pyramid, 75% of the base will be occupied by women working under these categories with only 1% at the top positions. It would be interesting to analyse this strange reality. Olison assumes that it could be because women are easily controllable by authority and power. But Brown have the following observations. 1.women work more for lesser pay. 2.Unemployment is severe in women. 3.Generally women lack the following: .higher education .freedom from daily routine household work .respect from political and community leaders .socioeconomic reasons limit job opportunities to women .compared to other areas women are well paid in these services.

From medical students in San Francisco (1976) URSA (urban rural system association) revealed that women are less business oriented. The reasons why boys opted medical education were .financial security .comfortable life .dignity of service. Whereas women were interested mainly in .dignity of the profession. .freedom .the adventurous inspirations to serve.

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The following figures are based on a survey conducted by a group of our students in Calicut Medical College in 1987 (see table 2). Table 2.Motivational factors in medical students survey 1987 (calicut medical college) Motivation Male % Female % 1.Keenness to serve 16.48 19.02 2.Financial security 6.9 0.54 3.Dignity of profession. 13.03 3.8 4.As ameans to live 6.51 6.52 5.Real interest 10.73 22.28 6.Accidental 3.45 1.09 7.Items I, 2 &3 above 15.71 2.72 8.For freedom 0.38 0.54 9.Affinity for research 0.75 0.0 10.For a better prospect of marriage 0.38 0.54 11.Reason unknown 8.43 4.35 12.No response 17.25 38.59 There is 0% women interested in research and only 0.75 % men are interested in research.No wonder our contributions to the field is meager.It reflects the status of the present world of science of medicine.

Peter Principle.
The abilities of men are recognized quickly. Once recognized , the effort and enthusiasm to develop oneself gets retarded.This is called Peter principle. Even if women put maximum effort to come at par with men , it is seen that they get the deserving recognition much later. This could be a blessing in disguise as women are not coming under this peter principle. This will make them more creative and hard working . It is because of this only that man needs the service of his wife at home and a secretory at his office . In order to achieve the same level in terms of position , woman has to work twice as hard as that of man.I t was understood through a study conducted in western countries that women who reaches the higher echelon will have intelligence , hard working nature , curiosity for many things and ability to analyse meticulously compared to men because she has to struggle and overcome the society in order to come upto that level. Even then as rightly pointed out by Olsen, women are more envious , intolerant and shows a negative approach to other women in high positions. Women may tolerate another man who supercedes her. However she will never allow another woman to supercede her. If anyone has to achieve something , then he/she shall get enough opportunities for development as well as for sharing knowledge. As rightly pointed out by Olison, women occupying the higher slots , on recognition of leadership quality in others , instead of extending their possible help, try to put as much hindrance as possible. According to him, women should be able to understand the 61

potential of their women colleagues and work together. Socialisation of women should really come from women rather than from men. Rosaline Yalow , one of the Nobel laureates reminds us that for each and every achievement , there could be setbacks. In order to make discoveries , women have to make very hard mental exercises for hours resulting in loneliness during that period , which is inevitable. As she climbs the steps she will have to stay a little detached from the society. The reason is obvious. Neither time nor energy will be available with her for gossiping etc. Selfconfidence , courage and hard work guarantee success to anybody. IN KERALA. 1.Admissions are not banned for women in any of our medical colleges. 2.Pay and perks are at par with that of men. 3.In case of promotion woman is not considered as backward. 4.Ladies in large numbers are graduated from our colleges . It was feared that their number will come down consequent to introduction of the entrance examination. But it has been proved that the assumption was wrong. See the data and graph of calicut medical college admissions (table 3)

Table 3 statistics of medical students-calicut medical college. Sl.no: Year 195790 57-58 58-59 59-60 60-61 61-62 62-63 63-64 64-65 65-66 66-67 67-68 68-69 69-70 70-71 71-72 No of Male admissions 51 76 104 155 150 149 176 177 192 180 83 176 181 197 185 36 50 82 121 118 117 134 129 144 136 142 126 116 126 128
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Female Male % 15 26 22 34 32 32 42 48 48 44 41 50 65 71 57 70.6 65.8 78.9 78.1 78.7 78.5 76.2 72.9 75.0 75.6 77.6 71.6 64.1 64.0 69.2

Female % 29.4 34.2 21.1 21.9 21.3 21.5 23.8 27.1 25.0 24.4 22.4 28.4 35.9 36.0 30.8

1. 2. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

72-73 73-74 74-75 75-76 76-77 77-78 78-79 79-80 80-81 81-82 82-83 83-84 84-85 85-86 86-87 87-88 89-90 90-91

181 184 188 189 182 189 206 202 201 201 205 201 206 202 223 200 201 187

113 124 114 120 114 112 122 119 104 125 141 143 148 110 146 226 115 122

68 60 74 69 68 77 84 83 97 76 64 58 58 92 77 74 86 65

62.4 67.4 60.7 63.5 62.7 59.3 59.2 58.9 51.7 62.2 68.8 71.1 71.9 56.5 65.5 63.0 57.3 65.3

37.6 32.6 39.3 36.5 37.3 40.7 40.8 41.1 48.3 37.8 31.2 28.9 28.1 43.5 34.5 37.0 42.7 34.7

5.We had women as principals and professors coming mainly from nonclinical sides. In surgery and medicine the number of women are scarce. 6.The men and women in biological sciences and medicine are many but the substantial contributions to their respective fields of activity are less. 7.Legally and constitutionally speaking the women are given equal rights . And in that sense the women scientists are not a suffering class.We had distinguished ladies as Director of medical education. All of them from nonclinical side (A decade after this paper Dr Meenu Hariharan became DME so that at least one from the clinical side has come to the highest academic and administrative position) In other areas of science also women participation is comparatively less with respect to the population rates. The reasons are worth
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investigating . It could be because of “filters of society “ as pointed out by Earnst , or the “fights at different levels “suggested by Easthler. Some argue that the condition of women in vedic period was pathetic. They say that women like Maithreyi, Gargi or Ubhayabharathy were individual exceptions. I have a very simple answer to them. Even today, the number of such women could be counted on the fingers. But if one could manage to reach the top of the pyramid after passing through various filters , it means that she can be considered as one among the many trying to get to that position.There may be a big que of women having as much quest for knowledge as her.Whenever we remember a Maithreyi , a Gargi or Christine , we have to remember unknown thousands of subaltern identities behind them. Why is that we didn’t have a Nity Steevens or a Sabin among us? Why is that we are not able to acquire a historical personality which could be remembered after our retirement from service or even after retiring from this world itself? I presume that the answer to this is evident from the survey results given among the students in 1987. Certainly the road available to women scientists is not covered with roses. But they are being laid on the way , she has already traversed.! As said by the queen mother Kunthi in Vyasamahabhaaratha to her daughter in law Drowpathi !!! TABLE 4 Preclinical departments –Male and Female % in Academic and Nonacademic posts subject Acad post Anatomy 5 Biochemistry 5 Physiology 3 Microbiology 5 Pathology 8 M% 100 80 100 80 87.5 F% 0 20 0 20 12.5
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Nonacad (lecturer) 8 3 7 2 3

M% 50 66.7 57.12 50 35.3

F% 50 33.3 42.88 50 66.7

Pharmacology 4 Forensic 4 medicine Community 7 medicine

75 25 28.56

25 75 71.44

7 6 2

42.84 16.6 50

57.16 83.4 50

Table 5.Clinical department Academic and Nonacademic male and female % Academic poaitions Subject M % Medicine 94.2 Skin &VD 42.84 Other specialities Paediatrics 50 Ophthalmology 50 Surgery (includes specialities) 75 anaesthesia 75 pediatric surgery 100 physical medicine 50 gynaecology/obstretics 28.58 Nonacademic positions F% M% F% 5.8 100 O 57.16 50 50 50 50 25 25 0 50 71.42 50 50

40

60

9.09

90.91

References: 1.Annals of the New york academy of sciences.Volume 323.1979. 2.women in healthcare.Navarro.v.New England journal of medicine .Vol.292,1975,pp.398-402. 3.Productivity of women physicians.Heins.M.S.Smock,J.Jacobs,M.Stein.Journal
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of American medical association.Vol .236,1976,pp.19611964. 4.Oleson .V.1977.Reconceptualising leadership-lower status women and the exercise of power in health care settings.In proceedings of the conference on women’s leadership and authority in the health profession.pp.4353,dept of health,education,and welfare.Washington.DC. 5.survey –87 report.conducted by a group of medical students in calicut medical college . 6.calicut medical college calendar.1989.

WOMEN IN SCIENCES
In the history of mankind , women were always underrated and have been denied access to proper education and exposure to the scientific world . They did not get equal opportunities, like men , to work in the research activities. But the situation is changed now. Many women have proved that they are at par in intelligence with men . And they shine in research projects and sometimes outwits them. Opening out with the problems the women in sciences face in their fields of activity and stressing the unexplored talents of women in sciences, the present discussions would definitely help to encourage women professionals to actively involve in research activities by shedding the fear and uncertainty , which in turn will help us to better our status in society as scientists and thinkers. As a continuation of the subject studied as women in medical sciences I had sent a questionnaire to a few eminent women scientists and a few of them are given below . The discussions focus on four vital questions and their answers .

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*1.The future of women in sciences. Research challenges and opportunities. *2.Shortage of qualified female academicians *3.changing the status of women in sciences. *4.some of your personal experiences in your field of work.
Participants were Dr Sathiavathy , the director of ICMR , Dr Ayisha Guharaj , the DME, Dr Sara Vargheese , pathologist and educationist, and Dr (Mrs ) M.Lalithambika. The questionnaire was prepared and sent by Dr Suvarna Nalapat.The answers are given below :-

1.The future of women in sciences –research challenges and opportunities.
Dr Sathiavathy: During the last two decades the number , range and scope of women scientists in India have shown a definite upward swing . In most science fields , women have been exposed to enough opportunities and challenges particularly after reaching a certain level/status in their chosen field, depending on their own drive/ambition and ability to exploit opportunities. A. A. In the field of general science particularly related to teaching , however there still seems to be some kind of discrimination against women (in science as well as other areas) mainly because of the traditional distrust towards women’s ability as well as a lack of selfconfidence among women themselves. I do not believe however that there is overall shortage of qualified academicians. In my personal view , whenever such a shortage has occurred it is mainly at the higher executive level and not at the lower or middle levels. It is mainly because women in India , are still saddled with the dual responsibilities of handling efficiently their career as well as homes. An efficient woman executive (scientist or otherwise) is
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expected to run her home as efficiently , whereas this is not expected of a man (efficient or otherwise) !!! Many women therefore curb their ambitions and even sacrifice their careers to allow the husband to reach the top of his career (by not opting for promotions, refusing transfers , or even resigning the job if circumstances so demand.) B.Women scientists in general and biomedical scientists in particular have come to occupy important status and also play significant role in the mainstream of S&T activities in the last two decades. At present ,there are quite a few women professors and heads of departments and a few heads of organizations /agencies and even women vice chancellors in India. While individual experiences of women scientists may marginally differ from one situation to another and from one field to another , in general, however , women has been recognized as a force to reckon within the scientific field. In the field of medical sciences , from the outset, among the clinical disciplines , two areas were traditionally identified as eminently suitable for women viz., obstretics and gynecology , and paediatrics (which basically deal with women and children as patients). It is only in the last two decades that women medical scientists have dared to venture into the hitherto male-dominated clinical disciplines , such as general surgery, cardiothoracic surgery , E.NT, Radiology etc. In the field of basic medical sciences such as physiology , Anatomy, pharmacology, pathology , microbiology, biochemistry etc however , there has been no discrimination between the sexes. There is no forum /body dealing with the problems of women medical scientists in India, although there are a few bodies exclusively for women scientists , in general. The future of women scientists in India , therefore, has to be shaped by the women concerned themselves. Dr Ayisha Guharaj: The general consensus is that women cannot do much in science and research. Research is the sheet anchor in the scientist’s career. The academic pursuit is maintained only by posing research questions. A woman’s identity as a scientist is the least outspoken in the contemporary society. She is well earmarked for many other jobs, which needs the soft touch and tender care –the nursing, receptionist, confidential assistant and such jobs. The traditional role of women is to reproduce and to be the nodal unit of
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the family . In addition to this, the working women has to concentrate on her official duties also. Neither in the home nor in the office she is free to have a relaxed and academically searching mind to develop herself as a scientist. Added to this is the patriarchal relations of the society which suppress the needs and freedom of women. In the midst of these familial and social life the scientist woman has to develop her career. Thanks God! Still there is a long list before us of those: a few examples are Madam curie, Sheila Sherlock, cicely Williams, Barbare Machuthode etc. Though the list is very long , on scrutiny we see that a few of them are unmarried or at least have an extraordinarily understanding husband. Because women in general have more concentrating power and perseverance, women scientists make better achievements than their opposite sex inpar. Because they know the family problems better, their approach to scientific queries is more humane and their social commitment , deeprooted.This results in covetable academic achievements , because they are the least politicized , their research findings are the least biased. Research about women in science should critically analyse the patriarchic dominance of man in society. May be in medicine, psychology, engineering, and agriculture. In all these fields , patriarchal influence should be questioned. The scope for further research is unlimited. Special problems faced by women scientists –limitations, familial lives, social lives, negligence and discriminations and the basis of gender , special advantages in doing scientific work all should be studied in depth. Dr (Mrs )M.Lalithambika: I feel the future of women in scientific research is definitely bright. The best brains both men and women choose mostly science as their field of interest-medical, engineering or basic sciences like mathematics, physics, chemistry, life sciences etc. But 95% of them , once a career is chosen, as a teacher or an employee in a factory or an industry loose interest and opportunity for a research career. Only those who are employed in Research organizations pursue research seriously. In many research organizations like Indian Institute of science , Bangalore, IITs, NCL, Poona, VSSC Trivandrum the percentage of women scientists is steadily increasing.(These are some organizations I am familiar with.).

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Dr Sarah Vargheese: Future of women in sciences especially in research is very promising. 1.The policy of government of India is encouraging women in various walks of life is conducive for research. It is very suitable for the Indian women since it could combine their dual responsibilities of home and the job especially if some degree of flexibility is given and if the goal is achieving objectives and not work place or time. However help and support from the organisation so that the family unit is not affected should gain priority in such jobs. The long term effect of granting this support wil be beneficial especially with the small family unit. 2.The mental makeup of the Indian woman for hard work , discipline and dedication certainly suits job related to research 3.The highly qualified women could be encouraged to take up assignments , and projects in research so that it may not affect the dual responsibility of the home and job. 4.Educated women are increasing in number especially in the metropolitan cities and their talents are not being tapped by the male-dominated society. 5.opportunities are many especially when research and development in various fields like industries and other academic activities are manifold and it is for the woman to find out about these areas and accept it as a challenge ,and on the part of government organizations to plan out such activities for women.

2.SHORTAGE OF QUALIFIED FEMALE ACADEMICIANS Dr Ayisha Guharaj: The general feeling in our society is that certain professions are for women and certain are for men. A few examples of those earmarked for women are nurses, airhostess, teacher, receptionist, stenographer etc. Among these , the university teachers are the ones to become academicians . Many of the female academicians have proved themselves to be the best academicians.The academicians like U.R. Ananthamoorthy are quiting from the administrative positions whereas the females retain such posts showing better patience and tolerance.
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Even in the same profession –as for example the medical profession, there is a feeling that Forensic medicine , surgery and orthopaedics are specialities where females are poor performers . But nowadays females have proved to be excellent in these professions also. Many have written standard textbooks also. Some institutions are in shortage of sincere and honest academicians and the departmental work becomes a sheer mess. The weakness of men academicians serves the departments to the bottom. Some of them are alcoholics. Some are “too social” that they are never seen in the department. Some are too busy politicians that they seldom get time to do their professional job. At least few of them are too much politicized to become equally controversial also. These weaknesses which create a lot of chaos in the department seldom affects the female academicians and the only way to save our academic departments is to bring them to the top. Dr Lalithambika: Since our society gives a lot of importance for marriage , the girl’s first preference is to get married. For a proper alliance a permanent job (which should be transferable in certain cases and nontransferable in others) is preferred. Once married, they are confronted with lot of family problems. They are not able to continue the pursuit for excellance. This is true for ladies in every field, and particularly in the academic activity, where pursuit for excellance is essential for a successful career. Dr Sarah Joseph:There is certainly shortage of qualified women academicians because: 1.The whole system is male-dominated. 2.The social academic credibility for women is in a way full of pitfalls. 3.The family responsibility and the drop in joint family has lead to the small family units so that the dual responsibility of the
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women lead to problems so that many women are not able to realize and achieve their goals with their talents.

3.CHANGING STATUS OF WOMEN IN SCIENCES.
Dr Lalithambika: Women’s status in science is improving. In fact it is worth mentioning that in the Kerala science congress held in February 1990, at Trivandrum , more than 50% of the technical presentations were by ladies. In the Indian science congress held recently among the four honoured scientists , one was a woman. Dr Sarah Vargheese: Yes. There is certainly a change in the status of women in sciences but still the male-dominated society do not give adequate social standing for women scientists. Moreover the women too, shy away from such academic fields due to family responsibility and poor support from their spouses and from the society.The social set up in India is still way behind and only very few women utilize their education and talents. Dr Ayisha Guharaj: The status of women in society was of a provider , protector and caretaker in the family. In the primitive tribal society women were center of all worship. In the matrilineal society the women was the center of property inheritance. The feudalist class considered women as a material wealth-the beautiful ladies as chauffeurs of the upper class lords and the working class women as the oppressed group to work and procreate a neverending capital. The industrialist society also tries to exploit women by considering her as biologically and socially submissive. Even in the present day transitional society , stories of torturing womanhood is a very common reality around us. The woman’s oppression is justified by the supposed biological inferiority. The major civilizations have fallen down and the universe is under the influence of western culture and modern science and
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technology .The global threat of nuclear catastrophe exists.The problem of overpopulation, the gap between the haves and havenots , the healthy and the unhealthy, and the exploiters and the exploited, are becoming more and more wide. Overpopulation, industrial technology, and overexploitation of nature have contributed in various ways to degeneration.Thank God, a woman only wrote the book “the silent spring”which discusses a part of this reality. The feudalist way of oppressing the women is still seen in certain parts of the society. It is said that what is called Masculine and Feminine psychology is not so much rooted in biological difference between man and woman but are essentially consequences of the social order prevailing under patriarchy. Thanks to the feminists, though not to the extent of extreme fetichism , it has certainly explored a few social evils to the light. The story of Rip Van Vincle was brought to light by the feminist group only. Other factors contributing to the upliftment of status of women are universal education , trade union movements and reservations for women in the public sector.

4.SOME OF YOUR PERSONAL EXPERIENCES IN YOUR FIELD OF WORK
Dr sathiavathy: As stated earlier, the personal experiences of women scientists depend upon the specific environments and situations/circumstances in which a particular woman scientist worked during the formative years of her career. I did most of my postgraduate and postdoctoral work at the Banarus Hindu University, Varanasi, (which is rather a backward place in common with other parts of eastern U.P) where women do face considerable difficulties due to male chauvanism. I did encounter harassment firstly because , at that time, I was not married (which was considered strange by UP.Wallas) and secondly my earlier research on Gum guggul was considered to constitute a
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“breakthrough” in scientific evaluation of Ayurvedic concepts /remedies and therefore aroused considerable jealousy , rivalry etc.It was mainly a sense of commitment , strengthened by a determination to succeed against all odds that made me go through this difficult period. This experience , however, endowed me with adequate toughness and prepared me for the future challenges in my scientific career and to know what a successful career woman need to expect throughout her career. After getting into the mainstream of biomedical research as a career , in India, while I myself have not faced any specific instance of discrimination as a woman (particularly in promotional avenues , opportunities etc) there have been occasions when I am left with a distant feeling that a woman scientist is not always given due credit for her own merits/abilities, but is subjected to a sort of supercilious reaction from male colleagues that “ because one happens to be a woman , success has perhaps been easier “.Thus even when a woman scientist has reached the top by her individual merit, there are instances where her colleagues (male as well as females) pass it off as due to the use of feminine “guiles” , ”influence”” luck” or other factors not related to one’s individual merit. I am afraid however that partly this is due to the behaviour and attitude of some of the woman scientists themselves. To one like me , who was born in a family of several children (mainly male siblings) sex differentiation was never encountered as a problem at home or even in education to the undergraduate level. It is only after reaching a particular level/status that I became conscious of being a ‘WOMAN SCIENTIST” AND HENCE TREATED DIFFERENTLY. Strangely , however, in India, men do not normally express surprise when they meet successful women scientists occupying a top position. In my dealings with male foreign scientists , however, I was always been amazed (and often annoyed) by their expression of surprise , disbelief and even shock when they realize that they did not expect to meet a woman in that position! On such
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occasions , when I asked why the gentleman was so surprised, the incredible answer was that, ”but in all your letters, you sounded so efficient , confident and professional-like a man!” More often than not, however , in the course of my routine work, I am not conscious of the fact that I am a woman scientist. It is only instances of male chauvanism and female rivalry that remind me of the fact that I am a woman scientist! (I, Dr Suvarna Nalapat share exactly the same views as Dr Sathiavathy in these matters.) Dr Sarah Vargheese: On an overall basis , I would consider my personal experiences as fairly fruitful. In my early academic life, there was certainly preferential treatment towards men so that there was delay in my academic career. However , gradually though there was considerable family responsibilities and male dominance in the activities , I was able to partially express my talents in my professional life. In the administrative set up though there were some problems initially , gradually there was considerable cooperation and I would say confidently that there was absolutely no discrimination towards me. In fact I would put it as “better cooperation due to psychological reasons from men towards women”. This does not mean that there have not been problems especially in the family front which occasionally has given me a sense of guilt because I am working. However, this might have occurred even if I would not have been working. These learning experiences of a working woman with dual responsibilities certainly calls for greater talents , abilities, and hard work and with support from the family , political setup and the organizations more women could contribute to the progress of science. Dr Lalithambika: I started my research career at IIT Kanpur, accepted a job as scientist in National chemical laboratory, Pune (one of the laboratories under the council of scientific and industrial research). Nearly 10 years back, I took a transfer to regional research laboratory ,Trivandrum .In all these places , I got
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all opportunities a man could get. Never did I experience any discrimination. As per the charter of the laboratory presently I am working in the utilization of the local resources (clay and other ceramic raw materials). Since my group can transfer our funding to industries the industries appreciate our work .This gives job satisfaction. Dr Ayisha Guharaj:The most memorable occasion in my community health practice was an event of health education to the train travelers. I repeatedly contacted them , and advised them to stop tobacco chewing and smoking . Just because of my counseling they stopped smoking and changed their lifestyle. Some of them are still in contact with me . I think changing the lifestyle by at least one person by the influence of me is a great achievement in my life. Similarly I had the experience of sharing the suffering of the people , when a gastroenteritis epidemic exploded in the area. I was alone and the only medical person available there.Within a short time , I trained the local persons and even without any facilities I could organize to start intravenous fluid for the needy. Thus I could prevent mortality and further morbidity. The exposure to such extreme poor in their time of suffering was an exciting experience in my life. I still remember how the anxious and deadly faces became normal and lively after rehydration. The next noteworthy experience in my life was that of winning the confidence and respect of my colleagues in Medical college , calicut. When I took charge as principal, the institution was full of different groups of people (students as well as staff) with opposing ideas and diverging relations. I spite of this vivid circumstances , I could develop confidence in my associates and delegate much of my responsibilities to them so that I could lead the institution to much work and prosperity.The most referable instance of this was a survey done by the medical students. The medical students and even a part of the regular staff were motivated to do the survey. They were popular in the campus as the most mischievous group .
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They have successfully done the survey. This work gave insight to the fact that even the most mischievous student if engaged in some good work can be changed to a good student.

YOGADARSHANA
Yoga is a science of life. An art of understanding the soul and its unity with the entire universe and maintainance of that harmony throughout life. A systematic practice which improves our awareness , develop our willpower, -a complete process of personality development and perfection by merging with the universal self , which some people call God and others call cosmic consciousness , and still others a force or a sakthy. Whatever you call, or call not, there is some force which binds the multitudes of universes and the ability of the human mind to perceive its harmonious music. Yoga is a darsana , which means a direct perception . In Tamil literature we find four types of perceptions. 1.Vaayirkaatchi.Perception through the doors of the physical senses. 2.Manakaatchi.Mental perceptions. 3.Thanvedanaikaatchi.Through experiences of pain and pleasure ,you have some aquired intellectual perceptions about the world. 4.Yogakaatchy.Yogadarshana,is the perception of the absolute truth or reality through an intense state of concentration on the subject. There are four methods of yoga to achieve the yogadarshana. Though mentioned as four different methods they are having a superposed and an overlapping nature between each other. 1.Raajayoga. 2.Gnaanayoga (the way of knowledge and wisdom pursued by the intellectuals) 3.Bhakthyyoga.(the way of love and devotion practiced by the emotional and romantic seekers) 4.Karmayoga.(the way of action and reaction followed by the others who cannot follow the above mentioned methods.) All are methods to attain the superconscious states of cosmic consciousness. Each has to follow the ashtaangamaarga (the way of 8 steps.) The Raajayoga is especially prescribed for those who are adept yogis. Here the Raajayoga is described in some detail for those who are not aware of it.

Raajayoga.
Raajayoga has eight steps.It forms part of ancient Indian traditional system of medicine and philosophy which are inseparable. Of the eight steps , the first two , yama and niyama encompass the moral ethical codes of all the world religions and has the ten commandments (5 in yama and 5 in niyama). These are prescribed for all individuals, irrespective of caste, creed or sex, for a better way of living, peaceful and happy. 1.Yamam. This includes Ahimsa:one should not harm any living thing with deeds, words or mind. 77

Satyam –Truthfulness. Asteyam.Do not covet /steal other people’s belongings Brahmacharyam. The state of celibacy and onepointed devotion to God. Aparigraham. Do not receive gifts or bribes that will make you under obligation to others. These five moral codes of conduct are essential for all people. 2.Niyamam

Of the rules (niyama) the first one is purely medical , pertaining to the physical and mental cleanliness required by a yogi. Shoucham. cleanliness of body by daily baths , care of teeth and mouth etc are baahyashoucha or external cleanliness. Aantharashoucha (internal cleanliness) is cleaning your mind and thoughts from bad thoughts, lust, egocentric emotions, dual feelings etc. This will give you a equanimity in pain and pleasure. Santhosham. Be contented with what we have and be happy always. When you have achieved this state you are beyond dualities like pain and pleasure. Thapam. This is the control of your body and senses by selfeffort. Get mastery over the Id or the pleasure principle and the ego. By austerity (thapa) a thermostasis and homeostasis is attained by the brain so that it becomes quite and receptive to knowledge. Swadhyaayam. The study of books/scriptures etc which help you to understand the transitory nature of the universe. You can resort to the veda, Upanishad, Gita, brahmasoothra, Koran, Bible, Dhammapath or any other scripture you feel like. Study the book you chose thouroughly and think about it, learn the truth of the universe, and then compare with the other scriptures and knowledge systems and arrive at a conclusion is the method of swaadhyaya or self study. Iswarapranidhaanam.The total surrender to God /Guru .Guru is the embodiment of Iswara. Gurubhakthy is crucial for Naadalayayoga tradition of Indian Karnatic music like the other traditions of India. A living sadguru is considered as the living Avathaara of God in human form and complete surrender to the Guru is equivalent to surrender to God. 3.Aasanam There are 84 aasanaas described in yoga for the 84 types of Jeevakoti (lifeforms).There are Hathayogis who practice these for different types of sidhi (gains). Pathanjali prescribed “Sthirasukham aasanam”which means you can take a posture which is most comfortable to you and in which you don’t have the danger of falling or being disturbed by any external stimuli. It would be better if you can keep the spine straight so that the current can flow through the nerve centers in the spine uninterruptedly up and down from the moolaadhaara to the sahasraara. People have misunderstood that yoga means the yogaasana. This is not so. Aasana is only one of the 8 units of the yoga. A means adopted for an end. Most often those who practice aasana do not reach the endpoint of yoga (the laya or samadhi) the merging with the absolute truth. They get some minor sidhi or other and stops there .On the other hand , even without practicing the acrobatic aasanaas , one may have yogadarshana , like the naadayogin Tyaagaraaja.

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4.Pranaayaamam. The control of the physical breath is popularly called praanaayaama. It also includes control of psychic breath , the universal life principle , the praana. The psychic method of control of Praana is by concentration on a particular subject. When mind is concentrated on a particular subject , we forget our physical state , our breathing stops naturally or the breathing becomes internal without external sign of life and we go into a samaadhi state. This can happen when you are concentrating on your lover, on your research subject, music or art, contemplating on your ishtadevatha, and so on. Hence praanaayaama naturally leads to Pratyaahaara , the next stage or step in the yogasaadhana and then to the last 3 steps in order.. 5.Pratyaahaara. Now the mind is introspective. It is directed to one particular object , say classical music (naadayoga). If you can hold the concentration onto it for twelve seconds then it becomes dhaarana. Needless to say that the object of concentration can be any art /science/ idol/ deity/symbol/name/manthra/ or anything or anyone you are in love with. 6.Dhaarana When you can hold mind on a particular object irrespective of all the external disturbances and difficulties around and think about it deeply , then your mind is concentrated and it is dhaarana. You can have this not only in a particular aasana which is your practicing stage but also in a crowded busstop, train, in your own home in the midst of a thousand household duties , just as the Gopis of vrindaavan experienced when they concentrated on Krishna. If the dhaarana persists for a certain length of time our mind flows to the object in an unbroken current , as oil poured from one vessel to another , as Pathanjali puts it. This is then called a meditation or dhyaanam. 7.Dhyaanam Twelve dhaarana make up one dhyaanam. That is 144 seconds of uninterrupted concentration on one subject is called a dhyaanam or meditation. (2 minutes and 24 seconds is the minimum time of concentration on a subject to be called a dhyaanam). 12 Such dhyaanams (144 X 12=1728 seconds) is a samadhi.1728 is the minimum number of seconds for a samadhi. It is the satyayuga number of Indians. And is related to astronomy, mathematics, music of the spheres and of the bioenergy fields. 1728 seconds mean 28 minutes and 40 seconds.(slightly less than half an hour) If you can concentrate your mind on a subject for this time period you are ready to pass on to samaadhi. 8.Samaadhi The superconscious state that transcends the realm of the finite world where time and space vanish , we go beyond words and thoughts , to the foundation of all existence where all questions are answered and all doubts cleared. During saadhna, the saadhaka gets some powers or sidhi which are fascinating , and they are not to be lured by them. They have to ignore the sidhy and proceed to the highest level where jeevaathma merge 79

with paramaathma , the God or the universal force. 68 such sidhis are listed , one among them being the healing power. That is why yoga is part of ayurveda, and of naadalaya. Both the musicians and the ayurveda physicians depended upon the praana and its healing powers. All minds are part of the cosmic mind and healing power is latent in all minds. It manifest only in those who try or practice to get it. Budha, Krishna, Christ,Tyaagaraaja etc had it in them.. When Jesus said, ”Be thou whole” a leper was cured. Lazarus came into life with his beckoning. Kubja was cured by the touch of Krishna. He gave life to the embryo within the womb of princess Uthara by uttering the words”if I had been a Naishtic Brahmachaari throughout my life, let this seed come to life again.”

Just with a thought healing can occur. Thirugnaanasambandhar , Tyaagaraaja, Vaidyanaathan shivan cured with their music .
The healing power of the naadalayayogi is made use of in Indian music therapy. WHAT YOGA TEACHES. Samatwam yoga uchyathe. Says the Gita. Pathanjali said:- maithri, karuna ,mudithopekshanam sukhadukha punyaapunya vishayaanaam bhaavana Thaschithaprasaadanam. Friendship to the entire humanity , mercy or compassion to all living/nonliving things , content and happiness, indifference to dualities like pain and pleasure , praise and scoldings gives one chithaprasaadam (peace and ecstasy of mind). Gita also says that the yogy goes to prasaadam (prasaadam adhigatchathi) Lakshmy, the consort of Vishnu in Lakshmy ashtotthara is prasaadaabhimukhim prabhaam. Prasaadam or divine ecstacy is present only in a healthy mind and body according to Ayurveda. The prasadam you get from the temple authorities is just a symbol of it and is nowhere near the prasaada you get from yourselves, through a devoted life. Direct the mind to a divine cause , and we get prasaada , a state of perfect health and bliss, physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual. Friendly attitude and compassion to all living things is natural to us but we have to cultivate it permanently .Christ said, ”do unto others as you wish others would do unto you”. That means returning good for good. But he also said, to return good for evil. If anyone harms you, return good to them. Confucius , Lao-tse, and Budha taught the same. Vedantha and Upanishads taught it.The greatest benefactor to the world is the spiritual teacher who teaches to return good for evil. The one who teaches to love the people who harm us. That is why people all over the world love Budha, Christ etc. Christ was not a multimillionaire who could sign a cheque for a million dollar. But Rockfeller could. Yet we love Christ but not Rockfeller. We do not respect Budha because he was the son and heir of king Sudhodana. But because the prince abandoned his wealth and power to teach compassion to humanity, to love the entire creation as himself.

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People say that Christ and Budha are exceptions and nobody can become like that. But science do not accept exceptions. If somebody can achieve something, that potential must be in all human beings as a biological heritage. It is a universal law of nature. If we try , we can also do what the great teachers did. Provided it is done in the proper way. We should have experimental proof. Kapila and Pathanjali were scientists who did experiments on spirituality and came up with a universal system of practice and experimentation of spirituality. Pathanjali did the experiments done earlier by his ancestors before him and then codified the ways and the results. (data, in scientific language) and this rational philosophic and logical scientific method is still acceptable to the entire world. Because it is universal and anyone can experiment it and experience the change in oneself. The energy in us is harnessed and concentrated for doing good things in this world. What we experience in samaadhi is a revelation or a yogadarshan which changes your outlook, your personality for the better. A perfect state of peace is born in you, a Christ is born in you, as swami abhedaananada, a colleague and friend of swamy vivekaananda puts it. Yoga awakens kundalini, the mother of all higher perceptions . In the spinal cord there are centers for the different nerve plexuses. These anatomical centers are the chakraas of the yogi. It is through these chakraas the motor and sensory nerves branch out and go to different organs . There are sensory and motor centers and pathways for the heart, lungs, digestive organs, and so on. These nerve centers are radiant , since nerve impulses are radiating from them and to them, as light rays from the sun. The lower end of the spine (moolaadhaara) or the sacral plexus and the highest center , the sahasraara in the brain intercommunicate through the middle centers and electromagnetic currents pass through them always , continuously . The efferent and afferent /centripetal and centrifugal forces cross each other and reach brain centers and hence the entire kundalini has the form of two coiled radiant , resplendent serpents . When yogi regulates vibrations of molecules in the body , they vibrate in harmony with the rhythm of the praana , generate the strong currents and the yogic body becomes something like a gigantic battery and that is why a room where the yogi sits is vibrating with good vaasanaas and everyone feels the vibrations. The physical is transmuted to the mental , intellectual , spiritual and vice versa , because they are not different forces but different manifestations of the same force. Just as heat, light, and electromagnetism are interchangeable forms of the same energy .The difference is only in degree. In sunlight there is electricity, magnetism, soundwaves, xray, gamma ray, laser and photons, bosons, and fermions. The current emanating from a yogi also contain these vibrating forces of the highest order. This is in relation to the harmonious rhythm of the universe .We talk of rhythm , and hence the naadayoga which is really control of praana itself. The state is attainable easily by nadayogi who concentrates on Karnaatic music. The music allow us toget the same vibrations which were felt by the ancient seers and yogins. For this the musician should have complete and perfect samyama and control of senses and the listener also should have this. Laya is attained in the superconscious state which is the full 81

manifestation of pure consciousness . Dhaarana or holding the mind on a certain subject by constant practice (saadhakam) and dhyaana on it takes the musician to a state of perfect samaadhi or superconsciousness. Vishnu or Krishna , the embodiment of saamaveda , is the naadabrahman, which merges with the saadhaka . There are many other paths that a saadhaka can take. The path of love and devotion (bhakthy) allow you to concentrate on a personal God (or impersonal). The idol is only a pratheeka (symbol) or prathima on which you concentrate to reach the absolute. Every idol-worshipper knows that. One can give a name to that lover-may it be Krishna, shiva, devi, Christ, or allah or whichever name you like. It could even be contemplated as nothingness without name or form if you have an exceptional intelligence to concentrate without a symbol . The path of karma allows one to concentrate on one’s work, profession and achieve excellance in it. The path of gnaana makes one concentrate on research activities and enquiry into truth. But each has the same goal though the methods differ, and if we realize this there is no controversy or rivalry in religions . Whatever is the path , the ultimate experience is sruthilaya. Sruthi also means veda. Laya also means merging. Hence this word has a meaning applicable to both vedanthins and naadalayayogins practicing music. The jeeva has to merge with Paramaathma. The revelation Aham brahmaasmi is the laya state. It is the anal Haq of the sufi. Knowing is being. Brahmavid Brahmaiva bhavathy, Says vedaantha. Hence yoga is a science of attaining the perfect state. But there are many people who practice yoga to get some desired results , and their number is increasing day by day. People practice yoga to pass time , to run business, to cure disease, etc. These are only some results that come during the process of doing the yoga and are not the ultimate aims of yoga.

A few dos and donts in yoga life.
1. Eat only pure desirable food which is nourishing and which will keep your body and mind in good condition since body is the boat that helps you to cross the ocean of life and death. Food makes your organs healthy, and as the organs get finer , the perceptions get finer too. 2. Avoid the company of people who will drag your concentration away from your goal. Like people who are immersed in physical pleasures. People with strong id personalities, people with strong ego personalities etc. Try to have company of people with superego and self personalities. (Those who respect the elders and the ancestors, the teachers, and those who lead a simple life and have high thinking) This is called sathsangam (company of the noble people). 3. Give up arguments that distract your mind. Do not discuss spiritual lessons and instructions with people who do not want them . Let them find out paths suitable for themselves. Do not force your views on others. If there people who wants to force their views on you, just leave their company. 4. Spirituality is not a mere study of books and scriptures. Though that will help you in spiritual progress . It is not mere temple/ mosque/ church/ 82

gurudwaara going either. It is not mere observances of customs dogmas and codes of conduct laid by various religions . It is a constant ideal, an urge within you. Just all radii of a circle meet at the center , all rivers meet the ocean , all ideals of all living things merge with the center , the God or the universal force/sakthy .The only difference is that we use different methods, different courses. Respect everybody’s ideal, every body’s method, have friendly and compassionate thoughts to everyone, and do not disturb world peace or peace of society we live in , by our words, deeds or thoughts.

Prakaasha and vimarsha
Our mind is part of the universe (prakrithy). It has two aspects , the prakaasha and vimarsha. Prakasha is the all resplendent state of energy where we do not feel any movement or vibration and this is the nirvikalpa or niraakaara , nirayana state of Brahman. It may look like empty /zero because it has no spacetime, movement, cause and effect etc.
Vimarsham is the vibrating aspect , moving ,everchanging ,with a rhythm of its own , making universal laws possible. This aspect is experiencable by us. It may be an immeadiate fresh experience (present-varthamaana-jaagrad) old memories (past or bhootha, smrithy )and mental coordination of all such experiences (anusandhaanam). Sushupthy is Prakaasha or nirvikalpa, and jaagrad is savikalpa, saayana state of mind and of universe. Darshans during sushupthy and samaadhi are actually the visions of the self , which is still and meditative in an alpha, theta brain wave state. Because of this the yogi constantly watches himself in sushupthy and samaadhi states and records th evisions that come to him so that he can understand his personality and the world around better. Everything is energy. E=MC2 .everything is everywhere .(sarvam sarvaathmakam .Pathanjali) Yogic and sleep darshans were systematically analysed by our ancestors in India, China ,Egypt, Babylonia, and Assyria ,and this science is now coming back into the world of science as Psychoanalysis of dreams (Freud and Jung).Whenever there is creativity there is vibration or movement.. But it is the movementless state of samaadhi which gives you potential to become a creator. If movement is creativity, it is created by the movementless. These two are called the female and male principles .Both coexist. Samaadhi is an experience beyond all vibrations, all measures, all words, and thoughts and nirvana is this state of perfect consciousness from which flow all creations ,all vibrations , all with name and form. Therefore, we cant separate male /female. shiva/ sakthy, and they are inseparable twins. The object of the realization is first a samavaakya (equation) and an equation is ultimately an identity. Sankara explains this with only 3 concepts. Brahma, Jeeva ,and Jagath. 83

1.Brahma=truth 2.Suppose jagath =illusion. 3.Jeeva=a part of jagath=Brahma.

4.Therefore , Brahma=jeeva=Jagath=Truth.
5.Or it has to be Brahma=jeeva=jagath=illusion. Either the 4th or th e5th equation has to be true. We as Jeevaathmaas feel we exist, and the universe exist, and therefore for us, jeeva and the world exist (are truths ) Therefore, we can come to the conclusion that the 4 th equation is truth, and that the second supposition (equation 2)and equation 5 derived out of it has to be false. In this way, the aasthiks (the one who says that everything exist-asthi) come to the conclusion that there is existence of a God or Brahma. I don’t say that I don’t exist, and that I am an illusion or that the world around me does not exist. Therefore, I as a jeeva is truth, and hence the prakrithi of which I am part is also truth. This being true to all living and nonliving things, I mathematically give equations as above and philosophically assert the view as, Sarvam khalidam Brahma.

Aham Brahmaasmi.
Sarvam Brahmamayam. Isavaasyam idam sarvam. All matter is energy and there is nothing but energy and energy is the truth (satyam ) and light (chith) In the equations the harmonious merging of jeeva with the absolute in samaadhi , or in sushupthy (praagna) is shown. It is the direct experience of a perfect yogi. Therefore , understand yoga as a perfect method of attaining self realization of the highest order by direct perception. All veda, vedaatha,and religions of the world , spiritual experiments of various people and scientific researchers in every part of the world depend upon the solid rock of concentrating our energy on an idea or subject and that is what yoga is all about. Do not misunderstand it as a series of acrobatics or physical training alone. That makes only one of the steps of the yoga. Even without that people can achieve samadhi, and be a true yogi.

MEDICAL ETHICS (Invited lecture at Yenepoya Medical college-Kodial Bail,Mangalore-1998) Dr Suvarna Nalapat (Retd Prof &HOD Pathology of Amrita institute of medical sciences and research center) CONTENTS 1.Introducing the subject. 2. Gestalt. 84

3.How to decrease frustration? 4.Satisfaction in life 5.How do you work and learn? In 1925, in the “Young India “, a patriotic magazine of MahatmaGandhi was mentioned 7 social sins. These were 1.politics without principles 2.wealth without work 3.pleasure without conscience 4.knowledge without character 5.commerce without morality 6.science without humanity 7.worship without renunciation of Ego. We are witnessing all these social sins today.I restrict my views to general ethics for humanity with a capital E for medical ethics, as far as we doctors are concerned. Science without humanity is the social sin that we as doctors should try to eliminate first, from our professional sphere of activity. How can we do this? 1.we need examples/models among us for the younger generations to emulate. 2.we need a curriculum of medical ethics incorporated into all university programmes of medical education, and this should be a part of an institute of in Healthcare. As an introduction to this scheme which I have in mind, we deal with the ethics which is energy behind all good actions. Is there a formula like E=MC2 , for every doctor to follow or think about regarding his professional ethical excellance? E=e3-F would be an alternative . When there are Frustrations in the environment (society) we live, our enthusiasm is taken away from us and whatever is our expertise and experience in profession we fail miserably in having a 100% Efficiency (E)..Can we ever get out of the frustarating malpractices of our profession? Can our profession become beneficial to society by enforcing a medical ethics which can be of use to everyone in the society?

Gestalt
Based on Gestalt psychological studies I give an emphatic answer YES . Gestalt is a set of patterns. A dynamic system within a dynamic system acting upon each other. We learn from the world around. Thus we change our views and attitudes to life, we educate ourselves, and by our learning, wisdom and experience we can change the world around from which we have imbibed our knowledge .Our environment gives us values, its good and bad aspects which we imbibe . Individual , in turn, can contribute to the sociopolitical , economical, spiritual, and cultural environment by actions, thoughts, speeches. (karma,manas,vaacha) .Prophets and great personalities were doing this. Every individual has the potential to do this. If such a personality is amongst us, he/she is an asset to us, to the world, nation, state, to institutions, and to homes where they live and work. We have an E-economic environment , P-political environment, c-cultural environment , S-social environment around us in our homes, schools , colleges and 85

our nation and world , and also a wider natural and cosmic field or environment .We can contribute by our deeds,words, and thoughts to all these fields or any one of them . Art and science are the signs of such contributions to society at large by individuals and group of individuals. Social contagion theory of Alport is worth mentioning in this context. A person with a strong ethical background is the real cream of society, not the one who has got into a particular profession. Such creams of society should be there in the healing art. Medicine is not a mere science as the medical professionals (many of them!!!!) think, it is a science and art combined. It heals the wounds of the body and mind and the wounds inflicted by the environment on the human organism as a whole. It is a profession concerned with healing of body, mind,intellect and the soul. A purifying act . A noble profession ,indeed!! Therefore , the dire need to recognize our role in society . Everyone knows that ethics should be part and parcel of human life to have a good social life. But many do not know how to apply that to day to day life, especially in a corporate , competitive world, where the morally strong and disciplined people are sidelined and marginalized by the clever and the immoral. It is here that we should understand the golden formula , I mentioned earlier. E=e 3 –f.

How to decrease the f factor or frustration?
1.By concentrating on your professional excellance, improving the quality of work done in profession. 2.By concentrating on a universal language through which you can communicate to all-(Music.) as a healing art. 3.By understanding and practicing the golden rule of all ethics (including medical ethics) is that nature and human life is a divine blessing –a sacred precious opportunity to love and serve others and thus to participate in a divine plan. Remembering that all of us are children of God, will alter our relationships and make our Karma better, and we feel that we are serving the divine sparks of nature by our karma/profession. By this feeling we ourselves are manifesting our divine nature. If one does not believe in God, even then by performing a profession as a chance for serving and healing and protecting all life forms and of nature , we elevate ourselves . Naturally it follows that a doctor practicing profession with a feeling that all are children of the same power ( God/Nature ) cannot discriminate them on the basis of caste, creed, sex, or social status. They are needy, approaching to be served , and he/she the healer of pains, (bodily, mentally or intellectually.) They are the less fortunate children, and she/he the more fortunate one to have had a chance to serve them. The daasa or daasi of God, who heal the children of God. The daasa in Arabic is translated as the Abdul of God, who heal with love, compassion, (medical) knowledge. In Budhist and Brahmanical traditions the mahaabhishak (great doctor) with a bhinnachakshu (different view). Through the spirit of service and love we keep alive the spirit of God . We eliminate hatred, jealousy, quarrels, classwars and religious persecutions, (the opposing qualities 86

which spring from our ego, known as Kaama in Budhist and Indian traditions , satan in semitic traditions) from society. Thus reduce the pains of society. By removing the opposing or negative qualities in oneself, we can eliminate them from society. Our selfishness makes us think that we need everything best. We want every luxury. And every profession has become just a means to get them. When we don’t get what we need , we become disturbed, angry, jealous, frustrated. When we get it, we become vain, selfglorious, proud snobs. Acquisition of wealth is not a sin if done with fair means. It improves the economy of our society. We have to curb only malpractice, not practice of profession.

Satisfaction in life
We should feel happy for what we are. We are doctors , well educated, fortunate to have the opportunity of the noble profession of Healing art. We know that all the differences in status –castes, religions, creeds and language differences –are human constructs. Look beyond the human constructs of differences , to see the eternal truth. The cell functions in the same way in all humans, the biological, morphological , physiological, pathological phenomena follow the same rules in all humans. Is there difference in a squamous carcinoma cell of a Hindu , Muslim, or Christian? All look alike under microscope. A teacher has a divine wick in his/her student to be kindled . Kindle it with knowledge, enthusiasm, and goodness. The pay and the economic benefits will naturally come when you practice the profession.

How do you work and learn?
There are 4 different ways depending upon individuals. 1.with sradha (concentration) doing work and learning profession 2.Practicing profession without knowledge or sradha. 3.without knowledge but with sradha 4.without sradha but with knowledge. It goes without saying that the first is the best way. A doctor having this method, having compassion to all living things, is the Mahabhishak (the great doctor) in Indian tradition, both Budhist and Vedic . To restore values to the society we have to keep values ourselves. We find unhealthy competition everywhere. Observe the world around and find out the fields where there is erosion of values. You will be surprised. It applies to our medical field too. But don’t get frustrated over the scenario. Don’t get entangled in the grievous practices . Keep away from them . Cultivate efficiency , gain experience and expertise and keep up the enthusiasm throughout your life. Create an atmosphere of positive values around you. nitially people will laugh at you for being impractical in a competitive money-oriented world. But , later on your life and ideals will be appreciated . You will get the satisfaction of having infused values into a society where you lived and learnt, by words, deeds and thoughts. Build up a new world around you , healthy , in every aspect, without separatisms , or negative thoughts, with love and harmony and universal brotherhood. Health is not mere physical 87

health, it is mental , intellectual and spiritual health, .Be steadfast in your decision to achieve this golden state of health for all . There is no shortcuts to medical ethics. Practice ethics rigourously throughout life and you will reach a stage when your example will spread light into the lives and minds of many.

Music , the universal language of peace on earth.
Music is a universal language, enjoyed by all , including birds, animals and plants. The cosmic music of the spheres and stars is in each and every one of us. Reducing stress inflicted by the worldly life of day to day existence through harmonious music is an ageold custom and practice of human race.The use of raagaa as therapy is a key to achieve the universal brotherhood, love and international harmony and peace, at the same time giving physical , mental, intellectual, and spiritual health to all of us. The efficiency of human beings is increased by soft melodious divine music which brings down frustrations, increase power of concentration and cognition and memory and thereby our performance in the worldstage.

Effect of Indian classical music on the modifiable factors of coronary heart disease.( A pilot project at Amritha Institute of Medical sciences . 2000 -2004)
Dr Suvarna Nalapat (Pathologist, music therapist) Dr Bhuvaneswari (musician) Dr Somasundaram.(psychologist) Dr Ajitha Sanjeev (anaesthetist/pain and palliative care) Peter Heubner wrote"In one single sound alone, singled out from the twittering of birds it is possible to discover a concert of birds. In a single sound from the human voice one can hear , if one listens carefully, a choir, full of sounds and songs" This is the basis of Raagachikitsa and the use of a manthra or a soft human voice for getting peace of mind, intellect and health of body. Contents: 1.Objective 2.Introduction. 3.Method of study. 4.Instructions given 5.Subjective factor 6.why was human voice selected 7.why not film music which is raagabased & melodious 8.How is the study different from the hitherto studies on music therapy 9.observations 88

10.statistics 11.discussion 12.conclusion 13.select bibliography. Objective To study effects of Indian classical music in reducing tension, anxiety, stress, blood pressure and pain.(modifiable factors of heart disease) Introduction Music can be used in therapy and as therapy (2). The current project explored both the possibilities, giving stress to the use of music as therapy in a hospital set up. Music in therapy establish contact and facilitate rapport between patients and caretakers. The music is the opening wedge between two individuals, ( 3 ) here the therapist and patient.The modifying factors of coronary artery disease and the role of music in altering them so that it can be used both as preventive and curative tool in heart disease was studied. In music as therapy, therapist is not concerned with the aesthetics of music but with functional music which gives relief or cure the patient. We used both to get maximum effects and in this paper we are presenting our experience of music as therapy. (the results measured from a medical point of view rather than from musical point of view.) It is not just a alternative therapy, but therapy itself. Method of study. we selected the voice and personality of the musician and therapist in our institution so that we get maximum results. our statistically proven study show the impact of music on prevention of heart diseases which is prevalent in our country We had our therapeutic programme with a team of people, including a specially trained musician ,with postdoctoral experience in music teaching, an indologist-pathologist-with interdisciplineary knowledge in yoga, music, ayurveda, jyothisha and literature, a clinical psychologist and physicians wellversed in doing research on human behaviour and psychology and on pain and palliative care. 1.The questionnaire.(sample) To be filled in by patient, physician and music therapist separately. The therapist assess music background and musical preference of the patient independently. As first step, simple and common raagaas according to musical background and preference of patient given .We gave human voice ,with least instruments, except a thambura,and an organ playing soft sounds like that of chirping birds and gurgling streams at the beginning of the first session.The members were given the music in different settings.(controlled study) 1.in closed AC room without disturbance. 2. room where outside disturbances like phone, automobiles etc were there. 89

3. study with same music in open ground in public meeting place conducted with unknown people (not volunteers or patients) 4. music to patients with cancer chemotherapy, pain of different organs, spastic children, pregnant females etc.(outside the control voluntary patients)

The second step was to give specific raagaas for each patient depending upon their chakra (organ affected) and the cosmic energy field (birth star). The BP, respiratory and pulse rate, anxiety scale (Hamilton’s) (4) and pain index (5) assessed prior and after session.. . TABLE 1.RAAGA PREFERENCES OF 30 PATIENTS JANAKA JANYA CHAKRA ORGAN Harikamboji .28 Mohanam16 Mooladhara Genital organ Kamboji 10 Pelvic plexus Shama 9 Shahana 8 Desh 6 Dwijawanthi 5 Total 60 Jog 5 Jenjhooty 1 Kharaharapriya 22 Madhyamavathy 10 Sudhadhanyasi 8 Sreeraagam 6 Saramathy 4 Mian Malhar 4 Reethigoula 2 Yamunakalyani 18 Mechakalyani 10 Purvikalyani 3 Anandabhairavi 11 Darbarikaanada 10 Jonpuri 5 Kaanada 3

Swadhistanamhypogastric Kidney,adren plexux

Total 34 Mechakalyani 65

Mooladharam

Total 31 Natabhairavi 20

swadhishtanam

Total 29. Dheerasankaraabharanam Hamsadwani 8 29. Mandu 4 Sankarabharanam 3 Bilahari 2 Bilaval 1 Pahadi 1 Total 19. Thodi 8

mooladharam

Bhairavi Thodi

8 1. 90

Anahatham-cardiac plexus

Heart,great ve

Sindhuhairavi 3 Malkouns(hindolam,malvakousik)1. Total 13. Subhapanthuvarali 45 Chalanaatta 36 Mayamalavagoula(15) Chakravakam(16) 9 7 3 1 anahatham Agnanasociliary plexus Manipuram solar plexus manipuram

Pituitarypinea

Pancreas,stom

. TABLE 2.VOICE PREFERENCE –Before therapy Yesudas Chithra s.p.balasubramaniam M.S.Subbalaxmi Suseela Janaki Latha Hariharan Bombay jayashree Amma Swamiji 25 9 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 84% 30% 10% 10% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3% 3%

VOICES GIVEN FOR THERAPY 1.DR.K.J.Yesudas- (familiar male voice.) famous. 2.Ms.Bhuvaneswary.(unfamiliar female voice) not famous. This was to assess the effect of the familiar voice and that of the unfamiliar voice and to establish that the unfamiliar voice also can be used to bring about the effect provided it is soft and soothing. The emotions of compassion and sympathy, and love in the human voice is important in healing.(not only the raga) 3.Chembai Vaidyanathabhagavather. Not very familiar with our group of clients , but a famous voice. 91

TABLE 3.After therapy with the voice of Bhuvaneswary & yesudas the feedback from the volunteers. yesudas 30 100% Bhuvaneswary 30 100% Chembaiswamy 1 3%

TABLE 4.ANAHATHACHAKRA RAAGAAS RASI STAR RAAGACHAKRA PURVARAAGA CHAKRA Mithunam Nethram Anahatham Mrigasira,Thiruvathira,punarvasu SENAVATHY HANUMATHODI DHENUKA NATAKAPRIYA KOKILAPRIYA ROOPAVATHY

UT

GA BH SHU SHA SUV DIV

TABLE 5. RELATION OF YOGA, BODY ORGANS,SENSATIONS, 5 ELEMENTS IN AYURVEDA chakra gland elemen t Earth sense quality Physical governe d Reprod system Kidney Spine Stomach Liver GB Dig sy NS Heart Blood CVS Bronchu s Vocal cord Lung Mental Aspect governed powerlessnes s Insecurity

1 mooladhar a 2 swadhistan a 3 Manipura

Gonad

Smell

security

Adrenal

Water

Taste

Pancrea s

Fire

Sight

Sexuality Creativity Fertility willpower

Fear

4 Anahata 5 Visudhi

Thymus Air

Touch

compassion

Depression

Thyroid

Ether ( Hearing akasa and vayu) 92

communicatio n

Lack of expression

6 Ajna

Pituitar y pineal

Akasa alone

7 Sahasrara All

All

Sound vibrations only (cognition Intuition) All.Ecstac y, higher learning, logic

Insight clarity

Lower Brain, Lt eye

Distorted thinking

Higher consciousness

Upper Brain Rt Eye

Loss of sense of self Athmanaasa

TABLE 6. INDIAN COSMOLOGY RELATING TIMESPACE CONTINUUM,ENERGY,MASS AND VELOCITY EQUIVALENT TO E=MC2 Dik desa kaala guna directions space time Quality Roopa,varna,maathra(measurement)gandha, Mass/drav /property of bhaara or gravitational force,naada ya elements movement Velocity,momentum Effects,cau Nimitham-kaaryakaarana bandham sal connections difference dwaitha relations

Gathi/gatheeya tha phalam

bhedam

TABLE 7 BLOOD PRESSURE , PULSE RATE.

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Number Baseli of ne persons readin g Control. 120/80 9. Lower 120/70 side of 110/70 normal. 110/70 11 106/70 100/70 100/50 100/60 90/60 90/60 110/80 110/80 High 170/10 10 0 150/10 0 140/90 130/90 130/90 130/90 130/90 130/80 130/80 130/60 Total 30 PULSE RATE 58 92 74 92 68 70 84 76 110 92 64 86 86

During therapy

After therapy

commen ts

110/80(1)110/ 70 (8) 120/70 120/70 120/80 106/70 80/60 100/70 100-70 90/70 90/70 110/70 nil 140/90 100/60 nil 110/80 120/80 140/90 nil nil 120/80 120/80

120/80(6)120/84(1)n il(2) 124/86 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 90/70 nil 110/80 nil 120/80 124/80 120/80 106/70 nil 124/80 nil nil 120/80 120/60

60 76 76 76 60 70 72 NIL 96 80 72 80 88

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60 72 7O 78 66 70 70 NIL NIL 90 NIL NIL NIL

Table 8. Respiratory rate –30 patients Before 18 to26 during same after 18-15

Table 9.Anxiety scale-(HARS) number Before 1 11 2 22 3 14 4 6 5 16 6 32 7 18 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 12 24 19 21 8 18 9 5

after 9 7 7 0 5 28 23(not listening to therapy) 0 5 7 13 2 2 4 11(did not listen to therapy music.Attended only one session) increased 2 2 3 4 decreased 14 13 12 11

HARS-TABLE 10.(only 16 people) Number 15 item Anxious mood. tension Fears insomnia
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Intellectual (cognitive) Depressed mood Somatic(muscular) Somatic(sensory) cardiovascular respiratory gastrointestinal genitourinary autonomic Behaviour at interview total

2 1 nil 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1-3

13 14 15 14 13 13 14 14 13 14 11-15

(very very significant positive results are observed in the reduction of Blood Pressure with an initial high Blood pressure,and in the HARS anxiety scale.) This shows that two of the modifiable risk factors of coronary heart disease can be significantly modified and this can be used both for prevention and cure of the disease..

INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN Asked to relax, sit back, and close their eyes. In a meditative mood. Imagine that you are waking up in the morning with chirping of birds. we are presenting a bit of meditational music to initiate you into the preliminary step of music therapy. After the session the volunteers were given recorded cd of Ms Bhuvaneswary”s music. They were prescribed to purchase Dr K.J.Yesudas’s cds/cassettes from outside.(we had to face the problem of nonavailability of the required cassette/cd at the required time ).To hear the cd/cassette at home at least twice a day. one in the morning while waking up from sleep, lying on bed.the second, before going to sleep. If they get time on all days, otherwise on Sundays/holidays they were asked to hear the music again. (After 10 days of this regime to create a musical environment the specific chakrabased and (6) starbased raga (melakartha) were added. The written feedback from the participants is given . The subjective factor -The feedback (written) 1.nice feel. 96

2.feels sleepy. 3.wants to hear daily.comforting effect. 4.soothing effects.relaxes mind. 5.pleasant,refreshing.Agood start for the day. 6.quick sleep.relieves insomnia.,reduce stress.7.manashanthy. gives sleep without disturbance.i had insomnia before.soothing,Iam getting addicted to it. 8.wellbeing,sleep and happiness. 9.I am getting into a meditative mood with it. 10.melodious,soothing.I wonder whether I can see her in person.It is a great experience with her voice. 11.I enjoyed the session,and fell into sleep. 12.extremely pleasant experience .I was in a special state,neither sleepy,nor awake.it was melodious. 13.Ardrasundaram,saanthamadhuram,daivikam 14.relaxing.I want to hear the cd more than twice a day. 15,all the songs soothing.i gradually fell asleep. 16.sessions were refreshing. I was carried away to a different world. voice was soothing. 17.sessions were really good.1000/1000 marks. refreshing. I was consciously trying to build some tension, building thoughts but that did not work out. I could experience a cool breeze caressing my mind and then I started sleeping. But one thing surprised me is that I was listening to each song while sleeping also!!!.It was a beautiful experience. sound has a soothing effect . Relaxed feeling . 18.beautiful soothing voice. excellent selections. I feel soothed relaxed. Happy feeling in me.I am relaxed. Beautiful divine voice. 19.soothing music. Improves the state of mind. 20.very interesting. sleeping mood. 21.soothing , comforting effect . able to relax and concentrate my mind. 22.very fantastic and melodious. during first two songs I fell asleep.(for some seconds) Then I felt that I am in a flying state.Those 45 minutes were very precious and my mind was in a calm free state. I felt that freedom even when I woke up from it.23. A pleasant feling. Full of joy. In those moments I was not feeling that I am a patient with symptoms of Parkinsonism. 23.with songs of guruvayurappan I had a pleasant feeling in body and mind. 24.firstly how should I thank you for making me relaxed , happy, away from a busy life. I was relaxed, forgot that I am tired. It put me off to sleep. i could see the beloved guruvayurappan . Harivarasanam made me devotional.very pleasant blank mind without any thoughts. I was fast asleep. 25.really marvelous. mind soothing effect. 26.I had high BP for several days and I had been taking medicines for a long period but I have a normal basic level of 120/80 only now with this music therapy. 27.My pain has disappeared and the cassette is heard by my father who had a laryngectomy for ca larynx and he is relaxed with good sleep and his quality of lfe improved. My mother inlaw with diabetes also feel the same good feeling. Now all of us hear the music daily and it had transformed our life. 28.The music is divine.all tensions relieved and I feel calm and quiet and happy.

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29.I feel a change in my personality. I have never allowed my wife to sing at home after our marriage. now I allow her to do that and I feel a definite change in our life. I am able to communicate my feelings better with this. 30.smoothening, relaxing, peaceful and calm voice. I am very very happy and free of tensions . Why was human voice selected? Naada in Indian music-naa from last syllable of praana (life energy) and Da derived from first syllable of dhahana (fire energy) makes naada and music therapy is based on the life energy or bioenergy of the singer and listener communicating each other and thus merging in advaitha with the cosmic energy.(7) Veena is in the model of human body. It is not other way round. Human body was not shaped in the model of veena. That gives the explanation why human voice is superior to all other instruments. The next to human voice is given veena and then the flute (since it is the praana of the human being who plays it) The other instruments come next to these. Hegel ,said the human voice is the most perfect instrument which unites in itself the qualities of both wind and string instruments because in human voice a column of air vibrates for note production and through the muscles ,there comes to play the principle of tightly stretched strings.(8) A musician’s voice can thus be perfectly synchronized with both wind and string instruments. That is how Mahavidyanathan shivan, could sing exactly like a veena in all its ranges.The personality of the singer/therapist and his compassion also plays a part in the therapy .An instrument , however refined it is, cannot replace a loved musician/therapist and his presence, and this subjectivity of compassion for an ill patient has to be taken by a therapist. Treatment of illness is a science which depends upon the psychological wellbeing of the doctor (here the musiian/therapist) and the faith of the patient in him/her/and this we can never get from a mechanical device.When a person is ill, what he/she requires best is the presence of a loving person nearby and a comforting soothing voice to hear. These considerations prompted me to select human voice as the medium of my treatment. But this does not mean that we should have a closed view on the researches done with instruments. we have to do research with each possible instrument and voice in future. There are enough research projects we can explore in music and therapy for the benefit of mankind.(The Aahathnaada is of 3 types.according to sangheethadamodaram. animate sound produced by living things including human voice, inanimate sound produced by lifeless objects which includes instrumental music also, and mixed sound produced in combination which we get in musical situations like a kachery.) Keep the mind open and do research is my request to those in this field. we can also try the combined effect of human voice, instruments in perfect blend (kachery) In Brihadharmapuraana (9) vishnu tells Naarada that the technical knowledge of singing and the suswara are the most important for anaesthetizing the world (anaesthesia is the alleviation of all pains-physical/mental) and of these He rates suswara as the one giving more effect. In the shanmukha quarterly journal (10) there are several references to the value of good and correct pronounciation of the words in a manthra .The pronounciation of the words (in Sanskrit it is varna) is important in music also since the music therapy is a type of 98

therapy using raagamanthras invoking a dhyanadevatha of the raga. In scriptures it is said that Ashtavakra (one with 8 bends) was born like that because of mispronounciation of manthraas. DR.K.J.Yesudas’ pronounciation is superb and his swara is familiar and liked by the kerala public .Therefore the therapy included his voice. Moreover he knows the upaasana of the dhyanadevatha of the melakartharaagas before singing them. (11.) The voice of Bhuvaneswary is soft , smooth and have a transcendental feel and all the 30 participants liked her voice and her personality. Therefore her voice was selected for therapy.

Why not film music which are raagabased and melodious? Reason 1. If I give film music there may even be many fast numbers having hardmetal sounds, injurious to the nervous system. Just to hear one raga and leave it (even if we ask the patient to do so) does not happen and there are practical difficulties in it. If somebody (who is business-minded start producing film-music cd/cassettes with a single raga selecting the most soothing voice and melody ofcourse we can test them. 2.The other reason for not selecting film music is the erotic nature of the lyrics, the hatred, sarcasm, pathos, despair it evokes in patient’s minds etc. What I need as a therapist is to calm the mind, soothe it, not to awaken passions in it.T he shaantha bhakthybhava and tranquil feeling without raagadwesha is the ultimate in Indian Raagachikitsa. Bhakthisangheetha in film music with good lyrics, good melodious raga , if we can get in a single cd/cassette that will be useful. Anyway, that is left to cassette companies. If they produce such cassettes and give it to us, we are ready to try that on patients. (all the raagaas reduce stress and tension. But , individual preferences and musical background have to be assessed before selecting raga for individual cases)

HOW IS OUR STUDY DIFFERENT FROM THE HITHERTO EXPERIMENTS ON MUSIC THERAPY? 1 We do not use the protocol of this particular raga for this particular disease. Instead we give a musical environment with suitable raagaas for each individual patient. 2.We use the ancient melakartha system of raga in relation to the chakraas (incorporation of yoga) 3.We use the cosmic raga in relation to the birthstar of the patient so that we try to harness the bioenergy in the human body with the cosmic energy field. 4.ours is an interdisciplinary approach using multiple raagaas, yoga, astronomy, ayurveda, modern medical knowledge and thus is a holistic approach in which music (spirituality of music) is used as the most effective aesthetic and communicative medium . 5.We take into consideration both the objective (scientific) parameters which can be measured and recorded and the subjective aesthetic/compassionate field in which the 99

patient and the caretakers operate from.Hence the personality of the therapist and the patient interchange energy for a positive change in the patient’s life. 6.Apart from a therapy , we take music as a way of life and try to bring all the positive effects of music into human life so that the society is benefited by it. 7.By giving a therapy based on melakartha raga system we are also composing 72 melakartha raagaas and singing them .This is happening for the first time in kerala.and in the long history of music in our state.

OBSERVATIONS 1.The subjective factor-written feedback. (gives 100 % satisfaction for the recipients with the selected voices and the raagaas.) 2.The objective factor BP and respiratory rate and pulse rate before ,after 15 minutes of playing music and after the test and the Hamilton’s anxiety score and pain score was measured. (The statistical analysis was done by using software called Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) by Ms Sumithra,Amrita Institute of medical sciences.)

The respiratory rate became less and there was a general calm ness in the patients following the music interventions. Moreover the pulse and heart rate became slower, with a soft regular character. This could be due to relief of muscle tension , increased endorphin levels, decreased stress hormone levels and interleukin 1 levels which improve the immune function. Our pattern was the effect was visible within 15 minutes of giving the therapy just as in the Michigan uty research programme where the interleukin levels were demonstrated with the Mozart effect of Campbell..(13, 14)
Discussion.

Music therapy is used as a pacemaker to achieve rhythms in two study groups , one by Hans in 1980 and another by Bason in 1992. This reduce anxiety due to various causes in patients . In 1994 Dr Karen Allen and Jim Blascowih proved that music in an operation theatre can reduce the surgical complications. It lessens pain and shortens the hospital stay.

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In Duke heart center support programmes music therapy is used both for physical and psy chological wellbeing of the patients. According to the experience in that center , it eases the impact of hospitalisation and that of uncomfortable experiences , patients express their feelings more and there is an increase in selfesteem so that the quality of life is enhanced. It decreases heartrate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, etc.In many centers music played in the ICU, during treadmill and during the hospital stay, and at home with the caretakers are documented to have good results.

The programme. 1.Patients belonging to any age or sex group can be taken. For research programmes a total of minimum 30 with a few controls needed. 2.Measurement of the following parameters. Breath frequency(bf) Heart frequency Systolic and diastolic blood pressure Mean arterial pressure Pulse pressure (korotkov method) Minute volume of blood circulation index of vegetative equivalence according to the Hildenbraught and vegetative index according to Kerdo. All the measurements should be at the basal level, during music, after music and after a specified time of taking the treatment. 4.The same can be done in patients doing treadmill, and results recorded. 5.score of Hamilton's anxiety index scale 6.pain score
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7.score of stress as used in the German academy of scientific music therapy 8.music can be given to patients undergoing cardiac surgery and results recorded. The type of music given should be classical , devotional, melodious based on the 72 Melakartha janaka raagaas and if needed their janyaraagaas.The selection of music for each individual has to be done by the music therapist based on an informal talk and a questionnaire assessing the musical background, preferences,the disease affecting the organsystems, the chakra affected and the birthstar. (the bio and cosmic energy field). More than one raaga can be given . common and familiar raagaas for group therapy , for general wards etc as recreational. But specific for each individual (including melakartha) as treatment . When we give music the effects of it on the autonomous innervation of the cerebral arteries can be studied with slow spontaneous oscillations (SSO) of cerebral bloodflow with transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD).TCD notices SSO waves 3-9 cycles per minute (Mwave) and .5 -2 cycles /mt (B waves). The SSO is caused by rhythmic diameter changes of the medium and small arteries . Patients aged 24-65 suffering from tension headaches can be treated with music. After fast fourier transformation 4 groups of peaks on the SSO Spectra , divided into 4 rhythms. A.0.01-0.02 hz B.0.02-0.033 HZ C.0.06-0.O9 HZ D.0.091-0.15 HZ and
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An intermediate diapason of 0.034-0.059 HZ. In contrast to the A,B,D rhythms the reduction of peaks in the diapas C was statistically significant (31.60%.P=0.04 ci-95%) during listening to music. Patients get relief of headache while and after music treatment. SSO may represent an equilibrium in autonomous innervation of the cerebral arteries. Music affects the functioning of the brain structures concerning autonomous nervous system and works as a nonchemical sympatholytic. (ref.Harmonising autonomous innervation of cerebral arteries . Alexel V.Shemagonov.M.D.&Valentina .N. Sidorenko. MD.PhD. Belorussian state medical institute of postgraduate education & mother and child health institute of the ministry of health . Orlovskaya st ,66.Minsk 220000Belarus. AAR international edition 2000 scientific music therapy)
Clinical work involves preparing, implementing, and evaluating music therapy programmes with individuals and groups. The music therapist begins the clinical process by a study of medical records and, by interviews. After the history is obtained an assessment is conducted in which information on how the person makes and responds to music is collected and analyzed objectively. The therapist may also observe the person’s interactions with others and with the environment.

Based on this information as well as input from the client, family members and other health care professionals, the music therapist formulates goals. These are generally long-term and are achieved in time by successful completion of smaller and short-term objectives. It is these goals and objectives, along with specific procedures and materials for use with an individual or group that constitute the treatment plan which the music therapist implements. After implementing the treatment for a reasonable period of time the therapist evaluates the plan to determine whether the methods of treatment are effective and whether the person is making progress in reaching the prescribed goals and objectives. The treatment plan is modified accordingly. Discharge from the therapy programme may occur when goals have been achieved, the person is discharged from the hospital/facility, or when the person can no longer benefit from the services. Throughout the treatment process the music therapist

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documents assessments, progress, observations, and recommendations in the person’s chart/file. There is also ongoing communication between the music therapist and the person who is the recipient of music therapy services as well as with other members of the interdisciplinary team. Depending on the music therapist’s area of employment, different procedures and programmes are utilized. An administrator or supervisor directs clinical staff in public or private agencies. Administrators/supervisors have a variety of responsibilities, which include developing and managing budgets, ordering and maintaining equipment, establishing departmental policies and procedures, supervising music therapy interns as well as directing and evaluating staff. After completion of appropriate graduate studies, music therapists may also become university/college professors who train others to become music therapists. Professors of music therapy teach classes, supervise students in clinics, evaluate students for admission, apply for research grants, oversee research projects, and perform the usual academic and administrative duties. University professors are also expected to carry out original research for purposes of publication and furthering the knowledge base of music therapy. The present project is just the first step towards such a clinically, academically and scientifically oriented Music therapy programme for our nation.

In my research I have tried to learn this creative emergence of true self individuals interested in music.-The patient and the therapist. Academic principles behind selection of voice

in two

How many patients should be included in a project depends upon several factors. But to be statistically proven or acceptable a minimum of 30 should be there with controls.The conservative level of acceptable error should be within 0.05 level to be acceptable.If type 2 errors are too many, we will have to use negative trials to avoid clinical disputes. Whether the findings are just chance findings or not (evaluating role of chance ) requires a random sample to have a minimum of 30 patients.(International agency of research) The p value may be different in different samples.These values if plotted on a p distribution should center around a population proportion pai. If not, there are several sampling errors. 104

Std error(P)= pai(1-pai)/n The 95% confidence interval of unknown population proportion pai is between the lower and upper confidence levels . If we repeat a study 100 times , we can expect a 95 % confidence interval. This we cant say at this infancy stage. But by taking a sample size of 30 we can definitely assume that the confidence interval expected is 1.96. (for 99% one in 40 samples ) The musical background preferences in sample populations cluster around the pelvic and sacral plexus raagaas.This shows they are familiar with these raagaas only, probably because the musicians sing these more often. But when we give the other chakra raagaas in the preferred voices it was seen they accept them as well with love and get good response and relief. The objective statistical analysis showed that the systolic BP samples are differing significantlyand the anxiety scales are also differing significantly.The pulse rate was not concluded but recommendable , because the p-value is exactly 0.05. The difference between systolic and diastolic BP after therapy was significant and this finding is noteworthy. The analysis was done using software called statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Modifiable and non-modifiable CAD risk factors Modifiable CAD Risk Factors Cigarette smoking Obesity Hypertension (blood pressure >= 140 / 90 mmHg) Physical inactivity Kidney disease Diabetes mellitus Alcohol consumption Stress Kidney disease Elevated LDL Reduced HDL Non-modifiable CAD Risk Factors Males > 45 years Females > 55 years Males Family history of coronary artery disease

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Of these two of the modifiable risk factors namely Hypertension and stress/anxiety were measured statistically .Pain index also was tested but since the number of patients in real pain were not in the study group, so that the results are not yet substantiated. Since both the parameters of blood pressure and anxiety were found to be statistically significant it naturally follows that the modifiable factors of coronary heart disease can be altered by music and thus is preventable. Blood pressure is a function of blood flow (cardiac output=blood flow) and vascular resistance (BP=Cardiac output X total peripheral resistance) The maximum pressure occurs after ventricular systole known as the systolic pressure and the level to which the arterial pressure has fallen before the next ventricular systole , that is the minimum pressure is the diastolic pressure. It is sometimes useful to have an average , or mean value for arterial blood pressure rather than a maximum and minimum values as it is the mean that represents the pressure driving blood through the systemic circulation.The mean arterial pressure is not a simple arithmetic mean.It is estimated by adding one-third of the pulse pressure to the diastolic pressure. So for a Blood pressure of 130/80mmHg mean arterial pressure is 80+(1/3x50)=96.67 mmHg. Since this was significant statistically we have to conclude that the music therapy is effective . What we can do about stress in human life which produce heart disease in turn? Stress is the epidemic of modern society. Stress is a term coined by Hans Selye , a Canadian researcher , 60 years ago. Disturbing persistent emotional and physical threats can lead to several diseases designated as “Diseases of adaptation”of which the most common is heart disease. The different types of stress. Job stress –loosing a job or fear of loosing a job Family stress –anger, fear, depression These cause angina, heart attack, strokes, palpitation, headache and other vague symptoms.The sense of control we have on the events of life has to be preserved for absence of stress.The threshold levels have individual differences.This based on the perspectives and perceptions of the individual.No one can define stress because it differs from individual to individual. A rating accepted to events causing stress are as follows (15) Reason Death of spouse divorce Marital separation Jail-death of family member Failure to get a travel ticket Add for previous 12 months Rating % 100 73 65 63 14 To get the stress level.

Higher the score , likely to get sick during next 6-12 months. Music is used as a pacemaker to achieve rhythms and to reduce anxiety.(16,17) It enhance the beautiful memories of the past events and improve the mood.(18) In a pilot study in 1997 funded by NCCAM , music was demonstrated to have reduced depression , to increase empathy for other people, and to improve the cognitive abilities and selfesteem (19) The effect of music is by affecting the autonomous innervation of arteries 106

and working as a nonchemical sympatholytic.(20) In this remarkable article the views of Peter Huebner, the classical composer (1964) on the microcosm of music , the music medicine of Pythagorus that the harmony laws of microcosm of music and biological harmony laws of human body are same is upholded.This is the same law in Indian astronomy and Indian Raaga music which I am propounding.The authors state that the periodic processes in nature as well as in human organisms are under the influence of the law of cosmic harmony. In chronomedicine even the processes which we consider as sporadic occurrences are actually periodic and follow a periodicity. Finding the harmony of human beings and correcting the disharmonious rhythms is a way of dealing with psychosomatic stress and similar disease conditions of neuropsychological processes. Others also have used music to manage stress through a musical medium.(21) Music induces neurogenic vasodilation mediated by the autonomic nervous system.(22) PAIN 1.Intense stimuli through thalamus , midbrain, brainstem cause production of modulatory substances (endorphin, serotonin) that inhibit release of neurotransmitters therefore stimulating the closure of the gate. 2.Relax muscles guarding at the site of pain 3.Reduce emotional component of pain, fear and anxiety. The value of music during and after surgery to reduce anxiety was tried by E.Kane as early as 1914. He used the first intraoperative music (phonograph on the operating room JAMA). In 1960 in dental surgery it was used and 65 to 95 % of people had no pain even without anaesthesia during dental extractions. Intraoperative awareness during general anaesthesia range to 0.1 to 0.7% due to dissatisfaction, nightmares, anxiety, delayed or permanent mental disturbances. To eliminate intraoperative awareness surgeons, nurses and anaesthetists should restrain from conversations since some of these may relate to the patient emotionally. Use earplugs routinely to prevent any such hearing of conversations. A better alternative is to provide taped soothing music to patient along with suggestions to the patient. This type of noninvasive inexpensive intervention also improves postoperative recovery. If you use music with headphones on the night before surgery it will minimise the requirement of preanaesthetic sedation.The question will naturally arise , is it music or the elimination of theatre noises by the headphone that was responsible for the effect? Highlights from the october issue of the Mayo Clinic women's health source (Mayo clinic scottsscale news Monday october 9th 2000) reports music therapy has doctors singing a different tune. Music is uplifting, relaxing, spiritual practice. The october issue notes that studies are attempting to show that music reduces tension , pain, boosts the immune system, improve mobility in Parkinson's disease, improve quality of life for people with cancer. Colorado state uty used rhythmic auditory stimulation to help improve balance in a group of people with neurological disorders, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc.There is no sideeffects for this therapy. Countless medical centers in the west have been doing this including the AMTA. The optimum results were obtained in 1.reducing pulse and respiration rate 2.calmness , alpha and theta wave feelings 107

3.pain reduction 4.in diabetes, heart disease, blood pressure 5.in cancer patients 6.in neurological diseases 7.As Berkeley school of music puts it except in terminal illness music gives optimum results. Pythagorus was a physician, mathematician, scientist, musicologist, philosopher. He said the microcosm of music associated with creation was the ideal place to gain theoretical and practical knowledge on nature's law of harmony. For Pythagorus the heavenly bodies moves according to same laws of harmony , in the microcosm of music. Modern chronomedicine proved the theory of Pythegorus .The human organism follows these laws of harmony of nature and of music and a person becomes ill when his natural. harmonious order with nature is disturbed. The doctor who looks after the patient's health should therefore not disturb his natural harmony. But should activate the natural order in biological function and strengthen the immune system. But the musician/composer need not share the same thoughts as the doctor. Neither do manufacturers or distributors of the casettes. It is this area we have to tread most carefully. The association between the classical musician and the doctor/therapist should become harmonious and trustful to each other before they start therapy together. If there is no harmony between these two individuals therapy may not be 100% effective. Biological constitution rejects disharmonious vibrations and music . Socrates said "A society which increasingly sank into chaos could only save itself from doom, by having the young generation grow up with harmonical music and establish itself in natural harmony and withstand external chaos. Kepler derived his planetary laws with which he astonished the world and the astronomical experts of the time , from the microcosm of music. Peter Heubner (the advocate of medical resonance music therapy) reports that rock, pop, folk music composers and listeners increasingly turn to drugs, alcohol, nicotine etc. Due to the rhythmical and tonal disorders in their organism they are above average susceptable to illnesses. Dr G..Hilderbrandt , one of the founders of and a leading expert in chronomedicine says human physiology is music physiology. Human organism's different biological rhythms obey the laws of musical and natural harmony. Because of this the natural regeneration processes in he microcosm of music activates and strengthens the natural healing processes and healing powers inherent inliving organisms. This principle was known to ancient Indians and they had a very well thought out cosmic and bioenergy system harmonisation through naadalayayoga and for this the saamaveda was evolved.This is being used in my system which is a spiritual, interdisciplinery, yogic, musical, astronomical and philosophical one combining the modern techniques and knowledge of western medical science. Music is used as a strong tool in psychosomatic illnesses but it is not merely a tool for psychological diseases. In Aalberg uty faculty of humanities an international PhD programme in music therapy exists. Torben Moe , a researcher has done work on restitutional factors in group music therapy with psychiatric patients based on modification of GIM. psychiatry patients with schizophrenia and schizotypical 108

disorders were given therapy for 6 months period. This was a qualitative research and investigation done in two parts. 1.Patient's evaluation of the therapy assessed from the interviewers. GAF rating scales. Qualitative questionnaire including a mood test and aspects in the patient's view of therapy. 2.Experiences of two of the patients were analysed focussing on their imagery during music listening period. Data categorised qualitatively , analysed the similarities and differentials. In an active method the patient perform actively and reflect upon his actions.This is not possible in the case of a psychiatric patient.Therefore an alternative receptive method has to be used. Patient's experiences while listening to selected classical music (GIM) is interpreted from a Freudean and Jungian concept or frame of reference.The emphasis is on the patient's (or listener's) own understanding and insight rather than on the therapist's (singer/composer's) understanding and insight. When I listen, my perceptions, understanding, experiences and insight of the particular raaga as well as my inner qualities are more important. Similarly music can help the patient in structuring their inner world and experiences. Patients during listening to the music , create images of their own inner self, which lead to symbol formation and eventually a sense of inner control. The level of functioning both socially and psychologically improve. 1.For patient's own evolution (listener's) the research tool GAF (global assessment of functioning scale) is used.For that give a questionnaire , do a survey after and before therapy, conduct semistructured interviews on the mood test, and finally questions and feedback concerning the listener's or patient's own view of therapy.(music) 2.A qualitative and objective in depth and statistical analysis.

Conclusions

Music therapy in the west is gaining importance in hospitals and clinics and in educational institutions and research programmes.1,2,3,4 ..In India,the land of ancient traditional classical music , it is known as Raagachikitsa5, but is not yet tapped as a powerful tool in therapy and as therapy18.This is a pilot project to make an awareness of its use in physical and mental health in our people.Patients were given therapy as a three-stage procedure. .The subjective and objective effect of the music was studied prior to , during and after a course of therapy.The observations were statistically analysed and interpreted.The results showed that classical music can be used in therapy and as therapy and is a very effective method of preventing anxiety states,
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tension, insomnia and high blood pressure and therefore can be used for prevention and control of CAD (coronary artery disease) Music is the universal language of love and peace.The positive vibrations emanating from harmonious music counteract the suppressed negative7energies created by the outside world of chaotic multiple stimuli, and balance the flow of energy through our nervous system. The healing factor is the wellcontrolled Praana , the flowing current of life energy of the musician to the listener.The listener , receptive to the vibrations of this energy heal himself/herself. To those who are not receptive, the music therapist select the suitable voice and raga (vibrations) after a few trial and error experiments which involves two way communications with the therapist and the patient which is essential for music therapy. In raagachikitsa , the Indian way of music therapy, this communication between two people is important. The therapy is based on identifying the right raga which vibrate at an optimum level to give physical, mental, intellectual, emotional and spiritual wellbeing to an individual, and listening to it through the voice of a singer loved and preferred by the patient.

Select Bibliography and terms to be learned by students of Music Therapy :
1.Modifiable factors of coronary heart disease . 2.Music in therapy and as therapy. 3.music as opening wedge between two individuals.Newgey boer.L.D.Aldridge.British Journal of music therapy.vol12.No 2 .1998,pge 46-52. 4.Hamilton’s anxiety scale.Hamilton.M. British Journal of Medical psychology.32:1959 pge 50-55. 5.Pain index. 6.Chakrabased and starbased raagaas .Without a stumble.A book on the spirituality of music.Dr Suvarna Nalapat.page 189-197 chapt 9. 7.. Neuronal gestalt and neuronal assembly formations. Prof Susan Greenfield.British journal of music therapy.page 4-19.vol 12.No 1.1998. 8.Hegel. 9 V.Raghavamenon.1938 vol of music academy journal page 37-39) 10 swarnajayanthi issue no:3 &4 vol 28 .July /October 2002 110

11/Dhyanaslokas-Bharathakosam 12. Tyler .H.M.in his article (page 66) Behind the mask explores the concept of the true and false self (Winnicott 1960,Laing 1960) 13.Gale encyclopedia of medicine. Dec 2002.Gale group. Judith Turner’s essay. Health A to Z .Your family healthsite. 14.Cambell Don The Mozart effect .Avon Books 1997. 15.Prof Dr ,Med Paul,J.Rosch AAR ed International 2001. Stress, the epidemic of modern society. 16. &17.Hans in 1980&Bason in 1992 quoted Dr Thomas Lord , Jane Garner 1993 18.The best alternative medicine .Kenneth .R.Pelletier.2000 Healthy Roads editorial staff. 19.Lany Zimmermann & Bunny Pozcht 1989 music for chronic pain. 20.Alexei V.Shemagonov, Valentina .N.Sidorenko .Scientific music therapy .AAR edition.cardiovascular system/cerebral arteries 10.22.03. 21.Dave Lamp.Heartfelt in June 2000 .Info@heart_felt .co.uk 22.Owman.C.(1979) Neurogenic vasodilatation mediated by the autonomic nervous system.Triangle .18:89-99.

Music therapy –The Indian way
Music creates a meditational state of mind due to persistent Alpha activity and Naadalayayogins get into states of meditation with music.1. In Naadayoga notes heard inwardly are associated with symbols of states of consciousness or mood: what one hears are vibrations, or acoustic reflexions of one’s own being. The brain waves are reduced to sinewave type oscillations with a frequency of between 1 and 30 Hz. This frequency is inaudible (human ear detect a range of 16-20000Hz at most.) Yet the properties and effects of these undertones penetrate right into the unconsciousness ..The reverse occurs with the highest frequencies.2 Raagachikitsa is a part of Naadalayayoga.The conception of Raaga is deep and meaningful in Indian classical music.It purifies the hearts of both singer and listener and raises them above caste, creed, colour and gender barriers and gets into the softest corners of their minds. It originally belongs to the Desi or regional music of the country sung by the womenfolk and common people and by the temple priests and chanters of the veda hymns. Melodies induce a feeling of wellbeing which translates into regularized cardiac functions , lowered blood pressure , and appearance of alpha and theta wave frequencies in the EEG.3.. It is therapeutic in two ways1.preventive and 2.curative..Ramakrishnan L,4 has given 4 principles for general music therapy. 1 Contrasting medicine.(contra).just like a cold sponge bath during a high fever..This method is by introducing a music totally different to his/her mental state or mood. 2.Similia.Homeopathic principle.”like cures like”.Music of the same type as the mood of patient.

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3.Iso. principle of vaccine .The same type of mood given to intensify symptoms (the difference from similia is not very clear) and then tonning down the treatment. 4.Pallia (palliative) as a tranquilliser. Thalamic response theory of musical influence.5 (Altshuller G 1944 ) Music is first perceived in the subcortical level , in the Thalamus which is the seat of emotions, feelings and sensations, quite unlike the spoken word perceived in the cortex according to early experiments. And the response to music is automatic and unconscious.Yet , the mechanics of the human brain and how it receives the musical sound must be known to understand the chief significance of music therapy. Psychoanalytical theory of music believes that it is a tonal analog of emotional life and is a form of auditory thinking that can be emotionally truthful in a way that language cannot,6. Early childhood is the time of auditory thinking and therefore music is related to even a child’s thinking and consciousness. Cognitive view. Musical experience is more a matter of cognition than perception. People say that music is a divine inspiration, an elaboration of preexisting structure and processes and also that it is a reflexion of inherent mathematical order in nature. All these different opinions are coming under cognitive theories and we can observe the composing

behaviour , performing behaviour, and listening behaviour and see that all are true . ( I had done this
experiment for the last 15 years as a prospective study ).The communication viewpoint holds that the composer/poet/performer transmits a message to the listener and if the listener is dumb to the message the music fails. Here the listener oriented theories of music (like the reader oriented theories of literature) become very important.This message is always an emotional one and the listener should be emotionally receptive and cognitive of the reception process and is subjective to the involvement and knowledge of the listener .Hence success of a music performance is equally dependent on a receptive listener , as on a quality performer. (Tolstoy, Kivy and Meyer are of this opinion) In other words, I would say that communication of an idea and message of spirituality/emotion as biofeedback from listener to musician and from performer to listener in a communication cycle is essential for improvement of quality of music. A listener who wants to hear quality music always stimulates the performer with positive feedback. Biofeedback is not a conditioned response. It is a voluntary change in the signals to produce some goals. We are not doing something for the patients, but teaching them to do something for themselves, increasing their selfconfidence, or selfefficiency. The biofeedback known to clinical psychology are EEG, EMG, GSR, Pulse feedback etc, and apart from these , and the most effective tool is music therapy.The effect of music can be measured by any of the 3 conventionel biofeedback devices or in combination as a research programe in music therapy research. What is a person’s personality? What will a person do in a given situation? or what are the patterns of traits unique and consistent to each individual? How does a person react to stressful and personal grief situations and how does a person find peace with oneself and with the world ?

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Heredity, interaction of heredity and environment and the past experiences in life make one react to situations in a particular way. Adler formulated a simple personality theory with 6 crucial concepts of which I am concerned here with social interests and creative self of the musician and the music therapist. Erich Fromm’s opinion that a person finds meaning in existence and realize full potential as a human being within the context provided by society , is very interesting. Does every man gets this opportunity? If not, can music be used a s a solace to heal the wounds society has inflicted had been my concern in the past. This does not mean the clinical personality of a neurotic but the normal personality of a human being who had been denied the opportunity to express the full potential , due to various reasons , and which turns him to a neurotic. I had experience with a very intelligent and very sensible and socially committed and loving individual who didn’t get the opportunities to develop into full potential and how he collapsed under that stress and strain. The only solace given to him was music, films and sports. Proper awareness programmes and musical intervention are to create a healthy nation and the world . Musicality as a trait of everyone’s personality, if it is developed properly by constant music training, listening can make our personality wholesome, and pure.This musical part of our personality , if it is strong and made perpetual by constant listening, makes us soft peaceloving individuals who love quite and beautiful nature. The Indian theory of musicality is as a trait in everything in nature, including all human beings and in the west , musicality is considered as something present only in some gifted individuals. Indians also say that though music is in everybody, the distribution is not similar in all depending upon various other factors including the environment . People with high musicality are extraverted and emotional and romantic and respond more to music feedback, according to some researchers in the west. But in the east, even the quite introvert is a highly musical being and he too responds to music equally well. In research the first part is exploratory research, describing and explaining the problem area with literature survey and second part is explanation testing and control. These 2 are quantitative as opposed to qualitative research in the former step. The aim of research, specific analysis, objectives, associated research questions , the prfered paradigms and degree of desired result control, the level of investigators, intervention, available resources, time frame and aesthetics etc makes the research style of each investigator unique.The findings should be statistically analysed, and submitted to the apex body for review and from time to time the progress of the research should be reported. What type of music was given to the patient is important in determining the results.The music, the voice and the raga chosen should be sent to the governing body consisting of eminent musicians for approval. Music in therapy , is to establish contact and facilitate rapport with the subject and is an opening wedge between therapist and client. A mother is using this when she puts her baby to sleep with a lullaby. A school teacher uses this with her children to 113

establish a relationship with them. It is a creative therapy used with children but can be used to establish a rapport with patients as well. The emotions, aesthetics, creativity etc are important here, just as a musician establishes a rapport with his rasika. This is a normal way of relationship, a very lasting friendship and concern established with the world. But in music as therapy, the therapist is not concerned with these, but with the functional music, or the healing induced by the music. Improvisation technique is important in all programmes of music therapy. Nordoff Robbins (1965)7 approach allows the child to draw a musical selfportrait (self analysis) and the relationship of the personality and this selfportrait is utilized by the therapist (if it is a child with disease) or by a teacher (if normal child to improve his potential).Thus, the same technique is used in normal and abnormal persons but for different goals. The development of personality, spiritual, intellectual, mental and physical health in a normal child in a musical medium is the aim of music education .To make human beings to be humane, is its goal. Music gives improvement in arithmetic, geography, writing skills etc in schoolchildren according to several experimenters.8. Music gives a sense of discipline, unity, love and respect for other languages, and religions according to Maudgalya (1980)9.The ultimate aim of music is this Advaitha or oneness of all creations. As a medical doctor /music therapist I use music for alleviation of pain (mental, physical, intellectual, spiritual) of individuals and of society, and offers music as a panacea for all problems of the world and for world peace. The Musical life Panorama (MLP) project as a facilitating method in the field of clinical and sociocultural music therapy was introduced by the Nordic journal of music therapy (1998)10. The Musical Life Panorama (MLP) is a method used in Integrative Music Therapy for psychotherapeutic and sociotherapeutic issues. It works with the emotional meanings of experiences, events and memories that are connected with music in one’s biography and it can be used in a verbal form (talking about music) and in an active form (conducting improvisation.).It helps to initialize and deepen the process of coping with the collective and individual dimensions of sociocultural changes. Each society has to cope with dissonances caused by sociological/sociopolitical changes just like an individual within the society.My task is to show how much a music therapist can do to help such individuals and society to cope with individual and collective problems that disturb the peace on earth. MLP which combine sociotherapy and psychotherapy is used for this. Life Panorama is a word used by Hilarion Petzold (1993 quote 10).It relates to biographical works in integrative therapy. When we look back into our past and into our future , to understand our identity as individuals, our life in its entirety, we have certain stages or stations in our life, which are permanently there in our memory (portrayed and captured) paying regard to the societal and social context and the time in which we grew up. MLP emphasizes the emotional significance of music in our lives. The effect of music is always dependent upon context and mood, linked with emotionally significant events and periods in our development, and releases in the memory the feelings that were linked to the specific situations and 114

events of our life at that time. Thus if we want to look at our development recollections with the aids of music has an important integrative role to play. If a person (a client also) remembers her/his music it inevitably brings her/his own story to life. Thus MLP give a synoptic overview of our life (the patient’s life too ) and a synergetic panorama of all important events in it. This makes it possible to find meaning for many of the sad or painful events that happened in past life, to recreate awareness of healing experiences, which had been forgotten. Karin Schumacher & Dorothia Muthesius (1990 Germany) Fritz Hegi in Switzerland (quote 10) used music biographies of their patients in music therapy. Unlike their approaches the MLP as integrative music therapy has an active improvising component. In a relaxed group discussion, on which kinds of music or what type of music had been important in one’s life and how, provides a point of departure for musical representation of certain phases of events in his/her life. This technique corresponds to a combination of diagnosis and therapeutics combined which the Nordic group calls Theragnosis. (Diagnostic approach itself has a therapeutic effect when we use music )The tetradic system (of Petzold and Orth :1998,Frohne Hagemann 1990 a quote 10. ) involves an active improvisation of the perceived and the remembered and only then it will be reflected and integrated forever as permanent effect.MLP here includes music discussions and exchange of music as a value in itself, (the narrative technique) and improvisation in the sense of the conducted improvisation (Frohne-Hagemann quote 10.) by contrast to dyadic improvisation representing a relationship. MLP and its improvisation is actually using a very ancient method called maieutics used by Socrates. Maieutics in Greek means art of a midwife. A series of skillful questions and answers to elicit a wise (correct ) answer. It is a structured discussion, with some introductory questions, and questions of understanding, then creating links with the participant’s experiences and summaries and give a name to the summaries raised. Hence , in my music therapy programme my first session is an informal conversation with my client to help him remember the best pieces of music which influenced his life events . As a therapist , I too try to go into that music , and into that world, and understand how much the patient feel or taste the sound/the raga /the nature, the symbolism in the music, the moods, emotions, recollections, emotions and atmosphere that comes up , an If in a group,only one is in discussion with the therapist and the others should not colour the feelings of the active protagonist with their own emotions which may have negative effects. A one to one relationship is ideal for a therapist /patient because of this possibility. Sharing the group emotions before getting a direct positive feedback from the therapist/active protagonist team can either destroy the experiment or make it prolonged so that the healing may get delayed unnecessarily. In group improvisations , the experiments will have to be repeated again and again, to generate coherence and to give expressions to the group atmosphere, the development of relationships. Discusion in the group about musical experiences and recollections opens peoples eyes to sociocultural relationships , marginalisations, exclusion of participants from groups, information on emotional styles, climates , 115

socialization processes group members have undergone, personal and social values in the group, resulting views of the world, patterns of experience, behaviour and our picture of ourselves. The most primary and therapeutic goal is to create a climate of coherence and openness, mutual esteem, mutual trust and tolerance. Joint discussions and sharing of musical experiences are extremely sensitive matters because in musical tastes and in matters of aesthetics people are very intolerant. It is very easy for people to devalue or exclude some people’s tastes by considerations other than music and its aesthetics. (especially by preferences, familiarity, caste , creed etc). MLP allows us to experience a sense of community and solidarity, two values which are at present very ambivalent in an age of globalisation. MLP also deals with people’s emotions to political, commercial/economical ends. Every person has an innate quality of empathy, and an ability to build positive relationships, and creative , structuring capacities and ability to restructure and reshape problematic situation in one’s life and in the society. Music discussions through MLP brings out these and makes use of them for the good of society and for the person’s life also. If someone is really interested , one can find my attempts to do these in my books, speeches, and in my informal conversations with people interested in music, and in my patients both individually and as groups. Just as an example of the MLP of my biography I will give a few of my experiences with music .And then I would proceed with my project on music therapy and how I use music as a key to my spirituality, through proper scientific background and philosophical acumen for doing so.

Karin Schumacher •Karin Schumacher and
.Select Bibliography 1 Chinna et al(1961).Indian journal Med Res 49 ,pp.82-89 Quote Mamta Sharma pp 13. 2.. Hamel.P.M (1986) .( Through music to the self .Translated from German by Peter Lemesurier,Element books ltd pp.165-168) 3. (Pinto,Jerry (1994) High frequency medicine .The Sunday review.The Times of India,August 14). 4. Ramakrishnan L, (1990 )Music therapy.Studies in Indian music and applied arts ,ed Leela omcheri,Deepthi omcheri Bhalla,vol 5 5. Altshuller G 1944 Four year experience of music as a therapeutic agent at Eloise hospital.American journal of psychiatry ,100,792-794 6(Lehtmon,Kimmo 1986. some thoughts about theory and practice of music therapy.psychological abstracts vol 73,no 10-12,p 3303.) 7. Nordoff Robbins (1965) 8. .(pp 147.Music therapy:theory and practice,application of music therapy by Manorama Sharma) 9. Maudgalya(1980) 10.MLP .Nordic journal of music therapy7,(2), 1998 . pp 104-112 ,1998)

Personal experiences. With music and its effects on human body and mind (My MLP )may help to understand the nature of
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Indian classical music on the development of personality , health (physical,mental,intellectual and spiritual) and hence given below for the interested readers of the west and the east.
I am a music therapist, and a Retired Professor and HOD Pathology, who has done some research into the use of South Indian Classical Raaga music (Raagachikitsa) in various disorders and as an educational tool and for universal peace.(www.nalapat.com) But the research was not a conscious one started as a doctor or pathologist. It was inherent in me as a child composer and poet. And I was actually searching for the root of my own creativity and consciousness .The coma and neardeath experiences of my own husband and the way I could bring him back to normalcy with my creativity was a unique experience. I would like to share my experience with you. How my interest in music and in the effects of music on my own (and on other people’s ) consciousness and behaviour started?

My .Personal experiences with Music and its effect on human body and mind I had a Repeating recurrent dream of a golden ocean and hearing raaga music at the age of 7-8.-(?clairvoyance/clairaudience.)And I started to compose at that age.(child composer?)
(Choksa (Budhist) is swargaraaga (music of the heavens) first seen in the mind (pasyanthi of Thanthra) and then heard in the mind and then after repeated such occurrences it takes a definite shape (Raagaroopa) and this is called madhyama in Thanthra . This raagaroopa is within the heartspace of the poet/musician and this is externalized as a spoken/sung word and heard by the listener.The internalized music of the musician is externalized and this externalized version is heard by a listener with remarkable endowments so that the effect of it become known to him. This effect is given to musician so that the feedback improves the quality of musician.(Kaarayathri, Bhaavayathri Prathibha –the creative and listening genius in Indian aesthetics). Since I am an Indian , having contact with the traditions of this land, later on in my life, I learnt that both Hindu and Budhist traditions approve of such creativity in music. What is creativity and PSI phenomena?

•psi phenomena suggest •(a) that what science knows about the nature of universe is incomplete; •(b) that the capabilities and limitations of human potential have been underestimated; •(c) that fundamental assumptions and philosophical beliefs about the separation of mind and body may be incorrect; and
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•(d) that assumptions about the divine nature of "miracles" may have been mistaken.•

•Studies of direct mental interaction with living systems suggest that traditional mental healing techniques, such as prayer, may be based on genuine psi-mediated effects. In the future it may be possible to develop enhanced methods of healing based on these phenomena. •Raagachikitsa (music therapy) and healing through music probably involves Bio-PK : Direct mental interactions with living
systems. •NDE : Near death experience; an experience reported by those who were revived from nearly dying. refers to a core experience that includes feelings of peace, OBE, seeing lights and other phenomena (hearing music celestial). •OBE : Out-of-body experience; the experience of feeling separated from the body, often accompanied by visual perceptions as though from above the body. •Reincarnation: The belief that we live successive lives, with primarily evidence coming from the apparent recollections of previous lives by very small children. All these are known even to the lay people of India and these phenomena are being researched by the western world..

2.Child composers.
The study of Physical , mental, intellectual, spiritual growth in a human being and musical brain in infants and children has been there in the history of all civilizations, and this is especially true in India. When I look back the memory lane , I find that I used to like the poems and bits of music with my name in it. (In Indian music it is known as the poet’s mudra/symbol) what is it? what is the meaning of my name ? In scriptures a name has a meaning and that meaning is closely associated with the culture and tradition of the geographic area and the language spoken there. The protolanguage of a people is somehow linked to the protomusic of them. And I noticed that this is Common to all children.In 1960-to 65 –I used to put my sister’s daughter usha to sleep by singing the popular film songs of that period...I was just 14 at that time ..Among the Lullabies-the best she liked were pieces with her name in it and a melodious raga (both combined) There was even a sibling rivalry which she showed when a song with her cousin’s name was sung. She , as a child, loved the voice of the same singer which I preferred. (K.J.Yesudas) In 1965 Vinod (my sister’s son) was born.His favourite was a very deep melodious and sad song (usually adults with a philosophical turn of mind like that song and that emotion) sung by the very same famous singer (yesudas). and that song 118

contained the child’s name too..One thing I noticed was that 4 generations (my parents, me and my brothers and sisters and their children and their children) all like the same voice (yesudas) and the melodies sung by him. At that time I was not a doctor. I didn’t have any knowledge of music or its powers on human beings. But I NOTICED SOME PROPERTIES IT HAVE ON DIFFERENT GENERATIONS AND I CONTINUED TO HEAR MUSIC AND COMPOSE THEM REGULARLY . From the age of 7-8 I had composed music at a regular basis , just to be enjoyed by myself, Just like a bird sings for itself or for nature, its mother . In 1965 I joined Medical college and found a classmate of mine who is passionately in love with music and with the same voice I loved and we used to enjoy music together and he used to make me sing a lot and this relationship ended up in our marriage. In 1972 my son was born. I had completed my MBBS, then started my professional career as pathologist. Hence the observations I made from his music preferences were more scientific . The fact that he too loved the same sad melodious philosophical piece which Vinod loved 7 years earlier was a bit interesting. The piece contained his name also. but the melody and the touching character, the tone, the timbre and voice etc of the singer was very important for the musical preferences, even of infants and children , I noticed. My Awareness of protomusic /protolanguage started from these experiences. I asked the question,Why all of us like Tamil songs? The first language of the child and of man the sweetest like a lullaby. no grammer., musical ,. simple. The development of musical language first. Then it stimulates the spoken language. Protoloanguage and protomusic are as old as Neanderthal men and is our biological heritage. With music children learn language better. The phenomenon of Mummy stop-(mu…mm..yy…, waa…..teeerrrrr is an example) is very common in Tamil language, which is very musical, I noticed. The vowels are given an extralength, and a musicality just like a infant crooning. Newborn Infants do not look at the mirror and enjoy their form much ,but they do enjoy listening to the sound of their names called in a cooing , soft way, I learnt from my own experience with them. This I can explain, in a scientific way, that Sound and light travel together, in the same wave, but for the human race more important is sound-naada-naadabrahma. The first sensation , a human child gets while in the womb of its mother..the rhythmic lub-dub of the heartbeat is the first sensation of all of us. Then her familiar voice, and only after that we identify her form. In the . 1991 Annals of NY A SCIENCES., Nature of language acquisition is described in detail..

The language of the mother affect the child. if it is soft and musical –it is good for development. This is true for all normal children.
Now , coming to retarded children. Underdeveloped and autism children –rhythms have to be used first.-(since the language centers are not welldeveloped). I have seen a boy aged 22 with autism still enjoying and listening yesudas voice in a child-song. A child aged 1 yr (with mental retardation) listening to Krishna neebeghane – (yesudas voice) –recognising the voice and his own name Krishna . 119

In such children use first the rhythm, then the name of the child, namegame (languagegame) to stimulate language centers. All these experiences I had from my own surroundings and not from any theory read from others. Because of these personal experiences I searched for scientific explanations and I got them from world literature. I thought about Where we can use music in the education of normal and subnormal child and also, Educating the educator (the parents and would-be-parents on the importance of music ). How we can use the universal language of music in education? How we can use it in the Treatment of children with difficulties in learning/cognition/motor deficits 2. How can music affect two individuals who talks about music?- The H atoms in our body act as micromagnette-My experience with my husband and our bioenergy fields crossing each other and our falling in love was probably such a thing.The concept of analytical music therapy for adult patients can explain such phenomena. When two people make or talk music together, they naturally understand each other well, and this helps to build up intrapersonal and interpersonal relationships. And I thought , I can use this fact for a better world order, and world peace. The communication between people, between nations and between different ethnic groups through universal language of music is a beautiful idea and solution for a world with the riddles of violence, separatisms and terrorisms. We have to replace the language of violence with that of nonviolence, the language of criticism with that of music. (And by 1998, I saw the article on MLP by the Nordic music therapy journal, which confirms my view.) What happened when I decided to sacrifice music as a part of my sanyasa experiments in 1975 came as a shock.-I was getting multiple joint and bone injuriesand How it got cured after restarting singing and composing gave me real insight into the role of music in one’s life. How it touches our innermost heartstrings and emotions.Why not use this as a therapy protocol? I asked myself. But it was not that easy to start as a project, since I was working in a Government medical college. Bioenergy fields of 2 people make vibrations creating an aura-(called kundalini in India,Tai chi in China. In Kabbala also this is described. ). I was using Raaga music of India and I searched ayurveda and other scriptural texts of India for references. And found that there is a perfect interdisciplinary approach in India for these arts and scinces. And it has a relationship inseparable from the Indian astronomy, yoga and philosophy of Upanishads and the veda, too. Prasaada- in ayurveda is a healthy vibrant personality , pleasing-natural glow of healthy mind and intellect. A Personal charisma. Which My Guru Srikrishna speaks of and demonstrates in the Geetha (actually the word meaning of Geetha is a song). In India such a relationship exists Beween therapist and patient/guru and sishya/a male and female couple/ between any two individuals. And a Raaga , literally means , one which brightens up and communicates a message , within itself, and to the listeners, so that they feel its glow (ranjayati) and are happy. I wanted to make a programme in which this is made use of in healthy relationships/inter and intrapersonal, in education, in treatment. That is how I evolved a programme of 120

music therapy (which I call raagachikitsa). I wanted this to be implemented as a valuebased educational programme in a Traditional Gurukula style, but with attachment to an established university research center , having proper research protocols.

3.Active music therapy as communication/communion. parapsychology/Near death experience. : While my husband was in coma for 5-6 days (twice in successive years ) and when he had psychological confusion following that, I used the old music which we played together during our courting years and it had startling effects on his condition .The neardeath experiences he had, the light and music and the positive feelings, and the change that occurred to him in the following two and a half years , I had described in my Autobiography. The NDE is almost similar in its EEG effects and the following spiritual phenomena to the yoga experiences and to naadalayayoga experiences and also the deep sleep experiences of the Rishi of the upanishadic period.
(Near death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest :A prospective study in the Netherlands (Lancet 2001;358:2039-45) Pim van Lommel, Ruud van Wees,Vincent Meyers, Ingrid Elfferich The lancet.Vol 358.December 15, 2001. The cause of this experience and its aftereffects were studied in a prospective study of 344 cases, the demographic , medical, pharmacological and psychological data compared in patients whom had NDE and who didn’t have it. In a longitudinal study of life changes after NDE , these groups were studied 2 and 8 years after. Theories of origin: 1.physiological changes in the brain. Brain celldeath due to cerebral anoxia 2.psychological reaction to approaching death 3.A combination of such reaction and anoxia. 4.Changing states of consciousness (transcendance) in which perception , cognitive function, emotion , and sense of identity function independently from normal bodylinked waking consciousness. 5.People who have an NDE are psychologically healthy , although some show nonpathological signs of dissociation. The patients’ transformational processes are very similar after an experience of neardeath, and encompass lifechanging insight, heightened intuition, and disappearance of fear of death. Assimilation and acceptance of these changes is thought to take at least several years.

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Definition of NDE by these group of doctors as: The reported memory of all impressions during a special state of consciousness, including specific elements such as out of body experience , pleasant feelings, and seeing a tunnel, light , deceased relatives, or a life review. Depth of NDE measured as 1.superficial, 2.core experiences and 3.deep experiences. If there is some recollection only it is superficial NDE. Core NDE can be including moderately deep and deep NDE and the very deep NDE with clear picture of the exact experience. Elements of NDE (frequency of 10 elements of NDE) ELEMENTS OF NDE 1.awareness of being dead 2.positive emotions 3.out of body experience 4.moving through a tunnel 5.communication with light 6.observation of colours 7.observation of celestial landscapes 8.meeting with deceased persons 9.life review 10 presence of border FREQUENCY (n=62) 31(50%) 35(56%) 15(24%) 19(31%) 14(23%) 14(23%) 18(29%) 20(32%) 8(13%) 5(8%)

Lifechange inventory questionnaire(2 year follow up)
1.Social attitude
Showing own feelings Acceptance of others More loving,empathic Understanding others Involvement of family

2.Religious/spiritual attitude
Understand purpose of life Sense the inner meaning of life Interest in spirituality

3.attitude to death
fear of death belief in life after death

4..others
interest in the meaning of life. Understanding oneself 3.appreciation of ordinary things

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People with NDE have a significant increase in belief in an afterlife and decrease in the fear of death compared to people who had not this experience. Depth of NDE was linked to high scores in spiritual items such as interest in the meaning of one’s own life, and social items such as showing love and accepting others. Selfassurance, social awareness and religious nature increased in all patients irrespective of NDE.

TOTAL SUM OF INDIVIDUAL LIFE-CHANGE INVENTORY SCORES OF PATIENTS AT 2 YEAR AND 8 YEAR FOLLOW UP:
TWO YEAR FOLLOWUP NDE (23) NO NDE(15) 8 YEAR FOLLOW UP NDE(23) NO NDE(15)

Lifechange inventory scores Showing own feelings Acceptance of others More loving ,empathetic Understanding others Involvement in family Understanding purpose of life Sense inner meaning of life Interest in spirituality Fear of death Belief in lifeafter death Interest in meaning of life Understanding oneself Appreciation of ordinary things

42 42 52 36 47 52 52

16 16 25 8 33 33 25

78 78 68 73 78 57 57

58 41 50 75 58 66 25

15 -47 36 52 58

-8 -16 16 33 8

42 -63 42 89 63

-41 -41 16 66 58

78

41

84

50

The authors say that the medical factors cannot account for the occurance of NDE since all patients who are clinically dead do not have NDE. 123

Good shortterm memory is needed to remember the near death experiences. (also sleep experiences, naadalayayoga experiences) Forgetting or repressing such experiences was not the reason for the people who have not reported NDE. because eeven in those who remembered , the first interview could not elicit the memory . With timepass , after 2 to 8 year follow up, they could remember the core NDE more clearly and they consisted only positive emotions , showing that the transient memory defects immeadiately after the episode were over and they can remember it more clearly after sometime, if they survived.Women have deeper experiences than men. There is an inverse relation to foreknowledge of the NDE and frequency of NDE. (two scoring systems of NDE 1.Ring’s classification (Ring.K.life at death.A scientific investigation of the neardeath experience.New york:Coward Mccann and Geoghenan,1980.) 2.Greyson’s NDE scale (Greyson .B.The neardeath experience scale: construction, reliability and validity . J Nervous Mental Dis 1982:171:369-75) The denial of such experiences come from social rejection and ridicule. It is this social conditioning which causes NDE to be traumatic , although in itself it is not a psychotraumatic experience. As a result the effects of this experience can be delayed for years, and only gradually and with difficulty is an NDE accepted and integrated. Furthermore , the longlasting transformational effects of an experience that lasts for only a few minutes of cardiac arrest is a surprising and unexpected finding. Sabom reported a young woman during brain surgery for a cerebral aneurysm showing an EEG of cortex and brainstem totally flat. After the surgery, which was successful, the patient reported to have a very deep NDE, including an out of the body experience , with subsequently verified observations during the period of the flat EEG.

There are some induced experiences with electrical, chemical , experimental stimulation of temporal lobe, hippocampus etc, which also have unconsciousness, out of body experiences, perception of light, flashes of recollection from the past.These recollections , however consist of fragmented and random memories unlike the panoramic life-review that can occur in NDE.Transformational processes , with changing life-insight and disappearance of fear of death are not seen after such artificial means of induction of NDE. Thus induced experiences are not the same as NDE . The question raised is , if brain is the seat of memory and consciousness , how can the clear consciousness outside one’s body be experienced at the moment that the brain has no function during a perod of clinical death with flat EEG? In cardiac arrest also the EEG become flat . Blind people describe
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also have reported the veridical perception during out of body experiences. NDE pushes at the limits of medical ideas about the range of human consciousness and the midbrain relation. NDE could be a changing state of consciousness (the transcendence) or the BARDO , in which identity, cognition, emotion function independently from the unconscious body , but retain the possibility) My experience with a well known poet of kerala having Alzheimer’s disease- was also very positive. How she recited the saraswathatathwaslolka of soundaryalahari, identified lalithasahasranaama, and the name Asoka which she herself had given to my younger brother and how it evoked a memory of kalidasa’s poetry were real revelations to me.. certain parts of memory associated with poetry and musical language was still in her, though she has totally lost memory of names of even her own children.
At present I am using the therapy for all types of diseases, including cardiac problems and cancer chemotherapy . And I find it interesting to note that I am using both analytical* and creative therapy of the western investigators in my own style (Thanks to the fact that I got an internet connection only in October 1998 and my protocol on music therapy and thoughts about it had started early in life through my own experiences) and in the style of the ancient seers of India, but associating it with the knowledge of modern medicine and implications of it on patient (due to my medical background from 1965 and the knowledge aquired after 1998 through the world literature on the net.) and the theoretical and psychological aspects and the spiritual background characteristic of Indian music..And I am trying to introduce this discipline into a wide national & international field for betterment of human relationships , for global peace and harmony. *Footnote.ANALYTICAL MUSIC THERAPY(USED FIRST IN ADULTS, LATER IN CHILDREN OF NORMAL DEVELOPMENT) Mary priestly and meaning in music therapy-called the referentialist position.2 types of meaning 1.prereferential-before contact with the patient/ or with any new person/guru/disciple 2 referential. (after contact a change in the mind of both)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My sincere thanks to the greatest musical genius of India , Padmabhooshan Dr K.J.Yesudas, my respected Guru , and elder brother .Without his help, guidance and friendship I could never have been initiated into my love for music and for the project on Raagachikitsa. I also thank Dr Bhuvaneswary, for singing my Melakartha compositions for treatment and for enrichment of the classical Malayalam musical tradition. Amritha Institute of Medical sciences and Research center had provided me the facility to conduct the pilot project and I thank Prof D.M.Vasudevan, (The Principal) and Dr Prem Nair (The medical director) for providing me the necessary facilities. I also thank the doctors/colleagues/patients/volunteers and the friends and relatives who gave me help in carrying out the research on music therapy. My regard , love and gratitude to my family members and all children who loved my lullabies and gave me valuable feedback from 1954 till date . Dr Suvarna Nalapat

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