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Submitted by : By TE Online on October 13, 2008 7:46 AM Fabric weave is the pattern for manufacturing a fabric. The yarns are used in different ways to produce various effects or weaves. These weaves can be plain and simple as well as artistic and decorative. Plain weave is the most simple and common type of construction which is inexpensive to produce, durable, flat having tight surface on which printing and other finishes can be easily applied. The examples of plain weave fabrics are crepe, taffeta, organdy, cotton calicos, cheesecloth, gingham, percale, voile and muslin. Satin weave, although more complicated, is a flexible type of weave than the plain weave. It is called 'satin' when filament fibers such as silk or nylon are used and is called 'sateen' when shortstaple yarns like cotton is used to make it. The satin weave is lustrous with a smooth surface and it drapes in an excellent manner. The examples of satin weave fabrics are bocade, brocatelle, crepe-satin, satin, peau de soie, velvet satin etc.
Twill weave is somewhat similar to plain weave. Twill weave is durable, heavier, wrinkle and soil resistant, and is more flexible than plain weave. The examples of twill weave fabrics are covert cloth, drill, jean, jersey, tussah, velvet, worsted cheviot etc.
Basket weave is a variation of plain weave in which the fabrics have a loose construction and a flat look. It is more flexible and stronger but less stable than a plain weave. This weave is used in composites industry, outerwear, monk's cloth and drapery fabrics etc.
Jacquard weave is for creating complex patterns on fabrics and is woven on jacquard loom. The fabrics made through this weave have floats,
luster, and are more stable and stretchy than the basic weaves. Some of its examples are matelasse, satin Faconne etc. It is used for upholstery and drapery.
Rib weave is a basic weave which produces ribs on the fabric. Resulting fabric is abrasion and tear resistant examples of which are broadcloth, cord fabric, faille, poplin, taffeta etc.
Dobby, a decorative weave results in small designs or geometric figures all over the woven fabric. It is done through dobby machines. This weave uses various yarns from very fine to coarse and fluffy yarns to produce a variety of fabrics. The standard dobby weave fabrics are flat and comparatively fine. Some examples are moss crepe, matelasse etc. Heavy dobby fabrics are used for home furnishings and for heavy apparel.
Leno weave fabric is transparently thin, durable, strong and permits passage of both light and air through it. Examples of fabrics with leno weave are gauze, net, tulle etc. The leno weave fabrics are used for lightweight membrane, laminating fabrics, making medium weight blankets etc.
Oxford weave fabrics are made with modified plain weave or basket weave and are generally used for apparels, particularly cotton shirting materials. The fabric is fine, soft and lightweight.
Cut pile is a carpet fabric in which the surface of the carpet is made of cut ends of pile yarn. It is durable depending upon the kind of fiber used,
density of the tufts and the number of twists in the yarn. Examples of cut pile are cisele velvet, velour , saxony etc.
Uncut pile, also called loop pile or rounded loops, produces fabric without cutting the ends of yarns as opposed to cut pile. The resulting fabrics are very strong with which very strong carpets are made. They are also used for making towels. Examples are terry cloth, terry velour, moquette, etc.
Double knit is a circular knit fabric having loops on both sides. It is made on circular knitting machines. The constructed fabric is very heavy. The fabrics such as cotton, wool, silk, rayon and synthetics are used for double knit and are made into pants, skirts, tunics, jackets, scarfs, hats, bandages etc.
Chenile fabric is usually a soft wool, silk, cotton, or rayon yarn with protruding pile having fur-like texture which resembles velvet. It is generally used for making sweaters, outerwear, upholstery, curtains, rugs, throws and blankets etc.
Fabric are manufactured in wide varieties and design. And the different design and effect is produced on the fabric with the help for various mechanism which is helpful to from different weaves and lots of design which enhances the
look of apparels. The present paper was aimed at investigating the different types of weaves and also overview the fabrics come under the different weave categories.
2. Types of Weaves:
2.1 Plain Weave:
Most simple and most common type of construction Inexpensive to produce, durable, Flat, tight surface is conducive to printing and other finishes. The simplest of all patterns is the plain weave. Each weft yarn goes alternately over and under one warp yarn. Each warp yarn goes alternately over and under each weft yarn. Some examples of plain weave fabrics are crepe, taffeta, organdy and muslin. The plain weave may also have variations including the following:
Rib weave: the filling yarns are larger in diameter than the warp yarns. A rib weave produces fabrics in
which fewer yarns per square centimeter are visible on the surface.
Matt Weave or Basket weave: here, two or more yarns are used in both the warp and filling direction.
These groups of yarns are woven as one, producing a basket effect.
Method of Construction: Each filling yarn goes alternately under and over the warp yarns Household Uses: Draperies, tablecloths, upholstery.
Different types of Fabric Come under this Category;
Chiffon: A very soft and filling plain woven Silk texture consisting of the Finest Singles which are hard
twisted and woven in the gum condition. The cloth is afterward degummed.
Georgette: A cotton Crepe fabric made in imitation of silk georgette, with hard twisted warp and weft yarn.
A good Cloth is woven plain with right and left twist thread arranged in 2 and 2 order in warp and weft.
Shantung: Coarse Silk fabric with Slubs. Mostly Tussah Silk but can be Polyester, nylon and viscose.
Seersucker: It is created by holding some warp yarns at tight tension, some at slack tension. Those at Slack
Tension puff up to form a sort of Blis-ter-effect, often slack and tight yarn of different colour.
2.2 Basket Weave:
A variation of the plain weave usually basket or checkerboard pattern Contrasting colors are often used Inexpensive, less durable than plain weave. Basket weave is the amplification in height and width of plain weave. Two or more yarns have to be lifted or lowered over or under two or more picks for each plain weave point. When the groups of yarns are equal, the basket weave is termed regular, otherwise it is termed irregular.
There two types of weave come under this category i.e. regular and irregular weave.
a) Regular basket weave: This is commonly used for edges in drapery, or as a bottom in very small weave repeats, because the texture is too loose-fitting for big weave repeats; moreover, yarns of different groups can slip, group and overlap, spoiling the appearance. This is why only basket weaves 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4 exist.
b) Irregular basket weave: This is generally a combination of irregular warp and weft ribs.
Method of Construction: Two or more warps simultaneously interlaced with one or more fillings.
Household Uses: Wall hangings, pillows.
Example of Basket weave:
Monks cloth: Heavy cotton Cloth in a coarse basket weave, chiefly used for draperies.
Oxford; Oxford weave fabric consists of two, thin warp yarns woven to very soft, thicker yarn in the filling direction. The unbalanced construction of the fabric causes the thin yarns to break and leave tiny holes. The primary use of oxford weave fabric is in cotton shirting. It is also used in other forms of apparel.
2.3 Twill Weave: Creates a diagonal, chevron, hounds tooth, corkscrew, or other design. The design is enhanced with colored yarn is strong and may develop a shine. Twill weave is characterized by diagonal ridges formed by the yarns, which are exposed on the surface. These may vary in angle from a low slope to a very steep slope. Twill weaves are more closely woven, heavier and stronger than weaves of comparable fiber and yarn size. They can be produced in fancy designs.
Method of Construction: Three or more shafts; warp or filling floats over two or more counterpart yarns in progressive steps right or left
Household Uses: Upholstery, comforters, pillows.
Types of Fabrics:
Denim: A Strong Warp Face Cotton Cloth used for overall, Jeans skirts etc. Largely made in 3/1 twill weave. Generally warp yarn is dyed brown or blue and crossed with white weft.
Gabardine: A Warp Face cloth mostly woven 2/2 twill, 27/2 tex warp, 20/2 tex cotton weft. Here cotton weft is yarn dyed but the wool warp may be dyed in piece.
Smooth, soft luster Excellent drapability Floats snag easily
Method of Construction:
Floats one warp yarn over four or more weft yarns, then tied down with one thread, resulting in a smooth face Common Fabrics: Satin, satin-weave fabrics out of fabrics such as cotton & Charmeuse
Household Uses: Draperies, quilts
Examples of Fabric:
Satin: Used for ribbons, trimmings, dresses, linings etc, and originally was an all silk fabric with a fine rich glossy surface formed in a warp satin weave. The warp is much finer and more closely set than the weft, and the latter which only shows on the under side is frequently composed of cotton. Double faced Satins are made on the reversible warp backed principle, with one side differently colour from the other. Sateen; A cotton fabric is made in 5 thread weft face sateen, and woven like cotton. It is sold in bleached, mercerized or printed condition. Charmeuse: It is a light weight fabric woven with a satin weave ,where the warp threads cross over three or more of the backing (weft) threads. The front side of the fabric has a satin finish-lustrous and reflectivewhereas the back has a dull finish.
Jacquard patterns, when carefully analyzed, may be seen to contain combinations of plain, twill, and satin weaves, even in the same crosswise yarn. Many decorative fabrics are made by the jacquard technique. Yarns woven into unlimited designs, often intricate, multicolor effect. Expensive, but the design dont fade or wear out. Durability depends on the fiber used. The Jacquard loom was invented by Joseph
Method of Construction: Warp is individually controlled with each pick passage creating intricate designs
Household Uses: Upholstery, wall hangings
Types of Jacquard fabric;
Brocade:. Originally a heavy rich silk fiber ornaments with raised figures formed by extra threads or by embroidery. Mostly used for upholstery fabrics and draperies.
Damask: Fabric with a weft sateen figures on a warp satin, twist or plain grained, made of silk, cotton, rayon and linen yarns Damasks are reversible. Cotton and linen damasks are made either with four yarn float or a seven yarn float in the satin weave. The Longer floats are more lustrous, but the shorter floats are more durable.
2.6 Leno or Gauze:
In leno or gauze weave pairs of warps are twisted over each other with each passing of filling yarn. The leno weave is the modern descendant of a technique called twining that was used thousands of years ago for making fabrics. In leno-weave fabrics, the warp yarns are paired. A special attachment, the doup or leno attachment, crosses or laps the paired warp yarns over each other, while the filling passes through the opening between the two warp yarns. Lenoweave fabrics are made in Open, gauzelike constructions. Method of Construction: A pair of warp threads is twisted over each other with each passing of filling yarn in a figure or an hourglass twist, creating a geometric pattern
Household Uses: Thermal Blankets, curtains
2.7 Pile Fabric: Extra sets of warps or fillings are woven over ground yarns of plain or twill weave to form loops. Pile fabrics have been defined as fabrics(s) with cut or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface Pile fabrics may be created by weaving or through other construction techniques, such as tufting, knitting, or stitch through. To create the loops
that appears on the surface of woven pile fabrics, the weaving process.
Piled fabric are classified as Uncut pile and Cut Pile Fabric
2.7.1 Uncut Pile:
Loops are possible on both sides of fabric Soft and absorbent, relatively inexpensive Can snag if loops are caught
Method of Construction: (Wire Method or double cloth Method):
Generally a plain or twill weaves with a third dimension--additional warp yarn or filling yarn is introduced into the basic structure and forms a loop at regular intervals.
Common Fabrics: Frieze, terry cloth
Household Uses: Upholstery, towels, carpet, area rugs
2.7.2 Cut Pile:
Soft and warm, resilient, absorbent May have a nap that must be matched May be expensive and need professional cleaning Method of Construction: Similar to uncut pile, but loops have been cut
Household uses: Upholstery, stage draperies.
Different types of Cut pile Fabric:
Corduroy: Corded velveteen Structures in which a weft pile forms longitudinal lines or chords, strong heavy clothes being used for trouser-rings, smoking jackets and lighter fabrics for dress materials.
Velvet: A cut warp pile fabric with a short, soft, dense pile.
Velveteen: A Short heavily wefted cotton fabric uniformly covered with a short dense pile of fibers which formed after the cloth has been woven by cutting certain picks of weft that float somewhat loosely on the surface.
First of all I would like to express profound gratitude to the management of the SGS India Private LTD., Gurgaon for giving encouragement and guidance to work on this Article.
Variation of weaves from Textile Manufacturing Technique by Rai University.
About the Authors:
The authors are associated with SGS India Pvt. Ltd. Gurgaon, Haryana
Types of Weaves - Square, Oblong, Broad
Twilled Weave, 4-bonded
Twilled Weave, 5-bonded, EGLA 5, Satin Twilled Weave
MULTIPLEX, Twilled Weave, 4-bonded
Double Intermediate Crimp Screen, Type C
Lock Scrimp Screen, Type D
Flat Top Screen, Type E
Pressure Welded Screen, Type F
Types of Filter Cloth
SPW Single Plain Dutch Weave
SPW with Double Warp Wires
HIFLO High Capacity Filter Weave
DTW Dutch Twilled Weave
BMT Broad Mesh Twilled Dutch Weave
RPD Reverse Plain Dutch Weave
TRD Twilled Reverse Dutch Weave
Weaving is an ancient art of making cloth and other fabrics and the Indians have been expert of weaving since the ancient period. Weaving is the process of making cloth, rugs, blankets and other products by crossing two sets of threads over and under each other. Weaving in Indian villages has been a hobby for several centuries now. Weaving has also become a major industry in the contemporary period. Weaving in Indian villages is done using threads spun from natural fibers like cotton, silk and wool and also using the synthetic fibers like nylon and Orlon. The Indian hand woven fabrics have been famous all over the world since times immemorial. The ancient Indian cotton-fabric Muslin was considered one of the most unique creations of Indian weavers. India was also one of the major exporters of textiles to most parts of the civilised world in the ancient period. However, in contemporary India, weaving is not limited to cloth and textile products. It plays an important part in manufacture of screens, metal fences and rubber tire cord.
Weaving in Indian villages is considered one of the largest cottage industries. Several people are engaged in weaving cotton, silk and other natural fibres and not a single village can be found in India, where the weavers do not live. Various types of weaving are done in the villages of India. Some of the most popular types of weaving in Indian villages include cotton fabrics, patola weaving, ikat fabrics, phulkari, carpet weaving, embroidery, sanganeri prints, chindi dhurries, batik sarees, himroo, hand block printing, etc. Different region of India is famous for different types of weaving. The villages of Tamil Nadu are famous for a special kind of weaving named Madras Checks. The ikat fabrics are the pride of the villages of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa and in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, the Brocades and jacquards are famous. The villages of West Bengal are famous for weaving the fabrics like Daccai, Jamdani, Taant, etc. and the villagers in Punjab are expert in weaving Phulkari. The other famous weaving styles found in the villages of India include Chanderi pattern in Madhya Pradesh, Baluchar, Surat tanchoi, Benarasi, etc. On the other hand, people in the villages of Jammu and Kashmir are involved in weaving the world famous Pashmina and Shahtoosh shawls. The villages of India are famous all over the world for producing the famous fabrics like mulberry silk, tasser (tussore), eri and muga as well. Apart from weaving, people in the Indian villages are also involved in other occupations like dying, designing, etc. Weaving in Indian villages is one of those rare assets for which India can feel proud of.
Plain weave (also called tabby weave or taffeta weave) is the most basic of three fundamental types of textile weaves (along with satin weave and twill). It is strong and hard-wearing, used for fashion and furnishing fabrics.
In plain weave, the warp and weft are aligned so they form a simple criss-cross pattern. Each weft thread crosses the warp threads by going over one, then under the next, and so on. The next weft thread goes under the warp threads that its neighbor went over, and vice versa.
Balanced plain weaves are fabrics in which the warp and weft are made of threads of the same weight (size) and the same number of ends per inch as picks per inch. Basketweave is a variation of plain weave in which two or more threads are bundled and then woven as one in the warp or weft, or both.
A balanced plain weave can be identified by its checkerboard-like appearance. It is also known as one-up-one-down weave or over and under pattern. Some examples of fabric with plain weave are chiffon, organza, and taffeta.
Twill is a type of textile weave with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs (in contrast with a satin and plain weave). This is done by passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads and so on, with a "step" or offset between rows to create the characteristic diagonal pattern. Because of this structure, twills generally drape well. Examples of twill fabric are chino, drill, denim, gabardine, tweed and serge.
In a twill weave, each weft or filling yarn floats across the warp yarns in a progression of interlacings to the right or left, forming a distinct diagonal line. This diagonal line is also known as a wale. A float is the portion of a yarn that crosses over two or more yarns from the opposite direction. A twill weave requires three or more harnesses, depending on its complexity. A twill weave is the second most basic weave that can be made on a fairly simple loom. Twill weave is often designated as a fraction—such as 2/1—in which the numerator indicates the number of harnesses that are raised (and, thus, threads crossed), in this example, two, and the denominator indicates the number of harnesses that are lowered when a filling yarn is inserted, in
this example one. The fraction 2/1 would be read as "two up, one down." The minimum number of harnesses needed to produce a twill can be determined by totaling the numbers in the fraction. For the example described, the number of harnesses is three. (The fraction for plain weave is 1/1.)
 Characteristics of twill
A twill with ribs in both sides, called herringbone.
Twill fabrics technically have a front and a back side, unlike plain weave, where the two sides are the same. The front side of the twill is the technical face and the back is called technical back. The technical face side of a twill weave fabric is the side with the most pronounced wale. It is usually more durable, more attractive, and most often used as the fashion side of the fabric. This side is usually the side visible during weaving. If there are warp floats on the technical face (if the warp crosses over two or more wefts), there will be filling floats (the weft will cross over two or more warps) on the technical back. If the twill wale goes up to the right on one side, it will go up to the left on the other side. Twill fabrics have no up and down as they are woven. Sheer fabrics are seldom made with a twill weave. Because a twill surface has interesting texture and design, printed twills (where a design is printed on the cloth) are much less common than printed plain weaves. When twills are printed, they are most likely to be lightweight fabrics. Soil shows less on the uneven surface of twills than it does on smooth surfaces, such as plain weaves. Thus, twills are often used for sturdy work clothing or durable upholstery because soils and stains are less noticeable on this fabric. Denim, for example, is a twill. The fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move more freely, and thus they are softer and more pliable, and drape better. Twills also recover from wrinkles better than plain-weave fabrics do. When there are fewer interlacings, yarns can be packed closer together to produce high-count fabrics. In twills and higher counts, the fabric is more durable and air- and water-resistant. There are even-sided twills and warp-faced twills. Even-sided twills include foulard or surah, serge, twill flannel, sharkskin, herringbone, and houndstooth. Warp-faced twills include lining twill, denim, jean, drill, covert, chino, gabardine, cavalry twill, and fancy twill.