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CALCULUS OF VARIATIONS: Maximum and minimum of functions of several independent variables Lagrangian method of multipliers Variational problems of fixed boundaries only: Simplest variational problems Euler equation Brachistochrone problem Variational problems involving several unknown functions Functional involving first and second order derivations Functional involving two or more independent variables Isoperimetric problems. (9) VECTOR SPACE: Definition and examples of liner space Linear dependence and independence Basis and Dimension Inner product space Orthogonalisation process. (7) STOCHASTIC PROCESSES: Introduction and classification of stochastic processes , Poisson process- Discrete Markov chain, computation of n-step transition probabilities, state classification and continuous time Markov chain Birth and death processes, pure birth process and pure death process applications. (12) PETRINETS: Basic concepts of Petri nets and their use in modeling of discrete-event systems Classification of Petri nets. (7) GRAPH THEORY: Introduction Basic terminology Representation of graphs Connected graphs Matrix representation of graphs (excluding graphs) Applications Critical path method Shortest path problems trees definition Binary tree. (7) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Elsgolts L, Differential Equation and Calculus of variation, MIR Publishers, 1996. 2. John T. Schick, Linear Algebra with Applications, McGraw Hill Company, 1997 3. Howard Anton, Elementary Linear Algebra, John Wiley & Sons, 2008 4. Sheldon M. Ross, Introduction to Probability Models, Academic Press, 2001 5. Trivedi K.S, Probability and Statistics with Reliability, Queuing and Computer Science Applications, Prentice Hall, 2003. 6. Reisig W, Petri Nets: An Introduction, Springer Verlag 1985. 7. Girault C. and Valk R, Petri Nets for Systems Engineering: A Guide to Modeling, Verification and Applications, Springer Verlag 2003. 8. Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen, Graph Theory and its Applications, CRC Press, 2006 9. Narsingh Deo, Graph Theory with Applications to Engineering and Computer Science, Prentice Hall, 2004 .



MODERN CONTROL THEORY: Limitations of conventional control theory - Concepts of state, State variables and state model state model for linear time invariant systems:State space representation using physical-Phase and canonical variables. (8) SYSTEM RESPONSE: Transfer function from state model - Transfer matrix - Decomposition of transfer functions Direct, cascade and parallel decomposition techniques - Solution of state equation - State transition matrix computation. (9) DISCRETE SYSTEM: State space representation of discrete system - Decomposition of Transfer functions - Solution of discrete time system - state transistion matrix - Discretisation of continuous time state equations. (8) SYSTEM MODELS: Characteristic equation - Eigen values and Eigen vectors - Invariance of Eigen values -Diagonalization Jordan Canonical form - Concepts of controllability and observability - Kalman's and Gilbert's tests - Controllable and observable phase variable forms - Effect of pole-zero cancellation on controllability and observability. (9) LIAPUNOV STABILITY: Liapunov stability analysis - Stability in the sense of Liapunov - Definiteness of Scalar Functions Quadratic forms - Second method of Liapunov - Liapunov stability analysis of linear time invariant systems. (8) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Katsuhiko Ogata, "Modern Control Engineering", Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd., New Delhi, 3rd Edition, 2002. 2 Nagrath I.J. and Gopal M., "Control Systems Engineering", New Age International Publisher, New Delhi, 2006. 3. Gopal M, Digital Control and State Variable Methods, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi,India, 2nd Edition 2003. 4. Nise S. Norman, Control Systems Engineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Delhi, 3rd Edition, 2000. 5. Benjamin C Kuo, Automatic Control Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Delhi, 2002.




ARCHITECTURE: AT architecture - DMAC - Interrupt controllers - Timers -Memory map - I/O map - AT BUS (ISA BUS) specifications Extended and expanded memory - PCI Bus concepts. (6)

PERIPHERAL ADAPTERS: Keyboard Interfacing - Functional description of keyboard processing - Display Adapters: VGA and SVGA adapter Functional configurations AGP basics. (6) FLOPPY DISKETTE TYPES: Hard disk structure - IDE Bus-SATA - CD-ROM structure - Printers Centronics parallel interface Features of EPP and ECP modes of printers - USB Bus. (8) ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING: Program development stages -Macro assembler: Directives - Macros - Linker Debugger in real mode of the processor. (8) STRUCTURE OF MS-DOS: BIOS - DOS Kernel - Command processor Boot record - File allocation table - File directory -Booting process of DOS-COM and EXE files - BIOS and DOS interrupts - Structure of device drivers. (7) MULTIUSER/ MULTI-TASKING OPERATING SYSTEM CONCEPTS: Scheduling - Protection - Memory management Windows system architecture : Virtual hardware and device drivers - Windows virtual address space memory map - Comparison of WIN 16 and WIN 32 applications structure. (7) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Mathivanan N., Microprocessors, PC Hardware Interfacing, Prentice Hall of India, Reprint 2007. 2. Douglas V Hall, "Microprocessors and Interfacing: Programming and Hardware", McGraw Hill, Revised 2nd Edition2006. 3. Barry B Brey, "The Intel Microprocessor 8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium and Pentium Pro Processor, Pentium II ,III and IV Architecture, Programming and Interfacing", Prentice Hall of India, 4th Edition,2005. 4. Ray Duncan, "Advanced MSDOS Programming", Microsoft Press, USA, 2002. 5. Walter Oney, Systems Programming for Windows 95, Microsoft Press, USA, 1996. 6. IBM PC/AT Technical Reference Manual,1985. 7. Walter Oney,Programming the Microsoft Windows Driver Model, South Asian 2nd Edition-2003.


MULTIRATE DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING: Decimation by an integer factor-Interpolation by an integer factor-Sampling rate conversion by rational factor-Decimation with poly phase filters-Interpolation with poly phase filters-Complementary filtersInterpolated FIR filters-Special FIR filters: Half band filter and Comb filter. (10) TWO CHANNEL FILTER BANKS: Analysis and Synthesis Filter Banks-Quadrature Mirror Filter (QMF) banks-Filter bank with perfect reconstruction- Paraunitary filter banks -Biorthogonal and Linear phase filter banks-Transmultiplexer filter banks. (6) UNIFORM-CHANNEL FILTER BANKS: Filter banks with tree structures, parallel structure-Complex modulated filter banksCosine modulated filter banks-Transmultiplexer filter banks-Polyphase QMF banks Paraunitary polyphase and DFT polyphase filter banks-Subband coding. (6) WAVELET TRANSFORM: Short-Time Fourier Transform limitations - time-frequency scaling- Heisenbergs uncertainty Continuous Wavelet Transform Discrete Wavelet Transform Haar, Daubechys wavelets Multi Resolution Analysis of audio signal. (8) POWER SPECTRUM ESTIMATION: Estimation of spectra from finite duration observation of signals: Periodogram-use of DFT in power spectrum estimation - Non-parametric Methods: Bartlett-Welch-Blackman and Tuckey - Parametric Methods: Relationship between the autocorrelation and the model parameters - AR model: Yule-Walker method-Burg method-Unconstrained least squares method-Sequential estimation methods-MA model and ARMA model for power spectrum estimation-Filter bank realization of the periodogram-Eigen analysis algorithm for spectrum estimation. (12) Total REFERENCES: 1. N.J.Fliege, Multirate digital signal processing John wiley & sons Ltd., Reprinted with correction, Jan 2000. 2. Fredric J Harris, Multirate signal processing for communication systems, Prentice Hall, May 2004. 3. Vaidyanathan, P.P.,Multirate Systems and Filter Banks, Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, NJ,1993. 4. Ronald E Crochiere, Lawrence R Rabiner, Multirate DSP, Prentice Hall, March 1983. 42

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John G Proakis and Dimitris G Manolakis, Digital signal processing-Principles, Algorithms and Applications, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2007. 6. Rao, R.M and A.S.Bopardikar,Wavelet Transforms: Introduction to Theory and Applications, Addison Wesley,MA,1998. 7. K.P.Soman and K.I.Ramachandran Insight into Wavelets-From Theory to Practice, Prentice Hall of India, 2005. Stephane Mallat A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, 2nd Edition, Published by Elsevier, a division of Reed Elsevier India private limited, 2008.



Vaidyanathan, P.P.,Multirate Systems and Filter Banks, Prentice Hall, Englewood cliffs, NJ,1993.


SYSTEM DESIGN USING PLDS: Basic concepts Programming technologies - Programmable Logic Element (PLE) Programmable Array Logic (PLA) - Programmable Array Logic (PAL) Programmable Logic Architectures 16L8 16R4 22V10 - Design of combinational and sequential circuits using PLDs Complex PLDs (CPLDs) Design of state machines using Algorithmic State Machines (ASM) chart as a design tool. (10) FIELD PROGRAMMABLE GATE ARRAYS: Types of FPGA - Xilinx XC3000 series - Logic Cell Array (LCA) Configurable Logic Blocks (CLB) - Input/Output Blocks (IOB) - Programmable Interconnection Points (PIP) - Xilinx XC4000 Series Introduction to Xilinx SPARTAN, VIRTEX FPGA Design examples. (7) INTRODUCTION TO VHDL: Design process flow - Software tools Hardware Description Languages VHDL : Data Objects Data types - Operators Entities and Architectures Components and Configurations Concurrent signal assignment Conditional signal assignment - Selected signal assignment Concurrent statements Sequential statements Transport and Inertial delays Delta delays Behavioral, Data flow and Structural modeling Attributes Generics Packages and Libraries Multivalued logic and Signal resolution IEEE 1164 std logic Subprograms: Functions and Procedures Operator overloading Test Benches Design examples. (9) FAULT MODELING: Defects, errors, faults, Levels of Fault models, Types, Fault Detection and Redundancy in Combinational Logic circuits: Path sensitization method, Boolean difference method. Fault Detection in sequential logic circuit, Design for Testability: Scan path Testing, Boundary Scan Test, Built in Self Test for testing memories. (9) FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEMS: Fault avoidance and fault tolerance - Techniques of fault tolerance - Hardware fault tolerance : Static, Dynamic and Hybrid redundancy - Fault tolerance in memories. Software Fault tolerance : Design of fault tolerant software - N-version programming - Recovery block - Reliability models for fault tolerant software - Validation of fault tolerant software. (7) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Palmer, J.E., Perlman, D.E., "Introduction to Digital Systems",Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, Reprint 1996. 2. Nelson, V.P., Nagale, H.T., Carroll, B.D., and Irwin, J.D., "Digital Logic Circuit Analysis and Design", PrenticeHall International, Inc., New Jersey, 1995. 3. Robert K Dueck, Digital Design with CPLD applications and VHDL, Thomson Asia, 2002. 4. J. Bhaskar, A VHDL Primer, Addison Wesley, 1999 5. Charles H Roth, Digital Systems Design Using VHDL, Thomson Asia,. 2004. 6. "Programmable Logic Devices Databook and Design Guide", National Semiconductors, 1989. 7. Michael L Bushnell, Vishwani D Agrawal, Essentials of Electronic Testing For digital memory and mixed signal VLSI circuits, Kluwer academic Publications, USA, 2001 8. Pradhan, D K., "Fault - Tolerant Computing - Theory and Techniques", Vol. I & II, Prentice Hall, 1986.



OVERVIEW OF VLSI DESIGN METHODOLOGY: VLSI design process - Architectural design - Logical design - Physical design - Layout styles - Full custom - Semicustom approaches. (4) BASIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MOS AND CMOS CIRCUITS : MOS transistor - Threshold voltage - Threshold voltage equations - MOS device equations - Basic DC equations - Second order effects - MOS models - Small signal AC characteristics - NMOS inverter - Depletion mode and enhancement mode pull ups CMOS inverter - DC characteristics Inverter delay - Pass transistor - Transmission gate Power consumption in CMOS gates Static dissipation Dynamic Dissipation. (9) VLSI FABRICATION TECHNIQUES : An overview of wafer fabrication Wafer processing - Oxidation - Patterning - Diffusion Ion implantation - Deposition Silicon gate NMOS process - CMOS processes - NWell - PWell - Twintub - Silicon on insulator CMOS process enhancements - Interconnect - Circuit elements- Latch up - Latchup prevention techniques. (7) LAYOUT DESIGN RULES : Need for design rules - Mead Conway design rules for the silicon gate NMOS process - CMOS based design rules -Simple layout examples Sheet resistance - Area capacitance - Wiring capacitance - Driving large capacitive loads. (6) LOGIC DESIGN : Switch logic - Pass transistor and transmission gate based design - Gate logic - Inverter - Two input NAND gate - NOR gate - Other forms of CMOS logic Dynamic CMOS logic - Clocked CMOS logic - Precharged domino CMOS logic Structured design - Simple combinational logic design examples - Parity generator - Multiplexers Clocked sequential circuits Two phase clocking - Charge storage - Dynamic register element - NMOS and CMOS - Dynamic shift register - Semistatic register - JK flip flop circuit. (9) SUBSYSTEM Design Process : General arrangement of a 4-bit arithmetic processor - Design of a 4bit shifter - Design of a ALU subsystem - Implementing ALU functions with an adder - Carry look ahead adders - Multipliers - Serial parallel multipliers Pipelined multiplier array Modified Booth's algorithm - Incrementer / Decrementer -Two phase non-overlapping clock generator. (7)


Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Kamran Eshraghian, Douglas A Pucknell and Sholeh Eshraghian, Essentials of VLSI Circuits and Systems, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 2005. 2. Neil H E West and Kamran Eshranghian, "Principles of CMOS VLSI Design: A system Perspective", Addision-Wesley, 2nd Edition, 2004. 3. Sung-Mo Kang and Yusuf Leblebici, CMOS Digital Integrated Circuits,Tata McGraw-Hill,3rd Edition, New Delhi,2008. 4. Jan M Rabaey, Chandrasekaran A and Nikolic B, Digital Integrated Circuits, Pearson Education,3rd Edition, 2004. 5. Amar Mukherjee, "Introduction to nMOS and CMOS VLSI System Design", Prentice Hall, USA, 1986. 6. WayneWolf," Modern VLSI Design: Systems on Chip Design" , Pearson Education Inc., 3nd Edition , Indian Reprint, 2007.


INTRODUCTION : Introduction Characteristics of Embedded Computing Applications Challenges in Embedded Computing Design The Design Process : Requirements Specification Architecture Design Designing Hardware and Software Components System Integration and Testing Structural Description Behavioral Description. (8) THE EMBEDDED COMPUTING PLATFORM : The CPU Bus Memory Devices I/O Devices Component Interfacing Development and Debugging Testing Design Example : Alarm Clock. (9) PROGRAM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS : Introduction Design Patterns Data Flow Graphs Control/Data Flow Graphs Assembly and Linking Basic Compilation Techniques Analysis and Optimization of Execution Time, Energy, Power and Program Size Program Validation and Testing Design Example : Software Modem. (9) SYSTEM DESIGN TECHNIQUES : Introduction Design Methodologies Requirements Analysis Specifications System Analysis and Architecture Design Quality Assurance Design Examples : Telephone PBX Ink Jet Printer Personal Digital Assistant Set-Top Boxes. (8) SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND TOOLS : Introduction to Assembler, Compiler, Cross-Compiler, Linker and Integrated Development Environment Debugging Strategies Simulators Emulators Logic Analysers Introduction to JTAG (8) Total 42 REFERENCES : Wayne Wolf, Computer as Components Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, Harcourt India Pvt. Ltd., 2001. David E Simon, An Embedded Software Primer, Pearson Education, 2004. Frank Vahid and Tony Givargis, Embedded Systems Design : A Unified Hardware/Software Introduction, John Wiley, 2005. Steve Heath, Embedded Systems Design, Elsevier Science, 2003. Arnold Berger, Embedded Systems Design : An Introduction to Processes, Tools and Techniques, CMP Books, 2005. Rechard Zurawski, Embedded Systems Handbook CRC Press, 2006.




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INTEL 8051 : Architecture of 8051 - Memory organisation - Register Banks - Bit addressable area - SFR area Addressing modes Instruction set - Programming examples (8) 8051 Interrupt structure -Timer modules - Serial features - Port structure - Power saving modes - MCS51 Family features: 8031/8051/8751 (8) ARM PROCESSORS: ARM Programmers Model Registers Processor Modes State of the processor Condition Flags ARM Pipelines Exception Vector Table ARM Processor Families Introduction to ARM Memory Management Unit (7) ARM Addressing Modes ARM Instruction Set Overview Thumb Instruction Set Overview LPC210X ARM Processor Features (6) PIC MICROCONTROLLERS: Program memory CPU registers Register File Structure Block diagram of PIC 16C74 I/O ports. (4) Timer 0, 1 and 2 features Interrupt logic Serial peripheral interface I2 C Bus ADC UART PIC Family parts (5)

TYPICAL APPLICATIONS: Stepper Motor Control - DC Motor Control - AC Power Control - Introduction to micro controller development tools (4) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. "8-bit Embedded Controllers", Intel Corporation, 1990. 2. John Peatman, "Design with Microcontrollers", McGraw Hill, Singapore, 1988. 3. John B Peatman, Design with PIC Microcontrollers, Pearson Education Inc, India, 2005. 4. ARM System Developers Guide, Andrew Sloss, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005 5. Steve Furber, ARM System-on-Chip Architecture, Pearson Education, 2005


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LPC210x ARM Processor Datasheet Rev. 5, Philips Electronics, 2004 ARM7TDMI Technical Reference Manual, ARM Ltd., UK, 2004


REGISTER TRANSFER LANGUAGE AND MICRO-OPERATIONS: Register transfer language Inter-register transfer Arithmetic micro - operations Logic micro-operations Shift micro-operations Control functions. (3) DATAPATH AND CONTROL: Data path Organisation - Binary arithmetic unit BCD arithmetic unit Floating point arithmetic unit Processor bus configuration Data transfer and manipulation Hardwired and micro-programmed control. (5) MEMORY UNIT: Memory hierarchy Main memory Back-up storage units Multiple module memories Interleaved memory Associative memory - Virtual memory systems Structure Paging TLB Segmentation Replacement strategies Cache memory: Basic cache structure Direct, fully associative and set associative mapping Replacement policies Multiple caches Memory management hardware. (6) INPUT-OUTPUT UNIT: Characteristics of I/O subsystem Interrupt mechanisms and special hardware Direct Memory Access I/O processors and I/O channels Asynchronous data transfer. (5) PARALLEL PROCESSING: Basic uniprocessor architecture Parallel processing mechanisms Levels of parallelism Balancing of subsystem bandwidth Parallel computer structures Architectural classifications Parallel processing applications. (3) PIPELINING AND OTHER HIGH PERFORMANCE ARCHITECTURES: Linear pipelining Pipeline processors Instruction and Arithmetic pipelines Organization of pipelined units Instruction pre-fetch and branch handling Pipeline hazards Reducing branch penalties Branch prediction strategies Vector processing: requirements and characteristics Superscalar Architecture VLIW Architecture. (5) ARRAY PROCESSING: SIMD array processors Masking and data routing mechanisms Parallel algorithms for array processors: SIMD Matrix multiplication SIMD Interconnection networks Associative array processing. (5) MULTIPROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE: Functional structures: Loosely and Tightly coupled Multiprocessors Processor characteristics for multiprocessing Symmetric Multiprocessors (SMP) Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) Interconnection structures for multiprocessors Cache coherence Thread level parallelism Multithreading Clusters. (6) RISC ARCHITECTURE: Main characteristics of RISC architectures RISC-CISC trade-offs RISC pipelining. Total REFERENCES : 1. Mano, M.M., "Computer System Architecture", Prentice Hall of India, 3rd Edition, 1993. 2. Kai Hwang and Faye A Briggs., "Computer Architecture and Parallel Processing", McGraw Hill Book Company, 1985. 3. Stallings W., Computer Organisation and Architecture Designing for performance, Prentice Hall of India, 7th Edition, 2006. 4. John Hennessy and David Patterson, "Computer Architecture: A Quantitative approach", Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 4tth Edition, 2007. 5. Dezso Sima, Terence Fountain, Peter Kacsuk, Advanced Computer Architectures: A Design Space Approach Addison Wesley, 1997 6. Moreshwar R.Bhujade, Parallel Computing, New Age International Pvt. Ltd., 1995 (4) 42


INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN METHODOLOGIES: VLSI Design problem-The Design Domains-Design methods and Technologies. (4) ALGORITHMIC GRAPH THEORY AND COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY: Data structures for the representation of graphs Computational Complexity - Graph Algorithms - Depth first search - Breadth first search - Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm Prim's algorithm. (7) PLACEMENT, PARTITIONING AND FLOOR PLANNING: Circuit representation - Types of Placement problem - Iterative Improvement - Partitioning - Kernighan - Lin Partitioning algorithm - Floor Planning - Representation - Shape functions and floor plan sizing. (9) ROUTING: Local routing problems - Area routing - Channel routing - Global routing. SIMULATION: Gate level modeling and simulation - Compiler driven simulation modeling and simulation. (8) Event driven simulation - Switch-level (7)

HIGH LEVEL SYNTHESIS: Hardware models - Allocation - Assignment - Scheduling - Assignment Problem - High level transformation. (7) Total 42


REFERENCES : 1. Sabih H.Gerez, "Algorithms for VLSI Design Automation", John Wiley & Sons, 2007. 2. WayneWolf," Modern VLSI Design: Systems on Chip Design", Pearson Education Inc., 3nd Edition, Indian Reprint, 2007. 3. Naveed Sherwani, " Algorithms For VLSI Physical Design Automation ", Springer-Verlag, 3rd Edition,2007. 4. Sadiq M Sait and Habib Youssef, "VLSI Physical Design Automation", IEEE Press, New York., 1995. 5. Abramovici M, Brever A and Friendman D, "Digital Systems Testing and Testable Design", Jaico Publishing House, 2004.



TESTING AND TESTABLE DESIGN OF DIGITAL SYSTEMS : Need for testing - Fault models - Fault detection and redundancy - Combinational circuits Sequential circuits - Fault equivalence - Fault dominance Logic simulation - Compiler driven Simulation - Event driven Simulation - Fault simulation techniques - Serial, parallel, deductive. (9) TESTING FOR SINGLE STUCK AT - FAULTS: Test generation algorithms for combinational circuits - Fault oriented ATG Dalgorithm Examples PODEM Fault independent ATG - Random test generation ATG for SSFs in sequential circuits -TG using iterative array models - Random test generation. (9) DELAY TEST : Delay test problem Path delay test Transition faults Delay test methodologies. (7)

ANALOG AND MIXED SIGNAL TEST : DSP based analog and mixed signal test Static ADC and DAC testing methods - Model based Analog and Mixed signal Test - Analog fault models-Analog fault simulation Analog ATPG (9) DESIGN FOR TESTABILITY: Adhoc design for testability techniques - Controllability and Observability by means of scan registers Storage cells for scan designs Level Sensitive Scan Design - LSSD - Partial Scan Boundary scan BIST concepts and architectures (8) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Abramovici, M., Brever, A., and Friedman, D., "Digital Systems Testing and Testable Design", Jaico Publishing House, 2002. 2. Michael L Bushnell and Vishwani D Agarwal, Essentials of Electronic Testing for Digital, Memory and Mixed Signal Circuits, Springer, verlag 2000. 3. Stanley L Hurst VLSI Testing : Digital and Mixed Analogue Digital Techniques, Institute of Electrical Engineers,1998 4. Xiaoqing Wen, Cheng Wen Wu and Laung Terng Wang VLSI Test Principles and Architectures: Design for Testability, Cambridge University Press, 2000. 5. Parag K Lala, Fault Tolerant and Fault Testable Hardware Design BS Publications, 2002.


BASIC ANALOG BUILDING BLOCKS: Current mirrors Voltage sources/references Voltage amplifiers Transconductance and Transresistance amplifiers Operational amplifiers Comparators Multipliers. (7) INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVE FILTERS AND SWITCHED CAPACITOR FILTERS: Active RC Filters for monolithic filer design : First and Second order filter realizations - Universal active filter (KHN) Self tuned filter Programmable filters Switched capacitor filters: Switched capacitor resistors amplifiers comparators sample and hold circuits Integrator Biquad. (9) CONTINUOUS TIME FILTERS AND DIGITAL FILTERS: Introduction to Gm-C filters bipolar transconductors CMOS Transconductors using Triode transistors, active transistors BiCMOS transconductors MOSFET_C Filters Tuning Circuitry Dynamic range performance Digital Filters: Sampling - decimation Interpolation Implementation of FIR and IIR filters. (8) DIGITAL TO ANALOG AND ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS: Non-idealities in the DAC Types of DACs: Current switched, Resistive, Charge redistribution (capacitive), Hybrid, segmented DACs Techniques for improving linearity Analog to Digital Converters: quantization errors non-idealities types of ADCs: Flash, two step, pipelined, successive approximation, folding ADCs. (9) SIGMA DELTA CONVERTERS: Over sampled converters Over sampling with out noise and with noise Implementation imperfections First order modulator Decimation filters Second order modulator Sigma delta DAC and ADCs. (5) MIXED LAYOUT: CMOS design rules Layout of CMOS BJT Capacitors Resistors Mixed layout issues: Floor planning, power supply and ground, fully differential matching, Guard rings and shielding. (4) Total REFERENCES: 1. David A Johns, Ken Martin, " Analog Integrated Circuit Design John Wiley and Sons, 2005 2. Baker R J, Li H W, and Boyce D E, CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, Prentice Hall of India,2005 3. Phillip Allen and Douglas Holmberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, 2004. 42


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Rudy van de Plassche, Integrated Analog-to-Digital and Digital to-Analog Converters, Springer India,2005. Benhard Razavi, Data Converters, Kluwer publishers, 1999. Antoniou, Digital filters analysis and design, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1998.




HARDWARE DESIGN VERIFICATION : Introduction Testing Versus Verification Design and Verification reuse.

VERIFICATION TECHNIQUES : Techniques based on simulation Analytical and Formal approaches Function verification Timing verification Formal verification Basic of equivalence checking and model checking. (8) VERIFICATION TOOLS : Linting Tools Simulators Waveform viewers Code Coverage Functional Coverage Metrics. (8) VERITIFCATION PLAN : Levels of verification Verification Strategies Test cases Test benches. (8)

STIMULUS AND RESPONSE : Reference signals Simple stimulus Simple output Complex Stimulus and response Transaction Level Interface. (8) ARCHITECTING TEST BENCHES : Test Hardness VHDL Test Hardness Design Configuration Self Checking Test benches Directed stimulus Random stimulus VHDL configuration management. (8) Total 42 REFERENCES:

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Janick Bergeron, Writing Test Benches: Functional Verification of HDL Models Springer 2nd Edition, 2003. Andreas Meyer, Principles of Functional Verification Newnes, 2003. Samir Palnitkar, Design Verification with e, Prentice Hall, 2003. Thomas Kropf Introduction to Formal Hardware Verification, Springer Verlag, 1999. M Kerrel Iran and Robert P Kustbern, Verification of Digital and Hybrid Systems, spinger-verlag, 2000.

09EA15/09EE12 SYSTEM ON CHIP 3003

INTRODUCTION: System trade offs and evolution of ASIC Technology System on chip concepts and methodology SoC design issues SoC challenges and components. (5) DESIGN METHODOLOGIC FOR LOGIC CORES : SoC Design Flow On-chip buses Design process for hard cores Soft and firm cores Designing with hard cores, soft cores Core and SoC design examples. (9) DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR MEMORY AND ANALOG CORES : Embedded memories Simulation modes Specification of analog circuits A to D converter D to A converter Phase-located loops High speed I/O (9) DESIGN VALIDATION : Core level validation Test benches- SoC design validation Cosimulation Hardware/software coverification. (9) SOC TESTING : SoC Test issues Testing of digital logic cores Cores with boundary scan Test methodology for design resuse Testing of microprocessor cores Built in self test method Testing of embedded memories. (10) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Rochit Rajsunah, System-on-a-chip: Design and Test, Artech House, London, 2000 2. Prakash Raslinkar, Peter Paterson & Leena Singh, System-on-a-chip verification: Methodology and Technques, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003. 3. Lavng-Testing Wang, Charles E Strout and NurATouba System on Chip Test Architectures: Nanometer Design for Testability, Morgan Kaufmann, 2007.


DEVICE MODELLING: Introduction to Analog Design. MOS device model: dc, small signal and high frequency model, Diode model: dc, small signal and high frequency model. BJT: dc, small signal and high frequency model. Measurement of model parameters. (8)


ANALOG CIRCUIT BUILDING BLOCKS: Switches, Active Resistors, Current Sources and Sinks, Current Mirrors Simple. Wilson, Cascode, Folded Cascode. Voltage and Current. References Bandgap voltage references, Comparators, Multipliers. (9) SINGLE STAGE AMPLIFIERS : MOS and BJT inverting amplifier, Improving the performance of inverting amplifer. Single stage BJT and MOS amplifiers. (8) MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS : CMOS and BJT differential amplifiers, Darlington Amplifiers, Cascode Amplifiers Characteristics of Operational amplifiers - Types : Two stage BJT and CMOS - Cascode - Folded Cascode - Transconductance. (8) DATA CONVERTERS: Data Converter fundamentals, DAC Architectures: Current Switched, Resistive, charge redistribution, Hybrid, Segmented D/A Converters. ADC architectures: Flash, Pipeline, Integrating, Successive Approximation and folding A/D Converters. Over sampling Converters (9) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. David A. Johns, Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2002. 2. Jacob Baker, Harry W.Li and David E Boyce, CMOS Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 3. Phillip E. Allen and Douglas R. Holdberg, CMOS Analog Circuit Design, Second Edition, Oxford University Press 2003. 4. Behzad Razavi, Design of CMOS Integrated Circuits, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi 2003. 5. Gray, Hurst, Lewis and Meyer, Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits,, John Wiley & Sons, 4th Edition 2001. 6. Rudy Van de Plassche, Integrated Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog Converters, Kluwer Publishers, 1999.


INTRODUCTION: Typical Real-time Applications Hard Versus Soft Real-time Systems - A Reference Model for Real-time Systems. (4) REAL-TIME SCHEDULING: Various Approaches Clock Driven Scheduling Pros and Cons of Clock Driven Scheduling Priority driven scheduling of Periodic Tasks Fixed Priority and Dynamic Priority Algorithms Scheduling Aperiodic and Sporadic Jobs in Priority Driven Systems. (9) RESOURCES AND RESOURCE ACCESS CONTROL: Effects of Resource Contention and Resource Access Control - Nonpreemptive Critical Sections Controlling Access to Multiple-unit Resources - Controlling Concurrent Access to Data Objects. (4) MULTIPROCESSOR SCHEDULING AND SYNCHRONIZATION: Model of Multiprocessor and Distributed Systems Multiprocessor Priority-ceiling Protocol Predictability and Validation of Dynamic Multiprocessor Systems. (6) REAL-TIME OPERATING SYSTEMS: Desk Top OS versus RTOS Need for BSP in Embedded Systems Race Conditions Priority Inversion ISRs and Scheduling Inter-task Communication Timers. (7) REAL-TIME COMMUNICATION: Model of Real-time communication Priority Based Service Disciplines for Switched Networks Weighted Round-Robin Service Discipline Media Access Protocols for Broadcast Networks Internet and Resource Reservation Protocols Real-time Protocols (RTPs). (5) REAL-TIME UML: Model Based Development Object Orientation with UML UML Diagrams and Notations Requirements Analysis of Real-time Systems Use Cases Filling out Details of Use Cases Identifying Use Cases Class Diagram Elevator Class Diagram Example Defining Case Relationships Association Aggregation and Composition. (4) Case Studies on RTOS: MicroC/OS, LynxOS, and Embedded Linux Total REFERENCES: 1. Jane W. S. Liu, Real-time Systems, Pearson Education Asia, 2003 2. Sriram V. Iyer and Pankaj Gupta, Embedded Real-time Systems Programming, Tata McGraw Hill, 2004 3. B.P. Douglass, Real-time UML: Developing Efficient Objects for Embedded Systems, Pearson Education Asia, 2nd Edition, 2000 4. David E. Simon, An Embedded Software Primer, Pearson Education Asia, 2001 5. Krishna and Kang Shin, Real-Time Systems, McGraw Hill, 2000 (3) 42


INTRODUCTION : Objectives and Functions Evolution and Types of Operating Systems Structure of Operating System Components of Computers. (2) PROCESSES AND THREADS: Process Creation - Process states Process Description Process Control Block - process scheduling: Types of Scheduling Scheduling Criteria Scheduling Algorithms -Relationship between process and threads Thread State Thread synchronization Types of Threads. (6)


PROCESS SYNCHRONIZATION: Concurrent Process Principles of Concurrency Mutual Exclusion Software support Hardware Support Operating System support -Deadlock - Deadlock Prevention, Avoidance and Detection and recovery. (7) MEMORY MANAGEMENT: Fixed partitioning - Dynamic partitioning Buddy Systems Simple paging Multilevel paging Inverted paging Simple Segmentation segmentation and paging. (6) VIRTUAL MEMORY MANAGEMENT: Need for Virtual Memory management Demand Paging - Page Fault Routine Demand Segmentation Combined demand segmentation and paging Page Replacement policies. (6) FILE MANAGEMENT: Files File management Systems File System Architecture Functions of File Management Directory Structure Secondary Storage Management File Allocation Methods. (6) I/O MANAGEMENT AND DISK SCHEDULING: Organization of I/O function Logical Structure of I/O functions I/O Buffering Disk I/O Disk Scheduling algorithms Disk Cache. (5) CASE STUDIES: XP, Linux, VISTA, and Influential OS. Total REFERENCES: 1. Silberschatz. A, Galvin. P and Gagne.G, Operating System Concepts, John Wiley and Sons, Singapore, 7th Edition, 2004. 2. William Stallings, Operating Systems, Prentice-Hall, 5th Edition, 2007. 3. D. M. Dhamdhere, Operating Systems- A Concept Based Approach, Tata McGraw Hill,2nd Edition 2006. 4. David A Solomon and Mark E Russinovich, Inside Microsoft Windows 2000 , WP Publishers and Distributors,2004. 5. Uresh Vahalia, Unix Internals,The New Frontiers , Pearson Education, 2004. 6. Dietal H.M., An Introduction to OS , Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd / Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 12th Indian Reprint 2004. 7. Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Modern OS, Pearson Education Pvt Ltd., New Delhi, 3rd Edition , 2007. (4) 42


EVALUATION OF 16/32 BIT PROCESSORS : 8086 processor Architecture Programming model Memory organization Interrupt structure Instruction set. (8) 80X86 PROCESSOR FAMILY : 80286 processor Functional block diagram Memory organization Modes of operation Real and Protected modes Address translation techniques Virtual memory. (8) 80386 PROCESSOR : Basic programming model Memory organization Data types Instruction set - Addressing mode Address translation Interrupts Assembly language programming - 80486 Processor : Architecture and Programming model. (9) PENTIUM PROCESSOR : Introduction to Pentium processor architecture Special Pentium Resister Pentium Memory Management Introduction to Pentium pro processor Pentium Pro Special Features. (9) INTRODUCTION TO RISC ARCHITECTURES : RISC Versus CISC RISC Case studies : MIPS R4000 SPARC Intel i860 IBM RS/6000. (8) Total 42 REFERENCES :


Barry B Brey, The Intel Microprocessor 8086/8088, 80186/80188, 80286, 80386, 80486, Pentium and Pentium ProProcessor, Architecture Programming and Interfacing, Prentice Hall of India, 6th Edition, 2002. 2. Intel, Microprocessors, Vol-I & Vol-II, Intel Corporation, USA, 1992.


Daniel Tabak, Advanced Microprocessors, McGraw Hill Inc., 2nd Edition, 1995. 4. Mohammed Rafiquzzmnan, Microprocessors and Microcomputer Based System Design, Universal Book Stall, New Delhi, 1990. 5. William Stallings, Computer Organisation & Architecture: Designing for Performance, Prentice Hall of India, 2008. 6. Kai Hwang, Advanced Computer Architecture: Parallelism, Scalability and Programmability, Tata McGraw Hill, 2006.


INTRODUCTION: The basic product development process-product planning-design and engineering-procurement-manufacturing -functionality-performance-user interface-form factor- battery life- cost- time to market (TTM)- reliability-marketing and distributionservice and support. (6)


SYSTEM DESIGN: Top down design-product concept-innovation-creativity- validation -communication-product requirementssystem architecture development-trade-off analysis-cost modelling-circuit design-physical and mechanical design-Tolerance and reliability. (6) ELECTRONIC PACKAGING: IC packaging: Leaded package, TABITCP package-COB, flip-chip, BGA, CSP-Discrete components-Board to board connectors-substrates-Escape routing-PCA/module design metrics-Electronic packaging metrics-I/O hardware : buttons, switches, dials and touch screens, speakers , microphones, antennas, and external connectors. (8) MECHANICAL DESIGN : Housings-EMI shielding-Thermal management: High level thermal analysis, thermal issues in notebook computers-mechanical integration-DFMA analysis. (5) QUALITY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS : Quality control -quality assurance-quality functional deployment-assignment matriceschecklist-quality in the design process-concurrent design-risk analysis-quality in production. (5) PORTABLE ELECTRONICS : Digital and analog processing: microprocessor, logic devices, microcontrollers, DSP, analog devices, sensors, wireless communication, system memory and mass storage-Displays: Display technologies-LCD-micro displaypen input-power sources- Battery technologies: Ni-Cd, alkaline,Ni-MH,lithium ion, lithium polymer, photovoltaic cells, fuel cellsproduct implementation-high level power analysis-Case study: Cellular phones-portable PCs-Personal digital assistants-digital imaging products. (12) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Tony Ward and James Angus, Electronic product design, Chapman and Hall publications,1996. 2. Bert Haskell, Portable Electronics product design and development: For cellular phones, PDAs, Digital cameras, personal electronics and more, McGraw-HILL, 2004.


DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS: Elements of digital image processing system-Image sensing and acquisition- Image sampling and quantization Basic relationship between Pixels. (4) IMAGE TRANSFORMS: Need for image transforms- Discrete Wavelet transform- Harr & Daubechies Wavelets- Sub band coding of images using Harr & Daubechies Wavelets. (4) IMAGE ENHANCEMENT: Spatial domain methods- Frequency domain methods- Histogram modification techniquesNeighborhood averaging-median filtering- Low pass filtering- averaging of multiple images-images sharpening by differentiationhigh pass filtering. (8) IMAGE FILTERING AND RESTORATION: Image observation models- restoration in the presence of noise only- spatial filtering: mean filters, order statistics filters, adaptive filters- Inverse filtering- Wiener filtering Constrained least squares filtering- blind deconvolution. (8) IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND REPRESENTATION : Edge detection: Gradient operators-edge linking and boundary detection: Global processing via Hough transform, Graph theoretic techniques-Thresholding: Global thresholding, adaptive thresholdRepresentation: Chain codes, Polygonal approximations, Signatures, boundary segments, skeletons-Boundary descriptors: Shape numbers, Fourier descriptors, Statistical moments-Regional descriptors: Texture-Relational descriptors. (10) IMAGE COMPRESSION: JPEG-MPEG-Quantization: scalar Quantization and vector Quantization-code word assignment: uniform length and variable length codeword assignment differential pulse code modulation, two channel coders, pyramid coding; hybrid transform coding wavelet coding. (8) Total REFERENCES: 1. Gonzalez R.C. Woods R.E, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall; 3rd Edition , 2007 2. Jain A.K., Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall of India,1989. 3. Jae S. Lim, Two-Dimensional Signal and Image Processing, Prentice Hall,Inc.,1990. 4. Kenneth R Castleman, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall International, Inc., 2001. 5. Milan Sonka, VaclauHlavac, Roger Boyle, Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, Brooks/Cole Publishing Company,3rd Edition, 2007. 6. William K.Pratt,Digital Image Processing, John Wiley & Sons,4th Edition, 2007. 7. Stephen mallat, A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing, Elsevier India 3rd Edition, 2008. 42



INTRODUCTION: Vector spaces-properties-dot product-basis-dimension, orthogonality and orthonormality-relationship between vectors and signals-signal spaces-concept of convergence-Hilbert spaces for energy signals-Generalized Fourier expansion. (8)


FOURIER ANALYSIS: Fourier Transform-drawbacks of Fourier analysis-Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT) analysisspectrogram plot-phase-space plot in time-frequency plane-Time and frequency limitations-uncertanity principle-Tilling of the timefrequency plane for STFT. (8) CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM: Wavelet transform-properties-concept of scale and its relation with frequencyContinuous Wavelet Transform (CWT)-scaling function and wavelet functions: Daubechies, Haar, Coiflet, Mexican hat, Sine, Gaussian, Bi-orthogonal-Tilling of time scale plane for CWT. (9)

DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM: Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT)-Filter bank and sub-band coding principles-Multiresolution analysis-Time scale difference equations for wavelets and scaling functions-Wavelet filters-scale variation in discrete domain-Mallets algorithm for DWT-Inverse DWT computation by filter banks-multi-band wavelet transform. (9) CASE STUDIES: Sub-band coding of images-Image compression-Image de-noising-Detection of sag, tilt, swells and surge in power signal-Fractal signal analysis (8) Total REFERENCES: 1. Strang G Nguyen T., Wavelets and Filter Banks, Wellesley Cambridge Press, 1996. 2. Vetterli M, Kovacevic J., Wavelets and Sub-band Coding, Prentice Hall, 1995. 3. Mallat S., A Tour on Wavelet Signal Processing, Elsevier, New Delhi, December 2005. 4. Rao .R.M and Bopardikar.A.S, Wavelet Transforms, Addison Wesley, 1999. 5. K.P.Soman and K.I.Ramachandran Insight into Wavelets-From Theory to Practice, Prentice Hall of India, 2005. 6. Meyer Y, Wavelet Toolbox Manual, Mathworks Inc., 1995. 42


BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS: Nature of Biomedical signals, Types: Action Potential, Electroneurogram (ENG), Electromyogram (EMG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electroencephalogram (EEG), Event related potentials, Electrogastrogram (EGG), Phonocardiogram (PCG), Speech signals. (6) FILTERING: Stationary versus non-stationary processes, Time domain filters, Frequency domain filters, Optional filters, Adaptive filters for removal of Interference, Selection of Appropriate filters, Applications. (7) MODELING BIOMEDICAL SYSTEMS: Parametric System modeling, Autoregressive or All-pole modeling, Pole-zero modeling, Electromechanical Models of Signal Generation, Application: Heart rate variability Spectral modeling and Analysis of ECG signals. (6) ANALYSIS OF NON STATIONARY SIGNALS: EEG rhythms and waves, characterization of nonstationary signals and dynamic systems, Fixed segmentation, Adaptive segmentation. (6) PATTERN CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTIC DECISION: Supervised, Unsupervised Pattern classification, Probabilistic models and Statistical Decision, Regression analysis (5) COMPRESSION OF DIGITAL BIOMEDICAL SIGNALS: Direct Digital compression Techniques, Transformation Compression Techniques, Other Compression Techniques and Comparison. (6) ADVANCED TOPICS: Introduction to Wavelet Transforms, Application of Wavelet Transform on Biomedical Signals, Multi Resolution Analysis. Neural Networks in Processing and Analysis of Bio medical Signals, Image Processing Algorithms for MRI Images. VLSI in Biosignal processing. (6) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Rangaraj M. Rangayyan, Biomedical Signal Analysis, A case study Approach, IEEE Press, 2002. 2. Joseph D Bronzino, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, CRC Press, IEEE Press, 2000. 3. D.C. Reddy, Biomedical Signal Processing, Principles and Techniques,Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2005 4. KennethE Banner and Gonzalo R Arce Nonlinear Signal & Image Processing Theory methods & Applications CRC Press, New York, 2003. 5. Metin Akay Nonlinear Bio Medical Signal Processing IEEE Press, 2000.


MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION BASICS: Generalized Systems, Constraints. Classification of Biomedical Instruments, Bio statistics, Generalized static and Dynamic Characteristics, Regulation of Medical Devices. (7) SENSORS, TRANSDUCERS AND AMPLIFIERS: Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive, Piezoelectric, Thermocouple, Thermistors, Fiber, Optic Sensors, Radiation Sensors, Smart Sensors, Electro Chemical Sensors, Electrical Fibrosensors, Blood-Glucose Sensors. Operational Amplifiers, Inverting, Noninverting, Differential, Instrumentation Amplifiers, Pre amplifiers, Isolation Amplifiers, Active Filters. (7)


BIOELECTRIC SIGNALS AND ELECTRODES: Origin of Bioelectric Signals, Electrical Activity, Volume Conductor Fields, ECG, EEG, EMG, MEG. Electrode- Electrolyte Interface, Polarizable and Nonpolarizable Electrodes, Electrode Model, Recording Electrodes, Internal Electrodes, Micro Electrodes. (7) MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS: Patient Monitoring Systems, Measurement of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Pulse Rate, Temperature, Heart Sounds, Blood Flow and Volume, Respiratory Systems, Measurements, Cardiac Output Measurement, Blood pH, pO2 Measurement, Oximeters, Audiometers, Spectrophotometers. (7) MEDICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: Information content of an Image, Radiography, Computed Radiography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Medicine, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Positron Emission Tomography, Ultrasonagraphy. (6) THERAPEUTIC AND PROSTHETIC DEVICES: Cardiac Pacemakers, Defibrillators, Hemodialysis, Lithotripsy, Ventilators, Incubators, Drug Delivery devices, Artificial Heart Valves, Heart Lung Machine, Applications of Laser. (5) ELECTRICAL SAFETY: Physiological Effects of Electricity, Important susceptibility parameters, Distribution of Electric Power. Macroshock Hazards, Microshock Hazards, Electrical safety codes and Standards, Basic Approaches to Protection against shock, Equipment Design, Electrical Safety Analyzers, Testing. (3) Total REFERENCES: 42

2. 3.

John G.Webster, Editor, Medical Instrumentation application and Design, John Wiley & Sons, Inc Noida. 3rd Edition, 2001 R.S.Khandpur, Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation,, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2nd Edition, 2003 Joseph J. Carr and John M. Brown, Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology, Pearson Education, 2003.



INTRODUCTION: General Functional description of a digital instrument - Block diagram of a Virtual Instrument - Physical quantities and Analog interfaces - Hardware and Software - User interfaces - Advantages of Virtual instruments over conventional instruments - Architecture of a Virtual instrument and its relation to the operating system. (8) SOFTWARE OVERVIEW: LabVIEW - Graphical user interfaces - Controls and Indicators - 'G' programming - Data types - Data flow programming - Editing - Debugging and Running a Virtual instrument - Graphical programming pallets - Front panel objects Controls, Indicators, Object properties and their configuration Typical examples. (10) PROGRAMMING STRUCTURE: FOR loops, WHILE loop, CASE structure, formula node, Sequence structures - Arrays and Clusters - Array operations - Bundle - Bundle/Unbundle by name, graphs and charts - String and file I/O - High level and Low level file I/O's - Attribute modes Local and Global variables. (8) HARDWARE ASPECTS: Installing hardware, installing drivers - Configuring the hardware - Addressing the hardware in LabVIEW - Digital and Analog I/O function - Data Acquisition - Buffered I/O - Real time Data Acquisition. (6) LABVIEW APPLICATIONS: Motion Control: General Applications - Feedback devices, Motor Drives Machine vision LabVIEW IMAQ vision Machine vision Techniques Configuration of IMAQ DAQ Card - Instrument Connectivity - GPIB, Serial Communication - General, GPIB Hardware & Software specifications - PXI / PCI: Controller and Chassis Configuration and Installation. (10) Total REFERENCES: 1. Garry W Johnson, "LabView Graphical Programming", Tata McGraw Hill, 3rd Edition, 2001. 2. Sanjay Gupta and Joseph John, Virtual Instrumentation Using LabVIEW, Tata McGraw-Hill, Ist Edition, 2008. 3. LabView: Basics I & II Manual, National Instruments, 2006 4. Barry Paron, "Sensors, Transducers and LabVIEW", Prentice Hall , 2000. 5. William Buchanan and Bill Buchanan, Computer Basics, CRC Press, 2000. 42

09ED26 / 09EM18 / 09EE18 / 09EA26


INTRODUCTION: History - Advantages and disadvantages of CNC, block diagram of CNC - Principle of operation- Features available in CNC systems. DNC, Networking of CNC machines - Ethernet. Electrical cabinet and control panel wiring. Electrical standards. (5) TYPES OF CNC MACHINES : Types and constructional features of machine tools- Turning centres, machining centres, grinding machines, EDMs, turret punch press, laser and water jet cutting machines, Design considerations Axis representations, Various operating modes of a CNC machine. (6) CONTROL UNITS: Functions of CNC, system hardware, Contouring control - interpolation, software development process. Parameters and diagnosis features. Interfacing with keyboard, monitor, servo drives, field inputs, outputs, MPG and feedback devices. Open architecture systems and PC based controllers. Compensation for machine accuracies- pitch error, backlash and thermal compensation. (7)


PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS: Role of PLC in CNC machines. Hardware and I/O configuration. Programming techniques development of ladder logic using basic functions, Timers, comparator and counters - Programming examples. (5) DRIVE UNITS: Axis drive arrangements, ball screw, timing belts and couplings, Analog and digital drives. AC&DC servomotors, DC and AC servo drives for axis motors, servo tuning. Stepper motors and drives, spindle motors & drives- DC &AC. Selection criteria, drive optimization and protection. (7) FEEDBACK DEVICES: Absolute and incremental encoders, resolvers, linear optical encoders, Proximity switches, limit switches Thermal sensors, pressure and float switches. Transducer placement and measuring schemes using these feed back devices. (5) NC PART PROGRAMMING PROCESS: Axis notation, EIA and ISO codes, Explanation of basic codes. Tooling concepts, machining methods, part geometry and writing of tool motion statements. Canned cycles. Development of simple manual part programs for turning operations. Simulation of part programmes. Post processors - CNC part programming with CAD/CAM systems. (7) Total 42 REFERENCES : 1. Stenerson and Curran, Computer Numerical Control- Operation and Programming 3rd edition, PHI, 2008 2. HMT Limited, Mechatronics, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 1998. 3. Peter Smid, CNC Programming Handbook, Industrial Press Inc, New York 2000


INTRODUCTION: Definition of Networks Classification of Networks LAN, MAN, WAN, internet Network Topology Protocols and Standards Network Models OSI, TCP/IP Models of networking Internet (4) PHYSICAL LAYER AND THE MEDIA: Review of Signals Data Rate Limits Performance Issues Bandwidth, Throughput, Latency, Bandwidth-Delay Product, Jitter. Digital Transmission and Analog Transmission: Line coding techniques, PCM and Delta Modulation techniques ASK, FSK, PSK, and QAM Techniques Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spreading - Data Transmission using Telephone Networks Dial-up MODEMS, Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) (10) DATA LINK LAYER : Error Detection and Correction techniques Data Link Control: Framing, Flow and Error Control HDLC and PPP protocols. Multiple Access Techniques CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA Channelization TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA (10) LANS: Wired LANs IEEE 802 standards - Ethernet IEEE 802.3 MAC Frame Token Ring LAN - IEEE 802.5 MAC Frame Wireless LANs IEEE 802.11 standard Bluetooth Technology Interconnection of LANs (6) WANS: Wired WANs -Circuit-Switched Networks, Datagram Networks, Virtual Circuit-Switched Networks, Structure of Circuit and Packet Switches - Wireless WANs Introduction to Cellular Telephone and Satellite networks (6) INTERNETWORKING: Internetworking tunneling IP Addressing Scheme Structure of IP Datagram IP Routing TCP as Transport Layer Protocol Structure of TCP Segment TCP Connection: Establishment and Closing SMTP Protocol for EMail Application. (6) Total REFERENCES: 42

1. 2.

Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data Communications and Networking, 4th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2006

Larry L. Peterson and Bruce S. Davie, Computer Networks: A Systems Approach, 4th Edition, Elsevier Publications, New Delhi, 2007 3. Stanford H. Rowe and Marsha L. Schuh, Computer Networking, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2005. 4. James Kurose and Keith Ross, Computer Networking :Top Down Approach featuring the Internet, Pearson Education, New Delhi,2002.



FEED FORWARD NETWORKS AND SUPERVISED LEARNING: Fundamentals Biological neural network Artificial neuron Activation function Learning rules - Perceptron Networks Adaline Madaline Back propagation networks Learning factors Linear separability (6) SINGLE LAYER FEEDBACK NETWORKS: Hopfield network Discrete Hopfield networks Associative memories Recurrent auto association memory Bi-directional associative memory Boltzman machine (6) UNSUPERVISED LEARNING NETWORKS: Hamming networks Self-organising feature maps Adaptive resonance theory network Instar model Outstar model Counter propagation network Radial basis function networks (7) CLASSICAL AND FUZZY SETS AND RELATIONS: Properties and Operations on Classical and Fuzzy Sets - Crisp and Fuzzy Relations - Cardinality, Properties and Operations, Composition, Tolerance and Equivalence Relations - Fuzzy Ordering - Simple Problems (6)


MEMBERSHIP FUNCTIONS: Features of membership function - Standard forms and Boundaries - fuzzification - membership value assignments - Fuzzy to Crisp Conversions - Lambda Cuts for fuzzy sets and relations Defuzzification methods (6) APPLICATIONS OF NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY LOGIC: Application of Neural Networks - Pattern Recognition - Image compression Communication - Control systems - Applications of Fuzzy Logic - Fuzzy Pattern Recognition - Fuzzy Image compression - Fuzzy Logic controllers (5) GENETIC ALGORITHMS: Introduction Terminologies Genetic operators Selection, cross-over and mutation Fitness function A simple genetic algorithm Applications (6) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. S N Sivanandam, and S N Deepa, Principles of Soft Computing, Wiley India (P) Ltd.,New Delhi, 2007 2. S N Sivanandam, S Sumathi, and S N Deepa, Introduction to Neural Networks using Matlab 6.0, Tata McGrawHill Publications, New Delhi, 2005. 3. Laurene Fausett, Fundamentals of Neural Networks, Pearson Education India, New Delhi, 2004. 4. Timothy Ross, Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications, McGraw Hill, Singapore, 1998. 5. Zimmermann H.J., Fuzzy set Theory and its Applications, Springer India (P) Ltd, New Delhi, 2006. 6. David E Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimisation and Machine Learning:, Pearson Education, New Delhi, 2004.

09EA29/09ED29 NANO COMPUTING 3 0 0 3

INTRODUCTION: The development of Microelectronics The region of Nanoelectronics - The Complexity Problem The challenge initiated by Nanoelectronics . Basics of Nanoelectronics: Electromagnetic Fields and Photons Quantization of Action, Charge, and Flux Electrons behaving as waves Electrons in potential wells Ddiffusion Process. (10) BIOCHEMICAL AND QUANTUM-MECHANICAL COMPUTERS: DNA Computer Information Processing with Chemical reactions Nanomachines Parallel Processing. Quantum Computers Bit and Qubit Coherence and Entanglement Quantum Parallelism. (8) PARALLEL ARCHITECTURES FOR NANOSYSTEMS: Mono and Multiprocessor Systems Some considerations to Parallel Processing Influence of Delay Time Power Dissipation - Architecture for Processing in Nanosystems: Clasic Systolic Arrays Processor with large memory Processor array with SIMD and PIP Architectures Reconfigurable Computers The Teramac Concept as a Prototype. (8) SOFT COMPUTING AND NANOELECRONICS: Methods of Soft Computing Fuzzy Systems Evolutionary Algorithms Connectionistic Systems Computationally Intelligent Systems Characteristics of Neural Networks in Nanoelectronics - Local Processing Distributed and Fault-tolerant Storage Self-organization. (8) NANOSYSTEMS AS INFORMATION PROCESSING MACHINES: Nanosystems as Functional Machines Information Processing as Information Modification System Design and its interfaces Requirements of Nanosystems. Uncertainties: Removal of Uncertainties by Nanomachines Uncertainties in Nanosystems Uncertainties in the Development of Nanoelectronics. (8) Total 42 REFERENCE: 1. Karl Goser, Nanoelectronics and Nanosystems: From Transistors to Molecular and Quantum devices, Springer, New Delhi, 2005.


INTRODUCTION TO OPTIMIZATION: Statement of Optimization problems - Classical optimization techniques - Single variable and multi variable optimization - Method of direct substitution constraint variation - Lagrange multipliers multivariable optimization with equality constraints - Kuhn Tucker conditions. (7) LINEAR PROGRAMMING: Linear programming definition - Pivotal reduction of general system of equations - Simplex algorithms - Two phases of the simplex method - Revised simplex method - Duality in linear programming. (6) NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING (ONE DIMENSIONAL): Unimodal function Elimination methods - Unrestricted and exhaustive search, Dichotomous search, Fibonacci method - Interpolation methods - Direct root method. (5) NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING (UNCONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION) : Direct search methods - Univariate method, Pattern search methods - Rosenbrock's method The simplex method - Descent method - Conjucate gradient method - Quasi Newton methods. (6) NONLINEAR PROGRAMMING (CONSTRAINED OPTIMIZATION) : Direct methods - The Complex method - Cutting plane method - Methods of feasible directions and determination of step length - Termination criteria, determination of step length. (7)


DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING: Multistage decision process - Computational procedure - Final value problem to initial value problem -Continuous dynamic programming - Discrete dynamic programming. (6) HEURISTIC TECHNIQUES FOR OPTIMIZATION - Neural Networks - Genetic algorithm Adaptive genetic algorithm Typical applications. (5) Total 42 REFERENCES: 1. Nash S G and Ariela Sofer, "Linear and Nonlinear Programming", McGraw Hill Book Com Inc, New York, 1996. 2. David E Goldberg, "Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning", Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1999. 3. Rao S S., "Optimization Theory and Applications", Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, 2003. 4. Lawrence Hasdorff, Gradient Optimization and Non-Linear control, John Wiley & sons Inc, New York, 1976


The student will make atleast two technical presentations on current topics related to the specialization. The same will be assessed by a committee appointed by the department. The students are expected to submit a report at the end of the semester covering the various aspects of his/her presentation together with the observation in industry visits. A quiz covering the above will be held at the end of the semester.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Design and Simulation of Digital Circuits using VHDL and porting them into FPGA Simulation of NMOS / CMOS circuits Study of DOS/BIOS interrupts Applications using DSP Processors Implementation of Digital Circuit testing algorithms using C.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Layout of simple NMOS/CMOS circuits Study of ARM processor and RTOS Interface using 8051 Microcontroller Interfaces using RS232C Bus Implementation of DSP Algorithms using MATLAB

3. 4.


LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


Implementation of Star-Delta Starter using RLL for S7-200 PLC Development of a Monitoring Program for Induction Motor in RLL/STL for S7-300 PWM/PTO based drive control using PLC Analog Sensor Interface using PLC Monitoring and Control of PLC through HMI Monitoring of Industrial drive through WinCC SCADA system Interfacing of S7-300 with WinCC SCADA system Programming and Control of a robot for pick and place application Machine monitoring and control through Ethernet Simulation experiments on Robot



PRINCIPLES OF OOP: Programming paradigms, basic concepts and benefits of OOP, applications of OOP. (2)

INTRODUCTION TO C++: History of C++, structure of C++, basic data types, derived data types, symbolic constants, dynamic initialization, type modifiers, type casting, operator and control statements, input and output statements. (3) CLASSES AND OBJECTS: Class specification, member function specification , scope resolution operator, access qualifiers, instance creation, member functions, function prototyping, function components, passing parameters, call by reference, return by reference, inline function, default arguments, overloaded function. Array of objects, pointers to objects, this pointer, dynamic allocation operators, dynamic objects. Constructors, parameterized constructors, overloaded constructors, constructors with default arguments, copy constructors, static members and static objects as arguments, returning objects, friend function and friend class. (7) OPERATOR OVERLOADING: Operator function, overloading unary and binary operator, overloading the operator using friend function. (2) INHERITANCE: Defining derived class, single inheritance, protected data with private inheritance, multiple inheritance, multi level inheritance, hierarchical inheritance, hybrid inheritance, multipath inheritance, constructors in derived and base classes, abstract classes. (5) INTRODUCTION TO DATA STRUCTURES: Abstract data types, primitive data structures, analysis of algorithms, notation. (5) ARRAYS: Operations, implementation of one, two and multi dimensioned arrays, different types of array applications. STRINGS: Implementation, Operations, applications. (5) (3)

STACKS: Primitive operations, sequential implementation, applications. Recursion definition, process and implementation using stacks, evaluation of expressions. (3) QUEUES: Primitive operations, sequential implementation, applications. Priority queues, dequeues. SORTING: Insertion sort, selection sort, bubble sort, heap sort, radix sort algorithms and analysis. (3) (4) Total : 42 REFERENCES: 1. Bjarne Stroustrup, The C++ Programming Language, Addison Wesley, 2004. 2. Stanley B Lippman and Josee Lajoie, The C++ Primer, Addison Wesley, 2005. 3. Harvey M Deitel,and Paul J. Deitel, C++ How to Program, Prentice Hall, 2007. 4. Aaron M Tanenbaum, Moshe J Augenstein and Yedidyah Langsam, Data structures using C and C++, Prentice Hall of India, 2005. 5. Sahni Sartaj, Data Structures, Algorithms and Applications in C++, Universities Press, 2005. 6. Nell Dale, C++ Plus Data Structures, Jones and Bartlett, 2006. 7. Mark Allen Weiss, Data Structures and Algorithm Analysis in C++, Addison-Wesley, 2006. 8. Robert L Kruse and Clovis L Tondo, Data Structures and Program design in C, Pearson Education, 2005.


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