-Omics Sciences

Sam Powell

-Omics??

What does it mean?
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Large-scale study Looking at the “big picture” The whole system Hundreds, to thousands, to hundreds of thousands, to millions of data points

Bioinformatics

Types of –Omics Sciences
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Genomics Proteomics Metabolomics Connectomics

Genomics
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Study of genomes But what’s a genome?

Entirety of an organism’s genetic information

Tools of the Trade
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DNA Sequencing Microarrays

Significant Landmarks

Human Genome Project (HGP)
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NIH Francis Collins Celera “Shotgun approach”

J. Craig Venter
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Joint announcement

Future application
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Personalized Medicine Other related –omics fields
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Cognitive Genomics Comparative Genomics Functional Genomics Metagenomics Epigenomics Transcriptomics

Venter’s Synthetic Genomics

Proteomics

Study of the structure and function of proteins Proteome=the entire complement of proteins of a given organism More complex than genome
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Changes in response to environment One gene => hundreds (or even thousands) of different proteins Post-translational modification

Tools of the Trade
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Western Blot 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis
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Isoelectric focusing SDS-PAGE

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ELISA and BCA analysis Electrospray ionization

Significant Landmarks
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1994: Marc Wilkins => “proteome” 1997: Marc Wilkins => Proteome Research: New Frontiers in Functional Genomics 2000: Publication of most complete proteome from Mycoplasma genitalium (Wasginer et al) ExPASy (Expert Protein Analysis System)

http://expasy.org/

Online databases/resources

Future Application
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Drug therapies Pharmagenomics

Metabolomics

Metabolites=end products of cellular processes Metabolome= the sum total of all metabolites in a biological cell “The systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind

Tools of the Trade
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Gas chromatography High performance liquid chromatography Mass spectrometry NMR spectroscopy

Significant Landmarks
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Older than you may think

Ancient China

1971: Horning et al. introduced the term “metabolic profile”

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in urine and tissue extracts

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1974: Sealy et al. use NMR to detect metabolites in unmodified biological samples 2005: First metabolomics database: METLIN

http://metlin.scripps.edu/

Human Metabolome Project (Dr. David Wishart)

Future Application
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Toxicology Nutrigenomics Metabolism

Connectomics

High-throughput application of neural imaging Connectome

Comprehensive map of neural connections in brain

Tools of the Trade

Diffusion MRI
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“Tractography” Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Spectrum Imagining

Significant Landmarks

2005: Dr. Olaf Sporns and Dr. Patric Hagmann suggest term “connectome” Dr. Sebastian Seung at MIT
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I Am My Connectome TED Talk: www.ted. com/talks/sebastian_seung.html

Human Connectome Project

Future Applications
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Figuring out consciousness Individuality, personality, memory Psychiatric disorders My research with Dr. Parikh

Crazy for Omics!

Changing our world

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